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# S T R U C T U R A L

A N A L Y S I S
FUNDAMENTAL
Facul t y of Engi neer i ng
Chul al ongkor n Uni ver si t y
Jar oon Rungamor nr at
Zubi zur i Br i dge
Bi l bao. Bi scay, Euskadi , Spai n
C
M
Y
CM
MY
CY
CMY
K

J. Rungamornrat, Ph.D.

Department of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Chulalongkorn University

FUNDAMENTAL
STRUCTURALANALYSIS

Dedication

To
My parents, my wife
and my beloved son

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Preface

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PREFACE

The book entitled Fundamental Structural Analysis is prepared with the primary objective to
provide complete materials for a fundamental structural analysis course (i.e., 2101310 Structural
Analysis I) in civil engineering at Chulalongkorn University. This basic course is offered every
semester and is a requisite for the third year undergraduate students with a major in civil
engineering. Materials contained in this book are organized into several chapters which are arranged
in an appropriate sequence easy to follow. In addition, for each analysis technique presented,
underlying theories and key assumptions are considered very crucial and generally outlined at the
very beginning of the chapter, so readers can deeply understand its derivation, capability and
limitations. To clearly demonstrate the step-by-step analysis procedure involved in each technique,
various example problems supplemented by full discussion are presented.
Structural analysis has been recognized as an essential component in the design of civil
engineering and other types of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, factories, airports,
vehicle parts, machine components, aerospace structures, artificial human organs, etc. It concerns
primarily the methodology to construct an exact or approximate solution of an existing or newly
developed mathematical model, i.e., a representative of the real structure known as an idealized
structure. A process to construct an appropriate model or idealized structure, commonly known as
the structural idealization, is considered very crucial in the structural modeling (due to its
significant influence on the accuracy of the representative solution to describe responses of the real
structure) and must be carried out before the structural analysis can be applied. However, this
process is out of scope of this text; a brief discussion is provided in the first chapter only to
emphasize its importance and remind readers about the difference between idealized and real
structures. A term structure used throughout this text therefore means, unless state otherwise, the
idealized structure.
Nowadays, many young engineers have exposed to various user-friendly, commercial
software packages that are capable of performing comprehensive analysis of complex and large-
scale structures. Most of them have started to ignore or even forget the basic background of
structural analysis since classical hand-based calculations have almost been replaced by computer-
based analyses. Due to highly advances in computing devices and software technology, those
available tools have been well-designed and supplemented by user-friendly interfaces and easy-to-
follow user-manuals to draw attention from engineers. In the analysis, users are only required to
provide complete information of (idealized) structures to be analyzed through the input channel and
to properly interpret output results generated by the programs. The analysis procedure to determine
such solutions has been implemented internally and generally blinded to the users. Upon the
existence of powerful analysis packages, an important question concerning the necessity to study
the foundation of structural analysis arises. Is only learning how to use available commercial
programs really sufficient? If not, to what extent should the analysis course cover? Answers to
above questions are still disputable and depends primarily on the individual perspective. In the
authors view, having the background of structural analysis is still essential for structural engineers
although, in this era, powerful computer-aided tools have been dominated. The key objective is not
to train engineers to understand the internal mechanism of the available codes or to implement the
procedure into a code themselves as a programmer, but to understand fundamental theories and key
assumptions underlying each analysis technique; the latter is considered crucial to deeply recognize
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Preface Jaroon Rungamornrat

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their capability and limitations. In addition, during the learning process, students can gradually
accumulate and finally develop sense of engineers through the problem solving strategy. An
engineer fully equipped with knowledge and engineering sense should be able to recognize
obviously wrong or unreasonable results, identify sources of errors, and verify results obtained from
the analysis. Fully trusting results generated by commercial analysis packages without sufficient
verification and check of human errors can lead to dramatic catastrophe if such information is
further used in the design.
The author has attempted to gather materials from various valuable and reliable resources
(including his own experience accumulated from the undergraduate study at Chulalongkorn
University, the graduate study at the University of Texas at Austin, and, more importantly, a series
of lectures in structural analysis classes at Chulalongkorn University for several years) and put them
together in a fashion, hopefully, easy to digest for both the beginners and ones who would like to
review what they have learned before. The author anticipate that this book should be valuable and
useful, to some extent, for civil engineering students, as supplemented materials to those covered in
their classes and a source full with challenging exercise problems. The ultimate goal of writing this
book is not only to transfer the basic knowledge from generations to generations but also to provide
the motive for students, when start reading it, to gradually change their perspective of the subject
from very tough to not as tough as they thought. Surprisingly, from the informal interview of
several students in the past, their first impression about this subject is quite negative (this may result
from various sources including exaggerated stories or scary legends told by their seniors) and this
can significantly discourage their interest since the first day of the class.
This book is organized into eleven chapters and the outline of each chapter is presented here
to help readers understand its overall picture. The first chapter provides a brief introduction and
basic components essential for structural modeling and analysis such as structural idealization, basic
quantities and basic governing equations, classification of structures, degree of static and
kinematical indeterminacy, stability of structures, etc. The second chapter devotes entirely to the
static analysis for support reactions and internal forces of statically determinate structures. Three
major types of idealized structures including plane trusses, beams, and plane frames are the main
focus of this chapter. Chapter 3 presents a technique, called the direct integration method, to
determine the exact solution of beams (e.g. deflections, rotations, shear forces, and bending moment
as a function of position along the beam) under various end conditions and loading conditions.
Chapter 4 presents a graphical-based technique, commonly known as the moment or curvature area
method, to perform displacement and deformation analysis (i.e. determination of displacements and
rotations) of statically determinate beams and frames. Chapter 5 introduces another method, called
the conjugate structure analogy, which is based on the same set of equations derived in the Chapter
4 but such equations are interpreted differently in a fashion well-suited for analysis of beams and
frames of complex geometry. Chapter 6 is considered fundamental and essential for the
development of modern structural analysis techniques. It contains various principles and theorems
formulated in terms of works and energies and having direct applications to structural analysis. The
chapter starts by defining some essential quantities such as work and virtual work, complimentary
work and complimentary virtual work, strain energy and virtual strain energy, complimentary strain
energy and complimentary virtual strain energy, etc., and then outlines important work and energy
theorems, e.g., conservation of work and energy, the principle of virtual work, the principle of
complementary virtual work, the principle of stationary total potential energy, the principle of
stationary total complementary potential energy, reciprocal theorem, and Castiglianos 1
st
and 2
nd

theorems. Chapter 7 presents applications of the conservation of work and energy, or known as the
method of real work, to the displacement and deformation analysis of statically determinate
structures. Chapter 8 clearly demonstrates applications of the principle of complimentary virtual
work, commonly recognized as the unit load method, to the displacement and deformation analysis
of statically determinate trusses, beams and frames. Chapter 9 consists of two parts; the first part
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Preface

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involves the application of Castiglianos 2
nd
theorem to determine displacements and rotations of
statically determinate structures whereas the second part presents its applications to the analysis of
statically indeterminate structures. Chapter 10 devotes entirely to the development of a general
framework for a force method, here called the method of consistent deformation, for analysis of
statically indeterminate structures. Full discussion on how to choose unknown redundants, obtain
primary structures and set up a set of compatibility equations is provided. The final chapter
introduces the concept of influence lines and their applications to the analysis for various responses
of structures under the action of moving loads. Both a direct procedure approach and those based on
the well-known Mller-Breslau principle are presented with various applications to both statically
determinate and indeterminate structures such as beams, floor systems, trusses, and frames.

Jaroon Rungamornrat, Ph.D.
Department of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Chulalongkorn University
Bangkok Thailand

