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# CHAPTER 14 Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models

TRUE/FALSE
14.1 14.2 14.3 The three parts of a queuing system are the arrivals, the queue, and the service facility. Two characteristics of arrivals are the line length and queue discipline. Queuing theory models can also apply to customers placing telephone calls and being placed on hold. The only objective of queuing theory is to minimize customer dissatisfaction. Should a customer leave a queue before being served, it is said that the customer has reneged. Balking refers to customers who enter the queue but may become impatient and leave without completing their transactions.

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7

Most systems use the queue discipline known as the first-in, first-out rule.

14.8

In a very complex queuing model, if all of the assumptions of the traditional models are not met, then the problem cannot be handled.

14.9

Before using exponential distributions to build queuing models, the quantitative analyst should determine if the service time data fit the distribution. For practical purposes, queue length is almost always modeled with a finite queue length.

14.10

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Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14

14.11

The Greek letter λ is used to represent the average service rate at each channel.

14.12

For a single channel model that has Poisson arrivals and exponential service rates, the Greek letter ρ is the utilization factor. In a multi-channel, single-phase queuing system, the arrival will pass through at least two different service facilities. In a multi-channel model ρ = λ /( M µ).

14.13

14.14

14.15

A goal of many waiting line problems is to help a firm find the ideal level of services to be offered.

14.16

Any waiting line problem can be investigated using an analytical queuing model.

14.17

One of the difficulties in waiting line analyses is that it is sometimes difficult to place a value on customer waiting time.

14.18

The goal of most waiting line problems is to identify the service level that minimizes service cost. One of the limitations of analytical waiting line models is that they do not give information on extreme cases (e.g., maximum waiting time or maximum number in the queue).

14.19

14.20

An "infinite calling population" occurs when the likelihood of a new arrival does not depend upon the number of past arrivals.

14.21 14.22

All practical problems can be described by an "infinite" population waiting model. On a practical note – if we are using waiting line analysis for a problem studying customers calling a telephone number for service, balking is probably not an issue.

14.23

On a practical note– if we are using waiting line analysis to study cars passing through a single

188

Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14

tollbooth, reneging is probably not an issue. 14.24 On a practical note – if we are studying patrons moving through checkout lines at a grocery store, and we note that these patrons sometimes move from one line to another, we should consider balking as an issue. On a practical note – if we were to study the waiting lines in a hair salon which had only five chairs for patrons waiting, we would have to use a finite queue waiting line model.

14.25

14.26

All practical waiting line problems can be viewed as having a FIFO queue discipline.

14.27 14.28

A hospital emergency room will usually employ a FIFO queue discipline. If we wish to study a bank, in which patrons entered the building and then, depending upon the service desired, chose one of several tellers in front of which to form a line, we would employ a set of single-channel queuing models.

14.29

On a practical note – we should probably view the checkout counters in a grocery store as a set of single channel systems.

14.30

A cafeteria, in which cold dishes are separated from hot dishes, is probably best viewed as a single-channel, single-phase system.

14.31

An emergency room might be viewed as a multi-channel, multi-phase system.

189

g.35 The M/M/1 queuing model assumes that the arrival rate does not change over time. we will find that the average wait time in the constant service time model is less than that in the probabilistic model.41 As a general rule. average waiting time. not just the size of the population from which the arrivals come.38 In the multi-channel model (M/M/m). 14. we would expect the arrival rate distribution to be Poisson distributed. 14. The analytical queuing models typically provide operating characteristics that are averages (e.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. 14.39 If we compare a single-channel system with λ = 15.32 A single highway with multiple tollbooths should be viewed as a single-channel system. and the service time distribution to be negative exponential. we should use a finite population model.34 14. 14. to a multi-channel system (with 3 channels) with the service rate for the individual channel of λ = 5..42 Whether or not we use the finite population queuing model depends upon the relative arrival and service rates. any time that the number of people in line can be a significant portion of the total population. 14. 14.43 Whether or not we use the finite population queuing model depends upon the amount of space 190 . average number of customers in the queue). The quantity ρ is the probability that one or more customers are in a single channel system. we must assume that the average service time for all channels is the same.36 The analytical queuing models can be used to tell us how many people are presently waiting in line. 14.33 In a doctor's office. 14.40 If we compare a single-channel system with exponential service rate (λ=5) to a constant service time model (λ=5).37 14. we will find that the average wait time is less in the single-channel system. 14.

*14. *14.48 If we are studying the need for repair of electric motors on a small assembly line. we must assume a finite queue.46 Using a simulation model allows one to ignore the common assumptions required to use analytical models. *14.45 If we are using a simulation queuing model.54 A fast food drive-through system is an example of a multi-phase queuing system. 14. we can assume an unlimited queue. in which a single queue is used to move customers to several tellers. *14. *14. while reneging implies that the arrival joined the queue.52 A bank. 14. we may have to turn to a simulation model. and negative exponential service rate. we can assume an infinite calling population. 14.47 If we are studying the arrival of automobiles at a highway toll station. *14. we still have to abide by the assumption of a Poisson arrival rate.53 A fast food drive-through system is an example of a multi-channel queuing system. *14. 191 .50 When looking at the arrivals at the ticket counter of a movie theater.49 The difference between balking and reneging is that balking implies that the arrival never joined the queue. we can assume an infinite calling population.44 If a waiting line problem is particularly complex. is an example of a single-channel system.51 When looking at the arrivals at a barbershop. *14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 we have in which to form the queue. but became impatient and left.

