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0 Getting Started Guide
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.3 Accessing the ANSYS FLUENT Documentation . . Inc. . . . Planning Your CFD Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Steps in Solving Your CFD Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . . . . . . ANSYS FLUENT Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . January 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 Release 12.2 Program Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1-1 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-7 2-1 2-1 2-2 3-1 A-1 2 Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2. 3 Guide to a Successful Simulation Using ANSYS FLUENT A Glossary of Terms A. . . . .Contents Preface 1 Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT 1. . . . . . . . . . . Using the PDF Documentation . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .1 1. . .1 Summary of Terms .2. . 1. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the HTML Documentation . . . . . . . . . 2009 TOC-1 . .1 2. .1 1. .
January 9. calculating a solution. 2009 1 . • The Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with detailed instructions. • The Theory Guide contains reference information for how the physical models are implemented in ANSYS FLUENT. setting up physical models. and postprocessing of results. The Contents of the Other Manuals In addition to this Getting Started Guide.0 c ANSYS. and analyzing your results. commentary.Preface The Contents of This Manual The ANSYS FLUENT Getting Started Guide highlights some of the features in ANSYS FLUENT and how to get started using the software. • The UDF Manual contains information about writing and using user-deﬁned functions (UDFs). Inc. • The following addon module manuals oﬀer additional applications within ANSYS FLUENT: – Continuous Fiber Module Manual – Fuel Cell Modules Manual – Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Module Manual – Population Balance Module Manual Typographical Conventions An informational icon ( i ) marks an important note. there are several other manuals available to help you use ANSYS FLUENT and its associated programs: • The User’s Guide contains detailed information about how to use ANSYS FLUENT. reading and writing ﬁles. • The Text Command List provides a brief description of each of the commands in ANSYS FLUENT’s text interface. deﬁning boundary conditions. Release 12. including information about the user interface.
and are listed by categories. we invite you to log a technical support request (www. • Note what you were doing when the problem or error occurred. From the Online Technical Support Portal page. • Save a journal or transcript ﬁle of the ANSYS FLUENT session in which the problem occurred. The product documentation is available from the online help. • Online Technical Support—a link is available from the main page on the User Services Center. or you have complex modeling projects. However. January 9. there are a few things that we encourage you to do before logging a request: • Note what you are trying to accomplish with ANSYS FLUENT. • Known Defects for ANSYS FLUENT—a link is available from the product page. Inc.com) to obtain further assistance. This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause.Preface Technical Support If you encounter diﬃculties while using ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. Then refer to the following resources available on the User Services Center: • Installation and System FAQs—a link is available from the main page on the User Services Center. Contacting Technical Support If none of the resources available on the User Services Center help in resolving the problem.fluentusers. please write down the exact error message that appeared and note as much information as you can about what you were doing in ANSYS FLUENT. If you encounter an error. where the solutions can be searched by word or phrase and where you have the ability to enter a technical support request. The FAQs can be searched by word or phrase. please ﬁrst refer to the section(s) of the manuals containing information on the commands you are trying to use or the type of problem you are trying to solve. 2009 . there is a link to the Search Solutions & Request Support page. or from the User Services Center. 2 Release 12. The defects can be searched by word or phrase. and are available for general installation questions as well as for product questions.