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PREFACE P-1
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 1
1.1 Structural Idealization 1
1.2 Continuous Structure versus Discrete Structure Models 10
1.3 Configurations of Structure 10
1.4 Reference Coordinate Systems 11
1.5 Basic Quantities of Interest 14
1.6 Basic Components for Structural Mechanics 19
1.7 Static Equilibrium 21
1.8 Classification of Structures 24
1.9 Degree of Static Indeterminacy 31
1.10 Investigation of Static Stability of Structures 41
Exercises 45
Chapter 2 ANALYSIS OF DETERMINATE STRUCTURES 49
2.1 Static Quantities 49
2.2 Tools for Static Analysis 50
2.3 Determination of Support Reactions 54
2.4 Static Analysis of Trusses 60
2.5 Static Analysis of Beams 78
2.6 Static Analysis of Frames 113
Exercises 139
Chapter 3 DIRECT INTEGRATION METHOD 143
3.1 Basic Equations 143
3.2 Governing Differential Equations 148
3.3 Boundary Conditions 149
3.4 Boundary Value Problem 154
3.5 Solution Procedure 156
3.6 Treatment of Discontinuity 176
3.7 Treatment of Statically Indeterminate Beams 198
Exercises 207
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Chapter 4 METHOD OF CURVATURE (MOMENT) AREA 211
4.1 Basic Assumptions 211
4.2 Derivation of Curvature Area Equations 213
4.3 Interpretation of Curvature Area Equations 215
4.4 Applications of Curvature Area Equations 218
4.5 Treatment of Axial Deformation 249
Exercises 256
Chapter 5 CONJUGATE STRUCTURE ANALOGY 261
5.1 Conjugate Structure Analogy for Horizontal Segment 261
5.2 Conjugate Structure Analogy for Horizontal Segment with Hinges 271
5.3 Conjugate Structure Analogy for Inclined Segment 278
5.4 Conjugate Structure Analogy for General Segment 287
Exercises 300
Chapter 6 INTRODUCTION TO WORK AND ENERGY THEOREMS 303
6.1 Work and Complimentary Work 303
6.2 Virtual Work and Complimentary Virtual Work 307
6.3 Strain Energy and Complimentary Strain Energy 309
6.4 Virtual Strain Energy and Complimentary Virtual Strain Energy 312
6.5 Conservation of Work and Energy 313
6.6 Principle of Virtual Work (PVW) 315
6.7 Principle of Complimentary Virtual Work (PCVW) 321
6.8 Principle of Stationary Total Potential Energy (PSTPE) 323
6.9 Principle of Stationary Total Complimentary Potential Energy (PSTCPE) 330
6.10 Reciprocal Theorem 337
6.11 Castiglianos 1
st
and 2
nd
Theorems 338
Exercises 344
Chapter 7 DEFORMATION/DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS BY PRW 347
7.1 Real Work Equation 347
7.2 Strain Energy for Various Effects 348
7.3 Applications of Real Work Equation 352
7.4 Limitations of PRW 361
Exercises 362
Chapter 8 DEFORMATION/DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS BY PCVW 365
8.1 PCVW with Single Virtual Concentrated Load 365
8.2 Applications to Trusses 367
8.3 Applications to Flexure-Dominating Structures 376
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Exercises 403
Chapter 9 APPLICATIONS OF CASTIGLIANOS 2
nd
THEOREM 407
9.1 Castiglianos 2
nd
Theorem for Linearly Elastic Structures 407
9.2 Applications to Statically Determinate Structures 409
9.3 Applications to Statically Indeterminate Structures 422
Exercises 432
Chapter 10 METHOD OF CONSIST DEFORMATION 437
10.1 Basic Concept 437
10.2 Choice of Released Structures 441
10.3 Compatibility Equations for General Case 443
Exercises 475
Chapter 11 INFLUENCE LINES 479
11.1 Introduction to Concept of Influence Lines 479
11.2 Influence Lines for Determinate Beams by Direct Method 485
11.3 Influence Lines by Mller-Breslau Principle 501
11.5 Influence Lines for Determinate Floor Systems 524
11.6 Influence Lines for Determinate Trusses 536
11.7 Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate Structures 563
Exercises 594
REFERENCE R-1
INDEX I-1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A-1

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

This first chapter provides a brief introduction of basic components essential for structural analysis.
First, the concept of structural modeling or structural idealization is introduced. This process
involves the construction of a mathematical model or idealized structure to represent a real
structure under consideration. The structural analysis is in fact a subsequent process that is
employed to solve a set of mathematical equations governing the resulting mathematical model to
obtain a mathematical solution. Such solution is subsequently employed to characterize or
approximate responses of the real structure to a certain level of accuracy. Conservation of linear and
angular momentum of a body in equilibrium is also reviewed and a well known set of equilibrium
equations that is fundamentally important to structural analysis is also established. Finally, certain
classifications of idealized structures are addressed.

1.1 Structural Idealization

A real structure is an assemblage of components and parts that are integrated purposely to serve
certain functions while withstanding all external actions or excitations (e.g. applied loads,
environmental conditions such as temperature change and moisture penetration, and movement of
its certain parts such as foundation, etc.) exerted by surrounding environments. Examples of real
structures mostly encountered in civil engineering application include buildings, bridges, airports,
factories, dams, etc as shown in Figure 1.1. The key characteristic of the real structure is that its
responses under actions exerted by environments are often very complex and inaccessible to human
in the sense that the real behavior cannot be known exactly. Laws of physics governing such
physical or real phenomena are not truly known; most of available theories and conjectures are
based primarily on various assumptions and, as a consequence, their validity is still disputable and
dependent on experimental evidences.

Figure 1.1: Schematics of some real structures
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Since behavior of the real structure is extremely complex and inaccessible, it necessitates the
development of a simplified or approximate structure termed as an idealized structure. To be more
precise, an idealized structure is a mathematical model or a mathematical object that can be used to
approximate behavior or responses of the real structure to certain degree of accuracy. The main
characteristic of the idealized structure is that its responses are accessible, solvable, and can be
completely determined using available laws of physics and mathematics. The process for obtaining
the idealized structure is called structural idealization or structural modeling. This process
generally involves imposing various assumptions and simplifying the complexity embedded in the
real structure. The idealized structure of a given real structure is in general not unique and many
different idealized structures can be established via use of different assumptions and simplifications.
The level of idealization considered in the process of modeling depends primarily on the required
degree of accuracy of (approximate) responses of the idealized structure in comparison with those
of the real structure. The idealization error is an indicator that is employed to measure the
discrepancy between a particular response of the real structure and the idealized solution obtained
by solving the corresponding idealized structure. The acceptable idealization error is an important
factor influences the level of idealization and a choice of the idealized structure. While a more
complex idealized structure can characterize the real structure to higher accuracy, it at the same
time consumes more computational time and effort in the analysis. The schematic indicating the
process of structural idealization is shown in Figure 1.2.
For brevity and convenience, the term structure throughout this text signifies the
idealized structure unless stated otherwise. Some useful guidelines for constructing the idealized
structure well-suited for structural analysis procedure are discussed as follows.

Figure 1.2: Diagram indicating the process of structural idealization

1.1.1 Geometry of structure

It is known that geometry of the real structure is very complex and, in fact, occupies space.
However, for certain classes of real structures, several assumptions can be posed to obtain an
idealized structure possessing a simplified geometry. A structural component with its length much
larger than dimensions of its cross section can be modeled as a one-dimensional or line member,
e.g. truss, beam, frame and arch shown in Figure 1.3. A structural component with its thickness
much smaller than the other two dimensions can properly be modeled as a two-dimensional or
surface member, e.g. plate and shell structures. For the case where all three dimensions of the
Assumptions + Simplification
Governing Physics
Idealization error
Idealized solution
Structural analysis
Response interpretation
Real structure
Complex
&
Inaccessible
Idealized structure
Simplified
&
Solvable
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structure are comparable, it may be obligatory to be modeled as a three-dimensional member, e.g.
dam and a local region surrounding the connections or joints.

Figure 1.3: Schematics of idealized structures consisting of one-dimensional members

1.1.2 Displacement and deformation

Hereby, the term deformation is defined as the distortion of the structure while the term
displacement is defined as the movement of points within the structure. These two quantities have a
fundamental difference, i.e., the former is a relative quantity that measures the change in shape or
distortion of any part of the structure due to any action while the latter is a total quantity that
measures the change in position of individual points resulting from any action. It is worth noting
that the structure undergoing the displacement may possess no deformation; for instance, there is no
change in shape or distortion of the structure if it is subjected to rigid translation or rigid rotation.
This special type of displacement is known as the rigid body displacement. On the contrary, the
deformation of any structure must follow by the displacement; i.e. it is impossible to introduce non-
zero deformation to the structure with the displacement vanishing everywhere.
For typical structures in civil engineering applications, the displacement and deformation
due to external actions are in general infinitesimal in comparison with a characteristic dimension of
the structure. The kinematics of the structure, i.e. a relationship between the displacement and the
deformation, can therefore be simplified or approximated by linear relationship; for instance, the
linear relationship between the elongation and the displacement of the axial member, the linear
relationship between the curvature and the deflection of a beam, the linear relationship between the
rate of twist and the angle of twist of a torsion member, etc. In addition, the small discrepancy
between the undeformed and deformed configurations allows the (known) geometry of the
undeformed configuration to be employed throughout instead of using the (unknown) geometry of
the deformed configuration. It is important to remark that there are various practical situations
where the small displacement and deformation assumption is not well-suited in the prediction of
structural responses; for instance, structures undergoing large displacement and deformation near
their collapse state, very flexible structures whose configuration is sensitive to applied loads,
buckling and post-buckling behavior of axially dominated components, etc. Various investigations
concerning structures undergoing large displacement and rotation can be found in the literature (e.g.
Tangnovarad and Rungamornrat, 2009; Danmongkoltip, 2009; Danmomgkoltip and Rungamornrat,
2009; Rungamornrat and Tangnovarad, 2011; Douanevanh, 2011; Douanevanh et al, 2011).
Frame
Truss
Beam
Arch
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1.1.3 Material behavior

The behavior of a constituting material in real structures is extremely complex (i.e. it is generally
nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, anisotropic and time and history dependent) and, as a consequence,
construction of a suitable constitutive model is both theoretically and computationally challenging.
In constitutive modeling, the behavior of materials is generally modeled or approximated via the
relationship between the internal force measure (e.g. axial force, torque, bending moment, shear
force, and stress) and the deformation (e.g. elongation, rate of twist, curvature, and strain).
Most of materials encountering in civil engineering applications (e.g. steel and concrete) are
often modeled as an idealized, simple material behavior called an isotropic and linearly elastic
material. The key characteristics of this class of materials are that the material properties are
directional independent, its behavior is independent of both time and history, and stress and strain
are related through a linear function. Only two material parameters are required to completely
describe the material behavior; one is the so-called Youngs modulus denoted by E and the other is
the Poissons ratio denoted by v. Other material parameters can always be expressed in terms of
these two parameters; for instance, the shear modulus, denoted by G, is given by

) 1 ( 2
E
G
v +
= (1.1)

The Youngs modulus E can readily be obtained from a standard uniaxial tensile test while G is the
elastic shear modulus obtained by conducting a direct shear test or a torsion test. The Poissons ratio
can then be computed by the relation (1.1). Both E and G can be interpreted graphically as a slope
of the uniaxial stress-strain curve (o-c curve) and a slope of the shear stress-strain curve (t- curve),
respectively, as indicated in Figure 1.4. The Poissons ratio v is a parameter that measures the
degree of contraction or expansion of the material in the direction normal to the direction of the
normal stress.

