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Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable form. 1 Examples: (universal facts and habits: if [present], [present]) Fresh milk goes2 sour if3 you keep it for a long time. If/Whenever I enter the house in muddy shoes, my wife (always) shouts at me.
a If Mr Perkins (catch) someone napping, he always (make) them do twenty press-ups. b If you (put) a block of ice in the sun, it (melt). c If she (be) sad, she usually (listen) to Cat Stevens. d If the roads (be) wet, it (be) more dangerous to drive on them. e If it (rain), we never (go) for a ramble.
2 Example: (imperatives: if [present], [present]) Don’t do it if you feel/are feeling tired. Take it easy if you don’t want to have another relapse.
We do not mention the subject before the main verb in imperative sentences. a (not drive) if you (be) drunk. You could have an accident. b (not tell) her if you (not want) to. c If you (not be) busy, (help) me. d (not eat) it if you (be) full. e (not add) fuel to the flames if you (not want) to have a row with your wife.
3 Example: (possible, probable or real: if [present], [will
If you follow my advice, you will not have any trouble with the Treasury.
a If you (present) your proposal, we (see) what we can do about it. b If we (put) off the meeting now, when it (be) held again? c If you (let) me down again, I no longer (rely) on you. d If you (break) your promise, you (suffer) for it. e We (give) them a call if we (decide) to pay them a visit.
4 Example: If a person smokes heavily, he or she can get lung cancer. In place of will, other modal verbs are possible.
a He needn’t come if he (have) many things to do. b If we (tell) them the whole truth now, they may forgive us. c We must leave now if we (want) to get there before dark. d If the weather (not improve), we should (or ‘ought to’) stay at home. e We had better tell her everything if she (ask) us.
5 Examples: If you have finished with your housework, we can go to the
If this washing machine is not still working properly after all the money we have spent fixing it. we’ll still be working at five o’clock. If everything goes well. you’d better stay at home and finish it.theatre. a If it (not snow) now. I (show) you round town. e If my memory (not deceive) me. . If we don’t start now. we can have other verb forms. Note that apart from the simple present and the future simple (will + infinitive). you should at least speak it. we (be) married for forty-five years in May. Can you come a bit later? d If you (study) Chinese for five years. c If you (come) tomorrow at midday. we’d better buy a new one. 6 Revision exercise. I’ll have been working for the same company for twenty years in November. I’ll have finished by noon. If you have been running for over an hour. it is not surprising that you should be tired out. If I haven’t retired earlier. b If you (not finish) yet. I (cook) the dinner.
f I (lend) you the money providing that you (pay) me back by Monday. b Water (boil) and (evaporate) if it (be) heated. you’d better hurry up. you can die from it. I’d like to repay you for your kindness. What you (do) then? k My mother (get) angry whenever I (arrive) home late. t If you (not mind). g I (stay) here with you so long as you (not make) a scene. you (get) your skin burnt. e We may go to Africa next winter if we (save) enough money by then. they (sack) you. p If the worst (come) to the worst. n If you (pour) oil on the flames. c If you (be) exposed to the sun’s rays for a long time. he may win. please don’t. I (reward) you for it. you (regret) it. unless you take an antidote. j Suppose you (see) a policeman. d We’d better postpone the match if it still (rain). How about going to the theatre tomorrow evening? . s If you (take) care of my sister. So. r If you (want) to do it. i Unless you (tell) the teacher’s pet our intentions. everything (go) alright5. l If you (play) with fire. q If you (talk) behind my back again. you can get burnt. m If you (not do) the chores yet. h I (go) out with you on condition that you (pay) for the drinks. we (have) to repeat the year.a If you (be) bitten by a cobra. you must do it off your own bat. o If he (take) part in the race.
