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 ELASTICITY
Introduction:
A rigid body can be defined as one which does not undergo any deformation when external
forces act on it. When forces are applied on a rigid body the distance between any two particles
of the body will remain unchanged however large the force may be. In actual practice no body
is perfectly rigid. For practical purposes solid bodies are taken as rigid bodies. When external
force acts on it bring about a change in its Length, volume or shape. Such forces are called
deforming force.
What happens to the body when these forces are removed?
The external forces acting on the body compel the molecules to change their position. Due to
these relative molecular displacements, internal forces are developed within the body that tends
to oppose the external deforming force. When the deforming forces are removed, the internal
forces will tend to regain the shape and size of the body.
How does one account for this?
Under the action of the external force, the body changes its form because; the molecules inside
it are displaced from their previous positions. While they are displaced, the molecules develop
a tendency to come back to their original positions, because of intermolecular binding forces.
The aggregate of the restoration tendency exhibited by all the molecules of the body manifests
as a balancing force or restoring force counteracting the external force.
Elasticity is the property by virtue of which material bodies regain their original shape
and size after the deforming forces are removed.
When this external force is removed, the body regains its original shape and size. Such bodies
are called elastic bodies. Example: steel, glass, ivory, quartz…etc are elastic bodies. The
bodies which do not regain their original shape and size are called plastic bodies. No body is
either completely elastic or completely plastic. The property of elasticity is different in different
substances .steel is more elastic than rubber .liquids and gases are highly elastic.
STRESS AND STRAIN
LOAD: It implies the combination of external forces acting on a body and its effect is to
change the form or the dimensions of the body.
STRESS: Restoring force per unit area developed inside the body is called stress. Since the
magnitude of the restoring force is exactly equal to that of the applied force, stress is given by
the ratio of the applied force to the area of its application.
Normal stress: Restoring force per unit area perpendicular to the surface is called normal
stress.
1
D D
1
C C
1
θ θ
F
Tangential stress: Restoring force parallel to the surface per unit area is called tangential
stress.
STRAIN: The change in the form of the body i.e., the deformation produced by the external
force, accompanies a change in dimensions.
The ratio of change in dimensions to the original dimensions is called strain. But the way
in which the change in dimensions is produced depends upon the form of the body and the
manner in which the force is applied.
Deformation is of three types, resulting in three types of strains, defined as follows:
i) Linear strain or Tensile strain: If the shape of the body could be approximated to
the form of a long wire and if a force is applied at one end along its length keeping
the other end fixed, the wire undergoes a change in length.
If x is the change in length produced for an original length L then,
Linear strain =
length original
length in change
=
L
x
ii) Volume strain: If a uniform force is applied all over the surface of a body, the
body undergoes a change in its volume (however the shape is retained in case of
solid bodies). If v is the change in volume to an original volume V of the body then,
Volume strain =
volume original
in volume change
=
V
v
iii) Shear strain: If a force is applied tangentially to a free portion of the body, another
part being fixed, its layers slide one over the other; the body experiences a turning
effect and changes its shape. This is called shearing and the angle through which
the turning takes place is called shearing angle (θ).
HOOKE’S LAW
It states that “stress is proportional to strain” (provided strain is small), so that in such a
case the ratio of stress to strain is a constant, called the modulus of elasticity or coefficient
of elasticity.
i.e., stress α strain,
Or, (E) constant a ·
strain
stress
STRESS  STRAIN RELATIONSHIP IN A WIRE
2
A B
When the stress is continually increased in the case of a solid, a point is reached at which the
strain increases rapidly. The stress at which the linear relationship between stress and strain
ceases to hold good is referred to as the elastic limit of the material. Thus, if the material
happens to be in the form of a bar or a wire under stretch, it will recover its original length on
the removal of the stress so long as the stress is below the elastic limit, but if this limit is
exceeded, it will fail to do so and will acquire what is called as ‘permanent set’.
The relationship between stress and strain is studied by plotting a graph for various values of
stress and the accompanying strain. This is known as stressstrain diagram.
The straight and slopping part OA of the curve clearly shows that the strain produced is directly
proportional to the stress applied or the Hook’s law is obeyed perfectly up to A and that,
therefore, on the removal of the stress, it will recover its original condition of zero strain,
represented by O.
As soon as the elastic limit is crossed, the strain increases more rapidly than the stress, and the
graph curves along AB, the extension of the wire now being partly elastic and partly plastic.
Hence, on being unloaded here, say, at the point B, it does not come back to its original
condition along AO, but takes the dotted path BC, so that there remains a residual strain OC in
it, which is permanent set acquired by the wire.
Beyond the point B, for practically little or no increase in stress(or the load applied) there is a
large increase in strain (i.e., in the extension produced) up to D, so that the portion BD of the
graph is an irregular wavy line, the stress corresponding to D being less than that corresponding
to B. This point B where the large increase in strain commences is called the yield point, the
stress corresponding to it being known as the yielding stress.
The yielding ceases at D and further extension, it becomes plastic, can only be produced by
gradually increasing the load so that the portion DF of the graph is obtained, the cross sectional
area is called the ultimate strength or the tensile strength of the wire and is also sometimes
termed the ‘breaking stress’.
The extension of the wire goes on increasing beyond F without any addition to the load, even
if the load is reduced a little, and wire behaves as though it were literally ‘flowing down’. This
is because of a faster rate of decrease of its crosssectional area at some section of its length
where local constriction, called a “neck” begins to develop, with the result that, even if the load
be not increased, the load per unit area or the stress becomes considerably greater there,
bringing about corresponding increase in strain or extension in the wire. The load is there,
decreased, i.e., the stress reduced at this stage and the wire finally snaps or breaks at E, which
thus represents the breaking point for it.
Corresponding to the three types of strain, we have three types of elasticity:
3
D
O
B
E
Elastic Behavior
Elastic Limit
C
A
S
T
R
E
S
S
S T R A I N
Permanent set
Yield point
Breaking point
F
Plastic Range
Q
S
B B
1
Q
1
P
1
θ
R
a) Linear Elasticity or Elasticity of length called Young’s modulus, corresponding to
linear or tensile strain:
When the deforming force is applied to the body only along a particular direction,
the change per unit length in that direction is called longitudinal, linear or elongation strain, and
the force applied per unit area of cross section is called longitudinal or linear stress. The ratio
of longitudinal stress to linear strain within elastic limit is called the coefficient of direct
elasticity or Young’s modulus and is denoted by Y or E.
If F is the force applied normally, to a crosssectional area a, then the stress is F/a. If L is
original length and x is change in length due to the applied force, the strain is given by x/L,
so that,
Y =
strain al Longitudin
stress Normal
=
ax
FL
L x
a F
·
N/m
2
b) Elasticity of volume or Bulk modulus:
When the deforming force is applied normally and uniformly to the entire surface
of a body, it produces a volume strain (without changing its shape in case of solid bodies). The
applied force per unit area gives the normal stress or pressure. The ratio of normal stress or
pressure to the volume strain without change in shape of the body within the elastic limits
is called Bulk modulus.
If F is the force applied uniformly and normally on a surface area (a) the stress or pressure is
F/a or P and if v is the change in volume produced in an original volume V, the strain is given
by v/V and therefore
K =
v
PV
av
FV
V v
a F
· · ·
strain Volume
stress Normal
N/m
2
Bulk modulus is referred to as incompressibility and hence its reciprocal is called
compressibility (strain per unit stress).
c) Modulus of Rigidity (corresponding to shear strain) :
In this case, while there is a change in the shape of the body, there is no change in its
volume. It takes place by the movement of contiguous layers of the body, one over the other.
There is a change in the inclinations of the coordinates axes of the system or the body.
Consider a rectangular solid cube whose lower face DCRS is fixed, and to whose upper face a
tangential force F is applied in the direction as shown. Under the action of this force, the layers
of the cube which are parallel to the applied force slide one over the other such that point A
shifts to A
1
, B to B
1
, P to P
1
and Q to Q
1
that is the planes of the two faces ABCD and PQRS
can be said to have turned through an angle θ. This angle θ is called the angle of shear or
shearing strain. Tangential stress is equal to the force F divided by area a of the face APQB.
Hence tangential stress =
a
F
θ = PP
1
/ PS =
L
x
The rigidity modulus is defined as the ratio of the tangential stress to the shearing strain.
4
D
A
1
P
A
θ
L
F
C
A A
1
A A
1
B B
1
L
Rigidity modulus η =
strain. shearing
stress tangential
=
ax
FL
L x
a F a F
· ·
θ
N/m
2
Poisson’s Ratio (σ):
In case of any deformation taking place along the length of a body like a wire, due to
a deforming force, there is always some change in the thickness of the body. This change
which occurs in a direction perpendicular to the direction along which the deforming force is
acting is called lateral change.
Within elastic limits of a body, the ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is a
constant and is called Poisson’s ratio.
If a deforming force acting on a wire of length L produces a change in length x accompanied by
a change in diameter of d in it which has a original diameter of D, then lateral strain β=
D
d
and
Longitudinal strain α =
L
x
,
∴
Poisson’s ratio, σ =
α
β
=
xD
Ld
There are no units for Poisson’s ratio. It is a dimensionless quantity.
RELATION BETWEEN THE THREE MODULI OF ELASTICITY:
When body undergoes an elastic deformation, it is studied under any of the three elastic
modulii depending upon the type of deformation. However these modulii are related to each
other. Now, their relation can be understood by knowing how one type of deformation could
be equated to combination of other types of deformation.
EQUIVALENCE OF SHEAR TO COMPRESSION AND EXTENSION:
Consider a cube whose lower surface CD is fixed to a rigid support. Let ABCD be its front
face. If a tangential force F is applied at the upper surface along AB, its cause’s relative
displacements at different parts of the cube, so that A moves to A
1
and B moves to B
1
through a
small angle. In this way the diagonal AC will be shortened to A
1
C and diagonal DB will be
increased in length to DB
1
.let θ be the angle of shear which is very small in magnitude.
Let length of each side of the cube = L.
AA
1
=BB
1
= l.
As θ is small, θ = tanθ = l / L.
As diagonal DB increases to DB
1
and diagonal AC is compressed to AC
1
,
We have Extension strain along DB = NB
1
/DB
5
L
θ
LL
l l l
θ θ
M N
D C
A
B
F
Compression strain along AC=MA
1
/CA
If L is the length of each side of the cube, then, AC = DB=
2
L (By Pythagoras theorem).
Now, NB
1
=BB
1
cos45
=
2
l
and AM=AA
1
cos45
=
2
l
∴
Elongation strain along DB = NB
1
/DB=
2 2 2
2 / θ
· ·
L
l
L
l
And compression strain along AC = MA
1
/CA=
2 2 2 /
2 / θ
· ·
L
l
L
l
From the above two relation it is clear that a simple shear θ is equivalent to an extension strain
and compression strain at right angles to each other and each of value θ/2.
The converse is also true i.e., simultaneous equal compression and extension at right angles to
each other are equivalent to shear.
Elongation strain + compression strain = θ
θ θ
· +
2 2
, the shearing strain.
EQUIVALENCE OF SHEARING STRESS TO A COMPRESSIVE STRESS AND A
TENSILE STRESS:
• Compressive stress (or compression) is the stress state caused by an applied load that
acts to reduce the length of the material in the axis of the applied load.
• Tensile stress is the stress state caused by an applied load that tends to elongate the
material in the axis of the applied load, in other words the stress caused by pulling the
material.
Consider a section of cube ABCD having o as centre and whose lower face CD is
clamped and let a tangential force F being applied on the upper face AB in the direction
shown by arrow. If L is the length of each side of the cube, then tangential force per
unit area will be F/l
2
= T. The face CD experiences equal and opposite forces and these
two forces acting along the face AB and CD form a couple which has a tendency to
rotate the cube in the clockwise direction. As the cube is unable to rotate, a couple is
called in to action which counter balances the applied couple and this couple is called
restoring couple.
The restoring couple consists of forces acting tangentially on the faces CB and AD and
each of magnitude F. under the action of these four forces (along AB, CD, BC and AD)
each of F the cube is deformed as these four forces are in equilibrium the cube does not
6
LL
C
D
F
F
F
move. The force acting along AB can be resolved along AO and OB i.e., into two equal
components of magnitude f .similarly the remaining three forces can be resolved into
three pairs of components each of f. Thus we have four forces of value F each acting
tangentially on the faces of the cube which are resolved in to eight forces each of value
f acting along the diagonals as shown in the figure. The force f acting along AC tends to
compress the diagonal and those acting along DB tend to produce extension along that
diagonal.
Therefore the area of the triangular face ABC cut parallel to AC and perpendicular to
the plane of the paper. = DB x AO = L
2
x L= L
2
2
.
As DB =
2 2
AD AB + =
2 2
L L + = L
2
.
Since the force acting on either side of the section normal to it is 2f. Therefore
compressive stress along AC =
Area
Force
=
2
2
2
L
f
But f = F cos45
=
2
F
∴
Compressive stress along AC =
2
2 / 2
2
X L
F
=
2
L
F
= T = Tangential stress (1)
Similarly tensile stress along BD =
2
2 / 2
2
X L
F
=
2
L
F
= T = Tangential stress (2)
From (1) and (2) it is clear that a shearing stress is equivalent to an equal linear tensile stress
and an equal linear compressive stress at right angles to each other.
RELATION BETWEEN Y AND α
7
LL
2f
B D
A
Consider a cube of unit side subjected to unit tension along one side. Let α be the elongation
per unit length per unit tension along the direction of the force. Therefore,
Stress =
Area
Force
= 1
Similarly, linear strain =
length original
length in change
=
1
α
= α
∴
Y =
strain al Longitudin
stress Normal
=
α
1
RELATION BETWEEN K, α AND β
Consider a cube ABCDEFGH of unit volume, as shown in the diagram. Let T
x
be the stress
acting on the faces ABEF and CDGH. Let T
y
be the stress which acts perpendicular to the faces
ABCD and EFGH. Similarly, T
z
is acting perpendicularly between faces ACEG and BDFH.
T
y
T
z
T
x
T
x
T
z
T
y
Each stress produces an extension in its own direction and a lateral contraction in the other two
perpendicular directions. Let α be the elongation per unit length per unit stress along the
direction of the forces and β be the contraction per unit length per unit stress in a direction
perpendicular to the respective forces. Then stress like T
x
produces an increase in length of
α T
x
in Xdirection: but since other two stresses T
y
and T
z
are perpendicular to Xdirection they
produce a contraction of β T
y
and β T
z
respectively in the cube along Xdirection .Hence, a
length which was unity along Xdirection becomes ,
1+ α T
x
 β T
y
 β T
z
.
Similarly along Y and Z directions the respective length become,
1+ α T
y
 β T
z
 β T
x
.
1+ α T
z
 β T
x
 β T
y
.
Hence the new volume of the cube is
= (1+ α T
x
 β T
y
 β T
z
) (1+ α T
y
 β T
z
 β T
x
) (1+ α T
z
 β T
x
 β T
y
)
Since α and β are very small, the terms which contain either powers of α and β, or their
products can be neglected.
∴
New volume of the cube = 1 + α(T
x
+ T
y
+ T
z
) 2β(T
x
+ T
y
+ T
z
),
= 1+ (α2β)(T
x
+ T
y
+ T
z
)
If T
x
= T
y
= T
z
= T
Then the new volume =1+ (α2β) 3T
Since the cube under consideration is of unit volume, increase in volume = [1+3T (α2β)]1
8
C
F
E
G
H
A A
1
B B
1
L
= 3T (α2β)
If instead of outward stress T, a pressure P is applied, the decrease in volume = 3P (α2β).
∴
Volume strain =
volume original
in volume change
=
1
) 2  ( 3P β α
∴
K =
) 2  ( 3
1
) 2  ( 3P
P
strain Volume
Pressure
β α β α
· ·
RELATION BETWEEN Y, K, AND α
K =
( )
( ) ( ) σ α β
α
α β α 2 1 3 / 2 1 3
1
) 2 1 ( 3
1
−
·
−
·
−
Y
(
α
β
σ · and Y = )
1
α
RELATION BETWEEN
α η ,
AND
β
Consider a cube with each of its sides of length L under the action of tangential stress T. let
tangential force F be applied to its upper face. It causes the plane of the faces perpendicular to
the applied force F turn through an angle θ. as a result diagonal AC undergoes contraction and
diagonal DB
1
undergoes elongation of equal amount.
Now, shearing strain occurring along AB can be treated as equivalent to a longitudinal strain,
along AB
1
and an equal lateral strain along the diagonal A
1
C i.e., perpendicular to DB. Let α
and β be the longitudinal and lateral strains per unit length per unit stress which is applied
along AB , since T is the applied stress, extension produced for the length DB due to tensile
stress = T. DB.α and extension produced for the length DB due to compression stress =
T.DB.β.
∴
Total extension along DB = DB.T.(α+β),
It is clear that the total extension in DB is approximately equal to B
1
N when BN is
perpendicular to DB
1
.
∴
B
1
N= DB.T(α+β),
∴
B
1
N=( L 2 ).T(α+β), (
DB cos45
=L)
Now,
D B A
=45
and since θ is always very small,
ABD
45
1
1
· ≅ ≅ N BB D AB ,
9
l l
θ θ
M N
D C
∴
B
1
N = BB
1
cos45
=
2 2
BB
1
l
· ( l BB ·
1
)
∴ ,
2
) ( ) 2 (
l
T L · + β α
Or,
( ) ( )
· · · ·
+ θ β α
T
L l
T
l
TL 1
2
1
η
,
) ( 2
1
β α
η
+
· ∴
,
) 1 ( 2
1
α β α +
·
Or,
, ) ( ,
) 1 ( 2
1
α β σ
σ
α
η ·
+
·
( )
( ) σ η
σ
η
+ ·
+
·
1 2
1 2
Y or
Y
RELATION BETWEEN Y, K and
η
We know that
( ) σ
η
+
·
1 2
Y
and K
( ) σ 2 1 3 −
·
Y
Rearranging which we get,
σ
η
2 2 + ·
Y
and
K
Y
3
=12σ
Adding the above we get,
3
3
· +
K
Y Y
η
,
Or
3
3
) 3 (
·
+
K
K Y
η
η
1
]
1
¸
+
· ∴
η
η
K
K
Y
3
9
Relation between K ,
η
and σ
We have the relations Y = 2
η
(1 + σ), and Y = 3K (12σ)
Equating the above equations we get,
2η + 2ησ = 3K – 6Kσ,
∴
2ησ + 6Kσ = 3K  2η,
Or , σ(2η + 6K) = 3K  2η,
Or, σ =
K
K
6 2
2 3
+
−
η
η
Torsion of a cylinder
10
A long body which is twisted around its length as an axis is said to be under torsion. The
twisting is brought into effect by fixing one end of the body to a rigid support and applying a
suitable couple at the other end. The elasticity of a solid, long uniform cylindrical body under
torsion can be studied, by imagining it to be consisting of concentric layers of the material of
which it is made up of. The applied twisting couple is calculated in terms of the rigidity
modulus of the body.
Expression for the Torsion of a cylindrical rod:
Consider a long cylindrical rod of length ‘L’ and radius ‘R’ rigidly fixed at its upper end. Let
OO' be its axis. Imagine the cylindrical rod is made up of thin concentric hollow cylindrical
layers each of thickness ‘dr’.
11
The rod twisted at its lower end, and then the concentric layers slide one over
the other. This movement will be zero at the fixed end and gradually increased along the
downward direction. Let us consider one concentric circular layer of radius ‘r’ and thickness
‘dr’ . Any point ‘X’ on its uppermost part would remain fixed and a point like ‘B’ at its bottom
moves to ‘B'’. Now the φ · ′ B X B
ˆ
gives the angle of shear. Since φ is also small, the
movement length
φ L B B · ′
. Also, if
θ · ′ ′B O B
ˆ
, the length B B' = rθ.
θ φ r L · ∴
Now, the cross sectional area of the layer under consideration is 2πr dr . If ‘F’ is the shearing
force, then the shearing stress T is given by
rdr
F
Area
Force
T
π 2
· ·
∴Shearing force F = T(2πrdr)
∴ Rigidity modulus n = Shearing stress/shearing strain.
φ
T
n ·
( ) dr r
L
n
rdr
L
nr
F
L
nr
n T
2
2
2
θ π
π
θ
θ
φ
· · ∴
· · ∴
The moment of the force about
dr r
L
n
r dr r
L
n
O O
3 2
2 2 θ π θ π
·
,
_
¸
¸
· ′
This is only for the one layer of the cylinder.
Therefore, twisting couple acting on the entire cylinder
dr r
L
n
R
3
0
2
∫
·
θ π
L
nR
r
L
n
R
2
4
2
4
0
4
θ π
θ π
·
1
]
1
¸
·
Couple per unit twist is given by C=Total twisting couple / angle of twist.
12
O
O
1
dr
φ
θ
X
,
_
¸
¸
·
·
L
nR
C
L nR
C
2
2 /
4
4
π
θ
θ π
Torsional Pendulum
Torsional pendulum consists of a heavy metal disc is suspended by means of a wire. When the
disc is rotated in a horizontal plane so as to twist the wire, the various elements of the wire
undergo shearing strain. The restoring couple of the wire tries to bring the wire back to the
original position. Therefore disc executes torsional oscillations about the mean position.
Let θ be the angle of twist made by the wire and C be the couple per unit twist.
Then the restoring couple per unit twist = Cθ.
Therefore the angular acceleration produced by the restoring couple in the wire. a =
2
2
dt
d θ
Let I be the moment of inertia of the wire about the axis. Therefore, we have, I
,
_
¸
¸
2
2
dt
d θ
= Cθ
The above relation shows that the angular acceleration is proportional to angular displacement
and is always directed towards the mean position. The negative sign indicates that the couple
tends to decrease the twist on the wire. Therefore, the motion of the disc is always simple
harmonic motion (SHM).
Therefore, the time period of oscillator is given by relation,
C
I
X
I
C n Accleratio
nt displaceme
T π
θ
θ
π π 2 2 2 ·
,
_
¸
¸
· ·
Uses of torsion pendulum:
(i) For determination of moment of inertia of an irregular body:
For determining the moment of inertia of an irregular body the torsion pendulum is
Found to be very useful. First, the time period of the pendulum is determined
When it is empty and then the time period of the pendulum is determined after fixing a
regular at the free end and after this the time period is determined by replacing
The regular body by the irregular body whose moment of inertia is to be determined.
If I
1
and I
2
are the moments of inertia of the pendulum, regular body and irregular
body respectively and,T
1
and T
2
are the time periods in the three cases respectively,then
13
T=2π . … . . . . . . (1)
T
1
=2π . . . . . . . . . .(2)
T
2
=2π . . . . .. . . .. . (3)
From relations (2) and (1), we have
T
1
2
T
2
=
And from (2) and (3), we have
T
2
2
 T
2
=
Bending of beams:
A homogenous body of uniform cross section whose length is large compared to its other
dimensions is called a beam.
Neutral surface and neutral axis:
Consider a uniform beam MN whose one end id fixed at M. The beam can be thought of as
made up of a number of parallel layers and each layer in turn can be thought of as made up of a
number of infinitesimally thin straight parallel longitudinal filaments or fibres arranged one
closely next to the other in the plane of the layer. If a cross section of the beam along its length
and perpendicular to these layers is taken the filaments of different layers appear like straight
lines piled one above the other along the length of the beam. For a given layer, all its
constituent filaments are assumed to undergo identical changes when that layer is strained.
If a load is attached to the free end of the beam, the beam bends. The successive layers along
with constituent filaments are strained. A filament like AB of an upper layer will be elongated
to A1B1 and the one like EF of a lower layer will be contracted to E1F1. But there will always
be a particular layer whose filaments do not change their length as shown for CD. Such a layer
14
A
B
C D
E
F
A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
E
1
F
1
is called neutral surface and the line along which a filament of it is situated is called neutral
axis.
The filaments of a neutral surface could be taken as line along which the surface is intercepted
by a cross section of the beam considered in the plane of bending as shown.
Neutral Surface: It is that layer of a uniform beam which does not undergo any change in its
dimensions, when the beam is subjected to bending within its elastic limit.
Neutral axis: It is a longitudinal line along which neutral surface is intercepted by any
longitudinal plane considered in the plane of bending.
When a uniform beam is bent, all its layers which are above the neutral surface undergo
elongation whereas those below the neutral surface are subjected to compression. As a result
the forces of reaction are called into play in the body of the beam which develop an inward pull
towards the fixed end for all the layers above the neutral surface and an outward push directed
away from the fixed end for all layer below the neutral surface. These two groups of forces
result in a restoring couple which balances the applied couple acting on the beam. The moment
of restoring couple is called restoring moment and the moment of the applied couple is called
the bending moment. When the beam is in equilibrium, the bending moment and the restoring
moments are equal.
15
A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
E
1 F
1
θ
Neutral axis
Bending moment of a beam:
Consider a uniform beam whose one end is fixed at M. If now a load is attached to the beam,
the beam bends. The successive layers are now strained. A layer like AB which is above the
neutral surface will be elongated to A1B1 and the one like EF below neutral surface will be
contracted to E1F1. CD is neutral surface which does not change its length.
The shape of each layers of the beam can be imagined to form part of concentric circles of
varying radii. Let R be the radius of the circle to which the neutral surface forms a part.
∴CD=Rθ
where θ is the common angle subtended by the layers at common center O of the circles. The
layer AB has been elongated to A
1
B
1
.
∴ change in length =A
1
B
1
AB
But AB=CD=Rθ
If the successive layers are separated by a distance r then,
A
1
B
1
=(R+r)θ
∴Change in length=(R+r)θRθ = rθ
But original length = AB=Rθ
∴Linear strain =
R
r
R
r
·
θ
θ
Youngs Modulus Y= Longitudinal stress/linear strain
Longitudinal stress = Yx Linear strain
= Yx
R
r
But stress =
a
F
Where F is the force acting on the beam and a is the area of the layer AB.
R
Yar
R
Yr
a
F
· ·
Moment of this force about the neutral axis=F x its distance from neutral axis.
= F x r = Yar
2
/R
Moment of force acting on the entire beam = Σ
R
Yar
2
16
P
P
1
M
N
Y
=
2
ar
R
Y
∑
The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is given by Σmr
2
, where Σm is the mass of
the body. Similarly Σar
2
is called the geometric moment of Inertia Ig.
Ig=Σar
2
=Ak
2
, where A is the area of cross section of the beam and k is the radius of gyration
about the neutral axis.
Moment of force = Ig
R
Y
Bending moment =
2
Ak
R
Y
Single Cantilever
If one end of beam is fixed to a rigid support and its other end loaded, then the arrangement is
called single cantilever or cantilever.
Consider a uniform beam of length L fixed at M. Let a load W act on the beam at N.
Consider a point on the free beam at a distance x from the fixed end which will be at a distance
(Lx) from N. Let P1 be its position after the beam is bent.
∴Bending moment = Force x Perpendicular distance.
= W(Lx)
But bending moment of a beam is given by Ig
R
Y
Ig
R
Y
= W(Lx) (1)
17
x (Lx)
YIg R
x)  W(L 1
·
(2)
But if y is the depression of the point P then it can be shown that
2
2
1
dx
y d
R
· (3)
where R is the radius of circle to which the bent beam becomes a part.
Comparing equations 2 and 3
YIg
x)  W(L
2
2
·
dx
y d
( )
g
YI
x L w
dx
dy
dx
d −
·
,
_
¸
¸
g
YI
xdx Ldx w
dx
dy
d
) ( −
·
,
_
¸
¸
Integrating both sides
1
2
2
C
x
Lx
YI
w
dx
dy
g
+
1
]
1
¸
− ·
(4)
C is constant of integration
But dy/dx is the slope of the tangent drawn to the bent beam at a distance x from the fixed end.
When x=0, it refers to the tangent drawn at M, where it is horizontal. Hence (dy/dx)=0 at x=0.
Introducing this condition in equation (4 )we get 0=C
1
Equation 4 becomes
dx
x
Lx
YIg
W
dy
x
Lx
YIg
W
dx
dy
1
]
1
¸
− ·
1
]
1
¸
− ·
2
2
2
2
Integrating both sides we get
2
3 2
6 2
C
x Lx
YIg
W
y +
1
]
1
¸
− ·
(5)
18
where C
2
is constant of integration, y is the depression produced at known distance from the
fixed end. Therefore when x=0, it refers to the depression at M, where there is obviously no
depression. Hence y=0 at x=0. Introducing this condition in equation 5 we get
1
]
1
¸
− ·
6 2
3 2
x Lx
YIg
W
y
At the loaded end, y=y
0
and x=L
Therefore
1
]
1
¸
− ·
6 2
3 3
0
L L
YIg
W
y
Depression produced at loaded end is
YIg
WL
y
3
3
0
·
Therefore the youngs modulus of the material of the cantilever is
Ig y
WL
Y
0
3
3
·
(6)
Case (a):
If the beam is having rectangular crosssection, with breadth b and thickness d then,
Ig =
12
3
bd
(7)
Substituting equation (7) in equation (6) we get
3
0
3
12
3 bd
x
y
WL
Y ·
3
0
3
4
bd Y
WL
Y ·
Case(b):
If the beam is having a circular cross section of radius r then,
4
4
r
Ig
Π
· (8)
Substituting equation (8) in equation (7) we get
4
0
3
3
4
r y
WL
Y
Π
·
19
Experiment to determine young’s modulus by single cantilever method.
Single cantilever: Single cantilever is a beam fixed horizontally at one end and the free end to
be loaded.
Experiment: The given material in the form of uniform bar whose one end is fixed to a rigid
support is taken and an empty pan is attached to the other end.
A pin is firmly placed on the top of the loaded end. A traveling microscope adjusted to the
vertical transverse is focused to the tip of the pin and the reading is taken and entered in the
tabular column. A suitable weights are attached to the pan in a equal increments and the
reading of the traveling microscope are noted for the corresponding positions of the tip of the
pin.
Load (g)
m
1
TM reading (cm) Mean
R
1
Load
(g)
m
2
TM readings (cm) Mean
R
2
Depression
for the load
(m
2
m
1
)
R
2
∼ R
1
Load
increasing
Load
decreasing
Load
Increasing
Load
decreasing
W W + 40
W + 10 W + 50
W + 20 W + 60
W + 30 W + 70
After the required value of the load in the pan is attained, weights are unloaded by the same
amount in each step as they were added while loading. The corresponding readings are entered
in the tabular column. The value of
1 2
1 2
R R
m m
−
−
is evaluated from the table. The length of the
beam between the point of emergence of the beam from the rigid support and the point where
the pin is mounted is measured. The breadth ‘b’ and the thickness ‘d’ of the beam are also
measured. The young’s modulus of the material of the beam is calculated by using the formula
,
_
¸
¸
−
−
·
1 2
1 2
3
3
4
R R
m m
bd
gl
q
N m
2
.