Figure 1.4: Uniaxial and shear stress-strain diagrams

1.1.4 Excitations

All actions or excitations exerted by surrounding environments are generally modeled by vector
quantities such as forces and moments. The excitations can be divided into two different classes
depending on the nature of their application; one called the contact force and the other called the
remote force. The contact force results from the idealization of actions introduced by a direct
E
1
c
o
Uniaxial stress-strain curve
G
1

t
Shear stress-strain curve
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contact between the structure and surrounding environments such as loads from occupants and wind
while the remote force results from the idealization of actions introduced by remote environments
such as gravitational force.
The contact or remote force that acts on a small area of the structure can be modeled by a
concentrated force or a concentrated moment while the contact or remote force that acts over a large
area can properly be modeled by a distributed force or a distributed moment. Figure 1.5 shows an
example of an idealized structure subjected to two concentrated forces, a distributed force and a
concentrated moment.

Figure 1.5: Schematic of a two-dimensional, idealized structure subjected to idealized loads

1.1.5 Movement constraints

Interaction between the structure and surrounding environments to maintain its stability while
resisting external excitations (e.g. interaction between the structure and the foundation) can
mathematically be modeled in terms of idealized supports. The key function of the idealized
support is to prevent or constrain the movement of the structure in certain directions by means of
reactive forces called support reactions. The support reactions are introduced in the direction where
the movement is constrained and they are unknown a priori; such unknown reactions can generally
be computed by enforcing static equilibrium conditions and other necessary kinematical conditions.
Several types of idealized supports mostly found in two-dimensional idealized structures are
summarized as follows.

1.1.5.1 Roller support

A roller support is a support that can prevent movement of a point only in one direction while
provide no rotational constraint. The corresponding unknown support reaction then possesses only
one component of force in the constraint direction. Typical symbols used to represent the roller
support and support reaction are shown schematically in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6: Schematic of a roller support and the corresponding support reaction
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1.1.5.2 Pinned or hinged support

A pinned or hinged support is a support that can prevent movement of a point in both directions
while provide no rotational constraint. The corresponding unknown support reaction then possesses
two components of force in each direction of the constraint. Typical symbols used to represent the
pinned or hinged support and the support reactions are shown schematically in Figure 1.7.

Figure 1.7: Schematic of a pinned or hinged support and the corresponding support reactions.

1.1.5.3 Fixed support

A fixed support is a support that can prevent movement of a point in both directions and provide a
full rotational constraint. The corresponding unknown support reaction then possesses two
components of force in each direction of the translational constraint and one component of moment
in the direction of rotational constraint. Typical symbols used to represent the fixed support and the
support reactions are shown schematically in Figure 1.8.

Figure 1.8: Schematic of a fixed support and the corresponding support reactions

1.1.5.4 Guided support

A guided support is a support that can prevent movement of a point in one direction and provide a
full rotational constraint. The corresponding unknown support reaction then possesses one
component of force in the direction of the translational constraint and one component of moment in
the direction of rotational constraint. Typical symbols used to represent the guided support and the
support reactions are shown schematically in Figure 1.9.

Figure 1.9: Schematic of a guided support and the corresponding support reactions
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1.1.5.5 Flexible support

A flexible support is a support that can partially prevent translation and/or rotational constraints.
The corresponding unknown support reaction is related to the unknown displacement and/or
rotation of the support. Typical symbols used to represent the flexible support and the support
reactions are shown schematically in Figure 1.10.

Figure 1.10: Schematic of a flexible support and the corresponding support reactions

1.1.6 Connections

Behavior of a local region where the structural components are connected is very complicated and
this complexity depends primarily on the type and details of the connection used. To extensively
investigate the behavior of the connection, a three dimensional model is necessarily used to gain
accurate results. For a standard, linear structural analysis, the connection is only modeled as a point
called node or joint and the behavior of the node or joint depends mainly on the degree of force and
moment transfer across the connection.

1.1.6.1 Rigid joint

A rigid joint is a connection that allows the complete transfer of force and moment across the joint.
Both the displacement and rotation are continuous at the rigid joint. This idealized connection is
usually found in the beam or frame structures as shown schematically in Figure 1.11.

Figure 1.11: Schematic of a real connection and the idealized rigid joint

1.1.6.2 Hinge joint

A hinge joint is a connection that allows the complete transfer of force across the joint but does not
allow the transfer of the bending moment. Thus, the displacement is continuous at the hinge joint
while the rotation is not since each end of the member connecting at the hinge joint can rotate freely
from each other. This idealized connection is usually found in the truss structures as shown
schematically in Figure 1.12.
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Figure 1.12: Schematic of a real connection and the idealized hinge joint.

1.1.6.3 Partially rigid joint

A partially rigid joint is a connection that allows the complete transfer of force and a partial transfer
of moment across the joint. For this particular case, both the displacement is continuous at the joint
while rotation is not. The behavior of the flexible joint is more complex than the rigid joint and the
hinge joint but it can better represent the real behavior of the connection in the real structure. The
schematic of the partially rigid joint is shown in Figure 1.13.

Figure 1.13: Schematic of an idealized partially rigid joint

1.1.7 Idealized structures

In this text, it is focused attention on a particular class of idealized structures that consist of one-
dimensional and straight components, is contained in a plane, and is subjected only to in-plane
specific types of structures in this class that are main focus of this text include truss, beam and
frame.

Figure 1.14: Schematic of idealized trusses
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1.1.7.1 Truss

Truss is an idealized structure consisting of one-dimensional, straight structural components that are
connected by hinge joints. Applied loads are assumed to act only at the joints and all members
possess only one component of internal forces, i.e. the axial force. Examples of truss structures are
shown in the Figure 1.14.

1.1.7.2 Beam

Beam is an idealized structure consisting of one-dimensional, straight members that are connected
in a series either by hinge joints or rigid joints; thus, the geometry of the entire beam must be one-
to the axis of the beam and moments directing normal to the plane containing the beam) and they
can act at any location within the beam. The internal forces at a particular cross section consist of
only two components, i.e., the shear force and the bending moment. Examples of beams are shown
in Figure 1.15.

Figure 1.15: Schematic of idealized beams

1.1.7.3 Frame

Frame is an idealized structure consisting of one-dimensional, straight members that are connected
either by hinge joints or rigid joints. Loads acting on the frame can be either transverse loadings or
longitudinal loadings (loads acting in the direction parallel to the axis of the members) and they can
act at any location within the structure. The internal forces at a particular cross section consist of
three components: the axial force, the shear force and the bending moment. It can be remarked that
when the internal axial force identically vanishes for all members and the geometry of the structure
is one dimensional, the frame simply reduces to the beam. Examples of frame structures are shown
in Figure 1.16.

Figure 1.16: Schematic of idealized frames
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1.2 Continuous Structure versus Discrete Structure Models

A continuous structure is defined as an idealized structure where its responses at all points are
unknown a priori and must be determined as a function of position (i.e. be determined at all points
of the structure) in order to completely describe behavior of the entire structure. The primary
unknowns of the continuous structure are in terms of response functions and, as a result, the number
of unknowns counted at all points of the structure is infinite. Analysis of such continuous structure
is quite complex and generally involves solving a set of governing differential equations. In the
other hand, a discrete structure is a simplified idealized structure where the responses of the entire
structure can completely be described by a finite set of quantities. This type of structures typically
arises from a continuous structure furnishing with additional assumptions or constraints on the
behavior of the structures to reduce the infinite number of unknowns to a finite number. A typical
example of discrete structures is the one that consists of a collection of a finite number of structural
components called members or elements and a finite number of points connecting those structural
components to make the structure as a whole called nodes or nodal points. All unknowns are forced
to be located only at the nodes by assuming that behavior of each member can be completely
determined in terms of the nodal quantities quantities associated with the nodes. An example of a
discrete structure consisting of three members and four nodes is shown in Figure 1.17.

Figure 1.17: An example of a discrete structure comprising three members and four nodes

1.3 Configurations of Structure

There are two configurations involve in the analysis of a deformable structure. An undeformed
configuration is used to refer to the geometry of a structure at the reference state that is free of any
disturbances and excitations. A deformed configuration is used to refer to a subsequent
configuration of the structure after experiencing any disturbances or excitations. Figure 1.18 shows
both the undeformed configuration and the deformed configuration of a rigid frame.

Figure 1.18: Undeformed and deformed configurations of a rigid frame under applied loads
Node 4
Node 3
Node 2
Node 1
Member 1
Member 2
Member 3
v
u
u
X
Y
Deformed configuration
Undeformed configuration
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

11
1.4 Reference Coordinate Systems

In structural analysis, a reference coordinate system is an indispensable tool that is commonly used
to conveniently represent quantities of interest such as displacements and rotations, applied loads,
support reactions, etc. Following subsections provide a clear notion of global and local coordinate
systems and a law of coordinate transformation that is essential for further development.

1.4.1 Global and local coordinate systems

There are two types of reference coordinate systems used throughout the development presented
further in this book. A global coordinate system is a single coordinate system that is used to
reference geometry or involved quantities for the entire structure. A choice of the global coordinate
system is not unique; in particular, an orientation of the reference axes and a location of its origin
can be chosen arbitrarily. The global reference axes are labeled by X, Y and Z with their directions
strictly following the right-handed rule. For a two-dimensional structure, the commonly used,
global coordinate system is one with the Z-axis directing normal to the plane of the structure. A
local coordinate system is a coordinate system that is used to reference geometry or involved
quantities of an individual member. The local reference axes are labeled by x, y and z. This
coordinate system is defined locally for each member and, generally, based on the geometry and
orientation of the member itself. For plane structures, it is typical to orient the local coordinate
system for each member in the way that its origin locates at one of its end, the x-axis directs along
the axis of the member, the z-axis directs normal to the plane of the structure, and the y-axis follows
the right-handed rule. An example of the global and local coordinate systems of a plane structure
consisting of three members is shown in Figure 1.19.