56 In a single-channel. first-out basis and do not balk or renege.59 expected service cost.57 The wait time for a single-channel system is more than twice that for a two channel system using two servers working at the same rate as the single server. expected reneging cost. 192 .58 The expected cost to the firm of having customers or objects waiting in line to be serviced is termed the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 14. Service times follow the negative exponential distribution. or very large. single-phase system. expected balking cost. The average arrival rate is faster than the average service rate. expected waiting cost. total expected cost. Arrivals are Poisson distributed. population. MULTIPLE CHOICE 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 *14. *14. Which of the following is not an assumption in common queuing mathematical models? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Arrivals come from an infinite. not the time spent in the queue. reducing the service time only reduces the total amount of time spent in the system. Arrivals are treated on a first-in.

and the service facility. then proceed to a table to gather some additional information. minimize customer dissatisfaction as measured in balking and reneging.62 Upon arriving at a convention. the calling population. multi-phase system. All of the above are appropriate labels for the three parts of a queuing system. the proportion of the time the service facilities are in use. the percent idle time. multi-channel. 14. the queue. multi-phase system.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. single-phase system. minimize queue length. and the service facility. A customer is usually patient. single-channel. the calling population.64 Which of the following is not a characteristic of the calling population and its behavior? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Size is considered to be limited or unlimited.61 Three parts of a queuing system are (a) (b) (c) (d) the inputs. Customers can arrive randomly. minimize the percent of idle time. this is an example of a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) single-channel. the queue. the waiting line. the objective is to (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) maximize productivity. Queue discipline. multi-channel. and then pay at another single table. single-phase system. 193 . none of the above 14.63 The utilization factor ρ for a system is defined as (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the mean number of people served divided by the mean number of arrivals per time period. none of the above 14.60 Which of the following is not a key operating characteristic for a queuing system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) utilization rate percent idle time average time spent waiting in the system and in the queue average number of customers in the system and in the queue none of the above 14. none of the above 14.65 In queuing theory. and the service facility. if a person must line up to first register at a table. the average time a customer spends waiting in a queue. minimize the sum of the costs of waiting time and providing service.

(c) it is impossible to deal with the mathematics (except through monte carlo simulation) if the calling population is infinite. the size of the calling population is important because (a) it is usually easier to deal with the mathematics if the calling population is considered infinite. none of the above 14. jumps from one queue to another.66 In queuing problems. goes through the queue. 194 . but never returns.68 A balk is an arrival in a queue who (a) (b) (c) (d) refuses to join the queue because it is too long.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. becomes impatient and leaves. goes through the queue. trying to get through as quickly as possible. after joining the queue. but never returns. (b) it is usually easier to deal with the mathematics if the calling population is considered finite. becomes impatient and leaves. jumps from one queue to another. trying to get through as quickly as possible. (e) none of the above 14. (d) it is impossible to deal with the mathematics (except through monte carlo simulation) if the calling population is finite. refuses to join the queue because it is too long.67 An arrival in a queue that reneges is one who (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) after joining the queue.

reduced by 50 percent. the only alternative is to study the real situation. FIFS (first-in.72 If a queuing situation becomes extremely complex. the average queue length will double and the average waiting time will double. all of the above 14. (a) (b) (c) (d) (d) the average queue length will be halved.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. then the average time an arrival will spend in the waiting line or being serviced (W) is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) increased by 50 percent. the average queue length will increase. none of the above 14.71 If everything else remains constant. LIFS (last-in. including the mean arrival rate and service rate. computer simulation is an alternative.69 Queue discipline may be (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) FIFO (first-in. 195 . the average waiting time will be doubled. none of the above 14. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) there is always a mathematical model to solve it. except that the service time becomes constant instead of exponential. by assigned priority. there are tables available for any combination of complexities. exactly doubled. you should make simplifying assumptions and use the mathematical procedure which most closely approximates the system to be studied. first-served). first-served). first-out).70 If the arrival rate and service times are kept constant and the system is changed from a single-channel to a two-channel system. the same.

00 none of the above 14.50 0. while service times follow an exponential distribution. first served basis. If the average number of arrivals is six per minute and the average service rate of a single server is eight per minute.50 0.00 196 .Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.73 Customers enter the waiting line at a cafeteria on a first come.75 2.00 none of the above 14.25 3. what proportion of the time is the server busy? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.75 Customers enter the waiting line to pay for food as they leave a cafeteria on a first come.25 3.74 Customers enter the waiting line at a cafeteria on a first come. If the average number of arrivals is six per minute and the average service rate of a single server is eight per minute. while service times follow an exponential distribution.75 2. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution. what is the average number of customers in the system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.25 0. first served basis. If the average number of arrivals is six per minute and the average service rate of a single server is eight per minute.75 2. first served basis.50 0. while service times follow an exponential distribution. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution.25 3. what is the average number of customers waiting in line behind the person being served? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.