20
21
b b b
l l l
W W W W
UNIT 2. – QUANTUM MECHANICS
Quantum Mechanics
Newton’s laws describe the motion of the particles in classical mechanics and
Maxwell’s equations describe electromagnetic fields in classical electromagnetism. The
classical mechanics correctly explains the motion of celestial bodies like planets, macroscopic
and microscopic terrestrial bodies moving with nonrelastivistic speeds. However classical
theory does not hold in the region of atomic dimensions. The classical theory could not explain
the stability of atoms, energy distribution in the black body radiation spectrum, origin of
discrete spectra of atoms etc. It also fails to explain large number of observed phenomena like
photo electric effect, Compton effect, Raman effect etc. The insufficiency of classical
mechanics led to the development of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the
description of motion and interaction of particles at the small scale atomic system where the
discrete nature of the physical world becomes important. With the application of quantum
mechanics, several problems of atomic physics have been solved.
Wave and particle duality of radiation
To understand the wave and particle duality, it is necessary to know what is a particle
and what is a wave.
A particle is a localized mass and it is specified by its mass, velocity, momentum,
energy etc. Whereas a wave is a spread out mass and is characterized by its wavelength,
frequency, velocity, amplitude, intensity etc. It is hard to think mass being associated with a
wave. Considering the above facts, it appears difficult to accept the conflicting ideas that
radiation has wave particle duality. However this acceptance is essential because the radiation
exhibits phenomena like interference, diffraction, polarization etc, and shows the wave nature
and it also the particle nature in photo electric effect, Compton effect etc.
Radiation, thus, sometimes behave as a wave and at some other time as a particle, this is
the wave particle duality of radiation. Here it should be remembered that radiation cannot
exhibit its wave and particle nature simultaneously.
de Broglie’s concept of matter waves.
Louis deBroglie in 1924 extended the wave particle dualism of radiation to
fundamental entities of physics such as electrons, protons, neutrons, atoms, molecules etc. de
22
Broglie put a bold suggestion that like radiation, matter also has dual characteristic, at a time
when there was absolutely no experimental evidence for wave like properties of matter waves.
deBroglie hypothesis of matter waves is as follows.
• In nature energy manifests itself in two forms namely matter and radiation.
• Nature loves symmetry
• As nature loves symmetry, if radiation act like wave sometime and like particle at some
other times then the material particles ( like electrons, protons etc) should also act as
waves at some other times.
The waves associated with matter in motion are called matter waves or debroglie
waves or pilot waves
Wave length of matter waves: The concept of matter waves is well understood by combining
Planck’s quantum theory and Einstein’s theory. Consider a photon of energy E, fre4quancy γ
and wavelength λ.
By Planck’s theory
λ
γ
hc
h E · ·
By Planck’s theory
2
mc E ·
p
h
mc
h
hc
mc
· ·
·
λ
λ
2
Where p is the momentum of the photon.
Now consider a particle of mass m moving with a velocity and momentum p.
According to the doBroglie hypothesis matter also has dual nature . Hence the wavelength λ of
matter waves is given by
p
h
mv
h
· · λ
. This is the equation for the deBroglie wave length
de – Broglie wavelength of an electron
Consider an electron of mass ‘m’ accelerated from rest by an electric potential V. The
electrical work done (eV) is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the electron.
23
mE mv
mE v m
mv E
eV E
2
2
2
1
2 2
2
·
· ∴
· ∴
·
therefore wavelength of electron wave
mE
h
mv
h
p
h
2
· ∴
· ·
λ
λ
But eV E ·
0
0
28 . 12
28 . 12
2
2
2
A
V
A
me
h
V
me
h
meV
h
· ∴
·
· · ∴
λ
λ
Note : Instead of a an electron, if a particle of charge ‘q’ is accelerated through a potential
difference V, then
mqV
h
2
· λ
Properties of matter waves
1. Lighter the particle, greater would be the wavelength of matter waves associated with it.
2. Smaller the velocity of the particle, greater would be the wavelength.
3. For V = 0, λ is infinity ie, the wave becomes indeterminate. This means that matter
waves are associated with moving particles.
4. Matter waves are produced by charged or uncharged particles in motion. Where as
electromagnetic waves are produced only by a moving charged particle. Hence matter
waves are non – electromagnetic waves.
24
5. In an isotropic medium the wavelength of an electromagnetic eave is a constant
whereas the wave length of a matter wave changes with the velocity of the particle.
Hence matter waves are non electromagnetic waves.
6. Velocity of any wave is greater by νλ . therefore for a matter wave, wave velocity ‘u’ is
given
v
c
u
mv
h
h
mc
u
mv
h
h
mc
h mc
h E
but
u
2
2
2
2
*
) 1 ( ..........
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
λ
ν
ν
ν
νλ
As the velocity of a particle can’t exceed the velocity of light ‘c’, the velocity of matter
waves is greater than the velocity of light.
7. A particle is a localized mass and a wave is a spread out spark. so, the wave nature of
matter introduces a certain un – certainty in the position of the particle.
8. Matter waves are probability waves.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is a direct consequence of dual nature of
matter. In classical mechanics, a moving particle at any instant has a fixed position in
space and a definite momentum which can be determined if the initial values are known
(we can know the future if we know the present)
25
In wave mechanics a moving particle is described in terms of a wave group
or wave packet. According to Max Born’s probability interpretation the particle
may be present anywhere inside the eave packet. When the wave packet is large, the
momentum can be fixed but there is a large infiniteness in its position. On the other
hand if the wave packet is small the position of the particle may be fixed but the particle
will spread rapidly and hence the momentum ( or velocity ) becomes indeterminate. In
this way certainty in momentum involves uncertainty in position and the certainty in
position involves uncertainty in momentum. Hence it is impossible to know within the
wave packet where the particle is and what is its exact momentum. (we cannot know
the future because we cannot know the present). Thus we have Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle.
According to the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle “ It is impossible to specify
precisely and simultaneously certain pairs of physical quantities like position and
momentum that describe the behaviour of an atomic system”. Qualitatively this
principle states that in any simultaneous measurement the product of the magnitudes of
the uncertainties of the pairs of physical quantities is equal to or greater than h/4π ( or
of the order of h)
Considering the pair of physical quantities as position and momentum, we have
ΔpΔx ≥ h/4π .….1
Where Δp and Δx are the uncertainties in determining the momentum and the position
of the particle. Similarly we have other canonical forms as
ΔEΔt≥ h/4π ……2
ΔJΔθ≥ h/4π ……3
Where ΔE and Δt are uncertainties in determining energy and time while ΔJ and Δθ are
uncertainties in determining angular momentum and angle.
Experimental illustration of uncertainty principle
As an illustration of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle Neil
Bohr proposed a thought experiment to the inevitable error involved to locate the
position of an electron.
Let OP be the axis of an imaginary γ ray microscope perpendicular to x
direction. Consider a γphoton of wavelength λ and momentum h/λ moving along x
direction strikes a stationary electron at P and undergoes Compton scattering at an angle
26
α to the x direction and the electron recoils though an angle φ as shown in the
following figure. Let λ
’
be the wavelength of the scattered photon [according to
Compton scattering there will be a change in the wave length of the scattered photon as
it transfers part of its energy to the free electron]
Fig. γ ray microscope
For the angle α < (90θ ) and also for α > (90+θ ) the electron will not be seen
at all as it cannot enter the microscope. The scattered photon can enter the microscope
anywhere between PA and PB.
If the electron is scattered along PA
The xcomponent of momentum of the scattered photon = ( h/ λ’) cos α
= ( h/ λ’) cos ( 90θ)
= ( h/ λ’) sin θ
The change in the momentum of the photon = ( h/ λ)  ( h/ λ’) sin θ           (1)
The change in the momentum of the photon is equal to the gain in the momentum of the
electron and it is also the momentum of the electron because its initial momentum is
zero.
The momentum of the electron = ( h/ λ)  ( h/ λ’) sin θ           (2)
If the electron is scattered along PB
The xcomponent of momentum of the scattered photon = ( h/ λ’)cos ( 90+θ)
= ( h/ λ’) sin θ
The change in the momentum of the photon = ( h/ λ) + ( h/ λ’) sin θ    
(3)
The change in the momentum of the photon is equal to the gain in the
momentum of the electron and it is also the momentum of the electron because its
initial momentum is zero.
27
As the scattered photon can enter the microscope anywhere between PA
and PB there is an uncertainty in the momentum of the electron is given by (∆P
x
)
max
Maximum uncertainty in locating the position of the electron
(∆P
x
)
max
= [( h/ λ) + ( h/ λ’) sin θ] – [( h/ λ) – ( h/ λ’) sin θ]
(∆P
x
)
max
= 2h/ λ’ sin θ                              (4).
6
For the photon to be seen by the microscope, there should be a Compton
scattering of the photon and the recoil of the electron. Thus there is a change in the
position of the electron. The smallest distance between any two points that can be
resolved by a microscope is called the limit of resolution and it is equal to λ’/2sin θ
∴
The minimum uncertainty in the position of the electron = (∆x)
min
= λ’/2sin θ.     
(5).
From the equations (4) band (5) we have
∆P
x .
∆x ≈ λ’/2sin θ. 2h/ λ’ sin θ∆x ≈h
∴
∆P
x .
∆x ≈h
As h> h/4π, the above equation is in accordance with the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty
principle ∆P
x .
∆x ≥ h/4π.
Schrödinger’s Wave Equation
In1926 Schrödinger starting with deBroglie equation (λ = h/mv ) developed it into an
important mathematical theory called Wave mechanic which found a remarkable success in
explaining the behaviour of atomic system and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation
and other particles. In water waves, the quantity that varies periodically is the height of water
surface. In sound waves it is pressure. In light waves, electric and magnetic fields vary. The
quantity whose variation gives matter waves is called wave function (ψ). The value of wave
function associated with a moving body at a particular point x in space at a time t is related to
the likelihood of finding the body there at a time. A wave function ψ(x,t) that describes a
particle of entirely un known position moving in a positive xdirection with precisely known
momentum and kinetic energy may assume any one of the following forms:
Sin( wt kx) , cos( wt kx), e
i(wt – kx)
, e
i(wt – kx)
, e
iwt
, e
i kx
or some linear combination of them.
Schrödinger wave equation is the wave equation of which the wave functions are the
solutions. It cannot be derived from any basic principles. It is an equation arrived at, consistent
with previous theoretical and experimental results and is able to predict new verifiable results.
28
Time independent, one dimensional Schrödinger wave equation.
In many situations the potential energy of the particle does not depend on time
explicitly; the force that acts on it, and hence the potential energy vary with the position of the
particle only. The Schrödinger wave equation for such a particle is time independent wave
equation. Let ψ(x,t) be the wave function of the matter wave associate with a particle of mass m
moving with a velocity v. The differential equation of the wave motion is as follows.
) 1 .( ..........
1
2
2
2 2
2
t v x ∂
∂
·
∂
∂ ψ ψ
The solution of the Eq.(1) as a periodic displacement of time t is
ψ(x,t) =ψ
0
(x) e
iwt
…..(2)
Where ψ
0
(x) is amplitude of the matter wave.
Differentiating Eq.2 partially twice w.r.t. to t, we get
ω
ψ
i
t
− ·
∂
∂
ψ
0
(x) e
iwt
2 2
2
2
ω
ψ
i
t
·
∂
∂
ψ
0
(x) e
iwt
2
2
2
ω
ψ
− ·
∂
∂
t
ψ
0
(x) e
iwt
·
∂
∂
2
2
t
ψ 
2
ω
ψ …….(3)
Substituing Eq.3 in Eq.1 ψ
ω ψ
2
2
2
2
v dx
d
− · ……………………..(4)
We have
2
2
2
2
2
2
4 2
λ
π
λ
π ω
·
,
_
¸
¸
· · k
v
Substituting this in Eq4, we get
∴
) 5 .( ..........
4
2
2
2
2
ψ
λ
π ψ
− ·
∂
∂
x
) 6 .( .......... 0
4
2
2
2
2
· +
∂
∂
ψ
λ
π ψ
x
Substituting the wavelength of the matter waves λ=h/mv in Eq.6 we get
) 7 .( .......... 0 4
2
2 2
2
2
2
· +
∂
∂
ψ π
ψ
h
v m
x
29
If E and V are the total and potential energies of the particle respectively then
The kinetic energy of the particle
V E mv E − · ·
2
2
1
) ( 2
2 2
V E m v m − · ∴
Substituting this in Eq.7, we get ) 8 .( .......... 0 ) (
8
2
2
2
2
· − +
∂
∂
ψ
π ψ
V E
h
m
x
This is the Schrödinger time independent, one dimensional wave equation.
Physical significance of the wave function
The wave function ψ(x,t) is the solution of Schrödinger wave equation. It gives a quantum
mechanically complete description of the behaviour of a moving particle. The wave function ψ
cannot be measured directly by any physical experiment. However, for a given ψ, knowledge
of usual dynamic variables, such as position, momentum, kinetic energy etc.,of the particle are
obtained by performing suitable mathematical operations on it.
The most important property of ψ is that it gives a measure of the probability of finding a
particle at a particular position. In general ψ is a complex quantity whereas the probability must
be real and positive. Therefore a terrm called probability density is defined. The probability
P(x.t) density is a product of the wave function ψ and its complex conjugate ψ
*
.
· · ∴
*
) . ( ψψ t x P
2
) , ( t x ψ
ψ is also called the probability amplitude.
Normalization of wave function.
30
If ψ is a wave function associated with a particle then τ ψ d
2
is the probability of
finding the particle in a small volume dτ . If it is certain that the particle is present in a volume
τ then the total probability in the volume τ is unity i.e
∫
·
τ
τ ψ 1
2
d
. This is the normalization
condition and the wave function ψ is called normalization condition.
In one dimension the normalization condition is
∫
·
x
dx 1
2
ψ
Note: When the particle is bound to a limited region the probability of finding the particle at
infinity is zero i.e ., ∞ · at x
*
ψψ is zero.
Properties of wave function:
The wave function ψ should satisfy the following properties to describe the characteristics of
matter waves.
1. ψ must be a solution of Schrödinger wave equation
2. The wave function ψ should be continuous and single valued everywhere. Because it is
related to the probability of finding a particle at a given position at a given time, which
will have only one value.
3. First derivative of ψ with respect to its variables should be continuous and single
valued everywhere, because ψ is finite.
4. Ψ must be normalized so that ψ must go to 0 as x t ∞ → , so that
τ ψ d
∫
2
over all the
space be a finite constant.
Eigen functions and Eigen values
The Schrödinger wave equation is a second order differential equation, it will have many
mathematically possible solutions (ψ). All mathematically possible solutions are not physically
acceptable solutions. The physically acceptable solutions are called well behaved functions or
Eigen functions (ψ). To an acceptable wave function ψ, it has to satisfy the following criteria.
1. ψ is single valued
2. ψ and its first derivative with respect to its variable are continuous everywhere.
3. ψ is finite everywhere
31
V= V
Eigen functions: Once the Eigen functions are known, they can be used in Schrödinger wave
equation to evaluate the physically measurable quantities like energy, momentum etc., these
values are called Eigen values. In an operator equation
λψ ψ ·
^
a
where
^
a
is an operator
for the physical quantity and ψ is an Eigen function and λ is the Eigen value.
32
V= V
Applications of Schrodinger’s wave equation
1. For a Particle a in onedimensional potential well of infinite depth.
(or Particle in a box)
Consider a particle of mass ‘m’ moving freely in
x direction in the region from x=0 to x=a. Outside this region potential
energy ‘V’ is infinity and within this region V=0.
Outside the box Schrodinger’s wave equation is
( ) ) 1 ..( .......... 0
8
2
2
2
2
· Ψ ∞ − +
∂
Ψ ∂
E
h
m
x
π
This equation holds good only if ψ =0 for all points outside the box i.e., 0
2
· Ψ , which means
that the particle cannot be found at all outside the box.
Inside the box v=o, hence the Schrodinger’s equation is given by,
) 2 ....( .......... 0
0
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
· Ψ +
∂
Ψ ∂
· Ψ +
∂
Ψ ∂
k
x
E
h
m
x
π
where, ) 3 ..( ..........
8
2
2
2
h
E m
k
π
·
Discussion of the solution
The solution of the above equation is given by
) 4 ( .......... sin cos kx B kx A + · Ψ
where A & B are constants which depending on the boundary conditions of the well.
Now apply boundary conditions for this,
Condition: I at x =0, ψ = 0.
Substituting the condition I In the equation 4, we get A =0and B≠ 0.
(If b is also zero for all values of x, ψ is zero . This means that the particle is not present in the
well.)
Now the equation 3 can be written as
) 5 ( .......... sin kx B · Ψ
Condition: II : at x =a, ψ = 0
Substituting the condition II in equation 5 we get
0= B sin(ka)
2
2 2
2
0 sin
, 0 Since
a
n
k
a
n
k
n ka
ka
B
π
π
π
·
·
· ∴
·
≠
where, n = 1,2,3…………….
Substitute the value of k
2
in equation (3).
33
x=0 x=a
V= V
V=0
x
) 6 ......( ..........
8
8
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
ma
h n
E
a
n
h
E m
·
·
π π
The equation 6 gives energy values or Eigen value of the particle in the well. When n=0, ψ
n
=
0. This means to say that the electron is not present inside the box, which is not true. Hence the
lowest value of ‘n’ is 1.
∴ The lowest energy corresponds to ‘n’ =1 is called the zeropoint energy or Ground state
energy.
2
2
int
8ma
h
E
po zero
·
−
All the states of n>1 are called excited states.
To evaluate B in equation (3), one has to perform normalization of wave function.
Normalization of wave function:
Consider the equation, x kx B
a
n
Bsin sin
π
ψ · ·
The integral of the wave function over the entire space in the box must be equal to unity
because there is only one particle within the box, the probability of finding the particle is 1.
∫
· Ψ
a
dx
0
2
1
1 sin 2
2
0
2
2
·
∫
xdx
a
n B
a
π
But ( ) θ θ 2 cos 1
2
1
sin
2
− ·
a
B
a B
n
n
a
a
B
a
x n
n
a
x
B
dx
a
x n
dx
B
dx
a
x n B
a
a a
a
2
1
2
1 0 2 sin
2 2
1
2
sin
2 2
1
2
cos
2
` 1
2
cos 1
2
2
2
0
2
0 0
2
0
2
· ∴
· ∴
·
1
]
1
¸
− −
·
1
]
1
¸
,
_
¸
¸
−
·
1
]
1
¸
−
·
,
_
¸
¸
−
∫ ∫
∫
π
π
π
π
π
π
Thus the normalized wave function of a particle in a onedimensional box is given by,
34 3
x
a
n
a
n
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
π
sin
2
where n=1,2,3……………
This equation gives the Eigen functions of the particle in the box. The Eigen values are as
follows.
x
a a
x
a a
x
a a
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
π
π
π
3
sin
2
2
sin
2
sin
2
3
2
1
Since the particle in a box is a quantum mechanical problem we need to evaluate the most
probable location of the particle in a box and its energies at different permitted state.
Let us consider first three cases
Case (1) n=1.
This is the ground stat and the particle is normally found in this state.
For n=1, the Eigen function is
x
a a
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
π
sin
2
1
In the above equation Ψ =0 for both x=0 & x=a. but Ψ
1
has maximum value 2/a for x=a/2.
a a
a
a a
2
and
2
2
sin
2
2
1 1
· ·
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ ψ
π
Ψ
1
A plot of
2
1
Ψ the probability density versus ‘x’ is as shown. From the figure, it indicates the
probability of finding the particle at different locations inside the box.
∴
2
1
Ψ =0 at x = 0 and x = a also
2
1
Ψ is maximum 2/a at x = (a/2).
This means, in the ground state the particle cannot be found at the walls of the box and the
probability of finding the particle is maximum at the central region. The Energy in the ground
state
2
2
1
8ma
h
E · .
Case 2 : n =2
35
1
x=0 x=a/2 x=a
x=0 x=a/2 x=a
2
1
ΨΨ
This is the first excited state. The Eigen function for this state is given by
x
a a
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
π 2
sin
2
2
now, Ψ
2
=0 for the values
a
a
x and
2
, 0 ·
and Ψ
2
reaches maximum
a
2
at
4
3
,
4
a a
x ·
these facts are seen in the following plot.
From the figure it can be seen that 0
2
2
· Ψ at x = 0, a a , 2 and a / 2
2
2
· Ψ at at
4
3
,
4
a a
x ·
It means that in the first excited state the particle cannot be observed either at
the walls or at the center.
The energy is
1 2
4E E · .
Thus the energy in the first excited state is 4 times the zero point energy.
Case 3: n =3.
This is the second excited state and the Eigen function for this state is given by
x
a a
,
_
¸
¸
· Ψ
π 3
sin
2
3
now, Ψ
3
=0 for the values
a
a a
x ,
3
2
,
3
, 0 ·
and Ψ
2
reaches maximum
a
2
at
6
5
,
2
,
6
a a a
x ·
2
3
Ψ =0 for the values
a
a a
x ,
3
2
,
3
, 0 ·
and
2
3
Ψ reaches maximum 2/a at
6
5
,
2
,
6
a a a
x ·
at which the particle is most likely to be
found.
The energy corresponds to second excited state is given by
1 3
9E E ·
.
36
0 · x
2
a a
4
aa
2
2
Ψ
Ψ
3
0 · x
a x ·
0 · x
a x ·
2
3
Ψ
0 · x
2
a a
4
a
4
3a
Ψ
2
UNIT 3. LASER AND OPTICAL FIBERS.
LASERS
LASER is the acronym of Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of radiation.
Characteristics of Laser beam
Directionality: The design of the resonant cavity, especially the orientation of the mirrors to
the cavity axis ensures that laser output is limited to only a specific direction.
Monochromaticity: The laser beam is characterized by a high degree of monochromaticity
(single wavelength or frequency) than any other conventional monochromatic source of
light .the bandwidth (∆λ) of the laser beam is narrow, while ordinary light spreads over a
wide range of wavelength.
Coherence: The degree of coherence of a laser beam is very high than the other sources. The
light from laser source consists of wave trains that are in identical in phase. Further it can be
focused to a very small area 0.7µm
2
.
High Intensity: The laser beam is highly intense. When laser beam is incident on a square
meter of surface, the energy incident is of the order of millions of joules.
Focus ability: since laser is highly monochromatic, it can be focused very well by a lens. Yet
it is so sharp the diameter of the spot will be close to the wavelength of the focused light.
Since even laser is not ideally monochromatic the spot diameter in actual cases will be 100 to
150 times larger than the wavelength.
Basic principles:
Radiation interacts with matter under appropriate conditions .The interaction leads to an
abrupt transition of the quantum system such as an Atom or a molecule from one energy
state to another. If the transition is from a higher state to a lower one, the system gives out
a part of its energy and if the transition is in the reverse direction, then it absorbs the
incident energy.There are three possible ways through which interaction of radiation and
matter can take place, They are
Induced absorption:
Induced absorption is the absorption of an incident photon by a system as a result of which
the system is elevated from a lower energy state to a higher energy state, where in the
difference in energy of two states is precisely the energy of the photon.
The rate of induced absorption per unit volume is proportional to the number of atoms in
the ground state and to the energy density of the incident photon.
Rate of induced absorption = B
12
UνN
1
E
2
Incident photon
E
1
The process can be represented as,
Atom +Photon Atom *.
37
Spontaneous Emission:
Spontaneous emission is the emission of a photon, when a system transits from higher
Energy State to lower Energy State without the aid of any external agency after a time of
10
9
s.
Emitted photon
A photon of energy equal to the difference in the energy of the two states is released i.e., The
energy of the emitted photon is E
2
 E
1
.The rate of spontaneous emission per unit volume is
proportional to the number of atoms in the excited state.
Rate of spontaneous emission = A
12
N
2
The process can be represented as,
Atom * Atom + photon
Stimulated Emission:
Stimulated Emission is emission of a photon by a system, under the influence of an incident
photon of just the right energy that is equal to the energy difference of the two levels due to
which the system transits from a higher energy state to lower Energy State. The photon emitted
is called the stimulated photon and will have same phase, energy and direction of movement as
that of the incident photon called stimulating photon
E
2
Stimulated Photon
Incident photon
E
1
The rate of induced emission per unit volume is proportional to the number of atoms in the
excited state and to the energy density of the incident photon.
Rate of induced absorption = B
21
UνN
2
The process can be represented as:
Atom * + photon Atom + (photon + photon)
This is the kind of emission, which is responsible for laser action.
To achieve higher probability of stimulated emission we make use of the Phenomenon
population inversion.Suppose we have two energy level system E
1
& E
2
and say the number of
atoms in E
1
is N
1
and number of atoms in E
2
is N
2
.At any given temperature, under thermal
equilibrium conditions Boltzmann relation gives the distribution of atoms in different energy
states.
kT
h
2
1
kT
h
1
kT
E E
1 2
e
N
N
e N e N N
1 2
γ
γ
−
,
_
¸
¸ −
−
· ∴
· ·
38
E
2
E
1
E
1
E
3
E
2
Under normal conditions, the number of atoms in the higher energy state is less than the
number of atoms in the lower energy state that is N
2
<N
1
, As long as( N
2
<N
1
)the absorption
dominates stimulated emission and the medium will absorb light rather than amplify it.
In order to achieve higher probability of stimulated emission two conditions has to be
satisfied.
a) To obtain a good lasing action, the ratio of stimulated emission to absorption must be higher
than unity.
1 12
2 21
1 12
2 21
N B
N B
U N B
U N B
Absorption Stimulated
Emission stimulated
· ·
ν
ν
The relation indicates that stimulated emission will be larger than absorption only when
N
2
>N
1.
The establishment of a situation in which the number of atoms in the higher energy level
must be greater than that in the lower energy level state is called population inversion(N
2
>N
1
).
b) Under equilibrium condition, the ratio of stimulated emissions to spontaneous emission is
very small. The ratio is
21
21
2 21
2 21
tan A
U B
N A
U N B
Emission eous Spon
Emission Stimulated
ν ν
· ·
In order to increase stimulated emission it is essential that N
2
>N
1.
Even if the population is
more in the excited state, there will be a competition between stimulated and spontaneous
emission. With metastable states ( the atom resides in that level for an unusually longer
time, which is of the order of 10
3
to 10
2
s)the probability of spontaneous can be reduced.
The above relation indicates that it is possible to have a higher stimulated emission than
spontaneous emission, when photon energy density is high.
Three energy level system:
Consider three energy levels E
1
, E
2
and E
3
of a quantum system of which the level E
2
is
metastable state. Let the atoms be excited from E
1
to E
3
state by supply of appropriate
energy. And then the atom from the E
3
state undergoes downward transition to either E
1
or E
2
states rapidly. Once the atoms undergo downward transitions to level E
2
they tend to stay,
for a long interval of time, because of which the population of E
2
increases rapidly.
Transition from E
2
to E
1
being very slow, in a short period of time the number of atoms in
the level E
2
is far greater than the level E
1
. Thus when E
2
and E
1
are compared the number of
atoms in the former is greater than the number of atoms in later. Population inversion has
been achieved. The transition from metastable state to ground state is the lasing transition.
Metastable state
lasing transition
Requisites of a laser system:
• An active medium is needed which is able to produce laser light.
39
Nonradiative
transition
• An active medium that supports population inversion.
• A pumping mechanism is needed to excite the atoms to higher energy levels
• An optical resonator.
Active medium: A medium in which light gets amplified is called an active medium. The
medium may be solid, liquid or gas. In an active medium, only small fractions of atoms of
particular species are responsible for stimulated emission and consequent light amplification
these atoms are called active centers.
Optical pumping: For realizing and maintaining the condition of population inversion, the
atoms has to be raised continuously to the excited state .It requires energy to be supplied to the
system. The process by which atoms are raised from the lower level to upper one is called the
pumping process.
There are number of techniques for excitation, are used in laser devices they are optical
pumping, electrical pumping, chemical pumping…etc.
Optical resonator:
• An optical resonator generally consists of two plane mirrors, with the active material
placed in between them. One of the mirrors is semitransparent while the other one is
100% reflecting. The mirrors are set normal to the optic axis of material.
• The optical resonant cavity provides the selectivity of photon states by confining the
possible direction of photon propagation .as a result lasing action occurs in this
direction.
• The distance between the mirrors is an important parameter as it chooses the
wavelength of the photons. Suppose a photon is traveling from the direction X to Y.it
undergoes reflection at the mirror kept at the other end .the reflected wave superposes
on the incident wave and forms stationary wave pattern whose wavelength is given by
λ = 2L/n
Where L is the distance between the mirrors.
λ is the wavelength of the photon.
n is the integral multiple of half wavelength
Einstein's Coefficients
Consider two atomic states of energies E
1
and E
2
of a system. Let N
1
be the number of atoms in
the lower energy state E
1
, and N
2
be the number of atoms in the higher energy state E
2
per unit
volume of the system. Let radiation with a spectrum of frequencies be incident upon the system
.let Uγ dγ is the energy density incident/unit volume of the system. According to Albert
Einstein, atomic transitions can be of three types. They are
1.Induced or stimulated absorption: In this process atom in the lower state E
1
absorbs photon
and get excited to higher state E
2
.The number of such absorptions per unit time, per unit
volume is called rate of absorption.
The rate of absorption is proportional to,
40
100%
Reflecting mirror
Semi transparent
mirror
Active medium
(a) The number density of lower energy state, i.e., N
1
, and,
(b) The energy density i.e., Uγ
∴
Rate of absorption = B
12
N
1
Uγ (1)
Where B
12
is the constant of proportionality called Einstein’s coefficient of induced
absorption
2.Spontaneous emission: In this process atom in the higher energy state E
2
suffer spontaneous
transition to the lower energy state E
1
by emitting the radiation without the aid of any external
agency .The emitted radiation is called spontaneous radiation and the phenomenon is called
spontaneous emission .The number of such spontaneous emissions per unit time, per unit
volume is called rate of spontaneous emission.
The rate of spontaneous emission is proportional to,
(a) The number density of higher energy state i.e., N
2
∴
Rate of spontaneous emission = A
21
N
2
(2)
Where, A
21
is the constant of proportionality called the Einstein's coefficient of spontaneous
emission.
3.Induced or stimulated emission: In this process an atom in the higher energy state E
2
is
induced by the photon of right amount of energy to make a downward transition to the lower
energy state E
1
.The number of stimulated emission per unit time per unit volume called rate of
stimulated emission
Rate of stimulated emission, is proportional to,
(a) The number density of the higher energy state i.e., N
2
, and
(b)The energy density i.e., Uγ
∴
Rate of stimulated emission = B
21
N
2
Uγ, (3)
Where, B
21
is the constant of proportionality called Einstein’s coefficient of stimulated
emission.
To get a relationship between these coefficients Einstein considered atoms to be in thermal
equilibrium with radiation field, which means that the energy density Uγ is constant in spite of
the interaction that is taking place between itself and the incident radiation. This is possible
only if the number of photons absorbed by the system per sec is equal to the number of photons
it emits by both the stimulated and spontaneous emission processes.