2009 1-1 . In addition. deﬁning ﬂuid properties. ANSYS FLUENT’s parallel solver allows you to compute a solution using multiple processes that may be executing on the same computer. ANSYS FLUENT also allows you to reﬁne or coarsen your mesh based on the ﬂow solution. For more information about ANSYS FLUENT’s parallel processing capabilities. The ANSYS FLUENT serial solver manages ﬁle input and output. Parallel processing in ANSYS FLUENT involves an interaction between ANSYS FLUENT. Consequently. This architecture allows for eﬃcient execution. ANSYS FLUENT also uses a utility called cortex that manages ANSYS FLUENT’s user interface and basic graphical functions.2 illustrate the serial and parallel ANSYS FLUENT architectures. or on diﬀerent computers in a network. and postprocessing and viewing the results. ANSYS FLUENT provides complete mesh ﬂexibility. January 9.0. Supported mesh types include 2D triangular/quadrilateral. eﬃcient data structures. ANSYS FLUENT is written in the C computer language and makes full use of the ﬂexibility and power oﬀered by the language. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT interacts with the host process and the collection of compute nodes using the cortex user interface utility. ANSYS FLUENT uses a client/server architecture. true dynamic memory allocation. Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT ANSYS FLUENT is a state-of-the-art computer program for modeling ﬂuid ﬂow. 3D tetrahedral/hexahedral/pyramid/wedge/polyhedral. all remaining operations are performed within ANSYS FLUENT. and a set of compute-node processes. and ﬂexible solver control are all possible.1 and 1. a host process. and ﬂow ﬁeld calculations using a single solver process on a single computer. All functions required to compute a solution and display the results are accessible in ANSYS FLUENT through an interactive interface. and chemical reactions in complex geometries. Figures 1. After a mesh has been read into ANSYS FLUENT. These include setting boundary conditions. interactive control. data storage.0.0 c ANSYS. reﬁning the mesh. and mixed (hybrid) meshes.Chapter 1. which allows it to run as separate simultaneous processes on client desktop workstations and powerful compute servers. executing the solution. Release 12. please refer to the User’s Guide. including the ability to solve your ﬂow problems using unstructured meshes that can be generated about complex geometries with relative ease. heat transfer. and complete ﬂexibility between diﬀerent types of machines or operating systems.
0 c ANSYS. January 9.2: Parallel ANSYS FLUENT Architecture 1-2 Release 12. 2009 .0.0.1: Serial ANSYS FLUENT Architecture CORTEX HOST FLUENT MPI File Input/Output Disk Parallel Data File Input/Output Compute Node 0 Data: Cell Face Node Socket Compute Node 1 Data: Cell Face Node FLUENT MPI FLUENT MPI MP Data: Cell Face Node FLUENT MPI FLUENT MPI Data: Cell Face Node Compute Node 2 Compute Node 3 COMPUTE NODES Figure 1. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT CORTEX Solver Data: Cell Face Node File Input/Output Disk Figure 1.
2009 1-3 . and mixed convection. and heat exchangers • Acoustic models for predicting ﬂow-induced noise • Inertial (stationary) or non-inertial (rotating or accelerating) reference frames • Multiple reference frame (MRF) and sliding mesh options for modeling multiple moving frames Release 12. inertial resistance. and turbulent ﬂows • Newtonian or non-Newtonian ﬂows • Ideal or real gases • Heat transfer. tetrahedral. laminar. triangular. pyramid. conjugate (solid/ﬂuid) heat transfer. natural. 2D axisymmetric with swirl (rotationally symmetric). and porous-face pressure jump conditions • Lumped parameter models for fans. 2D axisymmetric. and radiation • Chemical species mixing and reaction.0 c ANSYS.1 Program Capabilities The ANSYS FLUENT solver has the following modeling capabilities: • 2D planar. radiators. and liquid-solid ﬂows • Lagrangian trajectory calculation for dispersed phase (particles/droplets/bubbles). including all speed regimes (low subsonic. prism (wedge). including forced. supersonic. and 3D ﬂows • Quadrilateral. polyhedral.1 Program Capabilities 1. hexahedral (brick). Inc. including homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion models and surface deposition/reaction models • Free surface and multiphase models for gas-liquid. transonic. pumps. gas-solid. solid heat conduction. including coupling with continuous phase and spray modeling • Cavitation model • Phase change model for melting/solidiﬁcation applications • Porous media with non-isotropic permeability. and hypersonic ﬂows) • Inviscid.1. January 9. and mixed element meshes • Steady-state or transient ﬂows • Incompressible or compressible ﬂows.