What is the average length of the line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. first served basis.75 2. how much time will elapse from the time a customer enters the line until he/she leaves the cafeteria? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. The average arrival rate is three per minute and the average service rate is two per minute for each of the two clerks.929 1.643 none of the above 197 .Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. on average.50 0.929 1. How long does the average person spend waiting for a clerk to become available? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3.429 1. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. There are two postal clerks who work at the same rate.78 A post office has a single line for customers to use while waiting for the next available postal clerk.429 1.643 none of the above 14.143 0. There are two postal clerks who work at the same rate.00 14. The arrival rate of customers follows a Poisson distribution.76 Customers enter the waiting line to pay for food as they leave a cafeteria on a first come. If the average number of arrivals is six per minute and the average service rate of a single server is eight per minute. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution. The arrival rate of customers follows a Poisson distribution.25 3. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. The average arrival rate is three per minute and the average service rate is two per minute for each of the two clerks.143 0. while service times follow an exponential distribution.77 A post office has a single line for customers to use while waiting for the next available postal clerk.25 0.

80 A finite population model differs from the other models because. On average. There are two postal clerks who work at the same rate. The arrival rate of customers follows a Poisson distribution. The car wash takes exactly 2 minutes (this is constant).143 none of the above 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.45 minutes 9 minutes 18 minutes none of the above 198 .250 0. with a finite population. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. What proportion of the time are both clerks idle? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. there is a dependent relationship between the length of the queue and the arrival rate. the average number in the system is the same as the average number in the queue.643 0.750 0. On average. what would the length of the line be? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 8.81 At an automatic car wash. how long would each car spend at the car wash? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.1 4.05 9 1 none of the above 14.79 A post office has a single line for customers to use while waiting for the next available postal clerk. The average arrival rate is three per minute and the average service rate is two per minute for each of the two clerks. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 9 cars every 20 minutes.9 minutes 0. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 9 cars every 20 minutes. (a) (b) (c) (d) the queue line is never empty. The car wash takes exactly 2 minutes (this is constant). 14.82 At an automatic car wash. the service rate will be less than the arrival rate.

Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. what proportion of the time is the system totally empty? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.222 0.111 0. which provides a queuing problem solution.111 minutes 14.667 none of the above 14.111 0. which provides a queuing problem solution.722 minutes 0.85 According to Table 14-1. what is the utilization rate of the service facility? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.722 0. which provides a queuing problem solution.333 0.222 minutes 0.83 According to Table 14-1.667 199 .84 According to Table 14-1. how long does each customer spend waiting in line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.889 0.333 minutes 0.889 minutes 0. on average.889 0.

87 According to Table 14-2.455 3.833 14.88 According to Table 14-2. on average.243 10.455 3.758 0. how many people would be in this system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5.758 0. which provides a queuing problem solution.909 none of the above 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.900 none of the above 200 . how many units are in the line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5. which provides a queuing problem solution. what proportion of the time is at least one server busy? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.86 According to Table 14-2. there are two servers in this system.788 1. on average.091 0.833 0. Counting each person being served and the people in line.091 0. which provides a queuing problem solution.788 9.

375 none of the above 14.625 minutes 0. on average. which presents a queuing problem solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate.90 According to Table 14-3. on average.375 minutes none of the above 14.625 0. which presents a queuing problem solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate.125 0. how many customers are in the system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1. which presents a queuing problem solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate. how much time is spent waiting in line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1.875 (d) 1.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.125 minutes 0. how many customers arrive per time period? (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 1.91 According to Table 14-3.875 minutes 1.125 (e) none of the above 201 .875 1. on average.89 According to Table 14-3.

375 minutes 4 minutes 0.96 Which of the following is usually the most difficult cost to determine? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) service cost facility cost calling cost waiting cost none of the above 14.25 minutes none of the above 14. Service rates follow the normal distribution. multi-phase system.95 The utilization factor is defined as the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) percent of time the system is idle. expected balking cost. which presents a queuing problem with a constant service rate. The average service rate is faster than the average arrival rate. single-channel. multi-phase system. or very large. Arrivals are Poisson distributed. multi-channel. Arrivals are treated on a first-in. none of the above 202 .625 minutes 0. total expected cost. expected waiting cost. 14. single-phase system. first-out basis and do not balk or renege. average time the service system is open.97 Lines at banks where customers wait to go to a teller window are usually representative of a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) single-channel.93 The most appropriate cost to be considered in making a waiting line decision is the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) expected service cost. average percent of time the customers wait in line. single-phase system. expected reneging cost.92 According to Table 14-3. none of the above 14. percent of time that a single customer is in the system. 14. how many minutes does a customer spend in the service facility? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. population.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.94 Which of the following is not an assumption in common queuing mathematical models? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Arrivals come from an infinite. multi-channel. on average.