time (be) in my hands. If it weren’t pouring down. But. x If we (not preserve) nature. you (jump) out? . c If I (be) in your place. we (destroy) the humankind as well. 7 Examples: (unreal or improbable: if [past]. please (tell) her to come over for dinner. I wouldn’t be working here. and can’t duck out of it. w (close) the window if you (be) cold. If I had the night off. I (leave) the phone off the hook. I’m a night watchman. b If it (not rain) buckets. I’d go to your stag party. z If you (hitch-hike) again. a If I (have) a time machine. you know. [would7 + infinitive]) If I were8 you.u If you (happen) to run into her. what you (do)? e If the brakes of your car (fail). we (drop) in on him. v She (tell) me tomorrow whether she can come or not6. If I were rich. I would/should (more formal) keep things quiet. d If you (be) to take the post. y (not stick) your tongue out at Mr Smith if you (not want) to be gated for a week. we (not give) you any pocket money for a month. we would go for a walk.
c If we (not underbid) her. she wouldn’t be10 dead now. they wouldn’t have been torturing him/If he hadn’t been a spy. you (not be) late. [would9 have + past participle]) These batteries wouldn’t have run down if you had recharged them. you (be) cooler. Why didn’t you sit there? 9 Example: If she had responded to treatment. to the present or future. they wouldn’t have tortured him. If you hadn’t been eating. If he hadn’t been a spy. but I forgot that the time had been changed.8 Example: (impossible: if [past perfect]. we (buy) the prehistoric axe. b If she (not overbid) us. If you hadn’t smoked like a chimney last night. we wouldn’t have stayed at home. you wouldn’t be coughing now. the other types seen in the previous sections.’ ‘Yes. we (take) the kids to the zoo. Imposible conditionals refer to the past. d ‘If you (reset) your watch. I’d go with you this afternoon. you would eat your dinner up now.’ e If you (sit) under the overhanging branches of the plane tree. If I hadn’t twisted my ankle. a If it (not drizzle). If it hadn’t been sleeting. you’re right. we (obtain) the prehistoric axe. .
10 Examples: If you don’t trust him. If she (not rend) it in two. to say if [past]. d He’s lucky not to be here now. e They lent us the money we needed to continue with the business. I (tell) him a few home truths. why have you offered him the job? If you knew she was not faithful to you. Now you’ll have to wash it yourself with soap and water. [would + infinitive] is used to link the present or the future to the past. now he (not be) regarded as one of the people implicated in the robbery. [would have + past participle]: They would have gone there if they were not ill. c He’s guilty in the eyes of the law. If he (be) here now. we (not run) it now. but only because he didn’t tell all the truth. if they (not come) to our rescue. why did you marry her? . It is also possible. a If you (not sling) your satchel on the mud. b She was so angry that she rent her blouse in two. If he (not conceal) any facts of what occurred that night. though probably less common. she (use) it for tomorrow’s party. it (not be) so dirty.If [past perfect].
why you (wait) for her? Why you (not tell) her to come here? e If you (realise) how smarmy she was. why you (not lie) down a bit? c If you (know) he was so pigheaded. If we use should in the conditional clause. we often use an imperative in the main clause. The sentence above means that you are not very likely to see my snake in your bedroom. please (let) us know. b If by any chance she (come) home. a If you (happen) to change your mind. (tell) her to wait for me. why we (not take) the kids to the zoo? b If you (feel) dizzy. we suggest a bigger probability. as it’s my pet. If we drop SHOULD. why you (believe) her? 11 Example: If you should see a rattlesnake in your bedroom. why you (try) to convince him that he was wrong? d If you (be) so sure that she wouldn’t be ready in a twinkle. a If you already (finish).If in the above sentences means as or since. don’t kill it. would you? .