At thermal equilibrium,
Rate of absorption = Rate of spontaneous emission + Rate of stimulated emission
B
12
N
1
Uγ = A
21
N
2
+ B
21
N
2
Uγ
Or Uγ (B
12
N
1
– B
21
N
2
) = A
21
N
2
Or
2 21 1 12
2 21
N B N B
N A
U
−
· γ
By rearranging the above equation, we get
41
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
−
· γ
1
N B
N B
1
B
A
U
2 21
1 12
21
21
(4)
But, by Boltzmann's law, we have,
kT
h
2
1
kT
h
1
kT
E E
1 2
e
N
N
e N e N N
1 2
γ
γ
−
,
_
¸
¸ −
−
· ∴
· ·
∴
Equation (4) becomes,
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
¸
· γ
−
γ
1
kT
h
21
12
21
21
e
B
B
1
B
A
U
(5)
According to Planck's law, the equation for U
γ
is,
1
1
]
1
¸
γ π
· γ
−
γ
1
kT
h 3
3
e
1
c
h 8
U (6)
Now comparing the equation (5) and (6), term by term on the basis of positional
identity, we have,
3
3
21
21
c
h 8
B
A γ π
·
And,
1
B
B
21
12
·
Or
21 12
B B ·
Which implies that the probability of induced absorption is equal to the probability of
stimulated emission. Because of the above identity, the subscripts could be dropped,
and A
21
and B
21
can be simply represented as A and B and equation (6) can be rewritten.
∴
At thermal equilibrium the equation for energy density is
1
1
]
1
¸
· γ
−
γ
1
kT
h
e B
A
U
SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE LASER
42
P type
Semiconductor diode laser is a specially fabricated pn junction device that emits coherent light
when it is forward biased. Semiconductor lasers are the smallest (compact) and least expensive
of all the lasers available. Pumping is due to current flowing in the device, makes the
semiconductor laser the topmost in efficiency among all the laser devices. Egs,. GaAs, CdSe,
all direct band gap semiconductors. In the case of silicon and germanium the energy is released
in the form of heat. Hence these materials are not suitable for fabricating laser.
In the case of direct band gap semiconductors the band gap energy due to the electronhole
recombination released in the form of photon of light Therefore they are suitable for making
lasers.
Construction:
Laser beam
• The gallium arsenide laser diode is a single crystal of GaAs, and consists of a heavily
doped n and p sections. n section is derived by doping GaAs with tellurium and the p
section is derived by doping GaAs with Zinc. The doping concentration is very high and is
of the order of 10
17
10
19
dopants atoms /cm
3
.
• The diode is extremely small with each of its size of the order 1mm.
• The pn junction layer forms the active region. The junction layer (active region) has a
width varying from 1μm to 100μm depending upon the diffusion and temperature
conditions at the time of fabrication.
• The resonant cavity is required for energy amplification ,is obtained by cleaving the front
and back faces of the semiconducting material
• The junction lies in a horizontal plane through the center, the top and bottom faces are
metallized and ohmic contacts are provided to pass current through the diode.
• The front and rear faces are polished or cleaved at right angle to the junction layer, these
planes play the role of reflecting mirror.
• The other two faces are roughened to trap light inside the crystal.
43
Cleaved faces
Active region
Working:
• The GaAs laser diode is subjected to a forward bias by using a d.c source as shown in the
figure .At an absolute zero temperature (T=0K) for a semiconductor the conduction band
is completely empty and valance band is completely filled, separated by the energy band
gap(Eg). By the process of doping large number of charge carriers are available at room
temperature due to thermal excitation.
• When pn junction is forward biased with a large current, it raises the electrons from the
valance band to the conduction band, because this is an unstable state within a short
time .the electrons in the conduction band drop to the lowest level in that band. At the
same time, the electrons near the top of the valence band will drop to the lowest
unoccupied levels, leaving behind holes. The lowest level within the conduction band is
with a large concentration of electrons and the top of the valence band is full of holes.
This is the state of population inversion. The narrow region where the state of population
inversion is achieved is called active region.
• At some instant, one of the excited electrons from the conduction band falls back to the
valence band and recombines with a hole, and the energy associated with this
recombination is emitted as a photon of light. This photon as it moves, stimulates the
recombination of another excited electron with a hole and releases another photon.
These two photons are in phase with each other and have the same wavelength, thus
travel together, get reflected at the end face. As they travel back, they stimulate more electron
hole recombination with the release of additional photons of same wavelength coherence in
nature. This beam gets resonated by travelling back and forth, and finally comes out through
the partially reflecting face. As the current increase continuously, more electrons excited to the
conduction band and generate holes in the valance band. This situation maintains population
inversion.
• The stimulated electron hole recombination’s cause emission of coherent radiation of
very narrow bandwidth. Semiconductor diode laser emits light at a wavelength lies in IR
and visible region.
• At low forward current level, the electronhole recombination cause spontaneous
emission of photons and junction acts as an LED.
• These lasers are used in communications laser printers CD players etc.
44
Nd:YAG LASER :
Flash lamp Nd:YAG Rod Ellipsoidal reflector
M1 Trigger
pulse
Capacitor bank
^^^^^
Power supply Resistor
Flash lamp Nd:YAG Rod
Ellipsoidal reflector
CONSTRUCTION:
• Nd:YAG laser is one of the most popular solid state laser. Yittrium aluminiun garnet
Y
3
Al
5
O
12
,commonly called YAG is an optically isotropic crystal.
• Some of the Y
3+
ions in the crystal are replaced by neodymium ions, Nd
3+
. The crystal
atoms do not participate in the lasing action but serve as host lattice in which the active
centers, namely Nd
3+
ions reside.
• It consists of an elliptically cylindrically reflector housing the laser rod along one of its
focus lines and a flash lamp along the other focus line.
• The two ends of the laser rod are polished and silvered and constitute the optical
resonator.
• The light leaving one focus of the ellipse will pass through the other focus after
reflection from the silvered surface of the reflector. Thus the entire radiation is focused
on the laser rod.
45
E
2
E
1
Working:
Energy level diagram
• The pumping of the Nd
3+
ions to upper state is done by a krypton arc lamp.
• The optical pumping with light of wavelength range 5000 to 8000A
⁰
excites ground
state Nd
3+
ions to higher states.
• The metastable state E
3
is the upper laser level and E
2
forms the lower laser level.
• The upper laser level E
3
will be rapidly populated, as the excited Nd
3+
ions quickly
make a downward transition from the upper energy bands.
• The population inversion is achieved between E
3
and E
2
level.
• The laser emission occurs in infrared region at a wavelength 10,600A . ⁰
• Nd:YAG lasers find applications like welding, hole drilling….etc.
46
1.06μm
E
3
Pump Bands
Upper laser level
Lower lasing level
Ground
level
Applications of Lasers
Lasers find applications in various fields such as medicine, material processing,
communications, energy resources, and photography…. Etc.
Laser welding, cutting and drilling
Welding:
the
The laser is focused on to a spot to be welded.
Due to heat generation, the material melts over a tiny area on which beam focussed.
An impurity such as oxides floats upon the surface.
On cooling the material within becomes homogenous solid structure which makes weld
strong
No destruction occurs in the regions around the welded portion
Since it is a contact less process no foreign material comes in contact in to the welded joint.
Since the heataffected zone is small, laser welding is ideal in areas such as
microelectronics.CO
2
lasers are the most popular ones in this particular application.
Cutting:
Oxygen
Laser cutting is generally done assisted by gas blowing.
The combustion of the gas burns the metal thus reducing the laser power requirement for
cutting.
When laser melts the local region the gas blows away the tiny splinters. The blowing action
increases the depth and speed of the cutting process.
47
Laser light
Welding spot
L
a
s
e
r
l
i
g
h
t
The quality of cutting is very high.
Complicated 3D cutting profiles is possible.
There will be no thermal damage and chemical change when cutting is done to regions
around cut area.
Drilling:
Drilling of holes is achieved by subjecting materials to laser pulses of duration 10
4
to 10
3
second.
The intense heat generated over a short duration by the pulses evaporates the material
locally, thus leaving a hole.
NDYAG laser is used to drill holes in metals, where as co
2
is used in both metallic and non
metallic materials.
In conventional methods tools wear out while drilling whereas the problem doesn't exist
with laser setup.
Drilling can be achieved at any angle.
Very fine holes of diameter 0.2 to 0.5mm could be drilled with a laser beam
Very hard materials or brittle materials could be subjected to laser drilling since there is no
mechanical stress with a laser beam.
Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD):
PLD is a new unconventional evaporation technique. It is one of the newer techniques for
depositing thin films, making use of interaction of laser beams with material surfaces.
The PLD process is schematically depicted as shown in the figure
In its configuration a high power laser situated outside the vacuum deposition chamber is
48
focused by means of external lenses onto the target surface, which serves as evaporation
source. Lasers that have been most widely used for PLD center around Nd:YAG laser
(wavelength= 1.064µm) and gas excimer laser.Irrespective of the laser used, absorbed beam
energy is converted into thermal, chemical and mechanical energy, causing electronic
excitation of target atoms and exfoliation of the surface. The evaporants form a plume above
the target consisting of a collection of energetic neutral atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, atom
clusters, micron sized particulates and molten droplets. They are propelled to the substrate
where they condense to form a film.One of the drawbacks of PL technique is that plume is
highly directional which makes it difficult to uniformly deposit films over large substrate areas.
Another drawback is splashing of macroscopic particles during laser induced evaporation.
Splashing of macroscopic particles include rapid expansion of gas trapped beneath target
surface, rough target surface morphology whose mechanically weak projections are prone to
fracturing during pulsed thermal shocks etc. To avoid splashing, a rapidly spinning pinwheel
like shutter between target and substrate is introduced. Slower moving particulates can be
batted back, allowing more mobile atoms, ions and molecules to penetrate this mechanical
mass filter.
OPTICAL FIBERS.
Construction
Optical fibers are the light guides used in optical communications as waveguides. They are
transparent dielectrics and able to guide visible and infrared light over long distance. They are
made up of two parts. Core the inner cylindrical material made of glass or plastic and the
cladding material the other part which envelops the inner core. The cladding is also made of
similar material but of lesser refractive index. Both the core and the cladding materials are
enclosed in a polyurethane jacket (as shown in fig. 1), which safeguards the fiber against
chemical reaction with surroundings, and also against abrasion and crushing.
Core
Wave guides (propagation mechanism)
A wave guide is a tubular structure through which energy of some sort could be guided in the
form of waves. In OF light waves can be guided through a fiber, it is called light guide.
The guiding mechanism
49
Cladding
Polyurethane jacket
The cladding in an OF always has a lower refractive index (RI) than that of the core. The light
signal which enters into the core can strike the interface of the core and the cladding only at
large angles of incidence because of the ray geometry. The light signal undergoes reflection
after reflection within the fiber core. Since each reflection is a total internal reflection (when
the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, the ray undergoes total internal
reflection), the signal sustains its strength and also confines itself completely within the core
during propagation. Thus, the optical fiber functions as a wave guide.
Numerical Aperture and Ray Propagation in the Fiber
Let us consider the special case of ray which suffers critical incident at the core cladding
interface. The ray, to begin with travels along AO entering into the core at an angle of θ
0
To the fiber axis. Let it be refracted along OB at an angle θ
1
in the core and further proceed to
fall at critical angle of incidence (= 90θ
1
) at B on the interface between core and cladding.
Since it is critical angle of incidence, the refracted ray grazes along BC.
θ
1
B
θ
0
0 Core (n
1
)
A
Cladding (n
2
)
Incident ray
Now it is clear from the figure that any ray enters at an angle of incidence less than θ
0
at O, will
have to be incident at an angle greater than the critical angle at the interface, and gets total
internal reflection in the core material. Let OA is rotated around the fiber axis keeping θ
0
same,
then it describes a conical surface. We can say that it a beam converges at a wide angle into the
core, then those rays which are funneled into the fiber within this cone will only be totally
internally reflected, and thus confined within for propagation. Rest of the rays emerges from
the sides of the fiber.
The angle θ
0
is called the wave guide acceptance angle, or the acceptance cone halfangle, and
sin θ
0
is called the numerical aperture (N.A.) of the fiber. The numerical aperture represents the
lightgathering capability of the optical fiber.
Condition for Propagation:
Let n
0
, n
1
and n
2
be the RI of surrounding medium, core and cladding respectively.
Now, for refraction at the point of entry of the ray AO into the core, by applying the Snell’s law
that,
50
Acceptance
cone
N
1
Sin θ
0
= N
2
Sin
θ
1
1)
At the point B on the interface,
The angle of incidence = 90  θ
1
Again applying Snell’s law, we have,
n
1
sin (90θ
1
) = n
2
sin 90.
Or, n
1
cos θ
1
= n
2
Or, Cos θ
1
= n
2
/n
1
2)
Rewriting Eq (1), we have,
Sine θ
0
= n
1
/n
0
sin θ
1
=
) cos 1 (
1
2
0
1
θ − ·
n
n
Substituting for Cos θ
1
from Eq. (2), we have,
0
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
0
1
0
1
n
n n
n
n
n
n
Sin
−
· − · θ
If the medium surrounding the fiber is air, then n
0
= 1,
Or,
2
2
2
1 0
n n Sin NA − · · θ
If θ
I
is the angle of incidence of an incident ray, then the ray will be able to propagate,
If, θ
I <
θ
0
Or if Sin θ
I
< Sin θ
0
Or, Sin θ
I
< N.A.
Fraction Index Changes (∆):
The fractional index change ∆ is the ratio of the refractive index difference between the core
and the cladding to the refractive index of core of an optical fiber.
Therefore,
∆ =
1
2 1
) (
n
n n −
3)
Relation between N.A. and ∆
From Equ. 3) , (n
1
n
2
) = n
1
∆ 4)
We have,
∆ +
− +
− ·
1 2 1
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1
) (
) )( (
. .
n n n
n n n n
n n A N
Since n
1
~ n
2
, (n
1
+ n
2
) = 2n
1
51
Therefore,
∆ ·
∆ ·
2 . .
2 . .
1
2
1
n A N
n A N
Though an increase in the value of ∆ increase N.A., and thus enhances the light gathering
capacity of the fiver, we cannot increase ∆ to a very large value, since it leads to what is called
“intermodal dispersion” which causes signal distortion.
Types of Optical fibers.
In any optical fiber, the whole material of the cladding has a uniform RI value. But the RI of
the core material may either remain constant or subjected to variation in a particular way. The
curve which represents the variation of RI with respect to the radial distance from the axis of
the fiber is called the refractive index profile.
The optical fibers are classified under 3 categories, namely,
a)Single mode fiber, b) step index multimode fiber and c)graded index multimode fiber.
This classification is done depending on the refractive index profile, and the number of modes
that the fiber can guide.
a) Single Mode fiber (step index)
A single mode fiber has a core material of uniform RI value. Similarly cladding also has a
material of uniform RI but of lesser value. This results in a sudden increase in the value of RI
from cladding to core. Thus its RI profile takes the shape of a step. The diameter value of the
core is about 8 to 10 µm and external diameter of cladding is 60 to 70 µm. Because of its
narrow core, it can guide just a single mode as shown in Fig. 3. Hence it is called single mode
fiber. Single mode fibers are most extensively used ones and they constitute 80% of all the
fibers that are manufactured in the world today. They need lasers as the source of light. Though
less expensive, it is very difficult to splice them. They find particular application in submarine
cable system.
b) Step –index Multimode fiber:
52
60 to 70 µm
8 to 10 µm
Refractive index profile
Ray Propagation
Light ray
Cladding
Core
The geometry of a stepindex multimode fiber is as shown in Fig.4.Its construction is similar to
that of a single mode fiber but for the difference that, its core has a much larger diameter by the
virtue of which it will be able to support propagation of large number of modes as shown in the
figure. Its refractive index profile is also similar to that of a single mode fiber but with a larger
plane regions for the core.
The stepindex multimode fiber can accept either a laser or an LED as source of light. It is the
least expensive of all. Its typical application is in data links which has lower bandwidth
requirements.
c) GradedIndex Multimode Fiber
Graded index multimode fiber is also denoted as GRIN. The geometry of the GRIN multimode
fiber is same as that of step index multimode fiber. Its core material has a special feature that its
refractive index value decreases in the radially outward direction from the axis, and becomes
equal to that of the cladding at the interface. But the RI of the cladding remains uniform. It RI
profile is also shown in Fib.5 Either a laser or LED can be the source for the GRIN multimode
fiber. It is most expensive of all. Its splicing could be done with some difficult. Its typical
application is in the telephone trunk between central offices.
53
100 to 250 µm
50 to 100 µm
RI Profile
Core
Cladding
Fig. 4. Step index multimode fiber
Attenuation in optical fibers
The total power loss offered by the total length of the fiber in the transmission of light is called
attenuation.
The important factors contributing to the attenuation in OF are
1) Absorption loss, ii) Scattering loss iii) Bending loss iv) Intermodal dispersion loss and
v)coupling loss.
The total losses in the fiber are due to the contribution of losses due to absorption, scattering
radiation and coupling. All these losses are wavelength dependent and it can be minimized by
selecting the operating wavelength.
54
Fig. 5a; Graded index multimode fiber
100 to 250 µm
50 to 100 µm
RI Profile
Attenuation in fiber is defined as the ratio of power input and power output. It is denoted by
symbol α. Mathematically attenuation of the fiber is given by,
L
P P X
in out
) / log( 10
· α , dB/km
Where P
out
and P
in
are the power output and power input respectively, and L is the length of the
fiber in km.
1. Absorption loss:
There are two type of absorption, one is Absorption by impurities and the other Intrinsic
absorption. In the case of first type, the type of impurities is generally transition metal ions
such as iron, chromium, cobalt and copper. During signal propagation when photons interact
with these impurities, the electron absorbs the photons and get excited to higher energy level.
Later these electrons give up their absorbed energy either as heat energy or light energy. The
reemission of light energy is of no use since it will usually be in a different wavelength or at
least in different phase with respect to the signal. The other impurity which would cause
significant absorption loss is the OH (Hydroxyl) ion, which enters into the fiber constitution at
the time of fiber fabrication. In the second type i.e., intrinsic absorption, the fiber itself as a
material, has a tendency to absorb light energy however small it may be. Absorption in a fiber
is the absorption that takes place in the material assuming that there are no impurities and the
material is free of all inhomogeneities, and hence it is called intrinsic absorption which sets the
lowest limit on absorption for a given material.
2. Scattering loss:
The power loss occurs due to the scattering of light energy due to the obstructions caused by
imperfections and defects, which are of molecular size, present in the body of the fiber itself.
The scattering of light by the obstructions is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the
wavelength of the light transmitted through the fiber. Such a scattering is called Rayleigh
scattering. The loss due to the scattering can be minimized by using the optical source of large
wavelength.
3. Bending losses
Bending losses occur due to the presence of macro bends and micro bends that are caused
while manufacturing and as well as due to the applied stress on the fiber. At the point of bend
the light will escape to the surrounding medium due to the fact that the angle of incidence at
that point becomes lesser than the critical angle. Hence it will not undergo total internal
reflection. In order to avoid this type of losses, the optical fiber has to be laid straight for long
55
Defects
distances and they should be freed from the external stresses by providing mechanical strength
by external encasements.
4. Coupling losses
Coupling losses occur when the ends of the fibers are connected. At the junction of coupling,
air film may exist or joint may be inclined or may be mismatched and then can be minimized
by following the technique called splicing.
Applications
Optical fibers find their applications in the fields of communication, medicine, industry and
domestic.
1. Communication applications: (P to P communication)
The block diagram of a typical fiber optic communication system is as shown in the figure.
Voice or any information is converted into electrical signals using the coder (photo multiplier)
and is connected to the optical transmitter. The light signals from the optical transmitter are
connected to the photo detector through optical fiber. The electrical signals from the photo
detector are decoded by the decoder to the original state, which may be the voice or
information. In communication electrical signal is converted into optical signal, propagated
through optical fibers and converted back into electrical signal at the other end.
56
Back scattered loss
Bending loss
Micro bend
Macro bend
Optical fibers find very important, applications in communication because of the following
advantages they possess.
a. Transmission loss is low
b. Fiber is lighter and compact than equivalent copper cables.
c. Fibers have large data rate compared to equivalent copper cables
d. There is no interference in the transmission of light from electromagnetic waves
generated by electrical applications.
e. Fibers are free from corrosion effect caused by salt, pollution and radiation. Hence, they
are more reliable.
f. Tapping information from fiber is impossible. Hence, the transmission is more secured.
g. The cost of fiber optic communication system is lower than that of an equivalent cable
communication system..
Optical fibers find few disadvantages in the communication systems. They are:
a. Fiber loss is more at the joints if the joints do not match (the joining of the two ends of
the separate fibers are called splicing)
b. Attenuation loss is large as the length of the fiber increases.
c. Repeaters are required at regular interval of lengths to amplify the weak signal in long
distance communication.
d. Bends will increase the loss of the fiber. Hence, the fiber should be laid straight.
Point to Point haul communication system is employed in telephone trunk lines. This system of
communication covers the distances, 10 km and more. Longhaul communication has been
employed in telephone connection in the large cities of New York and Los Angeles. The use of
57
Coder
Optical
Transmitter
Photo detector
Decoder
Voice or
Any information
Electrical
Signal
Optical fiber
High
propagation
Voice or
Information
Schematic diagram of P to P Communication using Optical Fiber
single mode optical fibers has reduced the cost of installation of telephone lines and
maintenance, and increased the data rate.
Local Area Network (LAN) Communication system uses optical fibers to link the computer
oriented communication within a range of 1 or 2 km
Community Antenna Television (CATV) makes use of optical fibers for distribution of signal
to the local users by receiving a multichannel signal from a common antenna.
2. Medical application
Endoscopes are used in the medical field for image processing and retrieving the image to find
out the damaged part of the internal organs of the human system. It consists of bundle of
optical fibers of large core diameter, whose ends are arranged in the same sequence. Endoscope
is inserted to the inaccessible damaged part of the human system. When light is passed through
the optical bundle, the reflected light received by the optical fibers forms the image of the
inaccessible part on the monitor. Hence, the damage caused at that part can be estimated and
also it can be treated.
3. Industrial
Optical fibers are used in the design of Boroscopes, which re used to inspect the inaccessible
machinery parts. The working principle of boroscope is same as that of endoscopes.
Domestic.
Optical fiber bundles are used to illuminate the interior places where the sunlight has no access
to reach. It can also be used to illuminate the interior of the house with the sunlight or the
incandescent bulb by properly coupling the fiber bundles and the source of light. They are also
used in interior decorating articles.
58
UNIT 4 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, FERRO AND PIEZO ELECTRICS.
A CRYSTAL is a 3D periodic array of atoms or molecules. An ideal CRYSTAL is constructed
by the infinite repetition of identical units in space. In the simplest crystals the structural unit is
a single atom as in Cu, Ag, Au, Fe, Al and alkali metals.
All crystals can be described in terms of a lattice with a group of atoms attached to
every lattice point. This group of atoms is called as motif or basis. Therefore the lattice can be
considered to the skeleton of the crystal structure.
What is a lattice?
It is a periodic 3D array of points in space such that the environment about any point is the
same as the environment about any other point.
What is a motif or basis?
It is an atom or a molecule (simple or complex) or groups of unrelated atoms that is repeated at
every point of the crystal lattice forming the crystal structure.
Hence we sum up by saying that
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE = LATTICE + MOTIF (OR BASIS)
LATTICE MOTIF OR BASIS
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
A lattice is defined by three fundamental translation vectors a, b and c such that the atomic
arrangement looks the same in every respect when viewed from the point r as when viewed
59
from the point r' = r + ua + vb + wc where u, v and w are arbitrary integers. The lattice and the
translational vectors a, b and c are said to be primitive if any two points r and r' from which the
atomic arrangement looks the same always satisfies the relation r' = r + ua + vb + wc with a
suitable choice of integers u, v and w. With this definition of primitive translational vectors
there is no cell of smaller volume that can serve as building block for crystal structure.
The primitive translational vectors are often used to define the crystal axis. However,
nonprimitive crystal vectors are often used when they have a simpler relation to the symmetry
of the structure. The crystal axis a, b and c from the edges of a parallelopiped. If there are
lattice points only at the corners then it is called as a primitive parallelopiped.
A lattice translational operation is defined as the displacement of a crystal by a crystal
translational vector T = ua + vb + wc. Any two lattice points are connected by a vector of this
form.
More than one lattice is always possible for a given crystal structure and once a lattice is
chosen more than one set of axes is always possible. The motif is identified once these choices
have been made.
Unit cell
The unit cell is the basic building block of the crystal lattice. By repeated translation of the
building blocks along the crystal axes, we can construct the entire lattice.
60
The unit cell can be formally defined as " a geometrical structure that forms the smallest
unit of the space lattice that when repeated along the direction of the crystallographic axis
generates the space lattice".
A unit cell can be primitive or non primitive. A primitive cell is one where there are
lattice points only at the corners. A nonprimitive cell is one that has, in addition to the lattice
points at the corners, other lattice points at the center of the cell faces or in the interior.
primitive Nonprimitive
A unit cell is defined by three translational vectors and the angles between them.
There is an unlimited number of possible lattices because there is no natural restriction on the
lengths of the lattice vectors or on the values of the angles between them. However crystal obey
symmetry laws. The lattice to be chosen must adhere to the symmetry of the crystal. This
requires restriction on the relative lengths of the translational vectors and on the angles between
them. When such restrictions are applied then there are only 14 types of space lattices possible
with one being a general lattice and the other 13 special lattices. These 14 space lattices are
called as Bravais lattices.
61
a
b
c
γ
α
β
The crystal systems
Depending on the basic symmetry requirements, crystals can be grouped into the following
systems. For each system the relative lengths and angles have been given.
System Relation between
a, b and c
Relation between α, β
and γ
Examples
CUBIC a = b = c
α =β = γ = 90
NaCl, CaF
2
TETRAGONAL
a = b ≠ c α =β = γ = 90
NiSO
4
, SnO
2
ORTHORHOMBIC
a ≠ b ≠ c α =β = γ = 90
KNO
3
, BaSO
4
HEXAGONAL
a = b ≠ c α =β = 90, γ = 120
SiO
2
, AgI
RHOMBOHEDRAL a = b = c
α =β = γ ≠ 90
CaCO
3
, CaSO
4
MONOCLINIC
a ≠ b ≠ c α = γ = 90, β ≠ 90
FeSO
4
, Na
2
SO
4
TRICLINIC
a ≠ b ≠ c α ≠β ≠ γ ≠ 90
K
2
Cr
2
O
7
, CuSO
4
.5H
2
O
The fourteen Bravais Lattices are distributed among the 7 crystal systems as follows
CUBIC
TETRAGONAL
ORHTHORHOMBIC
HEXAGONAL
62
RHOMBOHEDRAL
MONOCLINIC
TRICLINIC
All the Bravais' lattices follow two golden rules
1. The environment about any point is identical to the environment about any other point
2. The lattice obeys the symmetry laws of the crystal system
Directions and planes in a lattice
Once the lattice for the structure is identified and the axes fixed, the coordinates of
every lattice point is known. Any lattice point can serve as the origin and once the origin is
fixed a direction within the lattice can be identified. Normally a line joining any two lattice
points can represent a direction. This line can be moved parallel to itself until it passes through
the origin and it still represents the same direction. A direction within the lattice is denoted by a
set of three integers, u v and w enclosed within square brackets i.e. [uvw]. To find out the
values of u, v and w of a line consider the following diagram.
c
b
0
a
• The line drawn with the unit cell till it reaches
the boundary of the unit cell represents the
direction
• Treat this line as a vector and find out the
length of its projections along the a, b and c
directions
• Write down the coefficients and convert them
into a set of three smallest integers. These
integers enclosed within square brackets
represent the direction.
• For the line shown, the lengths of the
projections are 0a, ½b and 1c.
63
• The coefficients are 0, ½,1
• The smallest integers are [012]
Equivalent directions
Two nonparallel directions can be related by lattice symmetry. Such directions are called
equivalent directions. For example, (refer to the figure) if the unit cell is given a rotation of π/4
about the axis shown, then
[001]
[010]
[100]
[100] direction will coincide with [010]
direction. A further rotation of π/4 will
make it coincide with the [100]
direction. In this way by making suitable
rotations the directions [100], [010],
[001], [100], [010] and [001] can be
made to be coincident with each other.
These directions are called equivalent
directions and they are represented by
enclosing any member of this family
with angular brackets i.e. <100>.
64
Lattice planes and Miller Indices
Bragg treated the phenomena of diffraction of Xrays from crystals as if Xrays were specularly
reflected from imaginary planes. The atoms of a crystal are supposed to lie on these imaginary
planes. A notation has been developed to represent these planes. The planes are represented by
a set of triple integers known as Miller indices.
Miller Indices
Indexing procedure to find the Miller Indices.
a)Find the intercept and express the intercept it terms of the basis vector a,b and c
OA = ua, OB =vb and OC = wc
b) Divide the intercept by the magnitude of the Basis vector
OA /a = u, OB/b = v and OC /c = W
c)Take the reciprocal of the intercept
1/u 1/v 1/x
d)Simplifying by multiplying the denominator of LCM
(h k l)
(hkl) represents the Miller indices of the required plane ABC
Definition: Miller indices are the reciprocals of the intercept made by the plane on
crystallographic axis when reduced to its three small possible integer (h k l).
Note:
1. (hkl) may represent a single plane or a complete family of planes
2. If a plane is paralle to a given axis then the corresponding Miller index is zero
65
C
B
O
A
Consider a place ABC is intercepting X
axis at A Y axis at B and Z axis at C
Let OA, OB and OC are the intercepts
made by the plane on Crystallographic
axis XY and Z respectively.
3. If the plane cuts the negative axis then the corresponding Miller index is negative and is
written with a bar on top of it.
Some examples of Miller indices
(100)
Z
Y
X
(010)
Z
Y
X
66
(111)
Z
Y
X
(232)
Z
Y
X
(020)
Z
Y
X
Expression for interplanar spacing
67
Interplanar spacing, denoted by d, is the perpendicular distance between two consecutive
planes. The value of d depends on the Miller indices of the plane and on the crystal system.
Consider a set of planes (hkl) in a cubic unit cell.
• Miller indices of the plane (hkl)
• Intercepts on the a, b and caxis are
OA, OB and OC respectively
• ON is the normal from the origin O
to the plane
• The first plane of the member always passes through the origin. Therefore since O lies
on the first plane, the perpendicular from the origin to the plane represents the inter
planar distance, d. Therefore ON = d
• Let the normal ON make angles θ
1
, θ
2
and θ
3
with respect to the a, b and caxes. Then
Cos(θ
1
), Cos(θ
2
) and Cos(θ
3
) represents the direction cosines of the line ON. Direction
cosines satisfy a well known property Cos
2
(θ
1
) + Cos
2
(θ
2
) + Cos
2
(θ
3
) = 1.
• Considering the triangle ONA Cos(θ
1
) = ON/OA. Similarly considering triangles ONB
and ONC we get Cos(θ
2
) = ON/OB and Cos(θ
3
) = ON/OC.
• ON = d
• From the definitions of h, k and l we get OA = a/h, OB = b/k and OC = c/l.