multi-phase system. multi-channel. none of the above 14. single-channel. single-phase system. single-phase system. multi-phase system. single-channel.99 A gasoline station which has a single pump and where the customer must enter the building to pay is an example of a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) single-channel. single-channel. single-phase system. multi-channel. none of the above 203 .100 A vendor selling newspapers on a street corner is an example of a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) single-channel. single-phase system.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. multi-channel. multi-phase system.98 A restaurant in which one must go to the maitre d' in order to be seated in one of three dining rooms is an example of a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) single-channel. multi-channel. single-phase system. multi-channel. single-phase system. multi-phase system. multi-phase system. multi-phase system. multi-channel. none of the above 14.

minimize the percent of idle time of the technicians. minimize the total cost (cost of maintenance plus cost of downtime).104 In queuing problems. average time a customer spends waiting in a queue.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. A customer in the queue is usually patient. none of the above 14. Customers arrive to enter the queue in a random fashion. 14. (d) we will have to consider the amount of space available for the queue. Our goal should be to (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) maximize productivity of the technicians. the size of the calling population is important because (a) we have models only for problems with infinite calling populations. percent idle time.102 Which of the following is not an assumption about the queue in the waiting line models presented in this chapter? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Queue length is considered to be unlimited. (e) none of the above 204 .103 Assume that we are using a waiting line model to analyze the number of service technicians required to maintain machines in a factory. none of the above 14.101 The utilization factor ρ for a system tells one the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) mean number of people served divided by the mean number of arrivals per time period. (c) the size of the calling population determines whether or not the arrival of one customer influences the probability of arrival of the next customer. minimize the number of machines needing repair. proportion of the time the service facilities are in use. minimize the downtime for individual machines. (b) we have models only for problems with finite calling populations. Queue discipline is assumed to be FIFO.

105 The behavior of jumping from one queue to another trying to get through as quickly as possible is called: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) balking. reneging. all of the above 14.106 The customer who arrives at a bank. exactly doubled.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. the same as before. degree to which members of the queue are orderly and quiet.107 The term queue discipline describes the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) degree to which members of the queue renege.108 If the arrival rate and service times are kept constant and the system is changed from a twochannel system to a single-channel system. none of the above 14. and leaves to return at another time is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) balking. none of the above 14. blithering. increased. cropping. blithering. 205 . then the average time an arrival will spend in the waiting line is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) decreased. sees that there is a long line. sequence in which members of the queue arrived. sequence in which members of the queue are serviced. could be any of the above depending on other parameters of the problem. reneging. cropping.

We should employ (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) a multi-channel.111 If we want to know the maximum number of customers who will be waiting to buy tickets to a movie in a theater where there are three servers selling tickets. multi-phase model. multi-channel.109 If everything else remains constant. single-phase model.112 The most likely queue discipline to be followed in a hospital emergency room is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) FIFO (first in. 14. first out) LIFO (last in. none of the above (a). last out) WCF (worst case first) none of the above 206 . none of the above 14. single-channel. single-phase model. multi-channel. multi-phase queuing model. we should employ a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) single-channel. or pharmacy. deli.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. first out) FILO (first in. multi-phase model.110 Assume that we wish to study the performance of checkout stations in a large grocery store. & (c) 14. including the mean arrival rate and service rate. a number of single-channel. the (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) average waiting time will be decreased. (b). except that the service time becomes constant instead of exponential. single-phase models. a simulation model. simplifying assumptions to make the problem fit one or another of the analytical models. single-phase models. average queue length will be increased. two separate multi-channel. average number of customers in the system will be increased. other checkouts are reserved for those customers from the bakery. Some of the checkouts are reserved for those customers with fewer than twelve items. and still other checkouts are open to all customers.

67 none of the above 14. while service times follow an exponential distribution.76 0. while service times follow an exponential distribution.33 none of the above 14.43 0. first served basis.33 1.19 1.43 1. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. what is the average number of customers waiting in line behind the person being served? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. what is the average number of customers in the system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.67 0.114 Customers enter the waiting line at a cafeteria on a first come. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution. first served basis.25 0. what proportion of the time is the server busy? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.57 1. If the average number of arrivals is four per minute and the average service rate of a single server is seven per minute. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution. If the average number of arrivals is four per minute and the average service rate of a single server is seven per minute. If the average number of arrivals is four per minute and the average service rate of a single server is seven per minute.113 Customers enter the waiting line at a cafeteria on a first come. first served basis.75 0. while service times follow an exponential distribution.115 Customers enter the waiting line to pay for food as they leave a cafeteria on a first come.33 207 .57 0.