c If you (receive) another allowance from your parents. a Your jacket is very creased. d If I (be) in your shoes.’ c We were hidden behind a bush. I (not be) so meek and mild. e He scored five baskets in the first minutes of the second half. 12 Revision exercise. (ring) me up. but if she (let) you through. b ‘I overslept this morning. please (telephone) me at once. which spurred his team to victory. f ‘Why don’t you ask him to help you?’ ‘If he (not be) so angry with me. it (not crease). e If you (come) across my wedding ring anywhere. his team probably (not win) the game. they (not discover) us.’ . If she (not shriek) with fright. I (be) tougher.’ (short answer) g ‘She felt light-headed after drinking two gins and tonic. If he (not score) them. please. This is what they deserve.’ ‘If you (set) your alarm clock as I told you last night. If you (sling) it over the back of the armchair. so she went to bed. I __________. you must pay me back. d You didn’t study. but she saw a spider and shrieked with fright. so I don’t think she will let you through. you (not oversleep).
But for her. and (not have) to go to bed. she usually (find) out.’ ‘Don’t worry! I’ll put it in the fridge immediately. why you (not stop) the car and (sleep) a little bit?’ r If I (tell) my mother a lie. But for her. m I fell into the river and couldn’t swim. it (spoil) in the heat.’ ‘If you (be) exhausted. q ‘I had the accident because I was exhausted. I (have) a very good dowry. k ‘If you (not keep) this omelette in the fridge. o I hope you don’t need any outside help. she (be) here now. If you (make) a good impression on him. so I .’ i I don’t think it’ll rain. but if it (rain).’ l If we (leave) now. please (raise) your hands. and of course. he (not talk) ill about you. If we (marry) in church. I (drown). n I fell into the river and couldn’t swim. you can leave. j He talked ill about you. p Does any of you want to work for us? If so. but if such (be) the case. you could always rely on us. we (reach) home in time to watch the match on telly. please.‘If she (not drink) any alcohol. she (not feel) light-headed. (bring) the washing in. If not.’ h My parents got very cross with me because we married in a registy office. I (be) dead now.
’ ‘But. ON CONDITION (THAT). it (work). and in the near future you won’t be able to work at all.. I (prepare) a special meal. your illness will go from bad to worse. If it (have) one. they (not do) such a thing. I (be) an important lawyer now. we’ll go on a ramble in the country. we’ll go on a ramble in the country. I (give) him a piece of my mind.(OR NOT): Unless it snows. BUT FOR. v If I (see) him. such as: AS/SO LONG AS. If it doesn’t snow. t My father’s lighter doesn’t work because it hasn’t got a flint. u Her children are given to answering back. (not slow) up’ y Why didn’t you tell me you were coming. and had to take up a job as a waiter. If is the most common conditional conjunction. What he’s been doing is despicable. but my father fell ill. z If I (not give) up my studies.won’t tell her any. you never (recover) from your illness. WHETHER. If I (know) you were coming. If she (not spoil) them so much. PROVIDED/PROVIDING (THAT). so please don’t. WHENEVER. the machine (stop) working. . w ‘What (happen) if I hit this button?’ ‘If you (press) it. SUPPOSE/SUPPOSING (THAT). doctor: my business cannot be neglected!’ ‘Well.’ x ‘If you (not slow) up.’ s (not make) promises if you can’t keep them. If this (be) what you want. I can’t.. UNLESS. in that case. but there are others.
please let me know. What would you do (then)? What if she betrays you? What would you do if she betrayed you?/If she betrayed you.] -I’m not sure whether or not she’ll come/I’m not sure whether/if (less formal) she’ll come or not.] -It’s your responsibility whether you do it or not. [Whether. If it hadn’t been for her. [whether + an infinitive] -Everything will depend on whether we can earn enough money (or not). [Another alternative to the one given above. (Let me know anyhow. please let me know. we wouldn’t be alive now. Suppose/Supposing (that) she betrayedyou. [a preposition + whether] -Whether you do it or not is your responsibility.or not is the subject.. Note the difference between the next two sentences: If you pass.But for her.) .. we wouldn’t be alive now. (Only if you pass. what would you do (then)? If cannot be used in the following cases: -I don’t know whether to sign the contract (or not).) Whether you pass or not.