• Substituting for ON, OA, OB and OC we get
1
c
l
b
k
a
h
d
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
·
,
_
¸
¸
+ +
• Since the system is cubic a = b = c
• Therefore
1
a
l k h
d
2
2 2 2
2
·
,
_
¸
¸ + +
2 2 2
l k h
a
d
+ +
·
Introduction to X – ray diffraction:
Diffraction is bending of light across an obstacle whose dimensions are comparable
with the wavelength of light. But in the case of X – rays, their wavelengths are of order of 10

8
cm. An optical grating will be ineffective to cause diffraction of X – rays, since the concerned
dimensions in the grating exceeds that of the X – rays by many orders. But we know that the
dimensions of atoms are of the order of 10
8
cm,and the atoms are distributed perfectly
uniformly in a crystal as a 3 – dimensional array. Both because of atomic dimensions, and
68
Z
N
C
O B Y
A
X
because of the regularity in the arrangement of atoms, a crystal provides an excellent facility to
diffract the X – rays. In this sense, a crystal can be thought of as a 3 – dimensional grating for
X – rays.
Bragg’s Diffraction:
In 1913, Sir William Lawrence Bragg and his son Sir William Henry Bragg, put
forward a different approach for studying X – ray diffraction by crystals. They considered
crystal in terms of planes in which regularity in the distribution of atoms could be identified. It
is possible to identify different families of such planes. The interplanar separation remains
constant for a given family of planes. Each plane family will be inclined at an angle to the
other. The component planes of a plane family are called Bragg planes. Further, the two
scientists Bragg and Bragg, considered an X – ray beam of wavelength λ incident in a direction
at an angle θ to a family of Bragg planes with interplanar spacing d, and showed that
constructive interference takes place between the rays scattered by the atoms in different Bragg
planes when the condition,
nλ = 2 d sinθ
where n is an integer, is obeyed.
The above condition is known as Bragg’s law.
In order to carry out X – ray studies based on Bragg’s law, a single crystal of the given
specimen is mounted such that, the X – ray beam is inclined upon the crystal at an angle θ,
and a detector scans through various angles for the diffracted X – rays. The detector shows
peaks for those angles at which constructive interference occurs.
Bragg’s Law:
The following figure shows a crystal in which the dashed lined indicate atomic planes,
or Bragg planes, and the dots indicate the position of the atoms. Let a monochromatic parallel
beam of X – rays of wavelength λ be incident upon the crystals at an angle θ as shown. The
ray along AB, which is part of the incident beam, is scattered by the atom B in the first plane.
Another ray along DE which is part of the same incident beam is scattered by the atom
E in the next adjacent parallel plane.
Each of the atoms in the crystal, scatters the incident rays in all directions. Among the
rays scattered from B and E, those which are parallel to each other, and have a path difference
of nλ, give rise to constructive interference.
Consider the rays BC and EF, scattered from B and E. Let BP and BQ be drawn
perpendicular to the rays DE and EF respectively.
69
X – ray scattering by crystal
Now, we can say that, up to BP, the path covered is same during incidence. From BQ onwards,
the parallel rays BC and QF will travel keeping step with each other. Hence the excess path δ
traveled by the ray along DEF over that along ABC can be written as,
δ = PE + EQ,
= BE sinθ + BE sinθ,
= 2BE sinθ.
But BE is the interplanar spacing, i.e., the spacing between the atomic planes. Let it be denoted
as d.
δ = 2d sinθ.
Constructive interference takes place if δ = nλ, where n = 1,2,3,…
i.e., if 2d sinθ = nλ.
the above equation is called Bragg’s law, and θ is called glancing angle.
Here the rays AB and DE are incident at an angle θ to the Bragg plane. Also we see
that, the corresponding scattered rays BC and EF undergo constructive interference only when
they are inclined at the same angle θ to the Bragg plane.
Thus in essence, the constructive interference conditions match the law of reflection in
geometrical optics. This happens irrespective of thee wavelength of the X – ray beam. Hence, it
is referred to as Bragg reflection.
70
d
A
C
B
E
P Q
F
D
θ θ
θ θ
Ferroelectric
paraelectric
FERRO AND PIEZO ELECTRICS.
Ferro electricity
Ferro electrics constitute an important group of dielectrics. They are anisotropic crystals which
exhibit spontaneous polarization by acquiring electric displacement below certain temperature.
By analogy with magnetism these materials are called ferroelectrics. The spontaneous
polarization occurs in the ferroelectrics by the action of internal process and without the
influence of an external electric field.
Examples for ferroelectrics are
1. Crystals exhibiting Rochelle salt structure , viz, Rochelle salt (Seignette salt) it is the
Sodium potassium tartaric acid (NaK (C
4
H
4
O
6
) 4H
2
O ).
2. Peroskite group structure consisting mainly of titanates and niobotes . examples for this
crystals are BaTiO
3
(Barium Titanium Oxide)
3. The dihydrogen phosphate and arsenates : examples are KH
2
PO
4
(KDP)
Properties of Ferroelectrics:
1. Anomalous dependence of dielectric constant on temperature:
Usually in ordinary dielectrics, dielectric constant does not change much with temperature. But
in case of ferroelectric crystal, dielectric constant exhibits one or more sharp maxima when
dielectric constant varies with a value of several thousands. The temperature corresponding to
sharp maxima is called curie temperature. It is also defined as the critical temperature at which
it looses its ferroelectric property and enters into paraelectric phase.
The static dielectric constant also changes with temperature T as per the relation
for T>T
c
Where C is a constant, and θ is very close to the curies temperature T
c
.
Above relation is called the CurieWeiss law.
71
ε
r
T
c
T
2. Nonlinear dependence of its polarization on the external electric field:
In ordinary dielectrics, the polarization P varies linearly with dielectric constant. (relation
between P, χ and E). Therefore they are called linear dielectrics. But in case of ferroelectrics
the relation between P and E is complex in nature and they are called as nonlinear dielectrics.
Therefore one can say that dielectric constant is not a constant in case of ferroelectrics but
depends on the applied electric field E.
3. Ferroelectrics exhibit hysteresis:
When a ferroelectric crystal is subjected to an alternating field, the polarization P Vs electric
field E describes a closed loop called the hysteresis loop. The polarization will rise non linearly
and reach saturation at certain value of P
s.
The polarization will not change even if E is
increased. If the field is decreased, the polarization versus E will not follow the same path as
that obtained for increasing E. When the external electric field is switched off the value of P
does not return to zero and ferroelectric retains a residual polarization P
r
. To bring back the
polarization to zero value, a field E
c
known as coercive field must be applied in the opposite
direction.
It is clear that there is a close resemblance between the electric properties of nonlinear
dielectrics and the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. It is why the nonlinear
dielectrics are called ferroelectrics.
Classification of Ferroelectrics.
Depending upon their chemical composition and structure ferroelectrics can be classified as
1. Tartrate group
2. Dihydrogen phosphate and arsenates of alkali metals
3. Oxygen octahedron group
1. Tartrate group
Example is Rochelle salt which is SodiumPotassium salt of tartaric acid (NaK (C
4
H
4
O
6
) 4H
2
O.
They are the first solid known to exhibit ferroelectric properties. The unique properties of these
materials are that they exhibit ferroelectric properties between 18 ºC to +23 ºC only. The graph
of spontaneous polarization Vs temperature shows two curie temperature (transition
temperature).
2. Dihydrogen phosphate and arsenates of alkali metals.
The typical example for this type is KH
2
PO
4
. The spontaneous polarization Vs Temperature
curve of this material shows only one curie temperature at 123 K.
3. Oxygen octahedron group.
72
The best example under this type is BaTiO
3
(Barium Titanium Oxide). It has curie temperature
at 120 ºC, 5 ºC and at 80 ºC.
They exhibit hysteresis below its curie temperature. Above curie temperature BaTiO
3
corresponds to the cubic structure. In cubic structure Ba
2+
ions occupy the corners of cube. The
centre of the cubic face are occupied by O
2
ions. The O
2
ions forms an octahedron structure
and at the centre of which the small Ti
4+
ion is located.
When the temperature is lowered below 120 ºC (i.e., below critical temperature), the material
becomes spontaneously polarized and at the same time its structure changes. The direction of
spontaneous polarization may lie along any of the cube edges giving a total 6 possible direction
for the spontaneous polarization. Along the direction of spontaneous polarization of a given
domain, the material expands, where as perpendicular to the direction of polarization it
contracts. Thus material is no longer cubic but corresponds to tetragonal.
The two more transition temperature of BaTiO
3
are at 5 ºC and 80 ºC, At 5 ºC, the spontaneous
polarization changes its direction from one of the cubic edges to a direction corresponding to a
face diagonal.
At 80 ºC, the spontaneous polarization changes from a direction corresponding to a face
diagonal to one along a body diagonal. The three transition temperature reflects the dielectric
constant and its spontaneous polarization of a material.
Piezo Electricity
The French Physicist Pierre Curie and PaulJean Curie discovered the Piezo electric effect in
the year 1880. Some of the dielectrics, when compressed in a certain direction become
polarized and polarization charges appear on its surface. This polarization of a dielectric as a
result of mechanical deformation is called direct piezoelectric effect. If the crystals are
subjected to tension, the polarity of the polarization charges is reversed. The amount of
polarization charges appearing on the crystal depends on the crystal lattice type and lattice
direction along which the deformation occurs.
The Piezoelectric effect occurs only in such crystal in which the structure does not possess a
centre of symmetry. Crystals that exhibit the piezoelectric effect are called piezoelectrics..
Examples: Ammonium Phosphate, Quartz, PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate). They are also
ferroelectrics.
If the mechanical pressure on the piezoelectric crystal is altered, a varying voltage, which is
related to the applied pressure, is produced by the crystal. The voltage can be as small as a
fraction of a volt or as large as several thousand volts depending on the material and pressure.
This piezoelectric effect is reversible. i.e., if a piezoelectric crystal is placed in an electric field
it will be polarized and deformed. If the direction of the electric field is changed the
deformation sign changes, say from contraction to extension. This mechanical deformation of
dielectrics caused by an external electric field is known as the reverse piezoelectric effect (also
called as electrostriction). If an alternating voltage is applied between the two opposite faces of
the crystal, it vibrates with the frequency of the field.
73
+
+
O
Electric dipoles in a piezoelectric crystal
Crystals with center of symmetry
Consider the crystal lattice such as the one shown below. The lattice ions are located at certain
regular intervals. In the lattice a unit cell is considered.
+  +  +
 +  + 
+  +  +
 +  + 
+  +  +
The unit cell is said to have a center of symmetry at O because from O, if we draw a vector to
any lattice ion, say A (A is a negative ion) and then draw the reverse vector from O, we see that
it meets the same type of lattice ion ( that is the negative ion) at B. Crystals in which such a
symmetry exists in the arrangement of lattice ions are said to have a center of symmetry.
Crystals with No center of symmetry
74
+ + + + + + + + +
+

+

+

+

         

+ + + + + + + + +
+

+

+

+

         

+
+
+



Consider a crystal with hexagonal unit cell. The position of its positive and negative ions could
be identified as shown in figure. In the unit cell we can identify a point O about which
geometrically the unit cell is symmetric. Now from O, let us then draw the reverse vector from
O. The reverse vector meets the opposite type of lattice ion( that is with negative charge) at B.
Such crystals are said to be with no center of symmetry and the unit cell is said to be
noncentrosymmetric. All piezoelectric crystals possess noncentrosymmetric unit cells.
State of polarization when no stress is acting:
We consider a crystal with hexagonal unit cell. The unit cell will be comprising of three
positive and three negative charges that are alternated in a frame with six sides as shown in the
figure. The centre of mass of the negative charges will be at O the centre of the unit cell. But it
coincides with the centre of mass of the positive charge due to the three positive charges.
Hence the dipole moment of the unit cell is zero. Because of this reason there can’t be any net
polarization for the crystal in the free state.
75


O
Development of polarization in piezoelectric crystals:
When pressure is applied on the crystal, it undergoes physical compression following which the
lattice ion shifts their positions. Accordingly the charges in the unit cell will be displaced as
shown in the figure.
The displacement results in the centres of mass of the negative and positive charges being
shifted in opposite directions. Effectively we will be having a pair of closely lying opposite
charges i.e, a dipole created in each unit cell while the crystal is being stressed. Thus the stress
lends a dipole moment for each unit cell. After allowing for the charge neutralization within the
crystal, the whole process results in the appearance of charges on the faces perpendicular to the
direction of stress, thus accounting for polarization of the piezoelectric material.
Mechanism of Piezoelectric effect in Quartz crystal
Natural quartz has the shape of a hexagonal prism with a pyramid attaches to each end.
It has one three fold symmetry axis called optic axis and three two fold axes called the
electrical axis. The line joining the apex point of pyramids is the 3 fold axis.
The three lines which pass through the opposite corners of the crystal constitutes its three x
axes or electrical axes. Similarly the 3 lines which are perpendicular to the sides of the
hexagonal form the 3y axis which are known as mechanical axes. Thin plates of quartz crystal
cut perpendicular to one of its xaxis are known as xcut plates. Similarly, thin plates of the
crystal cut perpendicular to one of its yaxis are known as ycut plates.
Let us consider X cut crystal plane. Let its thickness be t and length l (along optic axis). If an
alternating voltage is applied to metal electrodes fixed to opposite faces of the crystal plate,
alternating stress and strain are set up both in its thickness and length. The frequency of the
thickness vibrations is given by
2
1
2
1
]
1
¸
·
ρ
Y
t
m
f
76
+
+
+




+
And the frequency of the length vibrations is given by
2
1
2
1
]
1
¸
·
ρ
Y
l
m
f
Where m=1,2,3, ….etc., stand for fundamental, first overtone, second overtone…respectively.
Y is Young’s modulus along the appropriate direction and rho is the density of the crystal plate.
Applications of Piezoelectric materials in Smart structures:
Smart structure is considered as a system of inputoutput functions comprising of many
components performing sensing, actuating and information processing.
Smart structure is defined as one that can sense a change in its environment and respond back
in a useful or controlled fashion.
Components /parts of smart structure:
Input
a) Sensor: It receives the information from the external environment. These are
functional materials that sense the intensity of stimulus due to the applied stress, strain,
electrical, thermal, optical or other phenomenon. These can be embedded into the
structure itself or bonded externally to the structure.
Material used for the design of sensors are Piezoelectric crystals. It acts as sensor by
developing an electric potential when it is mechanically stressed across its faces.
Examples are quartz, lead zirconate titanate (PZT), barium titanate, polyvinylidene
fluoride(PVDF) etc.
b) Control unit: This is the important part of a smart structure, which acts like brain. Its
function is to receive the sensed information from the sensor, to process it and give
suitable control command to the actuator to perform as per the requirement of the
system. These are mostly microprocessors and using automatic control functions and
signal processing to instruct the actuators.
77
c) Actuators: This is the performing part of the smart structure, which responds to the
sensed input. It receives information/control action from the control unit and actuates to
control the required performance of the structure.
Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators as they undergo mechanical deformation
when an electric field is applied. Example
Applications of Piezoelectric materials:
Piezoelectric materials find extensive use in electronics industry. Their main use is in
frequency control of oscillators. A piezoelectric crystal is placed between the plates of a
capacitor of a circuit whose frequency is same as the natural frequency of mechanical vibration
of the crystal. The circuit acts as tuned circuit of very high Qvalue, and possesses excellent
frequency stability. They are also used as electroacoustic tranducers (to convert electrical
enery into mechanical and viceversa). The transducer action in employed in producing
ultrasonics which find use in SONAR (sound navigation and ranging), nondestructing testing of
materials, MEMS.
Lead Zirconate titanate is used in accelerometers, earphones, gas lighters.
78
UNIT 5. PHYSICS OF THIN FILMS.
PHYSICS OF THIN FILMS
GENERAL INTRODUCTION:
The study of deposition of thin films has made a tremendous impact on the level of
technology we utilize in our daily lives. Thin film coatings provide enhanced optical
performance on items ranging from camera lenses to sunglasses. Architectural glass is
often coated to reduce the heat load in large office buildings, and provide significant
cost savings by reducing air conditioning requirements.
Many of the components of plumbing fixtures used in jewelry industry to decorate
jewels are manufactured by depositing thin films of chromium onto injection molded
plastic parts. The useful life of tool bits has also been increased by the application of
thin films that are chemical compounds. Steel cutting tools used in lathes and mills are
often coated with the chemical compound titanium nitride to reduce wear of the cutting
edges
The deposition of thin films composed of chemical compounds may be performed in
several ways. Codeposition is a technique in which vapors of two different materials
are generated simultaneously. These two vapors condense together, forming an alloy or
compound. Other techniques for deposition of compounds include thermal evaporation
of the compound (as is performed for salt coatings), sputtering of the compound, and
reactive sputtering or evaporation. In the reactive processes, atoms of the evaporant
(typically a metal) chemically react with gas species which are intentionally injected
into the process chamber. Each of these processes will be described in detail.
HISTORY OF THIN FILM AND ITS DEPOSTION TECHNIQUE
Early references to the science of thin film deposition include the research conducted by
Michael Faraday in 1857. In his series of experiments, Faraday created thin metallic
films by exploding metal wires in a vacuum vessel. Historically, the techniques for thin
film deposition have evolved in approximately in the following order starting from
thermally induced evaporation (by electrical resistance heating, induction heating, and
electron beam heating), followed by sputtering (diode, triode, magnetron, ion beam), arc
processes, and the most recently, laser ablation techniques.
The deposition of thin film (physical vacuum depositoninPVD) ivolves three steps viz.,
1) creation of an evaporant from the source material 2) transport of the evaporant from
the source to the substrate (item to be coated) and 3) condensation of the evaporant onto
the substrate to form the thin film deposit. The thin film deposition process demands
high vacuum condition. There are two reasons why this process is best conducted under
vacuum: 1). the process of evaporation involves significant amounts of heat, if oxygen
were present, any reactive metal would form oxides; and 2). collisions with gas
79
molecules during the transport of evaporant from source to substrate would reduce the
net deposition rate significantly, and would also prevent growth of dense films.
When an evaporated material arrived at the surface of the substrate, evaporated material
condenses on the substrate in a complex sequence of events that determine many of the
physical properties of the deposited film. The steps in the growth of thin films are
generally referred to as nucleation and growth. In nucleation, the atoms and molecules
which are arriving (called ad atoms) at the surface lose thermal energy to the surface,
and the surface absorbs that energy. Depending on the amount of thermal energy the ad
atoms and the surface have, the ad atoms move about on the surface until they lose the
thermal energy required to move about the surface (referred to as Adam mobility). As
nuclei continue to form, the film grows into a continuous sheet covering the substrate.
Chemical interactions between the ad atoms and the surface determine the strength of
the bond between the film and substrate.
In the deposition process the strength of the bond between the film and the substrate
place a major role. For example it is very difficult to deposit a thin gold film on a
silicon substrate. This is because Gold does not form a chemical bond with silicon
dioxide, and therefore, the adherence of gold films on glass is very weak. Improvement
of this adhesion may be made by first depositing a thin (500Å thick) "Binder" layer of
chromium or niobium, then depositing the gold over the binder layer. Chromium and
niobium do form chemical bonds with the silicon dioxide in glass, and also form
metallic bonds with the following gold layer. Once a few monolayers of evaporant have
condensed on the substrate, the film continues to grow in thickness as if the entire
substrate were made of the material being deposited. During film growth the
80
Evaporant
Source
Substrate
microstructure of the deposited film will be developed. This microstructure may be
described in terms of grain size, orientation, porosity, impurity content, and entrained
gases. Normally, vacuum deposition processes are selected over other processes
(electrochemical deposition, flame spraying, etc.) to achieve the following desirable
properties:
1) High chemical purity.
2) Good adhesion between the thin film and substrate.
3) Control over mechanical stress in the film.
4) Deposition of very thin layers, and multiple layers of different materials.
5) Low gas entrapment.
For each of the vacuum deposition process, keep in mind the ultimate goal is to provide
a means for depositing a thin film having the required physical and chemical properties.
The parameters one can control to achieve the specified goals are:
1) Kinetic energy of the ad atoms.
2) Substrate temperature.
3) Deposition rate of the thin film.
4) Augmented energy applied to the film during growth.
5) Gas scattering during transport of the evaporant.
By varying these parameters one can generate thin films of a given material that have
different mechanical strength, adhesion, optical reflectivity, electrical resistivity,
magnetic properties and density.
Thermally Induced Evaporation / Thermal evaporation
In this process, heat is input into the source material (often called the charge) to create a
plume of vapor which travels in straightline paths to the substrate. Upon arrival at the
substrate, the atoms, molecules, and clusters of molecules condense from the vapor
phase to form a solid film. The heat of condensation is absorbed by the substrate. On a
microscopic scale the localized heating from this process can be enormous. It is
common, in the development of metal coating techniques for thin crosssection plastic
parts, to melt substrates during the initial deposition runs. With experience, one can
select sourcetosubstrate distances (h) and deposition rates which will allow coating of
temperature sensitive substrates without melting. Following figure shows an illustration
of thermal evaporation technique.
81
There are several methods by which heat can be delivered to the charge to cause
vaporization: electric resistance heating, flash evaporation, arc evaporation, exploding
wire technique, laser evaporation (PLD Laser ablation) and electron beam evaporation.
In this various techniques of thermal evaporation, the major principle is heating the
source/ charge material by various means.
Introduction
Thermal evaporation may be achieved directly or indirectly by a variety of physical
methods.
1. Resistive heating: This method consists of heating the material with a resistively heat
filament or boat, generally made of refractory metals such as W, Mo, Ta and Nb, with
or without ceramic coatings. Crucibles of quartz, graphite, alumina, beryllia, and
ziroconia are used with indicret heating. The choice of the support material/ target
material is primarily determined by the evaporation temperature and resistance to
alloying and /or chemical reaction with the evaporant. With the exception of highly
reactive materials like Si, Al, Co, Fe and Ni, most materials present no problem with
evaporation from suitable supports.
a) Sublimation: If a material has a sufficiently high vapor pressure before melting
occurs, it will sublimate, and the condensed vapors form a film. Since the rates of
sublimation for most materials are small, this method does not find widespread
applications.
2. Flash evaporation: A rapid evaporation of a multicomponent alloy or compound,
which tends to distill fractionally, may be obtained by continuously dropping fine
particles of the material onto a hot surface so that numerous discrete evaporations occur.
Alternatively, a mixture of the components in powder form may be fed into the
evaporator. The arrangement is shown below. Fine powder (100 – 200 mesh) is fed into
a heated Ta or Ir boat by mechanically or ultrasonically agitating the feed chute. This
system has been used for preparing films of III – V group compounds of the periodic
table (Be2, Te3 etc.,) . The Ta boat is held at 1300 to 1400 degree C for III – V
compound, and the substrate is heated to 200 – 550 degree C for obtaining single phase
compounds..
The draw back of this technique is some times the flash evaporated films show
considerable deviation from the original composition. Further, since the large amount of
82
rapidly released gas produces spattering of particles from the evaporant, this method is
not easily controllable.
3. Arc Evaporation: By striking an arc between two electrodes of a conducting material,
sufficiently high temperatures can be generated to evaporate refractory materials such as
Nb and Ta. This method, widely used for evaporation of carbon for electron
microscope specimens, employs a standard dc arcwelding generator connected to the
electrodes with a capacitor across the electrodes. The arc, initiated by bringing the
electrodes together, may last ~ 1/10 sec. Deposition rates ~50 A°/sec or higher can be
obtained for refractory metals, but the process is not easily reproducible.
4. Explodingwire Technique: This technique consists of exploding a wire by a sudden
resistive heating of the wire with a transient high current density approaching 10
6
A/cm
2
. This is achieved by discharging a bank of condensers (~10 to 100 micro farad),
charged to a voltage ~1 to 10 KV, through a metallic wire. Thus, a catastrophic
destruction and vaporization of the wire at some region takes place. The draw back of
this technique is the thin film so formed showed regions of defects due to the
condensation of micro particles spattered during the explosion.
5. Laser evaporation: This method is also called laser ablation technique. Nd:YAG laser
can be used for this method (see Pulsed Laser Deposition in Laser chapter). The
enormous intensity of a laser may be used to heat and vaporize materials by keeping the
laser source outside the vacuum system and focusing the beam onto the surface of the
material to be evaporated.
High energy density pulsed laser beams have been used to deposit thin films of a variety
of elements, alloys and compounds. In this process, a laser source, external to the
vacuum vessel generates a beam which is focused, passed through a viewport and
impinges on a target within the vacuum vessel. Sufficient energy is generated to blast
(ablate) material from the surface of the target. This ablated material consists of neutral
atoms, ions, clusters of atoms and macro particles. The amount of material deposited
per laser pulse is very consistent, allowing one to accurately deposit films of a specified
thickness. The deposition rate is low compared to other techniques (electron beam
evaporation and sputtering, for example).
Laser ablation, as a deposition technique is currently limited to research and
development laboratories due to the low deposition rate, the additional safety issues
involved with the use of lasers and the expense of the equipment. Some of the thin films
that have been deposited using laser ablation include super conducting thin films,
ceramic coatings, and amorphous metallic layers.
6. Electron beam evaporation: The simple resistive heating of an evaporation source
suffers from the disadvantages of possible contamination from the support material and
the limitations of the input power, which make it difficult to evaporate highmelting
point materials. These drawbacks may be overcome by an efficient source of heating by
83
electron bombardment of the material. In practice, this type of source is capable of
evaporating any material at rates ranging from fractions of an angstrom to micron per
second. Thermal decomposition and structural changes of some chemical compounds
may occur because of the intense heat and / or energetic electron bombardment.
The simplest electronbombardment arrangement consists of a heated tungsten (W)
filament to supply electrons which are accelerated by applying a positive potential tot
the material for evaporation. The electron lose their energy in the material vary rapidly,
their range being determined by their energy and the atomic number of the material.
Thus the surface of the material becomes a molten drop and evaporates. There are two
types of electron beam evaporation techniques that are discussed in detail in later
section.
Vacuum deposition Technique
Resistive heating:
This process is probably the most widely used deposition process. Both conducting
metals and resistive films can be deposited with this method.
Principle:
The principle of vacuum deposition is that evaporant charge is activated thermally and
the molecules and atoms are transferred from the surface into an extremely low pressure
gas phase. The source material may be liquid or solid. In the solid case, the evaporation
process is known as sublimation.
Instrumentation:
The bell jar is made up of glass or metal. The jar is highly evacuated usually 10
5
to 10
6
Torr. High vacuum is necessary to make the mean free path of the evaporated molecules
many times the diameter of the bell jar. The schematic diagram is shown below.
84
Working:
The substrate and source material to be evaporated are placed in the bell jar. The system
is pumped down to the appropriate pressure and the source material is heated by an
electrical unit until it vapourised. When the source material’s vapour pressure exceeds
that existing in the bell jar, the material vapourizes rapidly. Under high vacuum
condition, the mean free path of the vapourized atoms or molecules is greater than the
distance from the source to the substrate. The vapourised atoms radiate in all directions
and condense on all lower temperature surfaces with which they collide, including the
substrate. The substrate is usually heated during evaporation to improve film adhesion.
The film produced by vacuum evaporation exhibits a fine grain structure. The
uniformity and the repeatability of the films are improved, if the angle of incidence of
the radiating vapour on the substrate is made steeper. Therefore limits the number of
substrate that may be processed at any one time. The heating filment such as tungsten is
refractory metal having high melting point and low volatibility. The heaters used for
evaporation have different shapes such as cone, spiral, boat, dimple boat, crucible etc.,.
85
metal foil boat filament Baffled boat
Some of the requirements for a good filament material are:
1) High melting point.
2) Low solubility for the charge materials.
3) Filament should be wettable by the charge materials.
4) Filament should withstand thermal shocks well.
Some of the inherent disadvantages of resistance heated thermal evaporation that should
be kept in mind when selecting a deposition technique:
1) The source may generate impurities which may codeposit in the condensing thin
film.
2) Accurate control of the deposition rate is difficult.
3) The composition of alloy thin films deposited may differ from that of the charge
material (especially if the elements in the alloy have markedly different vapor
pressures).
4) The amount of material which may be evaporated per run is limited.
5) The substrate will experience heating due to radiant energy from the source.
86
SPUTTERING TECHNIQUE
Before the development of the thermal evaporation technique, the method of
sputtering was widely used for the preparation of the films for certain
metals eg. Platinum and molybdenum for which the thermal evaporation
method is difficult on account of their high melting point.
Principle:
The process involves maintaining a discharge in a gas, perfectly innert at
pressure of about 10
3
mm of Hg. The cathode being made of the metal to
be sputtered. The mechanism is essentially one local boiling of the
cathode surface resulting from intese local heating arising from
bormbordmetjn by the positive ions in the discharge.
The plasma contains equal numbers of positive argon ions and electrons and
as well as neutral argon atoms. Ar
+
ions are accelerated to the negatively
charged cathode striking that electrode and sputtering off atoms. These
travel through plasma and deposit on anode. Rate of sputtering depends
on the sputtering yield which is defined as the number of atoms or
molecules ejected from the target per incident ion.
For DC sputtering target electrode is conducting. To sputter dielectric materials
RF power source is used.
Comparison of evaporation and sputtering
EVAPORATION SPUTTERING
high vacuum path
• few collisions
• line of sight deposition
• little gas in film
low vacuum, plasma path
• many collisions
• less line of sight deposition
• gas in film
larger grain size smaller grain size
fewer grain orientations many grain orientations
poorer adhesion better adhesion
87
ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE
Electron Beam Heating Evaporation
This technique is based in the heat produced by high energy electron beam
bombardment on the material to be deposited. The electron beam is generated by an
electron gun, which uses the thermoionic emission of electrons produced by an
incandescent filament (cathode). Emitted electrons are accelerated towards an anode by
a high difference of potential (kilovolts). The crucible itself or a near perforated disc can
act as the anode. A magnetic field is often applied to bend the electron trajectory,
allowing the electron gun to be positioned below the evaporation line (see diagram)
Cooling the crucible avoids contamination problems from heating and degasification.
There are three types of electron beam guns
a) Work accelerated gun b) self accelerated gun and c) bent beam electron gun
a) Work accelerated gun: (Figure a)
In this case the electron beam is coming out of the loop type of a filament. It is
accelerated directly towards the charge or through an appropriate shield thus
concentrating the beam. Due to intense heat the charge melts.
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Self accelerated gun: (Figure b)
In this case the electrons are emitted from hair pin type of filament and focused through
a walnut cylinder on the material. Depending on the energy of the electron beam, the
charge gets vapourised and the vapour condense on the substrate. Since the electron
beam travels in straight line, the whole arrangement requires more space.
Bent beam electron gun: (Figure C)
In this method the electron beam is bent by an appropriate magnetic field and then
focused on the charge. i.e., the electron beam takes a curved path to minimize the space.