0 c ANSYS. To view the documentation. 1. 1. installation area. and ANSYS POLYFLOW.fluentusers. you can use either the HTML or the PDF ﬁles. heat. Inc. This section describes how to access the ANSYS FLUENT documentation outside of ANSYS FLUENT (i. Internet Explorer or Firefox). 1-4 Release 12.g. Adobe Acrobat PDF versions of the manuals are also provided. See the User’s Guide for information about accessing the documentation through ANSYS FLUENT.2. January 9.1 Accessing the ANSYS FLUENT Documentation You can access the ANSYS FLUENT documentation from your ANSYS Inc. not through the ANSYS FLUENT on-line help utility).e. 2009 . either in the installation area or from the User Services Center (www. also oﬀers other solvers that address diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and incorporate alternative physical models.com). For printing.. and chemical species • Material property database • Extensive customization capability via user-deﬁned functions • Dynamic (two-way) coupling with GT-Power and WAVE • Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) module (documented separately) • Continuous ﬁber module (documented separately) • Fuel cell modules (documented separately) • Population balance module (documented separately) ANSYS FLUENT is ideally suited for incompressible and compressible ﬂuid-ﬂow simulations in complex geometries. ANSYS FLUENT’s parallel solver allows you to compute solutions for cases with very large meshes on multiple processors. Inc. which can be viewed with your standard web browser (e. ANSYS Icepak. Airpak. include ANSYS CFX. and similar turbomachinery applications with options for mass conservation and swirl conservation • Dynamic mesh model for modeling domains with moving and deforming mesh • Volumetric sources of mass.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT • Mixing-plane model for modeling rotor-stator interactions. either on the same computer or on diﬀerent computers in a network.. momentum. You will also need a web browser. Additional CFD programs from ANSYS. torque converters. ANSYS. Inc.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation ANSYS FLUENT’s integrated help system gives you access to the ANSYS FLUENT documentation through HTML ﬁles.
⇓ ⇓ 1.0 c ANSYS.htm where path is the directory in which you have installed ANSYS FLUENT. In addition. and x is replaced by the appropriate number for the release (e. and x is replaced by the appropriate number for the release (e. hyperlinks have been applied to all cross-references to chapters. the path is C:\Program Files).0. the PDF ﬁles contain hyperlinks in the table of contents and index.9). 9 for fluent12.0.com. 9 for fluent12.htm where path is the folder in which you have installed ANSYS FLUENT (by default. Navigating the PDF Files For the purpose of easier on-line document navigation.0. This will bring up the ANSYS FLUENT documentation “home” page (Figure 1. January 9. These ﬁles are distinguished by a . Inc. ﬁgures. sections.9).2 Using the PDF Documentation The PDF ﬁles are appropriate for viewing and printing with Adobe Acrobat Reader. you can view the documentation by pointing your browser to: On Windows: path\ANSYS Inc\v120\fluent\fluent12.2. If you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader.pdf suﬃx in their ﬁle names. 2009 1-5 . bibliography. which is available for most Linux/UNIX and Windows systems.fluentusers. PDF ﬁles are provided for the individual chapters in addition to a single PDF ﬁle for the entire manual on the User Services Center (www.x \help\index.x/help/index. Release 12. you can download it (at no cost) from www. from which you can select the HTML or PDF version of the particular ANSYS FLUENT manual you want to view. On UNIX/Linux: path/ansys inc/v120/fluent/fluent12. tables.com).g.2.1).adobe.1.g... For large manuals.0. and index entries.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation How to Access the Documentation Files in the Installation Area If the HTML and/or the PDF ﬁles have been installed with the software.
2. 2009 . If the page is too large to ﬁt on your paper size. 1-6 Release 12.1: The ANSYS FLUENT Documentation Home Page Printing the PDF Files Adobe Acrobat PDF ﬁles are provided for printing all or part of the manuals.. you can reduce it by selecting the File/Print. Inc. menu item and choosing the Reduce to Printer Margins option under Page Scaling. January 9... While you can also print individual HTML pages from your browser. Note that you can select the paper size to which you are printing in Adobe Acrobat Reader by selecting the File/Print Setup. the PDF ﬁles are recommended when printing long sections since the printout will have a higher quality.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT Figure 1. menu item and choosing the desired Paper size.0 c ANSYS..