Figure 1.19: Global and local coordinate systems of a plane structure

1.4.2 Coordinate transformation

In this section, we briefly present a basic law of coordinate transformation for both scalar quantities
and vector quantities. To clearly demonstrate the law, let introduce two reference coordinate
systems that possess the same origin: one, denoted by {x
1
, y
1
, z
1
}, with the unit base vectors {i
1
, j
1
,
k
1
} and the other, denoted by {x
2
, y
2
, z
2
}, with the unit base vectors {i
2
, j
2
, k
2
} as indicated in
Figure 1.20. Now, let define a matrix R such that
X
Y
x
y
y
x
y
x
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

12
(
(
(

u u u
u u u
u u u
=
(
(
(

=
33 23 13
32 22 12
31 21 11
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
k k k j k i
j k j j j i
i k i j i i
R (1.2)

where {u
11
, u
21
, u
31
} are angles between the unit vector i
2
and the unit vectors {i
1
, j
1
, k
1
},
respectively; {u
12
, u
22
, u
32
} are angles between the unit vector j
2
and the unit vectors {i
1
, j
1
, k
1
},
respectively; and {u
13
, u
23
, u
33
} are angles between the unit vector k
2
and the unit vectors {i
1
, j
1
,
k
1
}, respectively.

Figure 1.20: Schematic of two reference coordinate systems with the same origin

1.4.2.1 Coordinate transformation for scalar quantities

Let be a scalar quantity whose values measured in the coordinate system {x
1
, y
1
, z
1
} and to the
coordinate system {x
2
, y
2
, z
2
} are denoted by
1
and
2
, respectively. Since a scalar quantity
possesses only a magnitude, its values are invariant of the change of reference coordinate systems
and this implies that

2 1
= (1.3)

1.4.2.2 Coordinate transformation for vector quantities

Let v be a vector whose representations with respect to the coordinate system {x
1
, y
1
, z
1
} and the
coordinate system {x
2
, y
2
, z
2
} are given by

2
2
z 2
2
y 2
2
x 1
1
z 1
1
y 1
1
x
v v v v v v k j i k j i v + + = + + = (1.4)

where {
1
z
1
y
1
x
v , v , v } and {
2
z
2
y
2
x
v , v , v } are components of a vector v with respect to the coordinate
systems {x
1
, y
1
, z
1
} and {x
2
, y
2
, z
2
}, respectively. To determine the component
2
x
v in terms of the
components {
1
z
1
y
1
x
v , v , v }, we take an inner product between a vector v given by (1.4) and a unit
vector i
2
to obtain

) ( v ) ( v ) ( v v
2 1
1
z 2 1
1
y 2 1
1
x
2
x
i k i j i i + + = (1.5)
y
1

y
2

x
1

x
2

z
1

z
2

i
1

i
2

j
1

j
2

k
1

k
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

13
Similarly, by taking an inner product between a vector v given by (1.4) and a unit vector j
2
and k
2
,

) ( v ) ( v ) ( v v
2 1
1
z 2 1
1
y 2 1
1
x
2
y
j k j j j i + + = (1.6)

2 1 1 1
z x 1 2 y 1 2 z 1 2
v v ( ) v ( ) v ( ) = + + i k j k k k (1.7)

With use of the definition of the transformation matrix R given by (1.2), equations (1.5)-(1.7) can
be expressed in a more concise form as

(
(
(

1
z
1
y
1
x
1
z
1
y
1
x
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2
z
2
y
2
x
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
R
k k k j k i
j k j j j i
i k i j i i
(1.8)

The expression of the components {
1
z
1
y
1
x
v , v , v } in terms of the components {
2
z
2
y
2
x
v , v , v } can readily
be obtained in a similar fashion by taking a vector inner product of the vector v given by (1.4) and
the unit base vectors {i
1
, j
1
, k
1
}. The final results are given by

(
(
(

2
z
2
y
2
x
T
2
z
2
y
2
x
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1
z
1
y
1
x
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
R
k k k j k i
j k j j j i
i k i j i i
(1.9)

where R
T
is a transpose of the matrix R. Note that the matrix R is commonly termed a
transformation matrix.

1.4.2.3 Special case

Let consider a special case where the reference coordinate system {x
2
, y
2
, z
2
} is simply obtained by
rotating the z
1
-axis of the reference coordinate system {x
1
, y
1
, z
1
} by an angle |. The transformation
matrix R possesses a special form given by

(
(
(

| |
| |
=
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
R (1.10)

The coordinate transformation formula (1.8) and (1.9) therefore reduce to

(
(
(

| |
| |
=

1
z
1
y
1
x
2
z
2
y
2
x
v
v
v
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
v
v
v
(1.11)

(
(
(

| |
| |
=

2
z
2
y
2
x
1
z
1
y
1
x
v
v
v
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
v
v
v
(1.12)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

14
This clearly indicates that the component along the axis of rotation is unchanged and is independent
of the other two components. The laws of transformation (1.11) and (1.12) can also be applied to
the case of two vectors v and w where v is contained in the x
1
-y
1
plane (and the x
2
-y
2
plane) and w
is perpendicular to the x
1
-y
1
plane (and the x
2
-y
2
plane). More precisely, components of both vectors
v and w in the {x
1
, y
1
, z
1
} coordinate system and in the {x
2
, y
2
, z
2
} coordinate system are related by

2 1
x x
2 1
y y
2 1
z z
v cos sin 0 v
v sin cos 0 v
w 0 0 1 w
| | (

(
= | |
` `
(

(

) )
(1.13)

1 2
x x
1 2
y y
1 2
z z
v cos sin 0 v
v sin cos 0 v
w 0 0 1 w
| | (

(
= | |
` `
(

(

) )
(1.14)

1.5 Basic Quantities of Interest

This section devotes to describe two different classes of basic quantities that are involved in
structural analysis, one is termed kinematical quantities and the other is termed static quantities.

1.5.1 Kinematical quantities

Kinematical quantities describe geometry of both the undeformed and deformed configurations of
the structure. Within the context of static structural analysis, kinematical quantities can be
categorized into two different sets: one associated with quantities used to measure the movement or
change in position of the structure and the other is associated with quantities used to measure the
change in shape or distortion of the structure.
Displacement at any point within the structure is a quantity representing the change in
position of that point in the deformed configuration measured relative to the undeformed
configuration. Rotation at any point within the structure is a quantity representing the change in
orientation of that point in the deformed configuration measured relative to the undeformed
configuration. For a plane structure shown in Figure 1.18, the displacement at any point is fully
described by a two-component vector (u, v) where u is a component of the displacement in X-
direction and v is a component of the displacement in Y-direction while the rotation at any point is
fully described by an angle u measured from a local tangent line in the undeformed configuration to
a local tangent line at the same point in the deformed configuration. It is important to emphasize
that the rotation is not an independent quantity but its value at any point can be computed when the
displacement at that point and all its neighboring points is known.
A degree of freedom, denoted by DOF, is defined as a component of the displacement or the
rotation at any node (of the discrete structure) essential for describing the displacement of the entire
structure. There are two types of the degree of freedom, one termed as a prescribed degree of
freedom and the other termed as a free or unknown degree of freedom. The former is the degree of
freedom that is known a priori, for instance, the degree of freedom at nodes located at supports
where components of the displacement or rotation are known while the latter is the degree of
freedom that is unknown a priori. The number of degrees of freedom at each node depends
primarily on the type of nodes and structures and also the internal releases and constraints present
within the structure. In general, it is equal to the number of independent degrees of freedom at that
node essential for describing the displacement of the entire structure. For beams, plane trusses,
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

15
space truss, plane frames, and space frames containing no internal release and constraint, the
number of degrees of freedom per node are 2 (a vertical displacement and a rotation), 2 (two
components of the displacement), 3 (three components of the displacement), 3 (two components of
the displacement and a rotation) and 6 (three components of the displacement and three components
of the rotation), respectively. Figure 1.21 shows examples of both prescribed degrees of freedom
and free degrees of freedom of beam, plane truss and plane frames. The number of degrees of
freedom of a structure is defined as the number of all independent degrees of freedom sufficient for
describing the displacement of the entire structure or, equivalently, it is equal to the sum of numbers
of degrees of freedom at all nodes. For instance, a beam shown in Figure 1.21(a) has 6 DOFs {v
1
,
u
1
, v
2
, u
2
, v
3
, u
3
} consisting of 3 prescribed DOFs {v
1
, u
1
, v
3
} and 3 free DOFs {v
2
, u
2
, u
3
}; a plane
truss shown in Figure 1.21(b) has 6 DOFs {u
1
, v
1
, u
2
, v
2
, u
3
, v
3
} consisting of 3 prescribed DOFs
{u
1
, v
1
, v
2
} and 3 free DOFs {u
2
, u
3
, v
3
}; and a plane frame shown in Figure 1.21(c) has 9 DOFs
{u
1
, v
1
, u
1
, u
2
, v
2
, u
2
, u
3
, v
3
, u
3
} consisting of 3 prescribed DOFs { u
1
, v
1
, v
3
} and 6 free DOFs {u
1
,
u
2
, v
2
, u
2
, u
3
, u
3
}. It is evident that the number of degrees of freedom of a given structure is not
unique but depending primarily on how the structure is discretized. As the number of nodes in the
discrete structure increases, the number of the degrees of freedom of the structure increases.