The maximum current that can be applied to the filament is calculated by
I = 2.3 x 10
6
V
3/2
/d A/cm
2
“d” separation between anode and cathode. To obtain high current density one has to
use higher accelerating voltage and smaller cathode to anode distance.
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90
1. Scanning Electron Microscope
SEM is one of the widely utilized instrument for material
characterization. It is capable of producing high resolution images of a
sample surface.
SEM images have a characteristic three dimensional appearance and are
useful for judging the surface structure of the sample.
The main advantage of SEM is its ability to study the heterogeneity of the
materials, to visualize various mineral components in their distinct growth
forms and their relation in terms of overall micro fabric and texture.
Principle of SEM:
When high velocity electrons strike the surface of a solid object in
vacuum, electrons are either reflected or emitted from the surface of the
sample. Most widely used signals are Secondary electrons, back scattered
electrons and characteristic Xrays. The signals are generated with
interaction between incident electrons and atoms in a specimen.
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A schematic of typical SEM is shown in the above figure. Electrons
thermionically emitted from a tungsten filament (cathode) are drawn to an
anode and focussed by two successive condenser lenses into a beam with a
very fine spot size that is typically 10Å in diameter. Pairs of scanning coils
located at the objective lens deflect the beam either linearly or in raster
fashion over a rectangular area of the specimen surface. Electron beams
having energies ranging from a few keV to 50keV, with 30keV a common
value, are utilized. Upon impinging on the specimen, the primaary
electrons decelerate and in losing energy, transfer it inelastically to other
atomic electrons and to the lattice. Through continous random scattering
events the primary beam effectively spreads and fills a teardropshaped
interaction volume with a multitude of electronic excitations. The result is
a distribution of electrons which manage to leave the specimen with an
energy spectrum shown schematically in figure. In addition target Xrays
are emitted and other signals such as light, heat and specimen current are
produced, the sources of their origin can be imaged with approriate
detectors. Various SEM techniques are differentiated on the basis of what
is subsequently detected and imaged.
1. Secondary electrons
The most common imaging mode relies on detection of this very
lowest portion of the emitted energy distribution. Their very low energy
means they originate from a subsurface depth of no larger than several
angstroms. The signal is captured by a detector consisting of scintillator/
photomultiplier . Secondary electron image gives surface morphology.
2. Backscattered electrons
These are the highenergy electrons which are elestically scattered
and essentially possess the same energy as the incident electrons.
The phenomenon which makes use of backscattered electrons is
electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). As the finely focussed
electron beam of an SEM penetrates a crystalline specimen, i.e., a
grain, electrons are inelastically scattered and lose angular
correlation with the primary beam. In this process, a point source of
electrons effectively forms and it Bragg diffracts from the sample
lattice. Computer analysis of these geometrically complex EBSD
patterns enables the crystallographic orientation of individual grains
92
to be extracted. As a result a microtexture of polycrystalline films is
obtained.
3. Xrays
An SEM is like a large Xray vacuum tube used in conventional X
ray diffraction systems. Electrons emitted from the filament are
accelerated to high enrgies where they strike the specimen target. In
the process, Xrays characteristic of atoms in the irradiated area are
emitted. By analyzing their energies the atoms can be identified and
by coounting the number of Xrays emitted, the concentration of
atoms in the specimen can be determined. Instrumentation for this
major Xray spectroscopy technique, known as Xray energy
dispersive analysis (EDX) , is practically always attached to the
SEM column.
Applications
Topography
The surface features of an object or how it look, its texture and
relation between these features and material properties (hardness,
reflectivity etc.)
Morphology
The shape and size of the particles making up the object, direct
relation between these structures and material properties
(ductility, strength reactivity etc.)
Composition
The elements and compounds that the object is composed and the
relative amount of them, relationship between composition and
materials properties (melting point, reactivity, hardness, etc.)
Crystallographic information
93
Arrangement of atoms in the object, direct relation between
these arrangements and material properties (conductivity,
electrical properties, strength, etc.)
Other applications include
Material evaluation with respect to grain size, surface roughness,
porosity, particle size distribution and material homogeneity
2.Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
TEM is indispensable for the structural imaging of nanometersized
features. In comparison, SEM is about an order of magnitude poorer.
As the name implies, the TEM is used to obtain structural
information from specimens thin enough to transmit electrons. Thin
films are, therefore ideal for study but they must be removed from
electron impenetrable substrates prior to insertion in the TEM.
3. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
All conductors are imageable in principle and there is less danger of
distorting and altering surface features in high electric fields. STM
enables direct imaging of atoms, unlike other indirect techniques for
deteriminig surface crystallography that depend on the amplitude
and phases of scattered electron, photon or ion waves.
4. Atomic force Microscope(AFM)
Shortly after STM appeared, the atomic force microscope was
conceived as a response to the question: if surfaces could be imaged
by a current, why not by a force? Amajor advantage of detecting
forces rather than current is that all kinds of material surfaces
including metals, semiconductors, and insulators are imageable. In
order to mechanically sense atomicscale surface topography, the
sharp tip should be mounted at the end of a soft cantilever spring.
Presently, AFM cantilevers are micromachined from silicon, silicon
dioxide and silicon nitride. There is a mechanical rasterscanning
system (usually piezoelectric), a method to sense the cantilever
94
deflection (usually optical, eg. Interferometry), a feedback system to
monitor and control the cantilever force, and a display to convert the
forceposition data into an image.
95
Tangential stress: Restoring force parallel to the surface per unit area is called tangential stress. STRAIN: The change in the form of the body i.e., the deformation produced by the external force, accompanies a change in dimensions. The ratio of change in dimensions to the original dimensions is called strain. But the way in which the change in dimensions is produced depends upon the form of the body and the manner in which the force is applied. Deformation is of three types, resulting in three types of strains, defined as follows: i) Linear strain or Tensile strain: If the shape of the body could be approximated to the form of a long wire and if a force is applied at one end along its length keeping the other end fixed, the wire undergoes a change in length. If x is the change in length produced for an original length L then, Linear strain = ii) change in length x original length = L
Volume strain: If a uniform force is applied all over the surface of a body, the body undergoes a change in its volume (however the shape is retained in case of solid bodies). If v is the change in volume to an original volume V of the body then, Volume strain =
change in volume v = original volume V
iii)
Shear strain: If a force is applied tangentially to a free portion of the body, another part being fixed, its layers slide one over the other; the body experiences a turning effect and changes its shape. This is called shearing and the angle through which the turning takes place is called shearing angle (θ). D θ D1 C θ C1 F
A
B
HOOKE’S LAW It states that “stress is proportional to strain” (provided strain is small), so that in such a case the ratio of stress to strain is a constant, called the modulus of elasticity or coefficient of elasticity. i.e., stress α strain, Or, stress = a constant (E) strain
STRESS  STRAIN RELATIONSHIP IN A WIRE
2
Yield point S T R E S S F B D A Elastic Limit Elastic Behavior O C STRAIN When the stress is continually increased in the case of a solid, a point is reached at which the strain increases rapidly. The stress at which the linear relationship between stress and strain ceases to hold good is referred to as the elastic limit of the material. Thus, if the material happens to be in the form of a bar or a wire under stretch, it will recover its original length on the removal of the stress so long as the stress is below the elastic limit, but if this limit is exceeded, it will fail to do so and will acquire what is called as ‘permanent set’. The relationship between stress and strain is studied by plotting a graph for various values of stress and the accompanying strain. This is known as stressstrain diagram. The straight and slopping part OA of the curve clearly shows that the strain produced is directly proportional to the stress applied or the Hook’s law is obeyed perfectly up to A and that, therefore, on the removal of the stress, it will recover its original condition of zero strain, represented by O. As soon as the elastic limit is crossed, the strain increases more rapidly than the stress, and the graph curves along AB, the extension of the wire now being partly elastic and partly plastic. Hence, on being unloaded here, say, at the point B, it does not come back to its original condition along AO, but takes the dotted path BC, so that there remains a residual strain OC in it, which is permanent set acquired by the wire. Beyond the point B, for practically little or no increase in stress(or the load applied) there is a large increase in strain (i.e., in the extension produced) up to D, so that the portion BD of the graph is an irregular wavy line, the stress corresponding to D being less than that corresponding to B. This point B where the large increase in strain commences is called the yield point, the stress corresponding to it being known as the yielding stress. The yielding ceases at D and further extension, it becomes plastic, can only be produced by gradually increasing the load so that the portion DF of the graph is obtained, the cross sectional area is called the ultimate strength or the tensile strength of the wire and is also sometimes termed the ‘breaking stress’. The extension of the wire goes on increasing beyond F without any addition to the load, even if the load is reduced a little, and wire behaves as though it were literally ‘flowing down’. This is because of a faster rate of decrease of its crosssectional area at some section of its length where local constriction, called a “neck” begins to develop, with the result that, even if the load be not increased, the load per unit area or the stress becomes considerably greater there, bringing about corresponding increase in strain or extension in the wire. The load is there, decreased, i.e., the stress reduced at this stage and the wire finally snaps or breaks at E, which thus represents the breaking point for it. Corresponding to the three types of strain, we have three types of elasticity: Permanent set E Breaking point Plastic Range
3
If F is the force applied uniformly and normally on a surface area (a) the stress or pressure is F/a or P and if v is the change in volume produced in an original volume V. The ratio of longitudinal stress to linear strain within elastic limit is called the coefficient of direct elasticity or Young’s modulus and is denoted by Y or E. There is a change in the inclinations of the coordinates axes of the system or the body. Consider a rectangular solid cube whose lower face DCRS is fixed. K= c) Modulus of Rigidity (corresponding to shear strain) : In this case. Tangential stress is equal to the force F divided by area a of the face APQB. P to P1 and Q to Q1 that is the planes of the two faces ABCD and PQRS can be said to have turned through an angle θ. The applied force per unit area gives the normal stress or pressure.a) Linear Elasticity or Elasticity of length called Young’s modulus. F a FL Normal stress = Y= = N/m2 x L ax Longitudin al strain b) Elasticity of volume or Bulk modulus: When the deforming force is applied normally and uniformly to the entire surface of a body. The ratio of normal stress or pressure to the volume strain without change in shape of the body within the elastic limits is called Bulk modulus. Hence tangential stress = 4 . A1 C A L D θ B B1 P S Q Q1 P1 R θ F F x θ = PP1 / PS = a L The rigidity modulus is defined as the ratio of the tangential stress to the shearing strain. linear or elongation strain. while there is a change in the shape of the body. If L is original length and x is change in length due to the applied force. then the stress is F/a. corresponding to linear or tensile strain: When the deforming force is applied to the body only along a particular direction. the strain is given by v/V and therefore Normal stress F a FV PV = = = N/m2 Volume strain v V av v Bulk modulus is referred to as incompressibility and hence its reciprocal is called compressibility (strain per unit stress). and to whose upper face a tangential force F is applied in the direction as shown. one over the other. the layers of the cube which are parallel to the applied force slide one over the other such that point A shifts to A1. the strain is given by x/L. to a crosssectional area a. the change per unit length in that direction is called longitudinal. It takes place by the movement of contiguous layers of the body. it produces a volume strain (without changing its shape in case of solid bodies). there is no change in its volume. B to B1. This angle θ is called the angle of shear or shearing strain. so that. and the force applied per unit area of cross section is called longitudinal or linear stress. Under the action of this force. If F is the force applied normally.
its cause’s relative displacements at different parts of the cube. If a tangential force F is applied at the upper surface along AB. their relation can be understood by knowing how one type of deformation could be equated to combination of other types of deformation. so that A moves to A1 and B moves to B1 through a small angle. A A1 l l l 1 1 A A B B L θ M N θ L θ Let length of each side of the cube = L. there is always some change in the thickness of the body. D C AA1=BB1= l. σ = Ld β = α xD There are no units for Poisson’s ratio. We have Extension strain along DB = NB1/DB 5 . However these modulii are related to each other. θ = tanθ = l / L. Now. This change which occurs in a direction perpendicular to the direction along which the deforming force is acting is called lateral change. then lateral strain β= and D Longitudinal strain α = x L. If a deforming force acting on a wire of length L produces a change in length x accompanied by d a change in diameter of d in it which has a original diameter of D. As diagonal DB increases to DB1and diagonal AC is compressed to AC1. In this way the diagonal AC will be shortened to A1C and diagonal DB will be increased in length to DB1. Within elastic limits of a body. As θ is small. It is a dimensionless quantity. the ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is a constant and is called Poisson’s ratio. ∴ Poisson’s ratio.Rigidity modulus η = F a F a FL tangential stress = = = N/m2 θ x L ax shearing strain. EQUIVALENCE OF SHEAR TO COMPRESSION AND EXTENSION: Consider a cube whose lower surface CD is fixed to a rigid support. it is studied under any of the three elastic modulii depending upon the type of deformation. Poisson’s Ratio (σ): In case of any deformation taking place along the length of a body like a wire. due to a deforming force.let θ be the angle of shear which is very small in magnitude. Let ABCD be its front face. RELATION BETWEEN THE THREE MODULI OF ELASTICITY: When body undergoes an elastic deformation.
Tensile stress is the stress state caused by an applied load that tends to elongate the material in the axis of the applied load. If L is the length of each side of the cube. NB1=BB1cos45 = and AM=AA1 cos45 = 2 2 ∴ Elongation strain along DB = NB1/DB= l/ 2 l θ = = L 2 2L 2 l/ 2 l θ = = L / 2 2L 2 From the above two relation it is clear that a simple shear θ is equivalent to an extension strain and compression strain at right angles to each other and each of value θ/2. And compression strain along AC = MA1/CA= θ θ Elongation strain + compression strain = + = θ . l l Now. simultaneous equal compression and extension at right angles to each other are equivalent to shear. then tangential force per unit area will be F/l2 = T. CD. a couple is called in to action which counter balances the applied couple and this couple is called restoring couple. The converse is also true i. under the action of these four forces (along AB. BC and AD) each of F the cube is deformed as these four forces are in equilibrium the cube does not 6 . As the cube is unable to rotate. in other words the stress caused by pulling the material. The restoring couple consists of forces acting tangentially on the faces CB and AD and each of magnitude F. The face CD experiences equal and opposite forces and these two forces acting along the face AB and CD form a couple which has a tendency to rotate the cube in the clockwise direction.. F A B • F F C D F Consider a section of cube ABCD having o as centre and whose lower face CD is clamped and let a tangential force F being applied on the upper face AB in the direction shown by arrow.e. the shearing strain.Compression strain along AC=MA1/CA If L is the length of each side of the cube. then. AC = DB= 2 L (By Pythagoras theorem). 2 2 EQUIVALENCE OF SHEARING STRESS TO A COMPRESSIVE STRESS AND A TENSILE STRESS: • Compressive stress (or compression) is the stress state caused by an applied load that acts to reduce the length of the material in the axis of the applied load.
Therefore the area of the triangular face ABC cut parallel to AC and perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Similarly tensile stress along BD = RELATION BETWEEN Y AND α 7 .e. Therefore 2f Force compressive stress along AC = = 2 L 2 Area 2f But f = F cos45 = L F 2 ∴ Compressive stress along AC = 2F / 2 F = 2 = T = Tangential stress. into two equal components of magnitude f . = DB x AO = L 2 x L= L2 2 .(2) 2 L L X 2 From (1) and (2) it is clear that a shearing stress is equivalent to an equal linear tensile stress and an equal linear compressive stress at right angles to each other. Since the force acting on either side of the section normal to it is 2f.. As DB = AB 2 + AD 2 = L2 + L2 = L 2 . Thus we have four forces of value F each acting tangentially on the faces of the cube which are resolved in to eight forces each of value f acting along the diagonals as shown in the figure.similarly the remaining three forces can be resolved into three pairs of components each of f.move. The force acting along AB can be resolved along AO and OB i. The force f acting along AC tends to compress the diagonal and those acting along DB tend to produce extension along that diagonal.(1) 2 L L X 2 2F / 2 F = 2 = T = Tangential stress.
1+ α Ty . 1+ α Tx .β Ty. or their products can be neglected. Then stress like Tx produces an increase in length of α Tx in Xdirection: but since other two stresses Ty and Tz are perpendicular to Xdirection they produce a contraction of β Ty and β Tz respectively in the cube along Xdirection .β Tx) (1+ α Tz . ∴ New volume of the cube = 1 + α(Tx+ Ty+ Tz). Force Stress = =1 Area change in length α Similarly. Let Ty be the stress which acts perpendicular to the faces ABCD and EFGH. Tz is acting perpendicularly between faces ACEG and BDFH.β Ty) Since α and β are very small.β Tz .Consider a cube of unit side subjected to unit tension along one side.β Ty . Therefore.β Tx.β Tx . the terms which contain either powers of α and β. α AND β Consider a cube ABCDEFGH of unit volume.β Tz) (1+ α Ty . Similarly.β Tz . 1+ α Tz .Hence. B Ty Tz D A C Tx E Tz Ty G F Tx H Each stress produces an extension in its own direction and a lateral contraction in the other two perpendicular directions. Let Tx be the stress acting on the faces ABEF and CDGH. increase in volume = [1+3T (α2β)]1 8 . Hence the new volume of the cube is = (1+ α Tx .β Tx . Similarly along Y and Z directions the respective length become. Let α be the elongation per unit length per unit tension along the direction of the force.β Tz. as shown in the diagram. linear strain = = =α original length 1 ∴ Y= Normal stress 1 = Longitudin al strain α RELATION BETWEEN K. = 1+ (α2β)(Tx+ Ty+ Tz) If Tx= Ty= Tz= T Then the new volume =1+ (α2β) 3T Since the cube under consideration is of unit volume.β Ty . Let α be the elongation per unit length per unit stress along the direction of the forces and β be the contraction per unit length per unit stress in a direction perpendicular to the respective forces. a length which was unity along Xdirection becomes .2β(Tx+ Ty+ Tz).
α AND β l A M L D θ C A 1 l B θ B1 N Consider a cube with each of its sides of length L under the action of tangential stress T.T..e. K.T(α+β). ∴ B1N=( 2 L ).β. the decrease in volume = 3P (α2β).(α+β). perpendicular to DB. a pressure P is applied.α and extension produced for the length DB due to compression stress = T. let tangential force F be applied to its upper face. It causes the plane of the faces perpendicular to the applied force F turn through an angle θ. as a result diagonal AC undergoes contraction and diagonal DB1undergoes elongation of equal amount. It is clear that the total extension in DB is approximately equal to B1N when BN is perpendicular to DB1.2 β ) RELATION BETWEEN Y. shearing strain occurring along AB can be treated as equivalent to a longitudinal strain. along AB1 and an equal lateral strain along the diagonal A1C i. since T is the applied stress. ABD ≅ AB1 D ≅ BB 1 N = 45 .T(α+β). ABD =45 and since θ is always very small. 9 . ∴ Total extension along DB = DB. Let α and β be the longitudinal and lateral strains per unit length per unit stress which is applied along AB . ∴ Volume strain = change in volume 3P (α . ∴ B1N= DB. DB.= 3T (α2β) If instead of outward stress T. extension produced for the length DB due to tensile stress = T. (DB cos45 =L) Now.2 β ) 3 (α . AND α K= (1 α ) = Y 1 = 3α (1 − 2 β α ) 3(1 − 2 β / α ) 3(1 − 2σ ) (σ = β 1 and Y = ) α α RELATION BETWEEN η . Now.2β ) = original volume 1 ∴K = Pressure P 1 = = Volume strain 3P (α .DB.
∴η = η= Y 2(1+ σ ) or Y = 2η (1+ σ ) RELATION BETWEEN Y. 2η + 2ησ = 3K – 6Kσ. and Y = 3K (12σ) Equating the above equations we get. ∴ 2ησ + 6Kσ = 3K .∴ B1N = BB1cos45 = ∴ ( 2 L) T (α + β ) = BB1 l = 2 2 ( BB1 = l ) l . σ(2η + 6K) = 3K . 2(α + β ) 1 = . K and η Y Y and K = 2(1 + σ ) 3(1 − 2σ ) Rearranging which we get. 3K − 2η Or. η 3K 9ηK ∴Y = 3K + η Relation between K . η and σ We have the relations Y = 2η (1 + σ). Or Y (3K + η ) =3 3ηK Y Y + =3.2η. (σ = β α ) . 2(1 + σ ) Or. Y Y = 2 + 2σ and =12σ η 3K We know that η = Adding the above we get. 2α (1 + β α ) 1α η= . σ = 2η + 6 K Torsion of a cylinder 10 .2η. 2 1 1 TL T T = = = = η Or. Or . 2 (α + β ) l ( l L ) θ 1 .
Imagine the cylindrical rod is made up of thin concentric hollow cylindrical layers each of thickness ‘dr’. by imagining it to be consisting of concentric layers of the material of which it is made up of.A long body which is twisted around its length as an axis is said to be under torsion. Let OO' be its axis. The twisting is brought into effect by fixing one end of the body to a rigid support and applying a suitable couple at the other end. 11 . Expression for the Torsion of a cylindrical rod: Consider a long cylindrical rod of length ‘L’ and radius ‘R’ rigidly fixed at its upper end. The applied twisting couple is calculated in terms of the rigidity modulus of the body. long uniform cylindrical body under torsion can be studied. The elasticity of a solid.
Since φ is also small. ∴ Lφ = rθ Now. This movement will be zero at the fixed end and gradually increased along the downward direction. twisting couple acting on the entire cylinder L 0 2πnθ r 4 = L 4 0 R πnR 4θ = 2L Couple per unit twist is given by C=Total twisting couple / angle of twist. If ‘F’ is the shearing force. Now the BXB ′ = φ gives the angle of shear. Also. the cross sectional area of the layer under consideration is 2πr dr . and then the concentric layers slide one over the other.O X φ dr θ O1 The rod twisted at its lower end. T n= φ nrθ ∴ T = nφ = L nrθ ( 2πrdr ) = 2πnθ r 2 dr ∴F = L L 2πnθ 3 2πnθ 2 r dr r = r dr The moment of the force about OO ′ = L L This is only for the one layer of the cylinder. if BO ′B ′ = θ . the length B B' = rθ. the ˆ movement length BB ′ = Lφ . 12 . Any point ‘X’ on its uppermost part would remain fixed and a point like ‘B’ at its bottom ˆ moves to ‘B'’. then the shearing stress T is given by Force F T= = Area 2πrdr ∴ Shearing force F = T(2πrdr) ∴ Rigidity modulus n = Shearing stress/shearing strain. R 2πnθ 3 =∫ r dr Therefore. Let us consider one concentric circular layer of radius ‘r’ and thickness ‘dr’ .
Then the restoring couple per unit twist = Cθ. d 2θ dt 2 d 2θ Let I be the moment of inertia of the wire about the axis. Therefore. a = Uses of torsion pendulum: (i) For determination of moment of inertia of an irregular body: For determining the moment of inertia of an irregular body the torsion pendulum is Found to be very useful. The negative sign indicates that the couple tends to decrease the twist on the wire. the time period of the pendulum is determined When it is empty and then the time period of the pendulum is determined after fixing a regular at the free end and after this the time period is determined by replacing The regular body by the irregular body whose moment of inertia is to be determined. When the disc is rotated in a horizontal plane so as to twist the wire.then 13 . we have. the time period of oscillator is given by relation. I 2 = Cθ dt The above relation shows that the angular acceleration is proportional to angular displacement and is always directed towards the mean position. Therefore. Therefore disc executes torsional oscillations about the mean position. The restoring couple of the wire tries to bring the wire back to the original position. displacement θ I T = 2π = 2π = 2π Accleration C C Xθ I Therefore the angular acceleration produced by the restoring couple in the wire.T1 and T2 are the time periods in the three cases respectively. the various elements of the wire undergo shearing strain. the motion of the disc is always simple harmonic motion (SHM). First. If I1 and I2 are the moments of inertia of the pendulum.πnR 4θ / 2 L θ πnR 4 C = 2L C= Torsional Pendulum Torsional pendulum consists of a heavy metal disc is suspended by means of a wire. Therefore. Let θ be the angle of twist made by the wire and C be the couple per unit twist. regular body and irregular body respectively and.
. .. For a given layer. Such a layer 14 . If a load is attached to the free end of the beam. . . . . . (1) .T=2π T1=2π T2=2π From relations (2) and (1). If a cross section of the beam along its length and perpendicular to these layers is taken the filaments of different layers appear like straight lines piled one above the other along the length of the beam. . . we have T12T2= And from (2) and (3). . the beam bends. . . . . But there will always be a particular layer whose filaments do not change their length as shown for CD. all its constituent filaments are assumed to undergo identical changes when that layer is strained. Neutral surface and neutral axis: Consider a uniform beam MN whose one end id fixed at M. . … ..(2) . we have T22. . . . . The beam can be thought of as made up of a number of parallel layers and each layer in turn can be thought of as made up of a number of infinitesimally thin straight parallel longitudinal filaments or fibres arranged one closely next to the other in the plane of the layer.T2= . The successive layers along with constituent filaments are strained. . . (3) Bending of beams: A homogenous body of uniform cross section whose length is large compared to its other dimensions is called a beam. . A filament like AB of an upper layer will be elongated to A1B1 and the one like EF of a lower layer will be contracted to E1F1.
when the beam is subjected to bending within its elastic limit. all its layers which are above the neutral surface undergo elongation whereas those below the neutral surface are subjected to compression. Neutral axis: It is a longitudinal line along which neutral surface is intercepted by any longitudinal plane considered in the plane of bending. The filaments of a neutral surface could be taken as line along which the surface is intercepted by a cross section of the beam considered in the plane of bending as shown.is called neutral surface and the line along which a filament of it is situated is called neutral axis. The moment of restoring couple is called restoring moment and the moment of the applied couple is called the bending moment. A C E B D F A1 C1 E1 B1 D1 F1 Neutral Surface: It is that layer of a uniform beam which does not undergo any change in its dimensions. These two groups of forces result in a restoring couple which balances the applied couple acting on the beam. the bending moment and the restoring moments are equal. 15 . When the beam is in equilibrium. As a result the forces of reaction are called into play in the body of the beam which develop an inward pull towards the fixed end for all the layers above the neutral surface and an outward push directed away from the fixed end for all layer below the neutral surface. When a uniform beam is bent.
The layer AB has been elongated to A1B1. The successive layers are now strained. the beam bends. But stress = F Yr Yar = = a R R Moment of this force about the neutral axis=F x its distance from neutral axis. A1 C1 E1 Neutral axis θ B1 D1 F1 The shape of each layers of the beam can be imagined to form part of concentric circles of varying radii. ∴ CD=Rθ where θ is the common angle subtended by the layers at common center O of the circles. Let R be the radius of the circle to which the neutral surface forms a part. If now a load is attached to the beam. ∴ change in length =A1B1AB But AB=CD=Rθ If the successive layers are separated by a distance r then. CD is neutral surface which does not change its length.Bending moment of a beam: Consider a uniform beam whose one end is fixed at M. A layer like AB which is above the neutral surface will be elongated to A1B1 and the one like EF below neutral surface will be contracted to E1F1. A1B1=(R+r)θ ∴ Change in length=(R+r)θRθ = rθ But original length = AB=Rθ rθ r = ∴ Linear strain = Rθ R Youngs Modulus Y= Longitudinal stress/linear strain Longitudinal stress = Yx Linear strain r = Yx R F a Where F is the force acting on the beam and a is the area of the layer AB. = F x r = Yar2 /R Moment of force acting on the entire beam = Σ Yar 2 R 16 .
Consider a point on the free beam at a distance x from the fixed end which will be at a distance (Lx) from N. Ig=Σar2 =Ak2 . Let P1 be its position after the beam is bent.= Y ∑ ar 2 R The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is given by Σmr2. then the arrangement is called single cantilever or cantilever. where A is the area of cross section of the beam and k is the radius of gyration about the neutral axis. = W(Lx) But bending moment of a beam is given by Y Ig = W(Lx) (1) R Y Ig R 17 . Similarly Σar2 is called the geometric moment of Inertia Ig. Consider a uniform beam of length L fixed at M. where Σm is the mass of the body. ∴ Bending moment = Force x Perpendicular distance. Moment of force = Y Ig R Y Ak 2 R Bending moment = Single Cantilever x M P P1 Y (Lx) N If one end of beam is fixed to a rigid support and its other end loaded. Let a load W act on the beam at N.
When x=0.x) = (2) R YIg But if y is the depression of the point P then it can be shown that 1 d2y (3) = R dx 2 where R is the radius of circle to which the bent beam becomes a part. it refers to the tangent drawn at M.1 W(L .x) = YIg dx 2 d dy w( L − x ) = dx dx YI g dy w( Ldx − xdx) d = YI g dx Integrating both sides dy w x2 = Lx − + C1 (4) dx YI g 2 C is constant of integration But dy/dx is the slope of the tangent drawn to the bent beam at a distance x from the fixed end. Hence (dy/dx)=0 at x=0. where it is horizontal. Comparing equations 2 and 3 d 2 y W(L . Introducing this condition in equation (4 )we get 0=C1 Equation 4 becomes dy W x2 = Lx − dx YIg 2 W x2 dy = Lx − dx YIg 2 Integrating both sides we get y= W Lx 2 x 3 − + C 2 (5) YIg 2 6 18 .
with breadth b and thickness d then. Hence y=0 at x=0. Therefore when x=0. where there is obviously no depression. it refers to the depression at M. Ig = bd 3 (7) 12 Substituting equation (7) in equation (6) we get WL3 12 Y= x 3 y 0 bd 3 4WL3 Y= Y0 bd 3 Case(b): If the beam is having a circular cross section of radius r then. y is the depression produced at known distance from the fixed end. Πr 4 (8) Ig = 4 Substituting equation (8) in equation (7) we get Y= 4WL3 3Πy 0 r 4 19 .where C2 is constant of integration. y=y0 and x=L W L3 L3 Therefore y 0 = − YIg 2 6 Depression produced at loaded end is WL3 y0 = 3YIg Therefore the youngs modulus of the material of the cantilever is WL3 Y= (6) 3 y 0 Ig Case (a): If the beam is having rectangular crosssection. Introducing this condition in equation 5 we get y= W Lx 2 x 3 − YIg 2 6 At the loaded end.