2.2. Figure 1.2. Previous takes you to the page just before the current one in the manual.1).2. Note that this is not the same function as the “Forward” button of your browser. Index takes you to the index for the manual. there are many built-in navigation tools available as well as printing options and other viewing options. in such cases they are “grayed out”. Note that this is not the same function as the “Back” button of your browser. a set of navigation buttons appear at the upper right and lower right corners of the HTML page.3). To make it easier for you to ﬁnd the information you need. Sometimes they appear but are inactive.0 c ANSYS.2. Release 12. Next takes you to the next page in the manual. Contents takes you to the table of contents for the manual. These ﬁles are used for the ANSYS FLUENT help system and can be viewed using a standard web browser. 2009 1-7 . Up takes you to the ﬁrst page of the current manual division (chapter or section). Return to Home takes you to the ANSYS FLUENT documentation home page (Figure 1.1. Navigating the HTML Files When you are viewing the HTML version of a manual in your browser. The following sections describe the various options available to you when you are using the HTML documentation.2. Note that these buttons do not necessarily appear on all pages. as shown in Figure 1.2. as the Previous and Up buttons are in Figure 1.2: Navigation Buttons The navigation buttons are as follows: Search displays a full text search popup window (Figure 1.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation 1. January 9.3 Using the HTML Documentation Electronic versions of the ANSYS FLUENT documentation are also provided in HTML format. Inc.2.
Inc. Figure 1. If you insert a + before the keyword input.3: The Full Text Search Engine You can also use the search capability provided by your browser to ﬁnd words or expressions on a single page. menu item in Internet Explorer to search for the word “turbulence” on a page of the manual. When search results extend below the bottom edge of the window..1.. January 9.2.0 c ANSYS. then the search engine will look for pages that contain all of the keywords provided in the text ﬁeld (Boolean AND). For example. Search results appear in the lower half of the search engine popup window.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation To use the search engine. the search engine will look for pages that contain any keyword input (Boolean OR). 2009 1-9 . Release 12. you can access those results by selecting the lower portion of the window and pressing the <Page Down> button on the keyboard in order to activate scroll bars in the window. enter a speciﬁc term or keyword(s) in the text ﬁeld and click the Search button. By default. you can use the Edit/Find (on This Page).
Page Width While reading a manual.0 c ANSYS. Inc. and choose the one that is best for you. You might also want to adjust the window size to increase or decrease the page width to a comfortable reading width. including the resolution of your monitor screen. You can adjust the text size by changing the default font size of your browser. for example. you may ﬁnd a ﬁgure that is wider than your browser’s window. you can disable the display of “Tool Tips” in the preferences menu. Font Size The absolute size of the text that you see when viewing your ANSYS FLUENT documentation is dependent on a number of factors. Try several sizes to see the eﬀect on the appearance of the manuals. On some browsers. a printout with higher quality can be obtained by using the PDF ﬁles provided with the ANSYS FLUENT installation or on the User Services Center (www. this information is not meaningful for most users. part of the ﬁgure will be hidden from view. Modifying the Appearance of the HTML Files There are a few things that you might want to change about the way your browser displays the HTML ﬁles in order to increase their usefulness. January 9. and you might ﬁnd it somewhat distracting. 1-10 Release 12. As a result. you can change the font size by selecting an option from the View/Text Size menu.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT Printing Portions of a Manual Although you can print pages of an HTML version of a manual from your browser. To see all of the ﬁgure.com). However. In Internet Explorer. Tool Tips When viewing the manuals with certain browsers. or increase your browser’s window size. information about a ﬁgure will be displayed if you put your cursor over it. See Section 1.2.2: Printing the PDF Files for details. 2009 .fluentusers. you can use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of your browser’s window.
2.1 Steps in Solving Your CFD Problem Once you have determined the important features of the problem you want to solve. Also. 1. 4. 3.0 c ANSYS. when you are planning a CFD project. or a separate CAD system for geometry modeling and mesh generation. you can use supported CAD packages to generate volume meshes for import into ANSYS FLUENT (see the User’s Guide). Release 12. Set up the solver and physical models. 2. Step 2 of the solution process requires a geometry modeler and mesh generator. 5. please refer to their respective manuals. Deﬁne the modeling goals. Compute and monitor the solution. The details of the remaining steps are covered in the User’s Guide. 6. Inc. For more information on creating geometry and generating meshes using each of these programs. follow the basic procedural steps shown below.Chapter 2. Examine and save the results. 2009 2-1 . You can use the geometry and meshing capabilities within ANSYS Workbench. Alternatively. January 9. Create the model geometry and mesh. Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT Before you begin your CFD analysis using ANSYS FLUENT. careful consideration of the following issues will contribute signiﬁcantly to the success of your modeling eﬀort. Consider revisions to the numerical or physical model parameters. be sure to take advantage of the customer support provided to all ANSYS FLUENT users. if necessary.