we can see to it. I can lend you a bottle of washing liquid. d I’ll buy you a drink if you (like). if we invert the order. If you like. However. b If you (like) a bag of washing powder. When the object is not mentioned would must be removed. 13 Examples: If you would likea bottle of washing-up liquid. a If you (like). If I’m tired after lunch. If you would like takes an object. that is. Should and would are interchangeable in the first persons (I. if you like is not followed by anything. In other words. I often have a nap. I can give you one. a comma is usually added: I often have a nap if I’m tired after lunch. unless should means ought to. we).We do not write a comma if we place the conditional clause after the main clause. . might or would. if we put the conditional clause before the principal one. Note that there is a difference in meaning between could. e If you (like) to take early retirement. I’ll give you one. c They may take tomorrow off if they (like). For modal verbs. I can give you a bottle of washing-up liquid.
we could have aided you in your research.14 Examples: (inversion12) Should you see the enemy. I would/should marry again.) Were I to divorce. (= If I were to divorce.) Had you told me before. b I (be) to be given the job. (= If you should see the enemy. I would/should have helped you. keep still. a I (be) you. we can place should. keep still. I would/should have helped you. I would/should marry again. d You (apply) for the post.) As has been seen in the examples above. (= If you had told me before. It is a pity that you did not. please do not hesitate to contact us. you would have obtained it. 15 Examples: (special cases13) . I would accept it. I would resign. were or had before the subject to mean if. e You (inform) us earlier. This construction is more formal than the one with if. c You (require) any further information.
I (see) if the manager (be) in. I will/shall take them/Provided that these medicinal herbs will cure me of my backache. (= I will take these medicinal herbs. we shall /will contact you as soon as possible. (Please send me some information about your courses in Britain. (If she wanted to tell me what worries her so much.) a If your car (not start).If Paula won’t take the exam. you have to fill in the spaces . (= If Paula refuses to take the exam. I would/should be able to help her. (use) this product. I would/should be able to help her. d I (buy) this electric razor providing that it (leave) my skin soft. and we shall/will contact you as soon as possible/ Will [or ‘Would’] you please give us your address and telephone number so that we can contact you as soon as possible?) I should/would be very grateful if you would send me some information about your courses in Great Britain. (= Please give us your address and telephone number. e We (be) very grateful if you (keep) this secret. It works miraculously. I will/shall take them. we will/shall expel you from this school.) If you will/would give us your address and telephone number. and my backache will be cured as a result.) If you will play truant. c If you (skip) classes. you (fail). she won’t get her degree. she won’t get her degree. we will/shall expel you from this school. 16 Examples: (In this section.) If she would tell me what worries her so much.) If these medicinal herbs will cure me of my backache. (If you do not stop playing truant. b If you (hold) on.
In the first instance. you should leave the country. In the second example.) Take this telephone number with you (just) in case you have a breakdown. you have to rewrite the sentences . a __________ emergency.given with in case. you perform the action only when this happens. c __________ fire. you ‘take the telephone number with you’ because you might have a breakdown. push this button. in which case. in case of or if. If war breaks out/If there is a war. you should leave the country. Take this umbrella with you __________ it rains. In case of war. phone the fire brigade. take this telephone number from the glove compartment. b __________ there is an emergency. e The sky has clouded over. but this may not occur. If you have a breakedown. phone the fire brigade. d __________ there is a fire. you do not ‘take this telephone number from the glove compartment’. The third and fourth sentences above have similar meanings. 17 Examples: (In this section. push this button.