75 minutes 0.717 7.429 4.467 none of the above 14.116 Customers enter the waiting line to pay for food as they leave a cafeteria on a first come.50 minutes 0.117 A post office has a single line for customers to use while waiting for the next available postal clerk. There are two postal clerks who each work at the same rate.067 0. while service times follow an exponential distribution. The average arrival rate is seven per minute and the average service rate is four per minute for each of the two clerks.067 0.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. The arrival rate follows a Poisson distribution.932 5.33 minutes 1. There are two postal clerks who each work at the same rate. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. What is the average length of the line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. The average arrival rate is seven per minute and the average service rate is four per minute for each of the two clerks. How long does the average person spend waiting for a clerk to become available? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.67 minutes 0. The arrival rate of customers follows a Poisson distribution.817 1. If the average number of arrivals is four per minute and the average service rate of a single server is seven per minute. The arrival rate of customers follows a Poisson distribution.118 A post office has a single line for customers to use while waiting for the next available postal clerk. first served basis. how much time will elapse from the time a customer enters the line until he/she leaves the cafeteria? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.875 none of the above 208 .33minutes 14. on average.

467 none of the above 14. The car wash takes exactly 4 minutes (this is constant).875 0.067 0.171 7. what would the length of the line be? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 8. On average. how long would each driver have to wait before receiving service? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 28 minutes 32 minutes 17 minutes 24 minutes none of the above 14. The car wash takes exactly 4 minutes (this is constant).817 none of the above 14. On average.467 6.121 At an automatic car wash.467 209 . cars arrive randomly at a rate of 7 every 30 minutes.171 7. The arrival rate of customers follows a Poisson distribution. What proportion of the time are both clerks idle? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 7 cars every 30 minutes. The average arrival rate is seven per minute and the average service rate is four per minute for each of the two clerks.533 0. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 7 every 30 minutes.750 0. The car wash takes exactly 4 minutes (this is constant).123 At an automatic car wash. how many customers would be at the car wash (waiting in line or being serviced)? (a) (b) (c) (d) 8. There are two postal clerks who each work at the same rate. how long would each car spend at the car wash? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.533 0.119 A post office has a single line for customers to use while waiting for the next available postal clerk. On average. The car wash takes exactly 4 minutes (this is constant). On average.120 At an automatic car wash.122 28 minutes 32 minutes 17 minutes 24 minutes none of the above At an automatic car wash. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 7 every 30 minutes.467 6.

The car wash takes exactly 4 minutes (this is constant).091 none of the above 14. on average.783 0. what proportion of the time is at least one server busy? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.191 2. optional service features. The car wash takes exactly 4 minutes (this is constant). cars arrive randomly at a rate of 7 every 30 minutes. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 7 every 30 minutes. none of the above 14.933 none of the above At your automatic car wash.905 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 (e) none of the above 14.643 2.125 0.128 Using the information provided in Table 14-4: Counting each person being served and the people in line.905 2. adding additional. reducing the price you charge for washing the car. modifying the system to speed up service and reduce waiting time. At the moment.126 According to the information provided in Table 14-4.037 14.124 At an automatic car wash.905 0. how many units are in the line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. you have space for 7 cars in the waiting area. how many people would be in this system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. You should consider (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) adding additional parking spaces.127 According to the information provided in Table 14-4. on average.643 0.307 0.467 0.191 6.609 none of the above 210 . The utilization factor for this system is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 14.533 1.000 0.217 0.

037 minutes 14.129 According to the information provided in Table 14-4.191 minutes 6. what is the average time spent by a person in this system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.905 minutes 2.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.609 minutes none of the above 211 .

375 none of the above 212 .893 minutes none of the above 14.131 According to Table 14-5.893 0. on the average. none of the above 14. which presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate.607 minutes 0. which presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate. depends upon other factors.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. what percentage of the total available service time is being used? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 90.179 minutes 0.5% 21. how many customers are in the system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.714 minutes 0.132 According to Table 14-5. how much time is spent waiting in line? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1.607 0.7% 64.714 1.130 According to the information provided in Table 14-4.3% could be any of the above. on the average.

714 none of the above 213 .643 0.607 (d) 0.321 0.286 0.136 According to Table 14-5.179 none of the above 14.217 0.134 According to Table 14-5. which presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate. the probability that the server is idle is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. what percentage of available service time is actually used? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.714 minutes 1.893 minutes 0.133 According to Table 14-5.607 minutes none of the above 14.321 minutes 0.135 According to Table 14-5. on average. how many customers arrive per time period? (a) 5 (b) 7 (c) 1. which presents a queuing problem solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate. how many minutes does a customer spend in the system? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. which presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate. on average.643 0.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14.217 0.893 (e) none of the above 14. which presents the solution for a queuing problem with a constant service rate.

Service times are random (exponential) and average 2 minutes per arrival. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 12 every 30 minutes.133 none of the above *14. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 12 every 30 minutes.4 minutes 6.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 *14.000 0. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 12 every 30 minutes.547 0. The fast food joint has restructured their serving system so that service takes exactly 2 minutes (this is constant) per arrival. The average wait time for arrivals is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5.723 1.800 0.139 At a local fast food joint. The utilization factor for this system is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.5 minutes none of the above *14.137 At a local fast food joint.0 minutes 2.854 none of the above *14.138 At a local fast food joint.467 0. cars arrive randomly at a rate of 12 every 30 minutes.0 minutes 8. The utilization factor for this system is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0.140 At a local fast food joint.800 0. The average time in the queue for each arrival is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2 minutes 4 minutes 6 minutes 8 minutes 10 minutes 214 . The fast food joint takes an average of 2 minutes to serve each arrival. The fast food joint takes exactly 2 minutes (this is constant).