This ﬂexibility allows you to pick mesh topologies that are best suited for your particular application.g. but you must always generate the initial mesh (whatever the element types used) outside of the solver. 2-2 Release 12. and to let you adapt the mesh to resolve the ﬂow-ﬁeld features. blockstructured meshes (e. wedge. and tetrahedral. and how will they be used? ∗ What are your modeling options? ∗ What physical models will need to be included in your analysis? ∗ What simplifying assumptions do you have to make? ∗ What simplifying assumptions can you make? ∗ Do you require a unique modeling capability? · Could you utilize user-deﬁned functions (written in C)? – What degree of accuracy is required? – How quickly do you need the results? – How will you isolate a piece of the complete physical system? – Where will the computational domain begin and end? ∗ Do you have boundary condition information at these boundaries? ∗ Can the boundary condition types accommodate that information? ∗ Can you extend the domain to a point where reasonable data exists? – Can it be simpliﬁed or approximated as a 2D or axisymmetric problem? • Creating Your Model Geometry and Mesh ANSYS FLUENT uses unstructured meshes in order to reduce the amount of time you spend generating meshes.0 c ANSYS. and polyhedral elements (or a combination of these) in 3D. hexahedral. pyramid.Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2. multi-block structured meshes. January 9. to allow modeling of more complex geometries than you can handle with conventional. as described in the User’s Guide. You can adapt all types of meshes (except for polyhedral) in ANSYS FLUENT in order to resolve large gradients in the ﬂow ﬁeld. Inc. those used by FLUENT 4 and many other CFD solvers). there are some questions that you need to consider: • Deﬁning the Modeling Goals – What results are you looking for. to simplify the geometry modeling and mesh generation process. or one of the CAD systems for which mesh import ﬁlters exist. 2009 . ANSYS FLUENT is capable of handling triangular and quadrilateral elements (or a combination of the two) in 2D.. ANSYS FLUENT can also use body-ﬁtted.2 Planning Your CFD Analysis For each of the problem-solving steps.
– Initialize the ﬂow ﬁeld. – Select the numerical solver (e. multiphase.0 c ANSYS.). – Set up solver controls. January 9. unsteady. products such as ANSYS CFX. ∗ Fluid ∗ Solid ∗ Mixture – Prescribe operating conditions. you will need to: – Import and check the mesh.2 Planning Your CFD Analysis The following questions should be considered when you are generating a mesh: – Can you beneﬁt from other ANSYS. density based. etc.. etc. – Prescribe boundary conditions at all boundary zones. or Airpak? – Can you use a quad/hex mesh or should you use a tri/tet mesh or a hybrid mesh? ∗ How complex is the geometry and ﬂow? ∗ Will you need a non-conformal interface? – What degree of mesh resolution is required in each region of the domain? ∗ Is the resolution suﬃcient for the geometry? ∗ Can you predict regions with high gradients? ∗ Will you use adaption to add resolution? – Do you have suﬃcient computer memory? ∗ How many cells are required? ∗ How many models will be used? • Setting Up the Solver and Physical Models For a given problem. ∗ Turbulence. combustion. pressure based. – Deﬁne material properties. Inc. ANSYS Icepak.2. 2009 2-3 . Inc.g. – Select appropriate physical models. Release 12. – Provide an initial solution. – Set up convergence monitors.
2009 . – The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon: ∗ Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models.0 c ANSYS. ∗ Problem setup. · Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend. Inc. form? ∗ Are key ﬂow features being resolved? – Numerical reporting tools can be used to calculate the following quantitative results: ∗ Forces and moments ∗ Average heat transfer coeﬃcients ∗ Surface and volume integrated quantities ∗ Flux balances • Revising Your Model Once your solution is converged. – Convergence is reached when: ∗ Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible. ∗ A number of iterations are usually required to reach a converged solution. January 9. shear layers. • Examining and Saving Your Results Examine the results to review the solution and extract useful data. – Visualization tools can be used to answer such questions as: ∗ What is the overall ﬂow pattern? ∗ Is there separation? ∗ Where do shocks. etc. the following questions should be considered when you are analyzing the solution: – Are physical models appropriate? ∗ Is ﬂow turbulent? ∗ Is ﬂow unsteady? ∗ Are there compressibility eﬀects? ∗ Are there 3D eﬀects? 2-4 Release 12. ∗ Mesh resolution and independence.Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT • Computing and Monitoring Your Solution – The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively. ∗ Overall property conservation is achieved.