d If you (see) a fierce dog. or (else) our wages will be reduced by half.) and I’ll wring your neck. you mustn’t run from it. I’ll wring your neck. I (not breathe) a word of this to anyone.as shown in the examples. If you go on ragging me about my nose. a If I (be) Mary. 18 Revision exercise. and I’ll give you a stick of chewing-gum. c You give me a hand. otherwise you won’t pass. or else we’ll run out. (I do not leave my husband on account of the children. b If it (not be) for the children. a We must eradicate famine from the world. You go on ragging me about my nose(.) c Unless you (wait) for them. our wages will be reduced by half. If we don’t go on strike. e Put some petrol now.) We must go on strike. I (leave) my husband. they (get) angry. d You’ll have to study hard. . Either we go on strike or our wages will be reduced by half. or many people will continue dying of hunger. b Either you submit your application forthwith or it will not be accepted. So please wait for them. otherwise our wages will be reduced by half. We must go on strike.
I (not miss) it. l If you (sign) here. (= If they refuse to lend you the money. the fire (destroy) everything.’ g The fire engines got there in no time at all. p You (require) anything from us. you (overshoot) the turning. If they (not charge) so much. o I (be) you. k I did it only because they blackmailed me. you can come with us. (But I won’t. (Please sign here. I will lend it to you. f ‘I couldn’t watch the film on TV last night. You have nothing to lose by taking it. q If you know your children have been found safe and sound. and I’ll see what I can do for you. If they (arrive) a bit later. I (go) there again.) n If I (be) you. why you (be) so concerned about them? . I (see) what I can do for you. I (follow) his advice. they’ll probably rerun it again. I (not do) it. You have nothing to lose by following it. j If you (like) to have a smashing dinner. you should go to the restaurant I told you about yesterday. If they (not blackmail) me.’ ‘If so.e Can you go a little bit more slowly? If you (go) so fast.’ ‘Don’t worry. h The last time I went there they charged me an arm and a leg. please (let) us know. I will.) i If you (like). I (take) his advice.) m If they (not lend) you the money.
I. why you (not buy) one yet? s Come on! If we (not rush). x ‘Why do always publishers proofread manuscripts before publishing them?’ ‘If they (not proofread) them. some of them (be) published with errors. the reservoir (fill) up in a week or so. PART 2 1 Complete the following sentences as appropriate. I have terrible stomack-aches. t It’s not surprising that he’s always the laughing-stock of the whole office. a If it hadn’t been for your advice. (tell) them I’m in Brazil on holiday.. we (not finish) in time. u You’d better slow down a little if you (not wish) to fall ill. If he (not be) such a wimp. . So I won’t eat this lunch. w Whenever I (eat) spicy food.. z If you (not have) the heart to kill the old dog. If it (not stop) raining. v It’s been raining quite a lot lately. why you (tell) her that you would. people (respect) him. as it is very hot.r If you need a freezer.’ y If somebody (ask) you where I am.
.. ........ p Suppose somebody recognized you ——what...... v If they were to win the lottery..... q If somebody makes good use of their time at school.....? c If he doesn’t pay us back by Monday.. y Had they been arrested........ l I’d buy lots of things if...... why. s I’d be frightened to death if.. w My parents normally tell me off if. f I’ll teach you how to do it as long as..... x If you kicked the smoking habit.... m If you hadn’t drunk so much. o Unless you have your parents’ consent.. d If I were you. r We could have saved his life if... they. k If you like. u You’re going to get sunstroke if. we..... z If my moped hadn’t been stolen...b If you were aware of the many drawbacks of the contract. j If you would like a racket.... h I would have invited Laura if.. e I’ll take you there provided.. i Should you require us.. n If you had employed an screwdriver... t She might have passed the test if... g But for her intervention.
j If you will tell lies. ... i Providing these tablets will help me to get rid of my constipation. I.. u If you hang up your jacket. n If you dry up the dishes....... I...... a If he had given himself up to the police... d If my camera were not jammed.. (= If you keep on telling lies.. s If he feels drowsy.. h If it hadn’t been for you... it. m She wouldn’t have gone there if.... q If he hadn’t mocked (at) me... g I’ll go with you on condition that... t If my husband/wife snored at night....... why.2 Complete the following sentences as appropriate. f I’ll tell you what happened so long as.... p If I were implicated in a murder. l If he were in her shoes...... b If my parents buy me a motorcycle. o If you didn’t trust her.....) k If they won’t let you in. c If you had fed the baby........... e If there should be another earthquake.. r If I went overseas for over a year and found some squatters at home on my return...