Figure 1.21: (a) Degrees of freedom of a beam, (b) degrees of freedom of a plane truss, and (c)
degrees of freedom of a plane frame
X
v
1
=0
u
1
=0
u
3

v
3

u
2

v
2
=0
Y
Node 1 Node 2
Node 3
(b)
(c)
(a)
v
1
= 0
u
1
= 0
v
2

u
2

v
3
= 0
u
3

Y
X
Node 1 Node 2 Node 3
v
1
=0
u
1
=0
u
1

u
3
u
3

v
3
=0
u
2

v
2

u
2

Y
X
Node 1
Node 2 Node 3
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

16
Deformation is a quantity used to measure the change in shape or the distortion of a
structure (i.e. elongation, rate of twist, curvature, strain, etc.) due to disturbances and excitations.
The deformation is a relative quantity and a primary source that produces the internal forces or
stresses within the structure. For continuous structures, the deformation is said to be completely
described if and only if the deformation is known at all points or is given as a function of position
while, for discrete structures, the deformation of the entire structure is said to be completely
described if and only if the deformation of all members constituting the structure are known. The
deformation for each member of a discrete structure can be described by a finite number of
quantities called the member deformation (this, however, must be furnished by certain assumptions
on kinematics of the member to ensure that the deformation at every point within the member can
be determined in terms of the member deformation). The quantities selected to be the member
deformation depend primarily on the type and behavior of such member. For instance, the
elongation, e, or a measure of the change in length of a member is commonly chosen as the member
deformation of a truss member as shown in Figure 1.22(a); the relative end rotations {|
s
, |
e
} where
|
s
and |
e
denotes the rotations at both ends of the member measured relative to a chord connecting
both end points as shown in Figure 1.22(b) are commonly chosen as the member deformation of a
beam member; and the elongation and two relative end rotations {e, |
s
, |
e
} as shown in Figure
1.22(c) are commonly chosen as the member deformation of a frame member. It is remarked that
the deformation of the entire discrete structure can fully be described by a finite set containing all
member deformation.

Figure 1.22: Member deformation for different types of members: (a) truss member, (b) beam
member, and (c) frame member

A Rigid body motion is a particular type of displacement that produces no deformation at
any point within the structure. The rigid body motion can be decomposed into two parts: a rigid
translation and a rigid rotation. The rigid translation produces the same displacement at all points
while the rigid rotation produces the displacement that is a linear function of position. Figure 1.23
shows a plane structure undergoing a series of rigid body motions starting from a rigid translation in
the X-direction, then a rigid translation in the Y-direction, and finally a rigid rotation about a point
A.
L
L= L + e
y
x
L
L= L
y
x
|
e

L
L= L+ e
y
x
|
e

(a) (b)
(c)
|
s

|
s

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

17
Within the context of static structural analysis, the structure under consideration must
sufficiently be constrained to prevent both the rigid body motion of the entire structure and the rigid
body motion of any part of the structure. The former is prevented by providing a sufficient number
of supports and proper directions against movement and the latter is prevented by the proper
arrangement of members and their connections. A structure shown in Figure 1.24(a) is a structure in
Figure 1.23 after prevented all possible rigid body motions by introducing a pinned support at a
point A and a roller support at a point B. A structure shown in Figure 1.24(b) indicates that
although many supports are provided but in improper manner, the structure can still experience the
rigid body motion; for this particular structure, the rigid translation can still occur in the X-
direction.

Figure 1.23: An unconstrained plane structure undergoing a series of rigid body motions

Figure 1.24: (a) A structure with sufficient constraints preventing all possible rigid body motions
and (b) a structure with improper constraints

1.5.2 Static quantities

Quantities such as external actions and reactions in terms of forces and moments exerted to the
structure by surrounding environments and the intensity of forces (e.g. stresses and pressure) and
theirs resultants (e.g. axial force, bending moment, shear force, and torque, etc.) induced internally
at any point within the structure are termed as static quantities. Applied load is one of static
quantities referring to the prescribed force or moment acting to the structure. Support reaction is a
term referring to an unknown force or moment exerted to the structure by idealized supports
(representatives of surrounding environments) in order to prevent its movement or to maintain its
Y
X
(a) (b)
Y
X
Y
X
A
A
B
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

18
stability. Support reactions are generally unknown a priori. There are two types of applied loads;
one called a nodal load is an applied load acting to the node of the structure and the other called a
member loads is an applied load acting to the member. An example of applied loads (both nodal
loads and member loads) and support reactions of a plane frame is depicted in Figure 1.25.
Stress is a static quantity used to describe the intensity of force (force per unit area) at any
plane passing through a point. Internal force is a term used to represent the force or moment
resultant of stress components on a particular surface such as a cross section of a member. Note
again that a major source that produces the stress and the internal force within the structure is the
deformation. The distribution of both stress and internal force within the member depends primarily
on characteristics or types of that member. For standard one-dimensional members in a plane
structure such as an axial member, a flexural member, and a frame member, the internal force is
typically defined in terms of the force and moment resultants of all stress components over the cross
section of the member a plane normal to the axis of the member.

Figure 1.25: Schematic of a plane frame subjected to external applied loads

An axial member is a member in which only one component of the internal force, termed as
an axial force and denoted by f a force resultant normal to the cross section, is present. The axial
force f is considered positive if it results from a tensile stress present at the cross section; otherwise,
it is considered negative. Figure 1.26 shows an axial member subjected to two forces {f
x1
, f
x2
} at its
ends where f
x1
and f
x2
are considered positive if their directions are along the positive local x-axis.
The axial force f at any cross section of the member can readily be related to the two end forces {f
x1
,
f
x2
} by enforcing static equilibrium of both parts of the member resulting from an imaginary cut;
this gives rise to f = f
x1
= f
x2
. Such obtained relation implies that {f, f
x1
, f
x2
} are not all independent
but only one of these three quantities can equivalently be chosen to fully represent the internal force
of the axial member.

Figure 1.26: An axial member subjected to two end forces

A flexural member is a member in which only two components of the internal force, termed
as a shear force denoted by V a resultant force of the shear stress component and a bending
moment denoted by M a resultant moment of the normal stress component, are present. The shear
y
x
f
x1
f
x2

y
x
f
x1
f
x2
f f
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
Node 4
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

19
force V and the bending moment M are considered positive if their directions are as shown in Figure
1.27; otherwise, they are considered negative. Figure 1.27 illustrates a flexural member subjected to
forces and moments {f
y1
, m
1
, f
y2
, m
2
} at its ends where f
y1
and f
y2
are considered positive if their
directions are along the positive local y-axis and m
1
and m
2
are considered positive if their
directions are along the positive local z-axis. The shear force V and the bending moment M at any
cross section of the member can readily be related to the end forces and moments {f
y1
, m
1
, f
y2
, m
2
}
by enforcing static equilibrium of both parts of the member resulting from an imaginary cut. It can
be verified that only two quantities from a set {f
y1
, m
1
, f
y2
, m
2
} are independent and the rest can be
obtained from equilibrium of the entire member. This implies in addition that two independent
quantities from {f
y1
, m
1
, f
y2
, m
2
} can be chosen to fully represent the internal force of the flexural
member; for instance, {m
1
, m
2
} is a common choice for the internal force of the flexural member.

Figure 1.27: A flexural member subjected to end forces and end moments.

A frame member is a member in which three components of the internal force (i.e. an axial
force f, a shear force V, and a bending moment M) are present. The axial force f, the shear force V
and the bending moment M are considered positive if their directions are as indicated in Figure
1.28; otherwise, they are considered negative. Figure 1.28 shows a frame member subjected to a set
of forces and moments {f
x1
, f
y1
, m
1
, f
x2
, f
y2
, m
2
} at its ends where f
x1
and f
x2
are considered positive if
their directions are along the positive local x-axis, f
y1
and f
y2
are considered positive if their
directions are along the positive local y-axis and m
1
and m
2
are considered positive if their
directions are along the positive local z-axis. The axial force can readily be related to the end forces
{f
x1
, f
x2
} by a relation f = f
x1
= f
x2
and the internal forces {V, M} at any cross section of the
member can be related to the end forces and end moments {f
y1
, m
1
, f
y2
, m
2
} by enforcing static
equilibrium to both parts of the member resulting from a cut. It can also be verified that only three
quantities from a set {f
x1
, f
y1
, m
1
, f
x2
, f
y2
, m
2
} are independent and the rest can be obtained from
equilibrium of the entire member. This implies that two independent quantities from {f
y1
, m
1
, f
y2
,
m
2
} along with one quantity from {f, f
x1
, f
x2
} can be chosen to fully represent the internal forces of
the frame member; for instance, {f, m
1
, m
2
} is a common choice for the internal force of the frame
member.

Figure 1.28: A frame member subjected to a set of end forces and end moments.

1.6 Basic Components for Structural Mechanics

There are four key quantities involved in the procedure of structural analysis: 1) displacements and
rotations, 2) deformation, 3) internal forces, and 4) applied loads and support reactions. The first
two quantities are kinematical quantities describing the change of position and change of shape or
x
y
x
f
y1

y
x
m
1

f
y2

m
2

f
y1
f
y2

M
V
M
V
m
1

m
2

y
x
f
y1

y
m
1

f
y2

m
2

f
y1

m
1

f
y2

m
2

M
V
M
V
f
x1

f
x2

f
x1

f
x2
f f
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

20
distortion of the structure under external actions while the last two quantities are static quantities
describing the external actions and the intensity of force introduced within the structure. It is
evident that the displacement and rotation at any constraint points (supports) and the applied loads
are known a priori while the rest are unknown a priori. As a means to solve such unknowns, three
fundamental laws are invoked to establish a set of sufficient governing equations.