The value of is evaluated from the table. weights are unloaded by the same amount in each step as they were added while loading. Load (g) TM reading (cm) Mean Load TM readings (cm) Mean Depression m1 R1 (g) R2 for the load Load Load Load Load m2 (m2m1) increasing decreasing Increasing decreasing R2∼ R1 W W + 40 W + 10 W + 50 W + 20 W + 60 W + 30 W + 70 After the required value of the load in the pan is attained. Experiment: The given material in the form of uniform bar whose one end is fixed to a rigid support is taken and an empty pan is attached to the other end. q= bd 3 R2 − R1 20 . A suitable weights are attached to the pan in a equal increments and the reading of the traveling microscope are noted for the corresponding positions of the tip of the pin. The breadth ‘b’ and the thickness ‘d’ of the beam are also measured.Experiment to determine young’s modulus by single cantilever method. The length of the R2 − R1 beam between the point of emergence of the beam from the rigid support and the point where the pin is mounted is measured. A pin is firmly placed on the top of the loaded end. Single cantilever: Single cantilever is a beam fixed horizontally at one end and the free end to be loaded. A traveling microscope adjusted to the vertical transverse is focused to the tip of the pin and the reading is taken and entered in the tabular column. The corresponding readings are entered m 2 − m1 in the tabular column. The young’s modulus of the material of the beam is calculated by using the formula 4 gl 3 m2 − m1 N m2.
b l W 21 .
de22 . The classical theory could not explain the stability of atoms. it appears difficult to accept the conflicting ideas that radiation has wave particle duality. The classical mechanics correctly explains the motion of celestial bodies like planets. polarization etc. With the application of quantum mechanics. velocity. de. Compton effect. Here it should be remembered that radiation cannot exhibit its wave and particle nature simultaneously. However this acceptance is essential because the radiation exhibits phenomena like interference. amplitude. this is the wave particle duality of radiation. The insufficiency of classical mechanics led to the development of quantum mechanics. Considering the above facts. momentum. and shows the wave nature and it also the particle nature in photo electric effect. origin of discrete spectra of atoms etc. neutrons. frequency. energy etc. atoms. protons. Raman effect etc. Radiation. However classical theory does not hold in the region of atomic dimensions. sometimes behave as a wave and at some other time as a particle. Quantum mechanics is the description of motion and interaction of particles at the small scale atomic system where the discrete nature of the physical world becomes important. – QUANTUM MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics Newton’s laws describe the motion of the particles in classical mechanics and Maxwell’s equations describe electromagnetic fields in classical electromagnetism. diffraction. several problems of atomic physics have been solved. It also fails to explain large number of observed phenomena like photo electric effect. Louis deBroglie in 1924 extended the wave particle dualism of radiation to fundamental entities of physics such as electrons. Wave and particle duality of radiation To understand the wave and particle duality. it is necessary to know what is a particle and what is a wave. macroscopic and microscopic terrestrial bodies moving with nonrelastivistic speeds. Compton effect etc. thus. It is hard to think mass being associated with a wave. energy distribution in the black body radiation spectrum. intensity etc. A particle is a localized mass and it is specified by its mass. velocity. molecules etc.UNIT 2. Whereas a wave is a spread out mass and is characterized by its wavelength.Broglie’s concept of matter waves.
protons etc) should also act as waves at some other times. 23 . matter also has dual characteristic. The electrical work done (eV) is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the electron. This is the equation for the deBroglie wave length mv p λ= de – Broglie wavelength of an electron Consider an electron of mass ‘m’ accelerated from rest by an electric potential V. Hence the wavelength λ of matter waves is given by h h = . According to the doBroglie hypothesis matter also has dual nature . Nature loves symmetry As nature loves symmetry. Now consider a particle of mass m moving with a velocity and momentum p.Broglie put a bold suggestion that like radiation. By Planck’s theory E = hγ = By Planck’s theory E = mc 2 hc λ hc λ mc 2 = λ= h h = mc p Where p is the momentum of the photon. The waves associated with matter in motion are called matter waves or debroglie waves or pilot waves Wave length of matter waves: The concept of matter waves is well understood by combining Planck’s quantum theory and Einstein’s theory. at a time when there was absolutely no experimental evidence for wave like properties of matter waves. fre4quancy γ and wavelength λ. deBroglie hypothesis of matter waves is as follows. Consider a photon of energy E. if radiation act like wave sometime and like particle at some other times then the material particles ( like electrons. • • • In nature energy manifests itself in two forms namely matter and radiation.
Matter waves are produced by charged or uncharged particles in motion. Where as electromagnetic waves are produced only by a moving charged particle. This means that matter waves are associated with moving particles.28 V A 0 Note : Instead of a an electron. For V = 0. if a particle of charge ‘q’ is accelerated through a potential difference V. Smaller the velocity of the particle. Lighter the particle. Hence matter waves are non – electromagnetic waves.E = eV 1 ∴ E = mv 2 2 2 2 ∴ m v = 2mE mv = 2mE therefore wavelength of electron wave h h = p mv h ∴λ = 2mE λ= But E = eV ∴λ = h 2me ∴λ = h 2meV h = 0 2me V = 12.28 A 12. 3. the wave becomes indeterminate. greater would be the wavelength of matter waves associated with it. 2. 24 . greater would be the wavelength. then λ= h 2mqV Properties of matter waves 1. 4. λ is infinity ie.
In an isotropic medium the wavelength of an electromagnetic eave is a constant whereas the wave length of a matter wave changes with the velocity of the particle. the velocity of matter waves is greater than the velocity of light. Hence matter waves are non. 7.5. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is a direct consequence of dual nature of matter. Matter waves are probability waves..(1) but E = hν mc 2 = hν mc 2 h given h λ= mv mc 2 h u= * h mv 2 c u= v ν= As the velocity of a particle can’t exceed the velocity of light ‘c’.. so. Velocity of any wave is greater by νλ .electromagnetic waves.. therefore for a matter wave. the wave nature of matter introduces a certain un – certainty in the position of the particle. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.. 8. wave velocity ‘u’ is u = νλ .... In classical mechanics. 6... A particle is a localized mass and a wave is a spread out spark. a moving particle at any instant has a fixed position in space and a definite momentum which can be determined if the initial values are known (we can know the future if we know the present) 25 .
In wave mechanics a moving particle is described in terms of a wave group or wave packet. According to Max Born’s probability interpretation the particle may be present anywhere inside the eave packet. When the wave packet is large, the momentum can be fixed but there is a large infiniteness in its position. On the other hand if the wave packet is small the position of the particle may be fixed but the particle will spread rapidly and hence the momentum ( or velocity ) becomes indeterminate. In this way certainty in momentum involves uncertainty in position and the certainty in position involves uncertainty in momentum. Hence it is impossible to know within the wave packet where the particle is and what is its exact momentum. (we cannot know the future because we cannot know the present). uncertainty principle. According to the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle “ It is impossible to specify precisely and simultaneously certain pairs of physical quantities like position and momentum that describe the behaviour of an atomic system”. Qualitatively this principle states that in any simultaneous measurement the product of the magnitudes of the uncertainties of the pairs of physical quantities is equal to or greater than h/4π ( or of the order of h) Considering the pair of physical quantities as position and momentum, we have ΔpΔx ≥ h/4π .….1 Where Δp and Δx are the uncertainties in determining the momentum and the position of the particle. Similarly we have other canonical forms as ΔEΔt≥ h/4π ΔJΔθ≥ h/4π ……2 ……3 Thus we have Heisenberg’s
Where ΔE and Δt are uncertainties in determining energy and time while ΔJ and Δθ are uncertainties in determining angular momentum and angle. Experimental illustration of uncertainty principle As an illustration of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle Neil Bohr proposed a thought experiment to the inevitable error involved to locate the position of an electron. Let OP be the axis of an imaginary γ ray microscope perpendicular to xdirection. Consider a γphoton of wavelength λ and momentum h/λ moving along xdirection strikes a stationary electron at P and undergoes Compton scattering at an angle 26
α to the x direction and the electron recoils though an angle φ as shown in the following figure. Let λ’ be the wavelength of the scattered photon [according to Compton scattering there will be a change in the wave length of the scattered photon as it transfers part of its energy to the free electron]
Fig. γ ray microscope For the angle α < (90θ ) and also for α > (90+θ ) the electron will not be seen at all as it cannot enter the microscope. The scattered photon can enter the microscope anywhere between PA and PB. If the electron is scattered along PA The xcomponent of momentum of the scattered photon = ( h/ λ’) cos α = ( h/ λ’) cos ( 90θ) = ( h/ λ’) sin θ The change in the momentum of the photon = ( h/ λ)  ( h/ λ’) sin θ           (1) The change in the momentum of the photon is equal to the gain in the momentum of the electron and it is also the momentum of the electron because its initial momentum is zero. The momentum of the electron = ( h/ λ)  ( h/ λ’) sin θ           (2) If the electron is scattered along PB The xcomponent of momentum of the scattered photon = ( h/ λ’)cos ( 90+θ) = ( h/ λ’) sin θ The change in the momentum of the photon (3) The change in the momentum of the photon is equal to the gain in the momentum of the electron and it is also the momentum of the electron because its initial momentum is zero. 27 = ( h/ λ) + ( h/ λ’) sin θ    
As the scattered photon can enter the microscope anywhere between PA and PB there is an uncertainty in the momentum of the electron is given by (∆Px )max Maximum uncertainty in locating the position of the electron (∆Px )max = [( h/ λ) + ( h/ λ’) sin θ] – [( h/ λ) – ( h/ λ’) sin θ] (∆Px )max = 2h/ λ’ sin θ                              (4). 6 For the photon to be seen by the microscope, there should be a Compton scattering of the photon and the recoil of the electron. Thus there is a change in the position of the electron. The smallest distance between any two points that can be resolved by a microscope is called the limit of resolution and it is equal to λ’/2sin θ
∴The minimum uncertainty in the position of the electron = (∆x)min = λ’/2sin θ.     
(5). From the equations (4) band (5) we have ∆Px .∆x ≈ λ’/2sin θ. 2h/ λ’ sin θ∆x ≈h
∴ ∆Px .∆x ≈h
As h> h/4π, the above equation is in accordance with the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle ∆Px .∆x ≥ h/4π.
Schrödinger’s Wave Equation
In1926 Schrödinger starting with deBroglie equation (λ = h/mv ) developed it into an important mathematical theory called Wave mechanic which found a remarkable success in explaining the behaviour of atomic system and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation and other particles. In water waves, the quantity that varies periodically is the height of water surface. In sound waves it is pressure. In light waves, electric and magnetic fields vary. The quantity whose variation gives matter waves is called wave function (ψ). The value of wave function associated with a moving body at a particular point x in space at a time t is related to the likelihood of finding the body there at a time. A wave function ψ(x,t) that describes a particle of entirely un known position moving in a positive xdirection with precisely known momentum and kinetic energy may assume any one of the following forms: Sin( wt kx) , cos( wt kx), ei(wt – kx), ei(wt – kx), eiwt, ei kx or some linear combination of them. Schrödinger wave equation is the wave equation of which the wave functions are the solutions. It cannot be derived from any basic principles. It is an equation arrived at, consistent with previous theoretical and experimental results and is able to predict new verifiable results. 28
....2 partially twice w...Time independent.. we get ∂ψ = −iω ψ0(x) eiwt ∂t ∂2ψ = i 2ω2 ψ0(x) eiwt 2 ∂t ∂ 2ψ = −ω 2 ψ0(x) eiwt 2 ∂t ∂ 2ψ ψ …….(6) ∂x 2 λ Substituting the wavelength of the matter waves λ=h/mv in Eq.... we get ∴ ∂ 2ψ 4π 2 = − 2 ψ . to t. one dimensional Schrödinger wave equation.r.. In many situations the potential energy of the particle does not depend on time explicitly..(1) ∂x 2 v ∂t The solution of the Eq.. the force that acts on it.. Let ψ(x.....t) be the wave function of the matter wave associate with a particle of mass m moving with a velocity v....(1) as a periodic displacement of time t is ψ(x.. The differential equation of the wave motion is as follows. The Schrödinger wave equation for such a particle is time independent wave equation..(5) ∂x 2 λ ∂ 2ψ 4π 2 + 2 ψ = 0... .1 d 2ψ ω2 =− 2ψ dx 2 v 2 ……………………. and hence the potential energy vary with the position of the particle only..(2) Where ψ0(x) is amplitude of the matter wave.... ∂ 2ψ 1 ∂ 2ψ = 2 2 .t..t) =ψ0(x) eiwt …...(3) = ω2 2 ∂t Substituing Eq...3 in Eq....(7) ∂x 2 h 29 ..(4) We have 2π ω2 4π 2 = 2 = k2 = λ v2 λ Substituting this in Eq4.6 we get ∂ 2ψ m 2v 2 + 4π 2 2 ψ = 0... Differentiating Eq..
. for a given ψ. 30 . knowledge of usual dynamic variables.(8) ∂x 2 h2 This is the Schrödinger time..If E and V are the total and potential energies of the particle respectively then The kinetic energy of the particle E= 1 2 mv = E − V 2 ∴ m 2 v 2 = 2m( E − V ) Substituting this in Eq. In general ψ is a complex quantity whereas the probability must be real and positive. ∴ P ( x.. It gives a quantummechanically complete description of the behaviour of a moving particle. we get ∂ 2ψ 8π 2 m + ( E − V )ψ = 0.t) density is a product of the wave function ψ and its complex conjugate ψ . Therefore a terrm called probability density is defined.of the particle are obtained by performing suitable mathematical operations on it. one dimensional wave equation..independent...t) is the solution of Schrödinger wave equation. The probability * P(x.. Physical significance of the wave function The wave function ψ(x.t ) = ψψ * = ψ ( x. kinetic energy etc.. The most important property of ψ is that it gives a measure of the probability of finding a particle at a particular position.. such as position. momentum. Normalization of wave function.7.. The wave function ψ cannot be measured directly by any physical experiment. t ) 2 ψ is also called the probability amplitude. However..
If ψ is a wave function associated with a particle then ψ 2 dτ is the probability of finding the particle in a small volume dτ . If it is certain that the particle is present in a volume 2 τ then the total probability in the volume τ is unity i. ψ is finite everywhere 31 . 3. Ψ must be normalized so that ψ must go to 0 as x → ± ∞. 1.e ∫τψ dτ = 1 .e . ψψ * at x = ∞ is zero. 2 4. This is the normalization condition and the wave function ψ is called normalization condition. it will have many mathematically possible solutions (ψ). ψ and its first derivative with respect to its variable are continuous everywhere. which will have only one value. 3. Eigen functions and Eigen values The Schrödinger wave equation is a second order differential equation. First derivative of ψ with respect to its variables should be continuous and single valued everywhere. it has to satisfy the following criteria. The physically acceptable solutions are called well behaved functions or Eigen functions (ψ). so that ∫ψ dτ over all the space be a finite constant. 1. Properties of wave function: The wave function ψ should satisfy the following properties to describe the characteristics of matter waves. 2 In one dimension the normalization condition is ∫xψ dx = 1 Note: When the particle is bound to a limited region the probability of finding the particle at infinity is zero i. ψ is single valued 2.. The wave function ψ should be continuous and single valued everywhere. ψ must be a solution of Schrödinger wave equation 2. All mathematically possible solutions are not physically acceptable solutions. Because it is related to the probability of finding a particle at a given position at a given time. because ψ is finite. To an acceptable wave function ψ.
^ ^ 32 . momentum etc.Eigen functions: Once the Eigen functions are known. they can be used in Schrödinger wave equation to evaluate the physically measurable quantities like energy.. these values are called Eigen values. In an operator equation aψ = λψ where a is an operator for the physical quantity and ψ is an Eigen function and λ is the Eigen value.
... Outside the box Schrodinger’s wave equation is V V= ∂ 2 Ψ 8π 2 m ( E − ∞ ) Ψ = 0... nπ k= a n 2π 2 k2 = 2 a Substitute the value of k2 in equation (3).. we get A =0and B ≠ 0.. k 2 = x=0 x x=a 8mπ 2 E . (5) Condition: II : at x =a.. Now apply boundary conditions for this...( 2) 2 ∂x where.(3) h2 Discussion of the solution The solution of the above equation is given by Ψ = A cos kx + B sin kx....e. ψ is zero .. 33 ... Outside this region potential energy ‘V’ is infinity and within this region V=0..Applications of Schrodinger’s wave equation 1. Condition: I at x =0. (If b is also zero for all values of x...direction in the region from x=0 to x=a.(1) + 2 2 ∂x h 2 This equation holds good only if ψ =0 for all points outside the box i.....2.... Ψ = 0 ... ∂ 2 Ψ 8π 2 m + EΨ = 0 ∂x 2 h2 ∂2Ψ + k 2 Ψ = 0..... (4) where A & B are constants which depending on the boundary conditions of the well.. Inside the box v=o.... Substituting the condition I In the equation 4...3…………….. For a Particle a in onedimensional potential well of infinite depth..... ψ = 0. sin ka = 0 ∴ ka = nπ where. hence the Schrodinger’s equation is given by...V=0 means which that the particle cannot be found at all outside the box. This means that the particle is not present in the well..... ψ = 0 Substituting the condition II in equation 5 we get 0= B sin(ka) Since B ≠ 0..) Now the equation 3 can be written as Ψ = B sin kx. n = 1... (or Particle in a box) Consider a particle of mass ‘m’ moving freely in x...
. which is not true. ∴ The lowest energy corresponds to ‘n’ =1 is called the zeropoint energy or Ground state energy... Hence the lowest value of ‘n’ is 1.. To evaluate B in equation (3). This means to say that the electron is not present inside the box.. ψ = B sin kx = Bsin ∫Ψ 0 a 2 dx = 1 B2 2 nπ ∫ 2 sin a xdx = 1 2 0 1 2 But sin θ = (1 − cos 2θ ) 2 2 a B 2nπx ∫ 1 − cos a dx = 1` 2 0 a a a B2 2nπx dx − ∫ cos dx = 1 ∫ 2 0 a 0 B2 2 B2 2 a 2nπx x − 2nπ sin a = 1 0 a a a − 2nπ sin 2nπ − 0 = 1 2 B a ∴ =1 2 ∴B = 2 a Thus the normalized wave function of a particle in a onedimensional box is given by. h2 E zero − po int = 8ma 2 All the states of n>1 are called excited states.. Consider the equation. When n=0..8mπ 2 E n 2π 2 = 2 h2 a 2 2 n h E= . one has to perform normalization of wave function.... Normalization of wave function: nπ x a The integral of the wave function over the entire space in the box must be equal to unity because there is only one particle within the box.( 6) 8ma 2 The equation 6 gives energy values or Eigen value of the particle in the well. ψ n = 0...... 3 34 . the probability of finding the particle is 1.
it indicates the probability of finding the particle at different locations inside the box. Ψn = Ψ1 = Ψ2 = Ψ3 = 2 π sin x a a 2 2π sin x a a 2 3π sin x a a Since the particle in a box is a quantum mechanical problem we need to evaluate the most probable location of the particle in a box and its energies at different permitted state. The Energy in the ground h2 state E1 = . the Eigen function is 2 π Ψ1 = sin x a a In the above equation Ψ =0 for both x=0 & x=a. For n=1. The Eigen values are as follows. 2 π a 2 2 Ψ1 = sin = and ψ 12 = a a2 a a Ψ1 1 x=0 2 x=a/2 x=a x=0 x=a/2 x=a Ψ 1 Ψ 2 A plot of Ψ1 the probability density versus ‘x’ is as shown. Let us consider first three cases Case (1) n=1. 2 2 ∴ Ψ1 =0 at x = 0 and x = a also Ψ1 is maximum 2/a at x = (a/2). This means. in the ground state the particle cannot be found at the walls of the box and the probability of finding the particle is maximum at the central region. From the figure.2. but Ψ1 has maximum value 2/a for x=a/2.3…………… x a a This equation gives the Eigen functions of the particle in the box.2 nπ sin where n=1. This is the ground stat and the particle is normally found in this state. 8ma 2 Case 2 : n =2 35 .
The energy corresponds to second excited state is given by E3 = 9E1 . 4 a these facts are seen in the following plot. a 2 2 and Ψ3 reaches maximum 2/a at x = a 6 . Thus the energy in the first excited state is 4 times the zero point energy. This is the second excited state and the Eigen function for this state is given by 2 3π Ψ3 = sin x a a now. a 2 . The Eigen function for this state is given by 2 2π Ψ2 = sin x a a now. x=0 x=0 x=a x=a 36 . a 2 . a 3 . a 2 and a and Ψ2 reaches maximum 2 a 3a Ψ2 at x = 4 .This is the first excited state. 3a It means that in the first excited state the particle cannot be observed either at 4 4 the walls or at the center. a 3 . 2a 3 . The energy is E 2 = 4E1 . a 4 Ψ2 2 a 4 a x=0 a 2 a 2 3a 2 a 4 From the figure it can be seen that Ψ2 x = a . a 2 and Ψ2 reaches maximum at x = a 6 . Ψ2 =0 for the values x = 0. Ψ3 =0 for the values x = 0. 5a 6 at which the particle is most likely to be found. 5a 6 a x=0 a 2 = 0 at x = 0. Case 3: n =3. a and Ψ 2 = 2 / a at at Ψ3 Ψ3 2 Ψ3 =0 for the values x = 0. 2a 3 . a 2 .
especially the orientation of the mirrors to the cavity axis ensures that laser output is limited to only a specific direction. Yet it is so sharp the diameter of the spot will be close to the wavelength of the focused light. The rate of induced absorption per unit volume is proportional to the number of atoms in the ground state and to the energy density of the incident photon.There are three possible ways through which interaction of radiation and matter can take place. Focus ability: since laser is highly monochromatic.7µm2. the system gives out a part of its energy and if the transition is in the reverse direction. the energy incident is of the order of millions of joules. 37 . High Intensity: The laser beam is highly intense. The light from laser source consists of wave trains that are in identical in phase.The interaction leads to an abrupt transition of the quantum system such as an Atom or a molecule from one energy state to another. Rate of induced absorption = B12UνN1 E2 Incident photon E1 The process can be represented as. where in the difference in energy of two states is precisely the energy of the photon. They are Induced absorption: Induced absorption is the absorption of an incident photon by a system as a result of which the system is elevated from a lower energy state to a higher energy state. Basic principles: Radiation interacts with matter under appropriate conditions . Monochromaticity: The laser beam is characterized by a high degree of monochromaticity (single wavelength or frequency) than any other conventional monochromatic source of light . while ordinary light spreads over a wide range of wavelength. Coherence: The degree of coherence of a laser beam is very high than the other sources. Atom +Photon Atom *. Since even laser is not ideally monochromatic the spot diameter in actual cases will be 100 to 150 times larger than the wavelength. it can be focused very well by a lens. LASERS LASER is the acronym of Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of radiation. Further it can be focused to a very small area 0. When laser beam is incident on a square meter of surface. If the transition is from a higher state to a lower one. LASER AND OPTICAL FIBERS.the bandwidth (∆λ) of the laser beam is narrow. Characteristics of Laser beam Directionality: The design of the resonant cavity. then it absorbs the incident energy.UNIT 3.
e. The energy of the emitted photon is E2 . under the influence of an incident photon of just the right energy that is equal to the energy difference of the two levels due to which the system transits from a higher energy state to lower Energy State. energy and direction of movement as that of the incident photon called stimulating photon E2 Stimulated Photon Incident photon E1 The rate of induced emission per unit volume is proportional to the number of atoms in the excited state and to the energy density of the incident photon. which is responsible for laser action. Rate of induced absorption = B21UνN2 The process can be represented as: Atom * + photon Atom + (photon + photon) This is the kind of emission. hγ N1 k ∴ =e T N2 N 2 = N1e E E2 − 1 − k T = N1e −kT hγ 38 .Suppose we have two energy level system E1& E2 and say the number of atoms in E1 is N1and number of atoms in E2 is N2. E2 Emitted photon E1 A photon of energy equal to the difference in the energy of the two states is released i.At any given temperature. Rate of spontaneous emission = A12N2 The process can be represented as.The rate of spontaneous emission per unit volume is proportional to the number of atoms in the excited state. when a system transits from higher Energy State to lower Energy State without the aid of any external agency after a time of 109s. To achieve higher probability of stimulated emission we make use of the Phenomenon population inversion.E1 . Atom * Atom + photon Stimulated Emission: Stimulated Emission is emission of a photon by a system.. under thermal equilibrium conditions Boltzmann relation gives the distribution of atoms in different energy states. The photon emitted is called the stimulated photon and will have same phase.Spontaneous Emission: Spontaneous emission is the emission of a photon.
And then the atom from the E3 state undergoes downward transition to either E1or E2 states rapidly. the number of atoms in the higher energy state is less than the number of atoms in the lower energy state that is N2<N1.The establishment of a situation in which the number of atoms in the higher energy level must be greater than that in the lower energy level state is called population inversion(N2>N1). there will be a competition between stimulated and spontaneous emission.Under normal conditions. the ratio of stimulated emissions to spontaneous emission is Stimulated Emission B21 N 2Uν B21Uν = = very small. the ratio of stimulated emission to absorption must be higher than unity. stimulated Emission B21 N 2Uν B21 N 2 = = Stimulated Absorption B12 N1Uν B12 N1 The relation indicates that stimulated emission will be larger than absorption only when N2>N1. E3 Nonradiative transition E2 Metastable state lasing transition E1 Requisites of a laser system: • An active medium is needed which is able to produce laser light. in a short period of time the number of atoms in the level E2 is far greater than the level E1. Three energy level system: Consider three energy levels E1. b) Under equilibrium condition. 39 . The above relation indicates that it is possible to have a higher stimulated emission than spontaneous emission. a) To obtain a good lasing action. E2 and E3 of a quantum system of which the level E2 is metastable state. for a long interval of time. With metastable states ( the atom resides in that level for an unusually longer time. Let the atoms be excited from E1 to E3 state by supply of appropriate energy. because of which the population of E2 increases rapidly. Population inversion has been achieved.Even if the population is more in the excited state. Once the atoms undergo downward transitions to level E2 they tend to stay. when photon energy density is high. In order to achieve higher probability of stimulated emission two conditions has to be satisfied. The ratio is Spon tan eous Emission A21 N 2 A21 In order to increase stimulated emission it is essential that N2>N1. Transition from E2 to E1 being very slow. Thus when E2 and E1 are compared the number of atoms in the former is greater than the number of atoms in later. The transition from metastable state to ground state is the lasing transition. which is of the order of 103 to 102 s)the probability of spontaneous can be reduced. As long as( N2<N1 )the absorption dominates stimulated emission and the medium will absorb light rather than amplify it.
Suppose a photon is traveling from the direction X to Y.as a result lasing action occurs in this direction. the atoms has to be raised continuously to the excited state . Optical resonator: • An optical resonator generally consists of two plane mirrors. • The distance between the mirrors is an important parameter as it chooses the wavelength of the photons. They are 1. λ is the wavelength of the photon. electrical pumping. 40 . The medium may be solid. A pumping mechanism is needed to excite the atoms to higher energy levels An optical resonator.Induced or stimulated absorption: In this process atom in the lower state E1 absorbs photon and get excited to higher state E2 . and N2 be the number of atoms in the higher energy state E2 per unit volume of the system. Active medium: A medium in which light gets amplified is called an active medium. • The optical resonant cavity provides the selectivity of photon states by confining the possible direction of photon propagation . Optical pumping: For realizing and maintaining the condition of population inversion.it undergoes reflection at the mirror kept at the other end . According to Albert Einstein.let Uγ dγ is the energy density incident/unit volume of the system.• • • An active medium that supports population inversion. The rate of absorption is proportional to. atomic transitions can be of three types. One of the mirrors is semitransparent while the other one is 100% reflecting. There are number of techniques for excitation.The number of such absorptions per unit time. The mirrors are set normal to the optic axis of material.the reflected wave superposes on the incident wave and forms stationary wave pattern whose wavelength is given by λ = 2L/n Where L is the distance between the mirrors. Let N1 be the number of atoms in the lower energy state E1.It requires energy to be supplied to the system. only small fractions of atoms of particular species are responsible for stimulated emission and consequent light amplification these atoms are called active centers. are used in laser devices they are optical pumping. Let radiation with a spectrum of frequencies be incident upon the system . liquid or gas. In an active medium. per unit volume is called rate of absorption. with the active material placed in between them. The process by which atoms are raised from the lower level to upper one is called the pumping process. chemical pumping…etc. n is the integral multiple of half wavelength 100% Reflecting mirror Active medium Semi transparent mirror Einstein's Coefficients Consider two atomic states of energies E1 and E2 of a system.
(3) Where. B21 is the constant of proportionality called Einstein’s coefficient of stimulated emission. per unit volume is called rate of spontaneous emission..(a) The number density of lower energy state. At thermal equilibrium. we get 41 . (a) The number density of higher energy state i. Rate of absorption = Rate of spontaneous emission + Rate of stimulated emission B12N1Uγ = A21N2 + B21N2Uγ Or Or Uγ (B12N1 – B21N2) = A21N2 A 21N 2 Uγ = B12 N1 − B 21N 2 By rearranging the above equation.e. (a) The number density of the higher energy state i.e.Spontaneous emission: In this process atom in the higher energy state E2 suffer spontaneous transition to the lower energy state E1 by emitting the radiation without the aid of any external agency . Uγ ∴ Rate of absorption = B12N1Uγ (1) Where B12 is the constant of proportionality called Einstein’s coefficient of induced absorption 2.. is proportional to. Uγ ∴ Rate of stimulated emission = B21N2Uγ.e.e. N2. A21 is the constant of proportionality called the Einstein's coefficient of spontaneous emission... i. and. (b) The energy density i. N1. The rate of spontaneous emission is proportional to. N2 ∴ Rate of spontaneous emission = A21N2 (2) Where.The emitted radiation is called spontaneous radiation and the phenomenon is called spontaneous emission . To get a relationship between these coefficients Einstein considered atoms to be in thermal equilibrium with radiation field. which means that the energy density Uγ is constant in spite of the interaction that is taking place between itself and the incident radiation.The number of stimulated emission per unit time per unit volume called rate of stimulated emission Rate of stimulated emission..Induced or stimulated emission: In this process an atom in the higher energy state E2 is induced by the photon of right amount of energy to make a downward transition to the lower energy state E1 . This is possible only if the number of photons absorbed by the system per sec is equal to the number of photons it emits by both the stimulated and spontaneous emission processes. 3.The number of such spontaneous emissions per unit time. and (b)The energy density i.e.
we have.Uγ = A 21 B 21 1 B12 N1 −1 B N 21 2 (4) But. 8πhγ3 1 Uγ = hγ c 3 kT −1 e (6) Now comparing the equation (5) and (6). ∴ At thermal equilibrium the equation for energy density is A Uγ = hγ −1 B e kT And. the subscripts could be dropped. Because of the above identity. and A21 and B21 can be simply represented as A and B and equation (6) can be rewritten. we have. term by term on the basis of positional identity. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE LASER 42 . the equation for U γ is. Uγ = A 21 B 21 1 B12 hγ −1 e kT B 21 (5) According to Planck's law. A 21 8πhγ 3 = B 21 c3 B12 =1 B 21 B12 = B 21 Or Which implies that the probability of induced absorption is equal to the probability of stimulated emission. N 2 = N1e N ∴ 1 =e N2 E E2 − 1 − k T hγ k T = N1e hγ −k T ∴ Equation (4) becomes. by Boltzmann's law.
is obtained by cleaving the front and back faces of the semiconducting material The junction lies in a horizontal plane through the center. Hence these materials are not suitable for fabricating laser. The junction layer (active region) has a width varying from 1μm to 100μm depending upon the diffusion and temperature conditions at the time of fabrication. Egs. 43 . The front and rear faces are polished or cleaved at right angle to the junction layer.section is derived by doping GaAs with tellurium and the p section is derived by doping GaAs with Zinc. Semiconductor lasers are the smallest (compact) and least expensive of all the lasers available. The resonant cavity is required for energy amplification . The other two faces are roughened to trap light inside the crystal. Construction: Cleaved faces Laser beam P type Active region • • • • • • • The gallium arsenide laser diode is a single crystal of GaAs.Semiconductor diode laser is a specially fabricated pn junction device that emits coherent light when it is forward biased. all direct band gap semiconductors. Pumping is due to current flowing in the device. The pn junction layer forms the active region. GaAs. In the case of direct band gap semiconductors the band gap energy due to the electronhole recombination released in the form of photon of light Therefore they are suitable for making lasers. and consists of a heavily doped n and p sections.. CdSe. The diode is extremely small with each of its size of the order 1mm. In the case of silicon and germanium the energy is released in the form of heat. the top and bottom faces are metallized and ohmic contacts are provided to pass current through the diode. makes the semiconductor laser the topmost in efficiency among all the laser devices. these planes play the role of reflecting mirror. The doping concentration is very high and is of the order of 10171019 dopants atoms /cm3. n.