or else you won’t get any pocket money... Example: Stop fooling about or I’ll go home. b He thrust at her with a machete. I’ll go home. c This frying pan has gone rusty because you didn’t leave it to drain when you last washed it. Use IF.. z Unless we go halves on the drinks. y If I were immortal.. e You didn’t turn up at the party.. d The reason why I didn’t attend the meeting was that they wanted to try to involve me in their shady business.... so she shot him dead.. which annoyed her. .. g I don’t want you to get home late any more. a Stop winding the clock.v But for her spell. f I took off my shoes in order not to wake up my parents. h You haven’t eaten your supper.. PART 3 1 Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing its meaning. or you’ll overwind it.. x If you had read the set books.. so you will not watch the telly this evening. If you don’t stop fooling about.. w If you hadn’t put your pullower on back to front..
u My father was in high spirits.. y She lost faith in him. v I hope it won’t rain this afternoon. or we’ll miss the basketball final. p I didn’t get a wink of sleep last night.. so I asked him to let me come back home late. x We must hire a taxi. or you won’t have anything for dessert. they didn’t fine me. As a result of this. so she didn’t tell him anything about the matter. s I’ll show you a photograph of her to jog your memory. r Help us out and we’ll repay you. and couldn’t come to your date. and I’ll give you a kiss. phone the police at once. w When the police stopped me. j She was ill in bed. q We’ve just missed the bus..i Either you give up smoking. n I didn’t get the job because I was left of centre. This is why. which is why he believed her.. I’m very tired. k You let me drive. Therefore. since it will prevent us from climbing. or you’ll die in less than a year. l In case of theft. and was able to defuse the bomb. we’ll have to wait till tomorrow.. (If. I was as sober as a judge. m Nobody was hurt because he was near. o You tell me that name again and I’ll break your neck. will this jog.?) t Put these things away. z He had fallen for her. .
b You trod in a puddle because you weren’t looking where you were going. he wouldn’t have arrived there so late. since Brazil has won against England.) e We must leave now. Example: He arrived there so late because he had had a puncture.2 Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing its meaning. h You sticked your neck out by telling the boss he was wrong. If he hadn’t had a puncture. c Maybe she got cross with you because you told her that she should go on a diet. or I won’t wait for you. and it’s raining. d We hate going for a walk in the rain. we can’t lose the match against Greece. i England has not got much chance of qualifying for the final. we wouldn’t have been able to do it. so it’s not surprising that you’re fired now. (Do not use ‘hate’. Use IF. f As you haven’t been a good boy. g Either you come on time. or we’ll be . you won’t watch telly tonight. a Without your piece of advice. j Now. otherwise we won’t be punctual.
Italy can beat Brazil.eliminated from the competition. w Our children must study our mother language. which made her scream with terror.. which would make things easier for us. x Think about being stuck up. and you’ll feel the clean air in the country coming into your lungs. (If. k Well.. o You failed because you skipped most of your classes. contact us immediately. p I’ll give you a hundred pounds to refresh your memory. and I’ll give you next Monday off. l You finish your dinner. t Breathe deeply. . but you have to have one to understand this. z With my salary. r She saw a viper on her bed.. it’s very difficult to make both ends meet. n In case of robbery. What would you do? y He got the job because he has qualities of leadership. or you’ll get fat.. s She couldn’t explain herself because he rang off. or else it’ll die out. u She likes him a lot because he’s straightforward. and I’ll take you to the zoo tomorrow. v Having a child is a rewarding experience. will this refresh..?) q Don’t eat between meals. m You work overtime this week.
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