On average. Service times are exponentially distributed with an average of 15 minutes. Jack Burns.6 minutes ≅ 2.. There are five toll booths. with an average service time of 0.1 minutes 9. make the shop into a two-channel system.5 minutes.0 minutes 2.e.0125 cars 0.0179 cars 215 .144 Cars approach a set of toll booths at the rate of 75 cars per hour. make the shop into a two-channel system. the highway is five lanes wide.6 minutes ≅ 2. Under heavy traffic conditions. Service times are exponentially distributed with an average of 15 minutes.6 minutes *14.141 Cars arrive at a local JLUBE franchise at the rate of 1 every 12 minutes.5 minutes 3. Under light traffic conditions.0270 cars 0. how long is the line in front of a specific toll booth? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. the total time an average customer spends in the system will be (a) (b) (c) (d) ≅ ≅ ≅ ≅ 37 minutes 2. There are five toll booths.145 Cars approach a set of toll booths at the rate of 75 cars per hour. The average customer waits in line (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. a car commits to a specific toll lane nearly a mile before it reaches the toll booth. the highway is five lanes wide. Under this new scheme. has decided to open a second work bay. the average customer will wait in line (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ≅ 9. how long is the line in front of a specific toll booth? (a) 0. Service times are exponentially distributed with an average of 15 minutes.0176 cars 0. a car does not have to commit to a specific toll lane until actually approaching the toll booths.5 minutes ≅ 24.0179 cars 0..e. Under this new scheme.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 *14. the JLUBE owner. For the two miles before a car reaches a toll booth. On average.0714 cars *14. Jack Burns.5 minutes. has decided to open a second work bay. with an average service time of 0.142 Cars arrive at a local JLUBE franchise at the rate of 1 every 12 minutes.0 minutes none of the above *14. For the two miles before a car reaches a toll booth. i. i.6 minutes 24. the JLUBE owner.1 minutes none of the above *14.143 Cars arrive at a local JLUBE franchise at the rate of 1 every 12 minutes.5 minutes 4.

0100 cars 0.3 minutes with one window to ≅ 0. How does the waiting time with two windows change from that with only a single window? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Waiting time drops from ≅ 27. Waiting time drops from ≅ 20.7 minutes with two.5000 cars none of the above *14.0001 cars 0. There is no change.3 minutes with one window to ≅ 6.3 minutes with two. Waiting time drops from ≅ 32. Gale Johnson.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 (b) (c) (d) (e) 0. has become concerned about the waiting time under the current configuration.1 minutes with one window to ≅ 21. What service rate is necessary to keep the average wait time less than 5 minutes? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ≅ 45 per hour ≅ 47 per hour ≅ 49 per hour ≅ 50 per hour none of the above 216 .5 minutes with two. Average service rate averages 22 per hour. the owner. She is considering enlarging the facility by constructing a second takeout window. none of the above *14.147 Customers arrive at the local PharmCal gas station at the rate of 40 per hour.146 Cars appear to approach a local Burger Basket Restaurant at the rate of 20 per hour.

It takes her approximately 20 minutes to type each letter.149 A new shopping mall is considering setting up an information desk manned by two employees. It takes an average of two minutes to answer a question. Find the expected time a person spends just waiting in line to have his question answered. Based upon information obtained from similar information desks. Find the average time a person seeking information spends at the desk. It takes an average of four minutes to answer a question. Based upon information obtained from similar information desks. Find the average number of people waiting in line to get some information. 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 PROBLEMS 14. (b) Find the average number of people waiting in line to get some information.148 A new shopping mall is considering setting up an information desk manned by one employee. Find the average number of people receiving and waiting to receive some information. 14. It is assumed that arrivals are Poisson and answer times are exponentially distributed. (a) Find the proportion of the time that the employees are busy.150 Due to a recent increase in business. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Find the probability that the employee is idle. It is assumed that arrivals are Poisson and answer times are exponentially distributed. Assuming the secretary works 8 hours a day: (a) (b) (c) (d) What is the secretary's utilization rate? What is the average waiting time before the secretary types a letter? What is the average number of letters waiting to be typed? What is the probability that the secretary has more than 5 letters to type? 217 . it is believed that people will arrive at the desk at the rate of 20 per hour. (c) Find the expected time a person spends just waiting in line to have his question answered. a secretary in a certain law firm is now having to type 20 letters a day on average. Find the proportion of the time that the employee is busy. it is believed that people will arrive at the desk at the rate of 15 per hour.