This is the state of population inversion. These two photons are in phase with each other and have the same wavelength.the electrons in the conduction band drop to the lowest level in that band. and the energy associated with this recombination is emitted as a photon of light. and finally comes out through the partially reflecting face. • These lasers are used in communications laser printers CD players etc. The lowest level within the conduction band is with a large concentration of electrons and the top of the valence band is full of holes. more electrons excited to the conduction band and generate holes in the valance band. thus travel together. the electronhole recombination cause spontaneous emission of photons and junction acts as an LED.Working: • The GaAs laser diode is subjected to a forward bias by using a d. because this is an unstable state within a short time . Semiconductor diode laser emits light at a wavelength lies in IR and visible region. As the current increase continuously. • The stimulated electron hole recombination’s cause emission of coherent radiation of very narrow bandwidth. At the same time. the electrons near the top of the valence band will drop to the lowest unoccupied levels.At an absolute zero temperature (T=0K) for a semiconductor the conduction band is completely empty and valance band is completely filled. separated by the energy band gap(Eg). • 44 . This situation maintains population inversion. it raises the electrons from the valance band to the conduction band. stimulates the recombination of another excited electron with a hole and releases another photon. • At some instant. By the process of doping large number of charge carriers are available at room temperature due to thermal excitation. leaving behind holes. get reflected at the end face. The narrow region where the state of population inversion is achieved is called active region. they stimulate more electron hole recombination with the release of additional photons of same wavelength coherence in nature. • At low forward current level. This beam gets resonated by travelling back and forth. This photon as it moves. When pn junction is forward biased with a large current.c source as shown in the figure . one of the excited electrons from the conduction band falls back to the valence band and recombines with a hole. As they travel back.
Nd:YAG LASER : Flash lamp
Nd:YAG Rod
Ellipsoidal reflector
M1 pulse
Capacitor bank
Trigger
Power supply Flash lamp
^^^^^ Resistor Nd:YAG Rod Ellipsoidal reflector
CONSTRUCTION: • Nd:YAG laser is one of the most popular solid state laser. Yittrium aluminiun garnet Y3Al5O12 ,commonly called YAG is an optically isotropic crystal. • Some of the Y3+ ions in the crystal are replaced by neodymium ions, Nd3+. The crystal atoms do not participate in the lasing action but serve as host lattice in which the active centers, namely Nd3+ ions reside. It consists of an elliptically cylindrically reflector housing the laser rod along one of its focus lines and a flash lamp along the other focus line. The two ends of the laser rod are polished and silvered and constitute the optical resonator. The light leaving one focus of the ellipse will pass through the other focus after reflection from the silvered surface of the reflector. Thus the entire radiation is focused on the laser rod.
• • •
45
Working:
Pump Bands
E3
Upper laser level
1.06μm
E2
Lower lasing level
E1
Energy level diagram
Ground level
• • • • • • •
The pumping of the Nd3+ ions to upper state is done by a krypton arc lamp. The optical pumping with light of wavelength range 5000 to 8000A⁰excites ground state Nd3+ ions to higher states. The metastable state E3 is the upper laser level and E2 forms the lower laser level. The upper laser level E3 will be rapidly populated, as the excited Nd3+ ions quickly make a downward transition from the upper energy bands. The population inversion is achieved between E3 and E2 level. The laser emission occurs in infrared region at a wavelength 10,600A⁰. Nd:YAG lasers find applications like welding, hole drilling….etc.
46
Applications of Lasers
Lasers find applications in various fields such as medicine, material processing, communications, energy resources, and photography…. Etc. Laser welding, cutting and drilling Welding:
Laser light
the
Welding spot
The laser is focused on to a spot to be welded. Due to heat generation, the material melts over a tiny area on which beam focussed. An impurity such as oxides floats upon the surface. On cooling the material within becomes homogenous solid structure which makes weld strong No destruction occurs in the regions around the welded portion Since it is a contact less process no foreign material comes in contact in to the welded joint. Since the heataffected zone is small, laser welding is ideal in areas such as microelectronics.CO2 lasers are the most popular ones in this particular application.
Cutting:
Laser cutting is generally done assisted by gas blowing. The combustion of the gas burns the metal thus reducing the laser power requirement for cutting. When laser melts the local region the gas blows away the tiny splinters. The blowing action increases the depth and speed of the cutting process.
Laser light
Oxygen
47
It is one of the newer techniques for depositing thin films. NDYAG laser is used to drill holes in metals. The PLD process is schematically depicted as shown in the figure In its configuration a high power laser situated outside the vacuum deposition chamber is 48 .5mm could be drilled with a laser beam Very hard materials or brittle materials could be subjected to laser drilling since there is no mechanical stress with a laser beam. In conventional methods tools wear out while drilling whereas the problem doesn't exist with laser setup. Drilling: Drilling of holes is achieved by subjecting materials to laser pulses of duration 104to 103 second. where as co2 is used in both metallic and non metallic materials. Drilling can be achieved at any angle. The quality of cutting is very high. thus leaving a hole. There will be no thermal damage and chemical change when cutting is done to regions around cut area. making use of interaction of laser beams with material surfaces. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD): PLD is a new unconventional evaporation technique. Very fine holes of diameter 0. Complicated 3D cutting profiles is possible. The intense heat generated over a short duration by the pulses evaporates the material locally.2 to 0.
Construction Optical fibers are the light guides used in optical communications as waveguides. They are made up of two parts. They are propelled to the substrate where they condense to form a film. atom clusters. Splashing of macroscopic particles include rapid expansion of gas trapped beneath target surface. Both the core and the cladding materials are enclosed in a polyurethane jacket (as shown in fig. ions and molecules to penetrate this mechanical mass filter. causing electronic excitation of target atoms and exfoliation of the surface. They are transparent dielectrics and able to guide visible and infrared light over long distance. molecules. absorbed beam energy is converted into thermal. The guiding mechanism 49 . Another drawback is splashing of macroscopic particles during laser. The cladding is also made of similar material but of lesser refractive index. chemical and mechanical energy. The evaporants form a plume above the target consisting of a collection of energetic neutral atoms. Cladding Core Polyurethane jacket Wave guides (propagation mechanism) A wave guide is a tubular structure through which energy of some sort could be guided in the form of waves. rough target surface morphology whose mechanically weak projections are prone to fracturing during pulsed thermal shocks etc. micron sized particulates and molten droplets. 1). Core the inner cylindrical material made of glass or plastic and the cladding material the other part which envelops the inner core. electrons.focused by means of external lenses onto the target surface. OPTICAL FIBERS. Slower moving particulates can be batted back.Irrespective of the laser used. which safeguards the fiber against chemical reaction with surroundings.One of the drawbacks of PL technique is that plume is highly directional which makes it difficult to uniformly deposit films over large substrate areas. Lasers that have been most widely used for PLD center around Nd:YAG laser (wavelength= 1. ions. allowing more mobile atoms. To avoid splashing. and also against abrasion and crushing.induced evaporation. a rapidly spinning pinwheel like shutter between target and substrate is introduced. In OF light waves can be guided through a fiber.064µm) and gas excimer laser. it is called light guide. which serves as evaporation source.
Since each reflection is a total internal reflection (when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle. and sin θ 0 is called the numerical aperture (N. Condition for Propagation: Let n0. to begin with travels along AO entering into the core at an angle of θ 0 To the fiber axis. The angle θ0 is called the wave guide acceptance angle. Rest of the rays emerges from the sides of the fiber. by applying the Snell’s law that. then it describes a conical surface. θ1 θ0 A Acceptance cone B 0 Core (n1) Cladding (n2) Incident ray Now it is clear from the figure that any ray enters at an angle of incidence less than θ0 at O. 50 . The light signal undergoes reflection after reflection within the fiber core. or the acceptance cone halfangle. then those rays which are funneled into the fiber within this cone will only be totally internally reflected. will have to be incident at an angle greater than the critical angle at the interface. the optical fiber functions as a wave guide. Let it be refracted along OB at an angle θ 1 in the core and further proceed to fall at critical angle of incidence (= 90θ 1) at B on the interface between core and cladding. and thus confined within for propagation. Now. Numerical Aperture and Ray Propagation in the Fiber Let us consider the special case of ray which suffers critical incident at the core cladding interface.A. n1and n2 be the RI of surrounding medium.The cladding in an OF always has a lower refractive index (RI) than that of the core. We can say that it a beam converges at a wide angle into the core. The numerical aperture represents the lightgathering capability of the optical fiber.) of the fiber. Let OA is rotated around the fiber axis keeping θ 0 same. the ray undergoes total internal reflection). Since it is critical angle of incidence. The light signal which enters into the core can strike the interface of the core and the cladding only at large angles of incidence because of the ray geometry. Thus. core and cladding respectively. for refraction at the point of entry of the ray AO into the core. the refracted ray grazes along BC. the signal sustains its strength and also confines itself completely within the core during propagation. and gets total internal reflection in the core material. The ray.
Fraction Index Changes (∆): The fractional index change ∆ is the ratio of the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding to the refractive index of core of an optical fiber. then the ray will be able to propagate.θ 1 Again applying Snell’s law. ∆= (n1 − n2 ) 3) n1 Relation between N. 2 NA = Sinθ 0 = n12 − n2 If θI is the angle of incidence of an incident ray. If. Sine θ0 = n1/n0 sin θ1 = S θ = in 0 n1 n0 1− 2 n2 = 2 n1 2 2 n1 −n2 n0 If the medium surrounding the fiber is air. θ I < θ0 Or if Sin θ I < Sin θ0 Or. (2). then n0 = 1. Or. we have.A. ( n1 + n2 )( n1 − n2 ) ( n1 + n2 )n1∆ Since n1~ n2 . Therefore. The angle of incidence = 90 . n1 cos θ 1 = n2 Or.A. Cos θ1 = n2/n1 2) Rewriting Eq (1). (n1+ n2) = 2n1 51 . Or.N1 Sin θ0 = N2 Sin θ1 1) At the point B on the interface. and ∆ From Equ. Sin θI < N. n1 sin (90θ 1) = n2 sin 90. 3) . A. n1 = (1 − cos 2 θ1 ) n0 Substituting for Cos θ 1 from Eq. = n12 − n2 We have. we have. (n1n2) = n1 ∆ 4) 2 N . we have.
it is very difficult to splice them.. But the RI of the core material may either remain constant or subjected to variation in a particular way. Thus its RI profile takes the shape of a step. N . 60 to 70 µm 8 to 10 µm Refractive index profile Ray Propagation Cladding Core b) Step –index Multimode fiber: Light ray 52 .Therefore. They find particular application in submarine cable system. = 2n12 ∆ N . it can guide just a single mode as shown in Fig. The curve which represents the variation of RI with respect to the radial distance from the axis of the fiber is called the refractive index profile. b) step index multimode fiber and c)graded index multimode fiber. This classification is done depending on the refractive index profile. The diameter value of the core is about 8 to 10 µm and external diameter of cladding is 60 to 70 µm. The optical fibers are classified under 3 categories. a) Single Mode fiber (step index) A single mode fiber has a core material of uniform RI value. This results in a sudden increase in the value of RI from cladding to core. They need lasers as the source of light. since it leads to what is called “intermodal dispersion” which causes signal distortion. a)Single mode fiber. the whole material of the cladding has a uniform RI value. Similarly cladding also has a material of uniform RI but of lesser value. and the number of modes that the fiber can guide. Because of its narrow core. and thus enhances the light gathering capacity of the fiver.A. In any optical fiber. Hence it is called single mode fiber. Types of Optical fibers. 3. A. A. = n1 2∆ Though an increase in the value of ∆ increase N. Single mode fibers are most extensively used ones and they constitute 80% of all the fibers that are manufactured in the world today. Though less expensive. namely. we cannot increase ∆ to a very large value.
Its construction is similar to that of a single mode fiber but for the difference that. Its typical application is in the telephone trunk between central offices. The geometry of the GRIN multimode fiber is same as that of step index multimode fiber. But the RI of the cladding remains uniform. Its core material has a special feature that its refractive index value decreases in the radially outward direction from the axis. It is the least expensive of all. and becomes equal to that of the cladding at the interface. Its splicing could be done with some difficult. 50 to 100 µm 100 to 250 µm RI Profile Cladding Core Fig. The stepindex multimode fiber can accept either a laser or an LED as source of light. 4.4. It is most expensive of all. Its typical application is in data links which has lower bandwidth requirements. Its refractive index profile is also similar to that of a single mode fiber but with a larger plane regions for the core. Step index multimode fiber c) GradedIndex Multimode Fiber Graded index multimode fiber is also denoted as GRIN. It RI profile is also shown in Fib.The geometry of a stepindex multimode fiber is as shown in Fig.5 Either a laser or LED can be the source for the GRIN multimode fiber. its core has a much larger diameter by the virtue of which it will be able to support propagation of large number of modes as shown in the figure. 53 .
The important factors contributing to the attenuation in OF are 1) Absorption loss. scattering radiation and coupling. ii) Scattering loss iii) Bending loss iv) Intermodal dispersion loss and v)coupling loss.50 to 100 µm 100 to 250 µm RI Profile Fig. The total losses in the fiber are due to the contribution of losses due to absorption. 54 . All these losses are wavelength dependent and it can be minimized by selecting the operating wavelength. Graded index multimode fiber Attenuation in optical fibers The total power loss offered by the total length of the fiber in the transmission of light is called attenuation. 5a.
and L is the length of the fiber in km. which are of molecular size. The other impurity which would cause significant absorption loss is the OH (Hydroxyl) ion. has a tendency to absorb light energy however small it may be. The loss due to the scattering can be minimized by using the optical source of large wavelength. 1. 2. the type of impurities is generally transition metal ions such as iron. intrinsic absorption. Mathematically attenuation of the fiber is given by. At the point of bend the light will escape to the surrounding medium due to the fact that the angle of incidence at that point becomes lesser than the critical angle. cobalt and copper. which enters into the fiber constitution at the time of fiber fabrication. the electron absorbs the photons and get excited to higher energy level. In order to avoid this type of losses. It is denoted by symbol α. Absorption loss: There are two type of absorption. Absorption in a fiber is the absorption that takes place in the material assuming that there are no impurities and the material is free of all inhomogeneities. Scattering loss: The power loss occurs due to the scattering of light energy due to the obstructions caused by imperfections and defects.e. dB/km L Where Pout and Pin are the power output and power input respectively. The scattering of light by the obstructions is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength of the light transmitted through the fiber. During signal propagation when photons interact with these impurities. In the case of first type. present in the body of the fiber itself. chromium. α= 10 X log( Pout / Pin ) .. Hence it will not undergo total internal reflection. Defects 3. In the second type i.Attenuation in fiber is defined as the ratio of power input and power output. and hence it is called intrinsic absorption which sets the lowest limit on absorption for a given material. the optical fiber has to be laid straight for long 55 . Such a scattering is called Rayleigh scattering. Bending losses Bending losses occur due to the presence of macro bends and micro bends that are caused while manufacturing and as well as due to the applied stress on the fiber. the fiber itself as a material. Later these electrons give up their absorbed energy either as heat energy or light energy. The reemission of light energy is of no use since it will usually be in a different wavelength or at least in different phase with respect to the signal. one is Absorption by impurities and the other Intrinsic absorption.
Coupling losses Coupling losses occur when the ends of the fibers are connected. air film may exist or joint may be inclined or may be mismatched and then can be minimized by following the technique called splicing. industry and domestic. Bending loss Back scattered loss Micro bend Macro bend 4. Voice or any information is converted into electrical signals using the coder (photo multiplier) and is connected to the optical transmitter. propagated through optical fibers and converted back into electrical signal at the other end.distances and they should be freed from the external stresses by providing mechanical strength by external encasements. Applications Optical fibers find their applications in the fields of communication. In communication electrical signal is converted into optical signal. At the junction of coupling. which may be the voice or information. 1. 56 . Communication applications: (P to P communication) The block diagram of a typical fiber optic communication system is as shown in the figure. The electrical signals from the photodetector are decoded by the decoder to the original state. The light signals from the optical transmitter are connected to the photo detector through optical fiber. medicine.
f. the fiber should be laid straight. Fibers are free from corrosion effect caused by salt. Bends will increase the loss of the fiber. The cost of fiber optic communication system is lower than that of an equivalent cable communication system. The use of 57 . c. d. Fibers have large data rate compared to equivalent copper cables There is no interference in the transmission of light from electromagnetic waves generated by electrical applications. d.Coder Voice or Any information Electrical Signal Optical Transmitter Optical fiber High propagation Voice or Information Decoder Photo detector Schematic diagram of P to P Communication using Optical Fiber Optical fibers find very important. Fiber loss is more at the joints if the joints do not match (the joining of the two ends of the separate fibers are called splicing) b. Hence. a. pollution and radiation. Hence. the transmission is more secured. b. Point to Point haul communication system is employed in telephone trunk lines. they are more reliable. e. Attenuation loss is large as the length of the fiber increases. Tapping information from fiber is impossible. Transmission loss is low Fiber is lighter and compact than equivalent copper cables. This system of communication covers the distances. Longhaul communication has been employed in telephone connection in the large cities of New York and Los Angeles. Optical fibers find few disadvantages in the communication systems. g.. c. applications in communication because of the following advantages they possess. Repeaters are required at regular interval of lengths to amplify the weak signal in long distance communication. Hence. 10 km and more. They are: a.
It can also be used to illuminate the interior of the house with the sunlight or the incandescent bulb by properly coupling the fiber bundles and the source of light. Optical fiber bundles are used to illuminate the interior places where the sunlight has no access to reach. the damage caused at that part can be estimated and also it can be treated. the reflected light received by the optical fibers forms the image of the inaccessible part on the monitor. It consists of bundle of optical fibers of large core diameter. Endoscope is inserted to the inaccessible damaged part of the human system. Local Area Network (LAN) Communication system uses optical fibers to link the computeroriented communication within a range of 1 or 2 km Community Antenna Television (CATV) makes use of optical fibers for distribution of signal to the local users by receiving a multichannel signal from a common antenna. 2. Hence.single mode optical fibers has reduced the cost of installation of telephone lines and maintenance. Medical application Endoscopes are used in the medical field for image processing and retrieving the image to find out the damaged part of the internal organs of the human system. When light is passed through the optical bundle. Industrial Optical fibers are used in the design of Boroscopes. The working principle of boroscope is same as that of endoscopes. and increased the data rate. whose ends are arranged in the same sequence. which re used to inspect the inaccessible machinery parts. 58 . Domestic. 3. They are also used in interior decorating articles.
UNIT 4 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE. In the simplest crystals the structural unit is a single atom as in Cu. What is a lattice? It is a periodic 3D array of points in space such that the environment about any point is the same as the environment about any other point. b and c such that the atomic arrangement looks the same in every respect when viewed from the point r as when viewed 59 . What is a motif or basis? It is an atom or a molecule (simple or complex) or groups of unrelated atoms that is repeated at every point of the crystal lattice forming the crystal structure. All crystals can be described in terms of a lattice with a group of atoms attached to every lattice point. Hence we sum up by saying that CRYSTAL STRUCTURE = LATTICE + MOTIF (OR BASIS) LATTICE MOTIF OR BASIS CRYSTAL STRUCTURE A lattice is defined by three fundamental translation vectors a. Al and alkali metals. This group of atoms is called as motif or basis. An ideal CRYSTAL is constructed by the infinite repetition of identical units in space. Therefore the lattice can be considered to the skeleton of the crystal structure. Fe. FERRO AND PIEZO ELECTRICS. A CRYSTAL is a 3D periodic array of atoms or molecules. Au. Ag.
60 . More than one lattice is always possible for a given crystal structure and once a lattice is chosen more than one set of axes is always possible. The crystal axis a. b and c from the edges of a parallelopiped. Unit cell The unit cell is the basic building block of the crystal lattice.from the point r' = r + ua + vb + wc where u. The motif is identified once these choices have been made. we can construct the entire lattice. With this definition of primitive translational vectors there is no cell of smaller volume that can serve as building block for crystal structure. If there are lattice points only at the corners then it is called as a primitive parallelopiped. A lattice translational operation is defined as the displacement of a crystal by a crystal translational vector T = ua + vb + wc. v and w. The primitive translational vectors are often used to define the crystal axis. b and c are said to be primitive if any two points r and r' from which the atomic arrangement looks the same always satisfies the relation r' = r + ua + vb + wc with a suitable choice of integers u. The lattice and the translational vectors a. v and w are arbitrary integers. Any two lattice points are connected by a vector of this form. By repeated translation of the building blocks along the crystal axes. However. nonprimitive crystal vectors are often used when they have a simpler relation to the symmetry of the structure.
c α β b a γ There is an unlimited number of possible lattices because there is no natural restriction on the lengths of the lattice vectors or on the values of the angles between them. other lattice points at the center of the cell faces or in the interior. in addition to the lattice points at the corners. When such restrictions are applied then there are only 14 types of space lattices possible with one being a general lattice and the other 13 special lattices.The unit cell can be formally defined as " a geometrical structure that forms the smallest unit of the space lattice that when repeated along the direction of the crystallographic axis generates the space lattice". primitive Nonprimitive A unit cell is defined by three translational vectors and the angles between them. However crystal obey symmetry laws. The lattice to be chosen must adhere to the symmetry of the crystal. 61 . A primitive cell is one where there are lattice points only at the corners. A nonprimitive cell is one that has. This requires restriction on the relative lengths of the translational vectors and on the angles between them. These 14 space lattices are called as Bravais lattices. A unit cell can be primitive or non primitive.
β ≠ 90 K2Cr2O7.The crystal systems Depending on the basic symmetry requirements. b and c a=b=c a=b≠ c a≠ b≠ c a=b≠ c a=b=c a≠ b≠ c a≠ b≠ c Relation between α. γ = 120 CaCO3. crystals can be grouped into the following systems. CaSO4 α =β = γ ≠ 90 FeSO4. AgI α =β = 90. For each system the relative lengths and angles have been given. CaF2 α =β = γ = 90 NiSO4. CuSO4. BaSO4 α =β = γ = 90 SiO2. β Examples and γ NaCl. Na2SO4 α = γ = 90. SnO2 α =β = γ = 90 KNO3. System CUBIC TETRAGONAL ORTHORHOMBIC HEXAGONAL RHOMBOHEDRAL MONOCLINIC TRICLINIC Relation between a.5H2O α ≠β ≠ γ ≠ 90 The fourteen Bravais Lattices are distributed among the 7 crystal systems as follows CUBIC TETRAGONAL ORHTHORHOMBIC HEXAGONAL 62 .
b. ½b and 1c. For the line shown. Any lattice point can serve as the origin and once the origin is fixed a direction within the lattice can be identified. u v and w enclosed within square brackets i. These integers enclosed within square brackets represent the direction. the lengths of the projections are 0a. This line can be moved parallel to itself until it passes through the origin and it still represents the same direction.RHOMBOHEDRAL MONOCLINIC TRICLINIC All the Bravais' lattices follow two golden rules 1.and cdirections Write down the coefficients and convert them into a set of three smallest integers. [uvw]. The lattice obeys the symmetry laws of the crystal system Directions and planes in a lattice Once the lattice for the structure is identified and the axes fixed. The environment about any point is identical to the environment about any other point 2. 63 c .e. • • • b 0 a • The line drawn with the unit cell till it reaches the boundary of the unit cell represents the direction Treat this line as a vector and find out the length of its projections along the a. the coordinates of every lattice point is known. Normally a line joining any two lattice points can represent a direction. A direction within the lattice is denoted by a set of three integers. To find out the values of u. v and w of a line consider the following diagram.
[010] and [001] can be made to be coincident with each other. In this way by making suitable rotations the directions [100]. then [001] [100] direction will coincide with [010] direction. Such directions are called equivalent directions. [100].e. These directions are called equivalent directions and they are represented by enclosing any member of this family with angular brackets i. <100>. For example. ½. [010]. [001]. A further rotation of π/4 will make it coincide with the [100] direction. (refer to the figure) if the unit cell is given a rotation of π/4 about the axis shown. [010] [100] 64 .• • Equivalent directions The coefficients are 0.1 The smallest integers are [012] Two nonparallel directions can be related by lattice symmetry.
OB and OC are the intercepts made by the plane on Crystallographic axis XY and Z respectively. The planes are represented by a set of triple integers known as Miller indices. OB =vb and OC = wc b) Divide the intercept by the magnitude of the Basis vector OA /a = u. OB/b = v and OC /c = W c)Take the reciprocal of the intercept 1/u 1/v 1/x d)Simplifying by multiplying the denominator of LCM (h k l) (hkl) represents the Miller indices of the required plane ABC Definition: Miller indices are the reciprocals of the intercept made by the plane on crystallographic axis when reduced to its three small possible integer (h k l). The atoms of a crystal are supposed to lie on these imaginary planes. (hkl) may represent a single plane or a complete family of planes 2. A notation has been developed to represent these planes.Lattice planes and Miller Indices Bragg treated the phenomena of diffraction of Xrays from crystals as if Xrays were specularly reflected from imaginary planes. Note: 1. Consider a place ABC is intercepting X axis at A Y axis at B and Z axis at C C Let OA. If a plane is paralle to a given axis then the corresponding Miller index is zero 65 . B O A a)Find the intercept and express the intercept it terms of the basis vector a.b and c OA = ua. Miller Indices Indexing procedure to find the Miller Indices.
Some examples of Miller indices (100) Z Y X (010) Z Y X 66 . If the plane cuts the negative axis then the corresponding Miller index is negative and is written with a bar on top of it.3.
(111) Z Y X (232) Z Y X (020) Z Y X Expression for interplanar spacing 67 .
Both because of atomic dimensions. But we know that the dimensions of atoms are of the order of 108cm. is the perpendicular distance between two consecutive planes. Direction cosines satisfy a well known property Cos2(θ 1) + Cos2(θ 2) + Cos2(θ 3) = 1. b. Similarly considering triangles ONB and ONC we get Cos(θ2) = ON/OB and Cos(θ 3) = ON/OC. and 68 . since the concerned dimensions in the grating exceeds that of the X – rays by many orders. ON = d From the definitions of h. b. Considering the triangle ONA Cos(θ 1) = ON/OA. OB and OC we get d b c a Since the system is cubic a = b = c 2 2 2 2 h + k + l =1 Therefore d a2 a h 2 + k 2 + l2 Introduction to X – ray diffraction: Diffraction is bending of light across an obstacle whose dimensions are comparable with the wavelength of light. Therefore since O lies on the first plane. denoted by d. Cos(θ 2) and Cos(θ 3) represents the direction cosines of the line ON. Therefore ON = d Let the normal ON make angles θ 1. θ 2 and θ 3 with respect to the a. their wavelengths are of order of 10 8 cm. An optical grating will be ineffective to cause diffraction of X – rays. Consider a set of planes (hkl) in a cubic unit cell. But in the case of X – rays. Then Cos(θ1). Z N C • • • Miller indices of the plane (hkl) Intercepts on the a.and caxes.Interplanar spacing. the perpendicular from the origin to the plane represents the interplanar distance. OB and OC respectively ON is the normal from the origin O to the plane O A B Y X • • • • • • • • d= The first plane of the member always passes through the origin.and caxis are OA. k and l we get OA = a/h. 2 k 2 l2 2 h 2 + 2 + 2 =1 Substituting for ON.and the atoms are distributed perfectly uniformly in a crystal as a 3 – dimensional array. d. OA. OB = b/k and OC = c/l. The value of d depends on the Miller indices of the plane and on the crystal system.
considered an X – ray beam of wavelength λ incident in a direction at an angle θ to a family of Bragg planes with interplanar spacing d. Bragg’s Law: The following figure shows a crystal in which the dashed lined indicate atomic planes. Each plane family will be inclined at an angle to the other. Let BP and BQ be drawn perpendicular to the rays DE and EF respectively. The ray along AB. Sir William Lawrence Bragg and his son Sir William Henry Bragg. is obeyed. scatters the incident rays in all directions. a crystal provides an excellent facility to diffract the X – rays. the two scientists Bragg and Bragg. or Bragg planes. 69 . nλ = 2 d sinθ where n is an integer. a crystal can be thought of as a 3 – dimensional grating for X – rays. and showed that constructive interference takes place between the rays scattered by the atoms in different Bragg planes when the condition. Consider the rays BC and EF. They considered crystal in terms of planes in which regularity in the distribution of atoms could be identified. Another ray along DE which is part of the same incident beam is scattered by the atom E in the next adjacent parallel plane. The interplanar separation remains constant for a given family of planes. the X – ray beam is inclined upon the crystal at an angle θ.because of the regularity in the arrangement of atoms. The component planes of a plane family are called Bragg planes. and a detector scans through various angles for the diffracted X – rays. Let a monochromatic parallel beam of X – rays of wavelength λ be incident upon the crystals at an angle θ as shown. those which are parallel to each other. It is possible to identify different families of such planes. In this sense. The above condition is known as Bragg’s law. Each of the atoms in the crystal. put forward a different approach for studying X – ray diffraction by crystals. scattered from B and E. and have a path difference of nλ. In order to carry out X – ray studies based on Bragg’s law. The detector shows peaks for those angles at which constructive interference occurs. which is part of the incident beam. Bragg’s Diffraction: In 1913. Among the rays scattered from B and E. give rise to constructive interference. and the dots indicate the position of the atoms. Further. a single crystal of the given specimen is mounted such that. is scattered by the atom B in the first plane.
Hence the excess path δ traveled by the ray along DEF over that along ABC can be written as.e.. Thus in essence. Constructive interference takes place if δ = nλ. and θ is called glancing angle. we can say that. i. 70 .e. From BQ onwards. the corresponding scattered rays BC and EF undergo constructive interference only when they are inclined at the same angle θ to the Bragg plane. if 2d sinθ = nλ.3.… i. Hence. it is referred to as Bragg reflection. δ = 2d sinθ. = 2BE sinθ. where n = 1. the parallel rays BC and QF will travel keeping step with each other. Let it be denoted as d. the path covered is same during incidence. δ = PE + EQ. But BE is the interplanar spacing. the spacing between the atomic planes.A D C θ P E B θ θ Q θ F d X – ray scattering by crystal Now. = BE sinθ + BE sinθ. the constructive interference conditions match the law of reflection in geometrical optics. Here the rays AB and DE are incident at an angle θ to the Bragg plane. the above equation is called Bragg’s law.. This happens irrespective of thee wavelength of the X – ray beam.2. Also we see that. up to BP.