1.6.1 Static equilibrium

Static equilibrium is a fundamental principle essential for linear structural analysis. The principle is
based upon a postulate: the structure is in equilibrium if and only if both the linear momentum and
the angular momentum conserve. This postulate is conveniently enforced in terms of mathematical
equations called equilibrium equations equations that relate the static quantities such as applied
loads, support reactions, and the internal force. Note that equilibrium equations can be established
in several forms; for instance, equilibrium of the entire structure gives rise to a relation between
support reactions and applied loads; equilibrium of a part of the structure resulting from sectioning
leads to a relation between applied loads, support reactions appearing in that part, and the internal
force at locations arising from sectioning; and equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of the
structure resulting from the sectioning results in a differential relation between applied loads and the
internal force.

1.6.2 Kinematics

Kinematics is a basic ingredient essential for the analysis of deformable structures. The principle is
based primarily upon the geometric consideration of both the undeformed configuration and the
deformed configuration of the structure. The resulting equations obtained relate the kinematical
quantities such as the displacement and rotation and the deformation such as elongation, rate of
twist, curvature, and strain.

1.6.3 Constitutive law

A constitutive law is a mathematical expression used to characterize the behavior of a material. It
relates the deformation (a kinematical quantity that measures the change in shape or distortion of
the material) and the internal force (a static quantity that measures the intensity of forces and their
resultants). To be able to represent behavior of real materials, all parameters involved in the
constitutive modeling or in the material model must be carried out by conducting proper
experiments.

1.6.4 Relation between static and kinematical quantities

Figure 1.29 indicates relations between the four key quantities (i.e. displacement and rotation,
deformation, internal force, and applied loads and support reactions) by means of the three basic
ingredients (i.e. static equilibrium, kinematics, and constitutive law). This diagram offers an overall
picture of the ingredients necessitating the development of a complete set of governing equations
sufficient for determining all involved unknowns. It is worth noting that while there are only three
basic principles to be enforced, numerous analysis techniques arise in accordance with the fashion
they apply and quantities chosen as primary unknowns. Methods of analysis can be categorized, by
the type of primary unknowns, into two central classes: the force method and the displacement
method. The former is a method that employs static quantities such as support reactions and internal
forces as primary unknowns while the latter is a method that employs the displacement and rotation
as primary unknowns.
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

21

Figure 1.29: Diagram indicating relations between static quantities and kinematical quantities

1.7 Static Equilibrium

Equilibrium equations are of fundamental importance and necessary as a basic tool for structural
analysis. Equilibrium equations relate three basic static quantities, i.e. applied loads, support
reactions, and the internal force, by means of the conservation of the linear momentum and the
angular momentum of the structure that is in equilibrium.
The necessary and sufficient condition for the structure to be in equilibrium is that the
resultant of all forces and moments acting on the entire structure and any part of the structure
vanishes. For three-dimensional structures, this condition generates six independent equilibrium
equations for each part of the structure considered: three equations associated with the vanishing of
force resultants in each coordinate direction and the other three equations corresponding to the
vanishing of moment resultants in each coordinate direction. These six equilibrium equations can be
expressed in a mathematical form as

0 F ; 0 F ; 0 F
Z Y X
(1.15)

0 M ; 0 M ; 0 M
AZ AY AX
(1.16)

where {O; X, Y, Z} denotes the reference Cartesian coordinate system with origin at a point O and
A denotes a reference point used for computing the moment resultants.

D
I
S
P
L
A
C
E
M
E
N
T

M
E
T
H
O
D

## Applied Loads & Support Reactions

(Known and unknown)
Internal Forces
(Unknown)
Deformation
(Unknown)
Displacement & Rotation
(Known and unknown)
Static Equilibrium
Constitutive Law
Kinematics

F
O
R
C
E

M
E
T
H
O
D

## FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

22
For two-dimensional or plane structures (which are the main focus of this text), there are
only three independent equilibrium equations: two equations associated with the vanishing of force
resultants in two directions defining the plane of the structure and one associated with the vanishing
of moment resultants in the direction normal to the plane of the structure. The other three
equilibrium equations are satisfied automatically. If the X-Y plane is the plane of the structure, such
three equilibrium equations can be expressed as

0 M ; 0 F ; 0 F
AZ Y X
(1.17)

It is important to emphasize that the reference point A can be chosen arbitrarily and it can be either
within or outside the structure. According to this aspect, it seems that moment equilibrium equations
can be generated as many as we need by changing only the reference point A. But the fact is these
generated equilibrium equations are not independent of (1.15) and (1.16) and they can in fact be
expressed in terms of a linear combination of (1.15) and (1.16). As a result, this set of additional
moment equilibrium equations cannot be considered as a new set of equations and the number of
independent equilibrium equations is still six and three for three-dimensional and two-dimensional
cases, respectively. It can be noted, however, that selection of a suitable reference point A can
significantly be useful in several situation; for instance, it can offer an alternative form of
equilibrium equations that is well-suited for mathematical operations or simplify the solution
procedures.
To clearly demonstrate the above argument, let consider a plane frame under external loads
as shown in Figure 1.30. For this particular structure, there are three unknown support reactions
{R
A
, R
BX
, R
BY
}, as indicated in the figure, and three independent equilibrium equations (1.17) that
provide a sufficient set of equations to solve for all unknown reactions. It is evident that if a point A
is used as the reference point, all three equations F
X
= 0, F
Y
= 0 and M
AZ
= 0 must be solved
simultaneously in order to obtain {R
A
, R
BX
, R
BY
}. To avoid solving such a system of linear
equations, a better choice of the reference point may be used. For instance, by using point B as the
reference point, the moment equilibrium equation M
BZ
= 0 contains only one unknown R
A
and it
can then be solved. Next, by taking moment about a point C, the reaction R
BX
can be obtained from
M
CZ
= 0. Finally the reaction R
BY
can be obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction, i.e.
F
Y
= 0. It can be noted, for this particular example, that the three equilibrium equations M
BZ
= 0,
M
CZ
= 0 and F
Y
= 0 are all independent and are alternative equilibrium equations to be used
instead of (1.17). Note in addition that an alternative set of equilibrium equations is not unique and
such a choice is a matter of taste and preference; for instance, {M
BZ
= 0,F
X
= 0,F
Y
= 0},
{M
BZ
= 0,F
Y
= 0,M
DZ
= 0}, {M
BZ
= 0,M
CZ
= 0,M
DZ
= 0} are also valid sets.

Figure 1.30: Schematic of a plane frame indicating both applied loads and support reactions
A
B
R
A

R
BY

R
BX
X
Y
C
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

23
The number of independent equilibrium equations can further be reduced for certain types of
structures. This is due primarily to that some equilibrium equations are satisfied automatically as a
result of the nature of applied loads. Here, we summarize certain special systems of applied loads
that often encounter in the analysis of plane structures.

1.7.1 A system of forces with the same line of action

Consider a body subjected to a special set of forces that have the same line of action as shown
schematically in Figure 1.31. For this particular case, there is only one independent equilibrium
equation, i.e. equilibrium of forces in the direction parallel to the line of action. The other two
equilibrium equations are satisfied automatically since there is no component of forces normal to
the line of action and the moment about any point located on the line of action identically vanishes.
Truss members and axial members are examples of structures that are subjected to this type of

Figure 1.31: Schematic of a body subjected to a system of forces with the same line of action

1.7.2 A system of concurrent forces

Consider the body subjected to a system of forces that pass through the same point as shown in
Figure 1.32. For this particular case, there are only two independent equilibrium equations
(equilibrium of forces in two directions defining the plane containing the body, i.e. F
X
= 0 and F
Y

= 0). The moment equilibrium equation is satisfied automatically when the two force equilibrium
equations are satisfied; this can readily be verified by simply taking the concurrent point as the
reference point for computing the moment resultant. An example of structures or theirs part that are
subjected to this type of loading is the joint of the truss when it is considered separately from the
structure.

Figure 1.32: Schematic of a body subjected to a system of concurrent forces

1.7.3 A system of transverse loads

Consider the body subjected to a system of transverse loads (loads consisting of forces where their
lines of action are parallel and moments that direct perpendicular to the plane containing the body)
Line of action
F
1
F
2
F
3

F
1

F
2

F
3

F
4

X
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

24
as shown schematically in Figure 1.33. For this particular case, there are only two independent
equilibrium equations (equilibrium of forces in the direction parallel to any line of actions and
equilibrium of moment in the direction normal to the plane containing the body, i.e. F
Y
= 0 and
M
AZ
= 0). It is evident that equilibrium of forces in the direction perpendicular to the line of action
is satisfied automatically since there is no component of forces in that direction. Examples of

Figure 1.33: Schematic of a body subjected to a system of transverse loads

An initial step that is important and significantly useful for establishing the correct
equilibrium equations for the entire structure or any part of the structure (resulting from the
sectioning) is to sketch the free body diagram (FBD). The free body diagram simply means the
diagram showing the configuration of the structure or part of the structure under consideration and
all forces and moments acting on it. If the supports are involved, they must be removed and
replaced by corresponding support reactions, likewise, if the part of the structure resulting from the
sectioning is considered, all the internal forces appearing along the cut must be included in the
FBD. Figure 1.34(b) shows the FBD of the entire structure shown in Figure 1.34(a) and Figure
1.34(c) shows the FBD of two parts of the same structure resulting from the sectioning at a point B.
In particular, the fixed support at A and the roller support at C are removed and then replaced by the
support reactions {R
AX
, R
AY
, R
AM
, R
CY
}. For the FBD shown in Figure 1.34(c), the internal forces
{F
B
, V
B
, M
B
} are included at the point B of both the FBDs.