2.0 c ANSYS.2 Planning Your CFD Analysis – Are boundary conditions correct? ∗ Is the computational domain large enough? ∗ Are boundary conditions appropriate? ∗ Are boundary values reasonable? – Is the mesh adequate? ∗ Can the mesh be adapted to improve results? ∗ Does the solution change signiﬁcantly with adaption. January 9. Inc. 2009 2-5 . or is the solution mesh independent? ∗ Does boundary resolution need to be improved? Release 12.
January 9. 2009 .Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2-6 Release 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS.
There are two basic things that you should do before you start a simulation: • Perform a mesh check to avoid problems due to incorrect mesh connectivity. Residual plots can show when the residual values have reached the speciﬁed tolerance. Release 12. Set the energy under-relaxation factor between 0. Examine the quality of the mesh. note if your residuals have decreased by at least 3 orders of magnitude to at least 10−3 . the scaled species residual may need to decrease to 10−5 to achieve species balance. ANSYS FLUENT defaults to SI units. 6.g. make sure you do the following: 1. when the conductivity ratio is very high. etc. 5. Other quantities can also be scaled independently of other units used. you may have to re-mesh the problem. smaller values of the energy under-relaxation factor practically stall the convergence rate. January 9. After the simulation. If there are mesh problems. most notably for triangular and tetrahedral meshes. For the pressure-based solver. Inc. 2009 3-1 . In ANSYS FLUENT.Chapter 3. Before logging a technical support request. • Look at maximum cell skewness (e. the skewness should be below 0.98. 3. For problems with conjugate heat transfer. all physical dimensions are initially assumed to be in meters. As a rule of thumb. Monitor convergence with residuals history. You should scale the mesh accordingly. Scale the mesh and check length units. using the Compute button in the Contours dialog box).95 and 1. 4.0 c ANSYS. The node-based averaging scheme is known to be more accurate than the default cell-based scheme for unstructured meshes. Use node-based gradients with unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Also. the scaled energy residual must decrease to 10−6 . Employ the appropriate physical models. 2. Guide to a Successful Simulation Using ANSYS FLUENT The following guidelines can help you make sure your CFD simulation is a success..
9. January 9.0 c ANSYS. or moment forces as well as pertinent variables or functions (e. This type of collaboration is a good investment of time for both yourself and the ANSYS FLUENT support engineer.g. If ﬂow features do not seem reasonable.Guide to a Successful Simulation Using ANSYS FLUENT You can also monitor lift. you should also check for overall heat and mass balances. Check to see that the solution makes sense based on engineering judgment.. 11. 8. After the simulation. note if overall property conservation has been achieved. Monitor values of solution variables to make sure that any changes in the solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible. 10. Verify that property conservation is satisﬁed. A converged solution is not necessarily a correct one. You should use the secondorder upwind discretization scheme for ﬁnal results. 2009 . 3-2 Release 12. Run the CFD simulation using second order discretization for better accuracy rather than a faster solution. drag. surface integrals) at a boundary or any deﬁned surface. Inc. 7. You are encouraged to collaborate with your technical support engineer in order to develop a solution process that ensures good results for your speciﬁc application. the net imbalance should be less than 1% of smallest ﬂux through domain boundary. you should reconsider your physical models and boundary conditions. At a minimum. Check for mesh dependence. An inadequate choice of domain (especially the outlet boundary) can signiﬁcantly impact solution accuracy. Reconsider the choice of the boundary locations (or the domain). In addition to monitoring residual and variable histories. You should ensure that the solution is mesh-independent and use mesh adaption to modify the mesh or create additional meshes for the mesh-independence study.