Rochelle salt (Seignette salt) it is the Sodium potassium tartaric acid (NaK (C4H4O6) 4H2O ). viz. The temperature corresponding to sharp maxima is called curie temperature. Peroskite group structure consisting mainly of titanates and niobotes . and θ is very close to the curies temperature Tc.FERRO AND PIEZO ELECTRICS. examples for this crystals are BaTiO3 (Barium Titanium Oxide) 3. Ferro electricity Ferro electrics constitute an important group of dielectrics. Ferroelectric εr paraelectric Tc T The static dielectric constant also changes with temperature T as per the relation for T>Tc Where C is a constant. 71 . Crystals exhibiting Rochelle salt structure . The spontaneous polarization occurs in the ferroelectrics by the action of internal process and without the influence of an external electric field. The dihydrogen phosphate and arsenates : examples are KH2PO4 (KDP) Properties of Ferroelectrics: 1. Examples for ferroelectrics are 1. But in case of ferroelectric crystal. dielectric constant exhibits one or more sharp maxima when dielectric constant varies with a value of several thousands. Anomalous dependence of dielectric constant on temperature: Usually in ordinary dielectrics. It is also defined as the critical temperature at which it looses its ferroelectric property and enters into paraelectric phase. They are anisotropic crystals which exhibit spontaneous polarization by acquiring electric displacement below certain temperature. Above relation is called the CurieWeiss law. By analogy with magnetism these materials are called ferroelectrics. dielectric constant does not change much with temperature. 2.
Tartrate group 2. Oxygen octahedron group. Dihydrogen phosphate and arsenates of alkali metals. The graph of spontaneous polarization Vs temperature shows two curie temperature (transition temperature). The spontaneous polarization Vs Temperature curve of this material shows only one curie temperature at 123 K. The typical example for this type is KH2PO4 . the polarization versus E will not follow the same path as that obtained for increasing E. If the field is decreased.2. When the external electric field is switched off the value of P does not return to zero and ferroelectric retains a residual polarization Pr. The polarization will not change even if E is increased. The unique properties of these materials are that they exhibit ferroelectric properties between 18 ºC to +23 ºC only. 72 . 3. Tartrate group Example is Rochelle salt which is SodiumPotassium salt of tartaric acid (NaK (C4H4O6) 4H2O. They are the first solid known to exhibit ferroelectric properties. 2. (relation between P. Nonlinear dependence of its polarization on the external electric field: In ordinary dielectrics. the polarization P Vs electric field E describes a closed loop called the hysteresis loop. 3. the polarization P varies linearly with dielectric constant. The polarization will rise non linearly and reach saturation at certain value of Ps. Classification of Ferroelectrics. χ and E). a field Ec known as coercive field must be applied in the opposite direction. Therefore they are called linear dielectrics. It is why the nonlinear dielectrics are called ferroelectrics. Depending upon their chemical composition and structure ferroelectrics can be classified as 1. But in case of ferroelectrics the relation between P and E is complex in nature and they are called as nonlinear dielectrics. It is clear that there is a close resemblance between the electric properties of nonlinear dielectrics and the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. Therefore one can say that dielectric constant is not a constant in case of ferroelectrics but depends on the applied electric field E. Ferroelectrics exhibit hysteresis: When a ferroelectric crystal is subjected to an alternating field. To bring back the polarization to zero value. Dihydrogen phosphate and arsenates of alkali metals 3. Oxygen octahedron group 1.
i. Above curie temperature BaTiO 3 corresponds to the cubic structure. Some of the dielectrics. The Piezoelectric effect occurs only in such crystal in which the structure does not possess a centre of symmetry. Crystals that exhibit the piezoelectric effect are called piezoelectrics. the spontaneous polarization changes its direction from one of the cubic edges to a direction corresponding to a face diagonal. The three transition temperature reflects the dielectric constant and its spontaneous polarization of a material.ions. The amount of polarization charges appearing on the crystal depends on the crystal lattice type and lattice direction along which the deformation occurs. The two more transition temperature of BaTiO3 are at 5 ºC and 80 ºC. If the direction of the electric field is changed the deformation sign changes. They are also ferroelectrics. It has curie temperature at 120 ºC. where as perpendicular to the direction of polarization it contracts. The centre of the cubic face are occupied by O2. which is related to the applied pressure. When the temperature is lowered below 120 ºC (i. This mechanical deformation of dielectrics caused by an external electric field is known as the reverse piezoelectric effect (also called as electrostriction). PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate).The best example under this type is BaTiO3 (Barium Titanium Oxide). Examples: Ammonium Phosphate. a varying voltage. the spontaneous polarization changes from a direction corresponding to a face diagonal to one along a body diagonal. Quartz.e. At 80 ºC.ions forms an octahedron structure and at the centre of which the small Ti4+ ion is located. They exhibit hysteresis below its curie temperature. If an alternating voltage is applied between the two opposite faces of the crystal. The direction of spontaneous polarization may lie along any of the cube edges giving a total 6 possible direction for the spontaneous polarization. This piezoelectric effect is reversible. If the crystals are subjected to tension. the polarity of the polarization charges is reversed. if a piezoelectric crystal is placed in an electric field it will be polarized and deformed. Thus material is no longer cubic but corresponds to tetragonal. Piezo Electricity The French Physicist Pierre Curie and PaulJean Curie discovered the Piezo electric effect in the year 1880. it vibrates with the frequency of the field. The O2.. say from contraction to extension. below critical temperature). the material becomes spontaneously polarized and at the same time its structure changes. In cubic structure Ba2+ ions occupy the corners of cube. This polarization of a dielectric as a result of mechanical deformation is called direct piezoelectric effect.. At 5 ºC. 5 ºC and at 80 ºC. when compressed in a certain direction become polarized and polarization charges appear on its surface.e. If the mechanical pressure on the piezoelectric crystal is altered.. the material expands. is produced by the crystal. 73 . Along the direction of spontaneous polarization of a given domain. The voltage can be as small as a fraction of a volt or as large as several thousand volts depending on the material and pressure.
+++++++++ + + + + + +++++++++ + + 74 + + + Electric dipoles in a piezoelectric crystal Crystals with center of symmetry  Consider the crystal lattice such as the one shown below. Crystals with No center of symmetry . In the lattice a unit cell is considered. we see that it meets the same type of lattice ion ( that is the negative ion) at B. The lattice ions are located at certain regular intervals. say A (A is a negative ion) and then draw the reverse vector from O. Crystals in which such a symmetry exists in the arrangement of lattice ions are said to have a center of symmetry. if we draw a vector to any lattice ion. + + + + + + + O + + + + + +   The unit cell is said to have a center of symmetry at O because from O.
Consider a crystal with hexagonal unit cell. Such crystals are said to be with no center of symmetry and the unit cell is said to be noncentrosymmetric. let us then draw the reverse vector from O. In the unit cell we can identify a point O about which geometrically the unit cell is symmetric. All piezoelectric crystals possess noncentrosymmetric unit cells. 75 . Hence the dipole moment of the unit cell is zero. But it coincides with the centre of mass of the positive charge due to the three positive charges. The centre of mass of the negative charges will be at O the centre of the unit cell. The position of its positive and negative ions could be identified as shown in figure. State of polarization when no stress is acting: +   + O +  We consider a crystal with hexagonal unit cell. Now from O. The unit cell will be comprising of three positive and three negative charges that are alternated in a frame with six sides as shown in the figure. Because of this reason there can’t be any net polarization for the crystal in the free state. The reverse vector meets the opposite type of lattice ion( that is with negative charge) at B.
After allowing for the charge neutralization within the crystal. Similarly.Development of polarization in piezoelectric crystals: + + + + When pressure is applied on the crystal. thus accounting for polarization of the piezoelectric material. a dipole created in each unit cell while the crystal is being stressed. Let its thickness be t and length l (along optic axis). It has one three fold symmetry axis called optic axis and three two fold axes called the electrical axis. Similarly the 3 lines which are perpendicular to the sides of the hexagonal form the 3y axis which are known as mechanical axes. Accordingly the charges in the unit cell will be displaced as shown in the figure. If an alternating voltage is applied to metal electrodes fixed to opposite faces of the crystal plate. The frequency of the thickness vibrations is given by m Y f = 2t ρ 1 2 76 . the whole process results in the appearance of charges on the faces perpendicular to the direction of stress. Effectively we will be having a pair of closely lying opposite charges i. The line joining the apex point of pyramids is the 3 fold axis. it undergoes physical compression following which the lattice ion shifts their positions.e. alternating stress and strain are set up both in its thickness and length. Mechanism of Piezoelectric effect in Quartz crystal Natural quartz has the shape of a hexagonal prism with a pyramid attaches to each end. Thin plates of quartz crystal cut perpendicular to one of its xaxis are known as xcut plates. thin plates of the crystal cut perpendicular to one of its yaxis are known as ycut plates. Let us consider X cut crystal plane. The displacement results in the centres of mass of the negative and positive charges being shifted in opposite directions. Thus the stress lends a dipole moment for each unit cell. The three lines which pass through the opposite corners of the crystal constitutes its three xaxes or electrical axes.
. first overtone. Smart structure is defined as one that can sense a change in its environment and respond back in a useful or controlled fashion. Its function is to receive the sensed information from the sensor. 77 . stand for fundamental. actuating and information processing. Components /parts of smart structure: Input a) Sensor: It receives the information from the external environment.And the frequency of the length vibrations is given by 1 m Y f = 2l ρ 2 Where m=1. b) Control unit: This is the important part of a smart structure. Examples are quartz.etc. strain.2. …. polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) etc. These are functional materials that sense the intensity of stimulus due to the applied stress. lead zirconate titanate (PZT). second overtone…respectively. barium titanate. to process it and give suitable control command to the actuator to perform as per the requirement of the system. Applications of Piezoelectric materials in Smart structures: Smart structure is considered as a system of inputoutput functions comprising of many components performing sensing.3. optical or other phenomenon. These can be embedded into the structure itself or bonded externally to the structure. It acts as sensor by developing an electric potential when it is mechanically stressed across its faces. which acts like brain. Y is Young’s modulus along the appropriate direction and rho is the density of the crystal plate. Material used for the design of sensors are Piezoelectric crystals. electrical. thermal. These are mostly microprocessors and using automatic control functions and signal processing to instruct the actuators.
c) Actuators: This is the performing part of the smart structure. Lead Zirconate titanate is used in accelerometers. gas lighters. It receives information/control action from the control unit and actuates to control the required performance of the structure. Their main use is in frequency control of oscillators. MEMS. 78 . earphones. and possesses excellent frequency stability. They are also used as electroacoustic tranducers (to convert electrical enery into mechanical and viceversa). Example Applications of Piezoelectric materials: Piezoelectric materials find extensive use in electronics industry. The transducer action in employed in producing ultrasonics which find use in SONAR (sound navigation and ranging). The circuit acts as tuned circuit of very high Qvalue. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators as they undergo mechanical deformation when an electric field is applied. nondestructing testing of materials. A piezoelectric crystal is placed between the plates of a capacitor of a circuit whose frequency is same as the natural frequency of mechanical vibration of the crystal. which responds to the sensed input.
Each of these processes will be described in detail. In the reactive processes. PHYSICS OF THIN FILMS. and electron beam heating). triode. magnetron. atoms of the evaporant (typically a metal) chemically react with gas species which are intentionally injected into the process chamber. PHYSICS OF THIN FILMS GENERAL INTRODUCTION: The study of deposition of thin films has made a tremendous impact on the level of technology we utilize in our daily lives. and the most recently. The deposition of thin film (physical vacuum depositoninPVD) ivolves three steps viz. laser ablation techniques. 1) creation of an evaporant from the source material 2) transport of the evaporant from the source to the substrate (item to be coated) and 3) condensation of the evaporant onto the substrate to form the thin film deposit. The useful life of tool bits has also been increased by the application of thin films that are chemical compounds. induction heating. HISTORY OF THIN FILM AND ITS DEPOSTION TECHNIQUE Early references to the science of thin film deposition include the research conducted by Michael Faraday in 1857. In his series of experiments. Steel cutting tools used in lathes and mills are often coated with the chemical compound titanium nitride to reduce wear of the cutting edges The deposition of thin films composed of chemical compounds may be performed in several ways. The thin film deposition process demands high vacuum condition. ion beam). if oxygen were present. collisions with gas 79 . Thin film coatings provide enhanced optical performance on items ranging from camera lenses to sunglasses. sputtering of the compound. arc processes. followed by sputtering (diode. Other techniques for deposition of compounds include thermal evaporation of the compound (as is performed for salt coatings). and 2).UNIT 5. forming an alloy or compound. Codeposition is a technique in which vapors of two different materials are generated simultaneously. the techniques for thin film deposition have evolved in approximately in the following order starting from thermally induced evaporation (by electrical resistance heating. Many of the components of plumbing fixtures used in jewelry industry to decorate jewels are manufactured by depositing thin films of chromium onto injection molded plastic parts.. the process of evaporation involves significant amounts of heat. any reactive metal would form oxides. Historically. Architectural glass is often coated to reduce the heat load in large office buildings. There are two reasons why this process is best conducted under vacuum: 1). These two vapors condense together. and provide significant cost savings by reducing air conditioning requirements. and reactive sputtering or evaporation. Faraday created thin metallic films by exploding metal wires in a vacuum vessel.
then depositing the gold over the binder layer. In nucleation. During film growth the 80 . and the surface absorbs that energy. Improvement of this adhesion may be made by first depositing a thin (500Å thick) "Binder" layer of chromium or niobium. the film continues to grow in thickness as if the entire substrate were made of the material being deposited. and would also prevent growth of dense films. Substrate Evaporant Source When an evaporated material arrived at the surface of the substrate. the adherence of gold films on glass is very weak. Once a few monolayers of evaporant have condensed on the substrate. the ad atoms move about on the surface until they lose the thermal energy required to move about the surface (referred to as Adam mobility). The steps in the growth of thin films are generally referred to as nucleation and growth. Depending on the amount of thermal energy the ad atoms and the surface have. Chromium and niobium do form chemical bonds with the silicon dioxide in glass. evaporated material condenses on the substrate in a complex sequence of events that determine many of the physical properties of the deposited film.molecules during the transport of evaporant from source to substrate would reduce the net deposition rate significantly. As nuclei continue to form. Chemical interactions between the ad atoms and the surface determine the strength of the bond between the film and substrate. In the deposition process the strength of the bond between the film and the substrate place a major role. This is because Gold does not form a chemical bond with silicon dioxide. the atoms and molecules which are arriving (called ad atoms) at the surface lose thermal energy to the surface. and therefore. the film grows into a continuous sheet covering the substrate. For example it is very difficult to deposit a thin gold film on a silicon substrate. and also form metallic bonds with the following gold layer.
keep in mind the ultimate goal is to provide a means for depositing a thin film having the required physical and chemical properties. impurity content. magnetic properties and density. With experience. Thermally Induced Evaporation / Thermal evaporation In this process. 5) Gas scattering during transport of the evaporant. adhesion. Upon arrival at the substrate. The parameters one can control to achieve the specified goals are: 1) Kinetic energy of the ad atoms. By varying these parameters one can generate thin films of a given material that have different mechanical strength. etc. For each of the vacuum deposition process. and multiple layers of different materials. molecules. heat is input into the source material (often called the charge) to create a plume of vapor which travels in straightline paths to the substrate. optical reflectivity. This microstructure may be described in terms of grain size. and clusters of molecules condense from the vapor phase to form a solid film.) to achieve the following desirable properties: 1) High chemical purity.microstructure of the deposited film will be developed. 3) Control over mechanical stress in the film. Normally. 4) Augmented energy applied to the film during growth. flame spraying. 5) Low gas entrapment. It is common. porosity. orientation. 2) Substrate temperature. Following figure shows an illustration of thermal evaporation technique. 4) Deposition of very thin layers. vacuum deposition processes are selected over other processes (electrochemical deposition. electrical resistivity. 2) Good adhesion between the thin film and substrate. On a microscopic scale the localized heating from this process can be enormous. and entrained gases. the atoms. in the development of metal coating techniques for thin crosssection plastic parts. to melt substrates during the initial deposition runs. 3) Deposition rate of the thin film. The heat of condensation is absorbed by the substrate. one can select sourcetosubstrate distances (h) and deposition rates which will allow coating of temperature sensitive substrates without melting. 81 .
Te3 etc. and the substrate is heated to 200 – 550 degree C for obtaining single phase compounds. Since the rates of sublimation for most materials are small. a) Sublimation: If a material has a sufficiently high vapor pressure before melting occurs. This system has been used for preparing films of III – V group compounds of the periodic table (Be2. beryllia. The arrangement is shown below. generally made of refractory metals such as W. The choice of the support material/ target material is primarily determined by the evaporation temperature and resistance to alloying and /or chemical reaction with the evaporant.) . may be obtained by continuously dropping fine particles of the material onto a hot surface so that numerous discrete evaporations occur. most materials present no problem with evaporation from suitable supports. and the condensed vapors form a film. 1. Co.. this method does not find widespread applications. it will sublimate. Further. Fe and Ni. a mixture of the components in powder form may be fed into the evaporator. exploding wire technique. Alternatively. and ziroconia are used with indicret heating. Fine powder (100 – 200 mesh) is fed into a heated Ta or Ir boat by mechanically or ultrasonically agitating the feed chute. arc evaporation. graphite.. Introduction Thermal evaporation may be achieved directly or indirectly by a variety of physical methods. with or without ceramic coatings.Laser ablation) and electron beam evaporation. 2. The Ta boat is held at 1300 to 1400 degree C for III – V compound. Resistive heating: This method consists of heating the material with a resistively heat filament or boat. Al. which tends to distill fractionally. With the exception of highly reactive materials like Si.There are several methods by which heat can be delivered to the charge to cause vaporization: electric resistance heating. alumina. Mo. Ta and Nb. the major principle is heating the source/ charge material by various means. In this various techniques of thermal evaporation. since the large amount of 82 . The draw back of this technique is some times the flash evaporated films show considerable deviation from the original composition. flash evaporation. laser evaporation (PLD. Flash evaporation: A rapid evaporation of a multicomponent alloy or compound. Crucibles of quartz.
These drawbacks may be overcome by an efficient source of heating by 83 . High energy density pulsed laser beams have been used to deposit thin films of a variety of elements. 4. through a metallic wire. alloys and compounds. This method. 6. Explodingwire Technique: This technique consists of exploding a wire by a sudden resistive heating of the wire with a transient high current density approaching 106 A/cm2. ions. initiated by bringing the electrodes together. This is achieved by discharging a bank of condensers (~10 to 100 micro farad). Nd:YAG laser can be used for this method (see Pulsed Laser Deposition in Laser chapter). Some of the thin films that have been deposited using laser ablation include super conducting thin films. 5. The draw back of this technique is the thin film so formed showed regions of defects due to the condensation of micro particles spattered during the explosion.rapidly released gas produces spattering of particles from the evaporant. Sufficient energy is generated to blast (ablate) material from the surface of the target. This ablated material consists of neutral atoms. which make it difficult to evaporate highmelting point materials. this method is not easily controllable. and amorphous metallic layers. The amount of material deposited per laser pulse is very consistent. Electron beam evaporation: The simple resistive heating of an evaporation source suffers from the disadvantages of possible contamination from the support material and the limitations of the input power. but the process is not easily reproducible. charged to a voltage ~1 to 10 KV. Laser evaporation: This method is also called laser ablation technique. the additional safety issues involved with the use of lasers and the expense of the equipment. Thus. The arc. The deposition rate is low compared to other techniques (electron beam evaporation and sputtering. The enormous intensity of a laser may be used to heat and vaporize materials by keeping the laser source outside the vacuum system and focusing the beam onto the surface of the material to be evaporated. may last ~ 1/10 sec. 3. ceramic coatings. passed through a viewport and impinges on a target within the vacuum vessel. clusters of atoms and macro particles. Deposition rates ~50 A°/sec or higher can be obtained for refractory metals. allowing one to accurately deposit films of a specified thickness. for example). Arc Evaporation: By striking an arc between two electrodes of a conducting material. In this process. external to the vacuum vessel generates a beam which is focused. a laser source. as a deposition technique is currently limited to research and development laboratories due to the low deposition rate. Laser ablation. a catastrophic destruction and vaporization of the wire at some region takes place. sufficiently high temperatures can be generated to evaporate refractory materials such as Nb and Ta. employs a standard dc arcwelding generator connected to the electrodes with a capacitor across the electrodes. widely used for evaporation of carbon for electron microscope specimens.
their range being determined by their energy and the atomic number of the material. There are two types of electron beam evaporation techniques that are discussed in detail in later section. In practice. In the solid case.electron bombardment of the material. Principle: The principle of vacuum deposition is that evaporant charge is activated thermally and the molecules and atoms are transferred from the surface into an extremely low pressure gas phase. Both conducting metals and resistive films can be deposited with this method. The simplest electronbombardment arrangement consists of a heated tungsten (W) filament to supply electrons which are accelerated by applying a positive potential tot the material for evaporation. The source material may be liquid or solid. the evaporation process is known as sublimation. 84 . Vacuum deposition Technique Resistive heating: This process is probably the most widely used deposition process. Thus the surface of the material becomes a molten drop and evaporates. The schematic diagram is shown below. Thermal decomposition and structural changes of some chemical compounds may occur because of the intense heat and / or energetic electron bombardment. High vacuum is necessary to make the mean free path of the evaporated molecules many times the diameter of the bell jar. this type of source is capable of evaporating any material at rates ranging from fractions of an angstrom to micron per second. Instrumentation: The bell jar is made up of glass or metal. The jar is highly evacuated usually 105 to 106 Torr. The electron lose their energy in the material vary rapidly.
Therefore limits the number of substrate that may be processed at any one time. 85 . The heaters used for evaporation have different shapes such as cone. The uniformity and the repeatability of the films are improved. the mean free path of the vapourized atoms or molecules is greater than the distance from the source to the substrate. if the angle of incidence of the radiating vapour on the substrate is made steeper.. When the source material’s vapour pressure exceeds that existing in the bell jar. crucible etc. The system is pumped down to the appropriate pressure and the source material is heated by an electrical unit until it vapourised. boat. dimple boat. the material vapourizes rapidly.. The vapourised atoms radiate in all directions and condense on all lower temperature surfaces with which they collide. The substrate is usually heated during evaporation to improve film adhesion. The film produced by vacuum evaporation exhibits a fine grain structure. spiral. Under high vacuum condition.Working: The substrate and source material to be evaporated are placed in the bell jar. including the substrate. The heating filment such as tungsten is refractory metal having high melting point and low volatibility.
3) The composition of alloy thin films deposited may differ from that of the charge material (especially if the elements in the alloy have markedly different vapor pressures). 2) Low solubility for the charge materials. 4) The amount of material which may be evaporated per run is limited. 3) Filament should be wettable by the charge materials. Some of the inherent disadvantages of resistance heated thermal evaporation that should be kept in mind when selecting a deposition technique: 1) The source may generate impurities which may codeposit in the condensing thin film. 4) Filament should withstand thermal shocks well. 2) Accurate control of the deposition rate is difficult. 5) The substrate will experience heating due to radiant energy from the source.metal foil boat filament Baffled boat Some of the requirements for a good filament material are: 1) High melting point. 86 .
Principle: The process involves maintaining a discharge in a gas. Ar+ ions are accelerated to the negatively charged cathode striking that electrode and sputtering off atoms. the method of sputtering was widely used for the preparation of the films for certain metals eg. To sputter dielectric materials RF power source is used. For DC sputtering target electrode is conducting. perfectly innert at pressure of about 103 mm of Hg. Platinum and molybdenum for which the thermal evaporation method is difficult on account of their high melting point. Rate of sputtering depends on the sputtering yield which is defined as the number of atoms or molecules ejected from the target per incident ion.SPUTTERING TECHNIQUE Before the development of the thermal evaporation technique. plasma path • • • few collisions line of sight deposition many collisions less line of sight deposition little gas in film larger grain size fewer grain orientations poorer adhesion gas in film smaller grain size many grain orientations better adhesion 87 . The cathode being made of the metal to be sputtered. Comparison of evaporation and sputtering EVAPORATION high vacuum path • • • SPUTTERING low vacuum. The mechanism is essentially one local boiling of the cathode surface resulting from intese local heating arising from bormbordmetjn by the positive ions in the discharge. These travel through plasma and deposit on anode. The plasma contains equal numbers of positive argon ions and electrons and as well as neutral argon atoms.
There are three types of electron beam guns a) Work accelerated gun b) self accelerated gun and c) bent beam electron gun a) Work accelerated gun: (Figure a) In this case the electron beam is coming out of the loop type of a filament. 88 . It is accelerated directly towards the charge or through an appropriate shield thus concentrating the beam. allowing the electron gun to be positioned below the evaporation line (see diagram) Cooling the crucible avoids contamination problems from heating and degasification. Emitted electrons are accelerated towards an anode by a high difference of potential (kilovolts). which uses the thermoionic emission of electrons produced by an incandescent filament (cathode).ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATION TECHNIQUE Electron Beam Heating Evaporation This technique is based in the heat produced by high energy electron beam bombardment on the material to be deposited. The crucible itself or a near perforated disc can act as the anode. A magnetic field is often applied to bend the electron trajectory. Due to intense heat the charge melts. The electron beam is generated by an electron gun.
the electron beam takes a curved path to minimize the space. Depending on the energy of the electron beam. i. The maximum current that can be applied to the filament is calculated by I = 2. the whole arrangement requires more space.e.. Since the electron beam travels in straight line. To obtain high current density one has to use higher accelerating voltage and smaller cathode to anode distance.3 x 106 V3/2 /d A/cm2 “d” separation between anode and cathode.Self accelerated gun: (Figure b) In this case the electrons are emitted from hair pin type of filament and focused through a walnut cylinder on the material. 89 . the charge gets vapourised and the vapour condense on the substrate. Bent beam electron gun: (Figure C) In this method the electron beam is bent by an appropriate magnetic field and then focused on the charge.
90 .
SEM images have a characteristic three dimensional appearance and are useful for judging the surface structure of the sample.1. electrons are either reflected or emitted from the surface of the sample. 91 . to visualize various mineral components in their distinct growth forms and their relation in terms of overall micro fabric and texture. Principle of SEM: When high velocity electrons strike the surface of a solid object in vacuum. The signals are generated with interaction between incident electrons and atoms in a specimen. The main advantage of SEM is its ability to study the heterogeneity of the materials. Scanning Electron Microscope SEM is one of the widely utilized instrument for material characterization. It is capable of producing high resolution images of a sample surface. Most widely used signals are Secondary electrons. back scattered electrons and characteristic Xrays.
As the finely focussed electron beam of an SEM penetrates a crystalline specimen. Secondary electrons The most common imaging mode relies on detection of this very lowest portion of the emitted energy distribution. In addition target Xrays are emitted and other signals such as light.. 2.e. Through continous random scattering events the primary beam effectively spreads and fills a teardropshaped interaction volume with a multitude of electronic excitations. are utilized. Various SEM techniques are differentiated on the basis of what is subsequently detected and imaged. electrons are inelastically scattered and lose angular correlation with the primary beam. Electron beams having energies ranging from a few keV to 50keV. Secondary electron image gives surface morphology. transfer it inelastically to other atomic electrons and to the lattice. Upon impinging on the specimen. a grain. the primaary electrons decelerate and in losing energy. i. the sources of their origin can be imaged with approriate detectors. The result is a distribution of electrons which manage to leave the specimen with an energy spectrum shown schematically in figure. Pairs of scanning coils located at the objective lens deflect the beam either linearly or in raster fashion over a rectangular area of the specimen surface. In this process. heat and specimen current are produced. The signal is captured by a detector consisting of scintillator/ photomultiplier . Their very low energy means they originate from a subsurface depth of no larger than several angstroms. Backscattered electrons These are the highenergy electrons which are elestically scattered and essentially possess the same energy as the incident electrons.A schematic of typical SEM is shown in the above figure. with 30keV a common value. Electrons thermionically emitted from a tungsten filament (cathode) are drawn to an anode and focussed by two successive condenser lenses into a beam with a very fine spot size that is typically 10Å in diameter. Computer analysis of these geometrically complex EBSD patterns enables the crystallographic orientation of individual grains 92 . The phenomenon which makes use of backscattered electrons is electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). a point source of electrons effectively forms and it Bragg diffracts from the sample lattice. 1.
) Crystallographic information 93 . direct relation between these structures and material properties (ductility. reflectivity etc. By analyzing their energies the atoms can be identified and by coounting the number of Xrays emitted.) Composition The elements and compounds that the object is composed and the relative amount of them. hardness.to be extracted. Xrays characteristic of atoms in the irradiated area are emitted. its texture and relation between these features and material properties (hardness. is practically always attached to the SEM column. reactivity.) Morphology The shape and size of the particles making up the object. Electrons emitted from the filament are accelerated to high enrgies where they strike the specimen target. Applications Topography The surface features of an object or how it look. relationship between composition and materials properties (melting point. etc. 3. the concentration of atoms in the specimen can be determined. In the process. As a result a microtexture of polycrystalline films is obtained. Xrays An SEM is like a large Xray vacuum tube used in conventional Xray diffraction systems. Instrumentation for this major Xray spectroscopy technique. known as Xray energy dispersive analysis (EDX) . strength reactivity etc.
Presently. strength. SEM is about an order of magnitude poorer. why not by a force? Amajor advantage of detecting forces rather than current is that all kinds of material surfaces including metals. etc.) Other applications include Material evaluation with respect to grain size. therefore ideal for study but they must be removed from electron impenetrable substrates prior to insertion in the TEM. Thin films are. STM enables direct imaging of atoms.Arrangement of atoms in the object. In order to mechanically sense atomicscale surface topography. surface roughness. unlike other indirect techniques for deteriminig surface crystallography that depend on the amplitude and phases of scattered electron. direct relation between these arrangements and material properties (conductivity. the sharp tip should be mounted at the end of a soft cantilever spring. semiconductors. electrical properties. As the name implies. AFM cantilevers are micromachined from silicon. porosity. silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. There is a mechanical rasterscanning system (usually piezoelectric). and insulators are imageable. Atomic force Microscope(AFM) Shortly after STM appeared. Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) All conductors are imageable in principle and there is less danger of distorting and altering surface features in high electric fields. a method to sense the cantilever 94 . photon or ion waves. In comparison. 4. the atomic force microscope was conceived as a response to the question: if surfaces could be imaged by a current. particle size distribution and material homogeneity 2. the TEM is used to obtain structural information from specimens thin enough to transmit electrons. 3.Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) TEM is indispensable for the structural imaging of nanometersized features.
deflection (usually optical. eg. Interferometry). and a display to convert the forceposition data into an image. 95 . a feedback system to monitor and control the cantilever force.
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