1.8 Classification of Structures

Idealized structures can be categorized into various classes depending primarily on criteria used for
classification; for instance, they can be categorized based on their geometry into one-dimensional,
two-dimensional, and three-dimensional structures or they can be categorized based on the
dominant behavior of constituting members into truss, beam, arch, and frame structures, etc. In this
section, we present the classification of structures based upon the following three well-known
criteria: static stability, static indeterminacy, and kinematical indeterminacy. Knowledge of the
structural type is useful and helpful in the selection of appropriate structural analysis techniques.

1.8.1 Classification by static stability criteria

Static stability refers to the ability of the structure to maintain its function (no collapse occurs at the
entire structure and at any of its parts) while resisting external actions. Using this criteria, idealized
structures can be divided into several classes as follows.

1.8.1.1 Statically stable structures

A statically stable structure is a structure that can resist any actions (or applied loads) without loss
of stability. Loss of stability means the mechanism or the rigid body displacement (rigid translation
F
2

F
1

F
4

F
3

M
1

M
2

X
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

25
and rigid rotation) develops on the entire structure or any of its parts. To maintain static stability,
the structure must be properly constrained by a sufficient number of supports to prevent all possible
rigid body displacements. In addition, members constituting the structure must be arranged properly
to prevent the development of mechanics within any part of the structure or, in the other word, to
provide sufficient internal constraints. All desirable idealized structures considered in the static
structural analysis must fall into this category. Examples of statically stable structures are shown in
Figures 1.3, 1.5 and 1.14-1.16.

Figure 1.34: (a) A plane frame subjected to external loads, (b) FBD of the entire structure, and (c)
FBD of two parts of the structure resulting from sectioning at B.

1.8.1.2 Statically unstable structures

A statically unstable structure is a structure that the mechanism or the rigid body displacement
develops on the entire structure or any of its parts when subjected to applied loads. Loss of stability
in this type of structures may be due to i) an insufficient number of supports as shown in Figure
1.35(a), ii) inappropriate directions of constraints as shown in Figure 1.35(b), iii) inappropriate
P
M
M
B

F
B

V
B

M
B

F
B

V
B

(c)
B
A
C
R
AY

R
AX

R
AM

R
CY

(a) (b)
X
Y
R
AY

R
AX

R
AM

R
CY

P
M
P
M
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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26
arrangement of member as shown in Figure 1.35(c), and iv) too many internal releases such as
hinges as shown in Figure 1.35(d). This class of structures can be divided into three sub-classes
based on how the rigid body displacement develops.

1.8.1.2.1 Externally, statically unstable structures

An externally, statically unstable structure is a statically unstable structure that the mechanism or
the rigid body displacement develops only on the entire structure when subjected to applied loads.
Loss of stability of this type structure is due to an insufficient number of supports provided or an
insufficient number of constraint directions. Examples of externally, statically unstable structures
are shown in Figure 1.35(a) and 1.35(b).

1.8.1.2.2 Internally, statically unstable structures

An internally, statically unstable structure is a statically unstable structure that the mechanism or
the rigid body displacement develops only on a certain part of the structure when subjected to
applied loads. Loss of stability of this type of structure is due to inappropriate arrangement of
member and too many internal releases. Examples of internally, statically unstable structures are
shown in Figure 1.35(c) and 1.35(d).

Figure 1.35: Schematics of statically unstable structures

1.8.1.2.3 Mixed, statically unstable structures

A mixed, statically unstable structure is a statically unstable structure that the mechanism or the
rigid body displacement can develop on both the entire structure and any part of the structure when
subjected to applied loads. Examples of mixed, statically unstable structures are shown in Figure
1.36.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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27

Figure 1.36: Schematics of mixed, statically unstable structures

Figure 1.37 clearly demonstrates the classification of idealized structures based upon the static
stability criteria.

Figure 1.37: Diagram indicating classification of structures by static stability criteria
Development of rigid
body displacement?
Statically stable
structures
Statically unstable
structures
Rigid body displacement
of entire structure?

Mixed statically
unstable structures
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes No
Internally statically
unstable structures
Externally statically
unstable structures
Idealized structures
Rigid body displacement
of part of structure?
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28
1.8.2 Classification by static indeterminacy criteria

Static indeterminacy refers to an ability or inability to determine static quantities (support reactions
and internal force) at any point within a structure by means of static equilibrium. Using this criteria,
statically stable idealized structures can be divided into several classes as follow.

1.8.2.1 Externally statically determinate structures

An externally, statically determinate structure is a structure that all support reactions can be
determined from static equilibrium. The internal force at any point within the structure can or
cannot be obtained from static equilibrium. Examples of externally, statically determinate structures
are shown in Figure 1.38.

Figure 1.38: Schematics of externally, statically determinate structures.

1.8.2.2 Externally statically indeterminate structures

An externally, statically indeterminate structure is a structure that there exists at least one
component of all support reactions that cannot be determined from static equilibrium. Note that
there is no externally, statically indeterminate structure that the internal force at all points can be
determined from static equilibrium. Examples of externally, statically indeterminate structures are
shown in Figure 1.39.

1.8.2.3 Statically determinate structures

A statically determinate structure is a structure that all support reactions and the internal force at all
points within the structure can be determined from static equilibrium. It is evident that a statically
determinate structure must also be an externally, statically determinate structure. Examples of
statically determinate structures are shown in Figures 1.38(a) and 1.38(b).

1.8.2.4 Statically indeterminate structures

A statically indeterminate structure is a structure that there exists at least one component of support
reactions or the internal force at certain points within the structure that cannot be determined from
static equilibrium. This definition implies that all statically stable structures must be either statically
determinate or statically indeterminate. It can be noted that an externally, statically indeterminate
structure must be a statically indeterminate structure. Examples of statically indeterminate
structures are shown in Figures 1.38(c) and 1.39.
(a) (b) (c)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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29

Figure 1.39: Schematics of statically indeterminate structures.

1.8.2.5 Internally statically indeterminate structures

An internally statically indeterminate structure is a structure that is externally, statically
determinate and, at the same time, statically indeterminate. This implies that all support reactions
of an internally, statically indeterminate can be determined from static equilibrium while there
exists the internal force at certain points within the structure that cannot be determined from static
equilibrium. Examples of internally, statically indeterminate structures are shown in Figures 1.38(c)
and 1.39(a). Figure 1.40 clearly demonstrates the classification of structures based on the static
indeterminacy criteria.

1.8.3 Classification by kinematical indeterminacy criteria

Kinematical indeterminacy referring to the ability or inability to determine kinematical quantities
associated with a structure by means of kinematics or geometric consideration is utilized as a
criterion for classification. A (discrete) structure can therefore be categorized as follows.

1.8.3.1 Kinematically determinate structures

A kinematically determinate structure is a structure in which all degrees of freedom are prescribed
degrees of freedom. With use of additional assumptions on kinematics of a member, the
displacement and deformation at any point within a kinematically determinate structure are known.
An example of this type of structures is given in Figure 1.41(a); all nine degrees of freedom are
prescribed degrees of freedom.

1.8.3.2 Kinematically indeterminate structures

A kinematically indeterminate structure is a structure in which there exists at least one free degree
of freedom. As a result, the displacement and deformation of a kinematically indeterminate
structure are not completely known. The example of this type of structures is given in Figure
1.41(b); for this particular discrete structure, there exist three free degrees of freedom, i.e. {u
2
, v
2
,

2
}.
Next, we define a term called degree of kinematical indeterminacy of a structure as a total
number of free or unknown degrees of freedom present within that structure. Consistent with this
definition, the degree of kinematical indeterminacy of a kinematically determinate structure is equal
to zero while the degree of kinematical indeterminacy of a kinematically indeterminate structure is
always greater than zero.
(a) (b) (c)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction to Structural Analysis Jaroon Rungamornrat

30

Figure 1.40: Diagram indicating classification of structures by static indeterminacy criteria

Determination of
reactions from static
equilibrium?
No No
Yes
Yes No
Statically determinate
structure
Externally, statically
determinate
structure
Determination of
internal force from
static equilibrium?
Determination of
internal force from
static equilibrium?

Externally, statically
indeterminate
structure
Internally statically
indeterminate structure
Statically
indeterminate structure
Statically
indeterminate structure
Statically stable structures
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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31

Figure 1.41: (a) Kinematically determinate structure and (b) kinematically indeterminate structure

1.9 Degree of Static Indeterminacy

The degree of static indeterminacy of a structure, denoted by DI, is defined as a number of
independent static quantities (i.e. support reactions and the internal force) that must be prescribed in
addition to available static equilibrium equations in order to completely describe a static state of the
entire structure (a state where all support reactions and internal forces at any locations within the
structure are known) or, equivalently, to render the structure statically determinate.
From this definition, the degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the number of
independent static unknowns subtracted by the number of independent static equilibrium equations.
Thus, the degree of static indeterminacy of a statically determinate structure is equal to zero while
the degree of static indeterminacy of a statically indeterminate structure is always greater than zero.
The degree of static indeterminacy is also known as the degree of static redundancy and the
corresponding extra, static unknowns exceeding the number of static equilibrium equations are
termed as the redundants.