each of whom operate at the same rate 218 .154 At the start of football season. average number of dogs being shot or waiting to be shot. Customers arrive at the rate of four every ten minutes. Sam can "shoot" a dog every three minutes. according to a Poisson distribution. and the average time to transact business is two minutes. the ticket office gets very busy the day before the first game. average time a dog waits before getting shot. 14. (a) What is the average number of people in line? (b) What is the average time that a person would spend in the ticket office? (c) What proportion of time is the server busy? 14. the ticket office gets very busy the day before the first game. The average time to handle each of these is 15 seconds. Also assume that Sam's shooting times are exponentially distributed. average number of dogs waiting to be shot.151 Sam the Vet is running a rabies vaccination clinic for dogs at the local grade school. There is only one switchboard operator at the current time. It is estimated that the dogs will arrive independently and randomly throughout the day at a rate of one dog every six minutes. The Poisson and exponential distribution appear to be relevant in this situation. proportion of the time that Sam is busy. Also assume that Sam's shooting times are exponentially distributed. average amount (mean) of time a dog spends between waiting in line and getting shot. and the average time to transact business is one minute.152 Sam the Vet is running a rabies vaccination clinic for dogs at the local grade school. Find the: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) probability that Sam is idle. Sam can "shoot" a dog every three minutes. according to a Poisson distribution. proportion of the time that Sam is busy.153 Calls arrive at the hotel switchboard at a rate of two per minute. 14. average number of dogs being shot or waiting to be shot. average amount (mean) of time a dog spends between waiting in line and getting shot.155 At the start of football season. Customers arrive at the rate of four every ten minutes. There are two servers in the ticket office. average time a dog waits before getting shot. (a) What is the probability that the operator is busy? (b) What is the average time that a call must wait before reaching the operator? (c) What is the average number of calls waiting to be answered? 14.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. Find the: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) probability that Sam is idle. average number of dogs waiting to be shot. It is estimated that the dogs will arrive independently and randomly throughout the day at a rate of one dog every four minutes.

219 . while the service time follows an exponential distribution. Under the original plan. Find the expected time a person spends just waiting in line to have his question answered. Find the proportion of the time that the employee is busy. The arrival rate of cars follows a Poisson distribution.156 A post office has a single drive-in window for customers to use. The expected rate is 25 per hour. Find the average number of people receiving and waiting to receive some information.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 of speed. It will also take longer to answer their questions – approximately four minutes per person on average. It appears that a reasonable expectation is an arrival rate of approximately 25 patrons per hour. the manager believes that the required service time can be reduced to an average of two minutes per person. Each time the technician is required to adjust a computer. The layout for this mall is quite complex. how many computers are waiting for service? (b) On average. The average arrival rate is 20 per hour and the average service time is two minutes. (a) What is the average number of people in line? (b) What is the average time that a person would spend in the ticket office? (c) What proportion of time is the server busy? 14. leading the mall manager to expect a higher than normal arrival rate for persons seeking assistance. Because of the complex design of the mall. the manager expected that it would take approximately four minutes for the Information Desk employee to help the average person. an average of 15 minutes (following an exponential distribution) is required to fix the problem. 14. it is expected that people will arrive at the desk at about twice the rate for most malls. (a) On average.159 The new Providence shopping mall is considering setting up an information desk manned by one employee. how long is a computer out of service? (c) What is the average waiting time in the queue to be serviced? 14. Find the average time a person seeking information spends waiting and at the desk.158 The new Providence shopping mall is considering setting up an information desk manned by one employee. By utilizing a new map and special guide signs. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) . (a) What is the average number of cars in the line? (b) What is the average time spent waiting to get to the service window? (c) What percentage of the time is the postal clerk idle? 14. Find the probability that the employee is idle. Find the average number of people waiting in line to get some information. (b) Find the proportion of the time that the Information Desk employee is busy. Assuming that he implements the new map and guide signs: (a) Find the probability that the Information Desk employee is idle.157 A company has six computers that are used to run an automated manufacturing facility. Each of these runs an average of 90 minutes without requiring any attention from the technician.