Glossary of Terms This glossary contains a listing of terms commonly used throughout the documentation. 2009 A-1 .0 c ANSYS.Appendix A.1 Summary of Terms The following terms are deﬁned in this glossary: • adaption • case ﬁles • cell types • computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) • console • convergence • cortex • data ﬁles • dialog boxes • discretization • GUI • mesh • models • node • postprocessing • residuals • skewness • solvers • terminal emulator • TUI Release 12. A. January 9. Inc.
1: Cell Types computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) The science of predicting ﬂuid ﬂow. 2009 .g. Inc. stress or deformation of related solid structures A-2 Release 12. wedge. mass transfer (as in perspiration or dissolution). mechanical movement (e..g. chemical reaction (e. ANSYS FLUENT can use meshes comprised of tetrahedral. hexahedral. combustion). A case ﬁle also contains the information about the user interface and graphics environment. 2D Cell Types Triangle Quadrilateral 3D Cell Types Tetrahedron Hexahedron Prism/Wedge Pyramid Polyhedron Figure A. fan rotation). January 9. heat transfer. pyramid.1. In addition.. boundary conditions. ANSYS FLUENT provides tools for creating and viewing adaption ﬁelds customized to particular applications. cell types The various shapes or units that constitute the base elements of a mesh.0 c ANSYS. The solution-adaptive mesh reﬁnement feature of ANSYS FLUENT allows you to reﬁne and/or coarsen your mesh based on geometric and numerical solution data. or polyhedral cells (or a combination of these). and solution parameters for a problem. case ﬁles Files that contain the mesh.Glossary of Terms adaption A technique useful in improving overall mesh quality. phase change (as in freezing or boiling).
A. heat balances. and may be beyond your needs. discretization The act of replacing the diﬀerential equations that govern ﬂuid ﬂow with a set of algebraic equations that are solved at distinct points. alternative tools such as reports of forces. January 9. data ﬁles Files that contain the values of the ﬂow ﬁeld in each grid element and the convergence history (residuals) for that ﬂow ﬁeld. which consists of the main ANSYS FLUENT application window. Convergence criteria. Inc. console The console is part of the ANSYS FLUENT application window that allows for text command input and the display of information. convergence The point at which the solution is no longer changing with each successive iteration. the solution is still changing to a greater or lesser degree.0 c ANSYS. dialog boxes. takes time to reach. 2009 A-3 . or mass balances can be used instead. cortex A utility that manages ANSYS FLUENT’s user interface and basic graphical functions.1 Summary of Terms (such as a mast bending in the wind). Convergence criteria are pre-set conditions on the residuals that indicate that a certain level of convergence has been achieved. however. Release 12. Each dialog box is unique and employs various types of input controls that make up the form. sometimes referred to as convergence at the level of machine accuracy. This point. If the residuals for all problem variables fall below the convergence criteria but are still in decline. dialog boxes The separate windows that are used like forms to perform input tasks. and related phenomena by solving the mathematical equations that govern these processes using a numerical algorithm on a computer. also help in determining when a solution is complete. graphics windows. iteration). A better indicator occurs when the residuals ﬂatten in a traditional residual plot (of residual value vs. GUI The graphical user interface. along with a reduction in residuals. etc. For this reason.
A-4 Release 12. solvers ANSYS FLUENT has two distinct solvers. and graphical analysis tools such as contour plots. This imbalance in each cell is a small. terminal emulator See console. there are solver formulations: pressure based. skewness The diﬀerence between the shape of the cell and the shape of an equilateral cell of equivalent volume. models Numerical algorithms that approximate physical phenomenon (e. double-precision). under normal circumstances. integrals. where the equations of ﬂuid motion (and temperature. node The distinct points of a mesh at which the equations of ﬂuid motion are solved. based on numerical precision (single-precision vs.0 c ANSYS.. if relevant) are calculated. animations.Glossary of Terms mesh A collection of points representing the ﬂow ﬁeld. etc.g. Within each of these categories. Highly skewed cells can decrease accuracy and destabilize the solution. and density based implicit. which consists of textual commands that can be entered into the terminal emulator. turbulence). non-zero value that. density based explicit. 2009 . decreases as the solution progresses. residuals The small imbalance that is created during the course of the iterative solution algorithm. TUI The text user interface. January 9. Inc. postprocessing The act of analyzing the numerical results of your CFD simulation using reports.
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