leading the mall manager to expect a higher than normal arrival rate for persons seeking assistance.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 (c) (d) (e) (f) Find the average number of people receiving and waiting to receive some information. He has now come to realize that employing only a single person at the information desk would lead to a very lengthy line – theoretically. or delivery persons. 14. leading the mall manager to expect a higher than normal arrival rate for persons seeking assistance. The layout for this mall is quite complex. freshmen arrived at the office at a rate of 40 per day (8-hour day). he believes that the required service time can be reduced to an average of two minutes per patron. and an average of ten minutes to answer those of a staff or delivery person. By utilizing a new map and special guide signs. the other to help staff and delivery persons. It appears that a reasonable expectation is an arrival rate of approximately 25 patrons per hour. has he met that goal? (e) Assuming that the manager also has the goal that the combined idle time for the two workers does not exceed 45 minutes in an 8 hour day has he met that goal? (f) What would the arrival rate have to be for the manager to meet the 45 minute idle time goal? 14. Find the average number of people waiting in line to get some information. the manager expected that it would take approximately 4 minutes for the Information Desk employee to help the average person. Find the expected time a person spends just waiting in line to have his question answered. Find the average number of people waiting in line to get some information. for the average patron. to employ two staff members at the information desk. (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the proportion of the time that the employees are busy. 14. and mall staff or delivery persons to arrive at the rate of 5 per hour. the time spent having one's question answered is less than half the time spent waiting. The layout for this mall is quite complex. It is likely to take an average of two minutes to answer the questions of a patron. 220 . Therefore.160 The new Providence shopping mall has been considering setting up an information desk manned by one employee. Find the expected time a person spends just waiting in line to have his question answered. The manager believes that he can expect patrons to arrive at the rate of 20 per hour. Find the average time a person seeking information spends waiting and at the desk. If the manager has a goal that. and (b) mall staff. It appears that a reasonable expectation is an arrival rate of approximately 25 patrons per hour. (b) determine whether the patron or the staff person is likely to have the longer wait. This year. the manager expected that it would take approximately 4 minutes for the Information Desk employee to help the average person.162 Bank Boston now has a branch at Bryant College. it takes the Bank Boston staff person about ten minutes to process each account application. therefore. On average. Assuming that the two-desk concept is implemented. Under the original plan. The branch is always busiest at the beginning of the college year when freshmen and transfer students arrive on campus and open accounts. an infinite line! He has decided. Under the original plan. (a) find the probability that both Information Desk employees are idle.161 The new Providence shopping mall has been considering setting up an information desk manned by one employee. The manager has also noticed that the people seeking help at the information desk may come from one of two groups: (a) mall patrons. the manager has decided that he wants to consider another option: establishing two information desks – one desk to help mall patrons.

163 Sam the Vet is running a rabies vaccination clinic for cats at the local grade school. how many cats will be in the waiting room? (c) If a cat has to wait more than 20 minutes. four for waiting. according to a Poisson distribution. Is it likely that any students will have to stand? 14. it will become obnoxious. Is this likely to present a serious problem? 221 .Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 (a) (b) (c) (d) What is the staff person's utilization rate? What is the average time a student has to wait before getting his application processed? What is the probability that there are more than three students waiting in line? The office has a total of five chairs for students. Also assume that Sam's shooting times are exponentially distributed. It is estimated that the cats will arrive independently and randomly throughout the day at a rate of one cat every five minutes. (a) What is the probability that a cat will have to wait? (b) On the average. Sam can "shoot" a cat every four minutes. and one at the service desk.

164 Sam the Vet is running a rabies vaccination clinic for dogs at the local grade school.166 At the start of football season. There is only one lot attendant at the current time. Sam can "shoot" a dog every three minutes. 14. (a) What is the probability that an approaching auto must wait? (b) What is the average waiting time? (c) What is the average number of autos waiting to enter the garage? 14. The average time to get a ticket and proceed to a parking space is two minutes. each of whom could service a customer in three minutes? 222 . or two ticket sellers. Would the customer be better off if the stadium employed a single ticket seller who could service a customer in two minutes. If Sam wants to be certain to have enough cages to accommodate all dogs at least 90 percent of the time.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 .165 Cars arrive at the entrance to a parking lot at the rate of 20 per hour. the ticket office gets very busy the day before the first game. how many cages should he prepare? 14. Customers arrive at the rate of four every ten minutes. It is estimated that the dogs will arrive independently and randomly throughout the day at a rate of one dog every six minutes. The Poisson and exponential distribution appear to be relevant in this situation. according to a Poisson distribution. Sam would like to have each waiting dog placed in a holding pen during the waiting period. Also assume that Sam's shooting times are exponentially distributed.

(a) What is the average number of people in line? (b) What is the average time that a person would spend in the ticket office? (c) What proportion of time is at least one server busy? 14. 223 . Customers arrive at the rate of four every fifteen minutes. the ticket office gets very busy the day before the first performance. If the post office wants to accommodate all of the waiting cars at least 95 percent of the time. Each of these runs an average of 90 minutes without requiring any attention from the technician. The arrival rate of cars follows a Poisson distribution.167 At the start of ballet season. an average of 12 minutes (following an exponential distribution) is required to fix the problem.Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 14. How many spares should the technician keep on hand if she wishes to be 90 percent certain that she will have a working machine to swap for a defect before repairing the defective machine? Assume that it takes only three minutes to swap the machines. both of whom operate at the same speed.168 A post office has a single drive-in window for customers to use.169 A company has six computers that are used to run an automated manufacturing facility. There are two servers in the ticket office. while the service time follows an exponential distribution. how many car-lengths should they make the driveway leading to the window? 14. The average arrival rate is 20 per hour and the average service time is two minutes. Each time the technician is required to adjust a computer. and the average time to transact business is 6 minutes.

174 14. 14.170 14.176 14. With regard to queue theory.177 14.178 How is FIFO used in describing a queuing theory problem? List three key operating characteristics of a queuing system.171 With regard to queue theory.172 14. What is meant by a single-channel queuing system? What is meant by a multi-channel queuing system? What is meant by a single-phase system? What is meant by a multi-phase system? What is represented by ρ? 224 .Waiting Lines and Queuing Theory Models l CHAPTER 14 SHORT ANSWER/ESSAY 14.175 14. define what is meant by balking.173 14. define what is meant by reneging.

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