1.9.1 General formula for computing DI

The degree of static indeterminacy of a statically stable structure can be computed from the general
formula:

c j m a
n n n r DI (1.18)

where r
a
is the number of all components of the support reactions, n
m
is the number of components
of the internal member force, n
j
is the number of independent equilibrium equations at all nodes or
joints, and n
c
is the number of static conditions associated with all internal releases present within
the structure. It is evident that the term r
a
+ n
m
represents the number of all static unknowns while
the term n
j
+ n
c
represents the number of all available equilibrium equations (including static
conditions at the internal releases).

1.9.1.1 Number of support reactions

The number of all components of support reaction at a given structure can be obtained using the
following steps: 1) identify all supports within the structures, 2) identify the type and a number of
(a) (b)
u
1
=0

1
=0
v
1
=0
u
3
=0

3
=0
v
3
=0
u
2
=0

2
=0
v
2
=0
Node 3
Node 2
Node 1
u
2

2

v
2

u
1
=0

1
=0
v
1
=0
u
3
=0

3
=0
v
3
=0
Node 3
Node 2
Node 1
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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32
components of the support reaction at each support (see section 1.1.5), and 3) sum the number of
components of support reactions over all supports.
It is emphasized here that for a beam structure, the component of the support reaction in the
direction of the beam axis must not be counted in the calculation of r
a
since the beam is subjected
only to transverse loads and there is no internal axial force at any cross section. For instance, the
number of support reactions of the structure shown in Figure 1.42(a), Figure 1.42(b) and Figure
1.42(c) is 3, 4, and 8, respectively.

Figure 1.42: Schematics indicating all components of support reaction

1.9.1.2 Number of internal member forces

As clearly demonstrated in subsection 1.5.2, the number of independent components of the internal
force for an axial member, a flexural member, and a two-dimensional frame member are equal to 1,
2 and 3, respectively. Thus, the number of components of the internal forces for the entire structure
(n
m
) can simply be obtained by summing the number of components of the internal forces for all
individual members. It is worth noting that n
m
depends primarily on both the number and the type
of constituting members of the structure. For instance, n
m
for the structure shown in Figure 1.42(a)
is equal to 14(1) = 14 since it consists of 14 axial members; n
m
for the structure shown in Figure
1.42(b) is equal to 2(2) = 4 since it consists of 2 flexural members (by considering all supports as
joints or nodes); and n
m
for the structure shown in Figure 1.42(c) is equal to 20(3) = 60 since it
consists of 20 frame members (by considering supports and connections between columns and
beams as joints or nodes).

1.9.1.3 Number of joint equilibrium equations

To compute n
j
, it is required to know both the number and the type of joints present in the structure.
The number of independent equilibrium equations at each joint depends primarily on the type of the
joint. Here, we summarize standard joints found in the idealized structures.

1.9.1.3.1 Truss joints

A truss joint is an idealized joint used for modeling connections of a truss structure. The truss joint
behaves as a hinge joint so it cannot resist any moment and allows all members joining the joint to
rotate freely relative to each other. Since the truss member possesses only the internal axial force,
when the truss joint is separated from the structure to sketch the FBD, all forces acting to the joint
are concurrent forces as shown in Figure 1.43; in particular, P
1
and P
2
1
, P
2

and P
3
are internal axial forces from the truss members. As a consequence, the number of
(a) (c)
(b)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Introduction to Structural Analysis

33
independent equilibrium equations per one truss joint is equal to 2 (i.e. F
X
= 0 and F
Y
= 0; see
also subsection 1.7.2).

Figure 1.43: FBD of the truss joint

1.9.1.3.2 Beam joints

A beam joint is an idealized joint used for modeling connections of a flexural or beam structure.
The beam joint behaves as a rigid joint so it can resist the external applied moment and can also
transfer the moment among ends of members joining that joint. Since the flexural or beam member
possesses only two components of the internal force, i.e. the shear force and the bending moment,
when the beam joint is separated from the structure to sketch the FBD, all forces and moments
acting to the joint form a set of transverse loads as shown in Figure 1.44; in particular, P and M
o
are
1
, M
1
, V
2
and M
2
are internal forces from the beam members. As a
consequence, the number of independent equilibrium equations per one beam joint is equal to 2 (i.e.
F
Y
= 0 and M
Z

Figure 1.44: FBD of the beam joint

1.9.1.3.3 Frame joints

A frame joint is an idealized joint used for modeling connections of a frame structure. The frame
joint behaves as a rigid joint so it can resist the external applied moment and can also transfer the
moment among ends of the members joining the joint. Since the frame member possesses three
components of the internal force, i.e. the axial force, the shear force and the bending moment, when
the frame joint is separated from the structure to sketch the FBD, all forces and moments acting to
the joint form a set of general 2D loads as shown in Figure 1.45; in particular, P
1
, P
2
and M
o
are
1
, V
1
, M
1
, F
2
, V
2
, M
2
, F
3
, V
3
and M
3
are internal forces from the frame
members. As a result, the number of independent equilibrium equations per one frame joint is equal
to 3 (i.e. F
X
= 0, F
Y
= 0 and M
Z
= 0).

1.9.1.3.4 Compound joints

A compound joint is an idealized joint used for modeling connections where more than one types of
members are connected. When the compound joint is separated from the structure to sketch the
F
3

F
2

F
1
P
1

P
2

X
Y
V
2

M
1

P
M
2

V
1

M
o

X
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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34
FBD, all forces and moments acting to the joint can form a set of general 2D loads as shown in
Figure 1.46. As a result, the number of independent equilibrium equations per one compound joint
is generally equal to 3 (i.e. F
X
= 0, F
Y
= 0 and M
Z
= 0).

Figure 1.45: FBD of the frame joint

Figure 1.46: FBD of the compound joint

The number of independent joint equilibrium equations of the structure (n
j
) can simply be
obtained by summing the number of independent equilibrium equations available at each joint.

1.9.1.4 Internal releases

An internal release is a point within the structure where certain components of the internal force
such as axial force, shear force and bending moment are prescribed. Presence of the internal
releases within the structure provides extra equations in addition to those obtained from static
equilibrium. Here, we summarize various types of internal releases that can be found in the
idealized structure.

1.9.1.4.1 Moment release or hinge

A moment release or hinge is an internal release where the bending moment is prescribed equal to
zero or, in the other word, the bending moment cannot be transferred across this point (see Figure
1.47). At the moment release, the displacement is continuous while the rotation or slope is not. For
this particular type of internal releases, it provides 1 additional equation per one hinge, i.e. M = 0 at
the hinge point.

V
2

M
1

M
2

V
1

F
2
F
1

V
3

M
3

F
3

P
2

M
o

P
1

X
Y
X
Y
Truss member
Frame member
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35

Figure 1.47: Schematics of moment releases or hinges

1.9.1.4.2 Axial release

An axial release is an internal release where the axial force is prescribed equal to zero or, in the
other word, the axial force cannot be transferred across this point (see Figure 1.48). At the axial
release, the longitudinal component of the displacement is discontinuous while the transverse
component and the rotation are still continuous. For this particular type of internal releases, it
provides 1 additional equation per one release, i.e. F = 0 at the axial release.

Figure 1.48: Schematic of axial release

1.9.1.4.3 Shear release

A shear release is an internal release where the shear force is prescribed equal to zero or, in the
other word, the shear force cannot be transferred across this point (see Figure 1.49). At the shear
release, the transverse component of the displacement is discontinuous while the longitudinal
component of the displacement and the rotation are still continuous. For this particular type of
internal releases, it provides 1 additional equation per one release, i.e. V = 0 at the shear release.

Figure 1.49: Schematic of shear release

1.9.1.4.4 Combined release

A combined release is an internal release where two or more components of the internal force are
prescribed equal to zero (see Figure 1.50). Behavior of the combined release is the combination of
behavior of the moment release, axial release, or shear release. For this particular type of internal
releases, it provides two or more additional equations per one release depending on the number of
prescribed components of the internal force.

Figure 1.50: Schematics of combined release

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36
1.9.1.4.5 Full moment release joint

A joint or node where the bending moment at the end of all members jointing that joint is prescribed
equal to zero is termed as a full moment release joint (see Figure 1.51). This joint has the same
behavior and characteristic as the hinge joint. For truss structures, while all joints are full moment
release joints, they provide no additional equation since presence of such joints has been considered
in the reduction of the number of internal forces per member from three to one (i.e. only axial force
is present). For beam or frame structures, presence of a full moment release joint provides n 1
additional equations where n is the number of member joining the joint; for instance, a full moment
release joint shown in Figure 1.51 provides 4 1 = 3 additional equations.

Figure 1.51: Schematic of full moment release joint

1.9.1.4.6 Partial moment release joint

A joint or node where the bending moment at the end of certain but not all members jointing that
joint is prescribed equal to zero is termed as a partial moment release joint (see Figure 1.52). This
type of releases can be found in beam and frame structures. A partial moment release joint provides
n additional equations if the bending moment at the end of n members are prescribed equal to zero;
for instance, a partial moment release joint shown in Figure 1.52 provides 2 additional equations.

Figure 1.52: Schematic of partial moment release joint

The number of static conditions associated with all internal releases present in the structure (n
c
) can
simply be obtained by summing the number of additional equations provided by each internal
release.

Example 1.1 Determine the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) of the following structures

r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3
25 truss members n
m
= 25(1) = 25
14 truss joints n
j
= 14(2) = 28
No internal release n
c
= 0
DI = 3 + 25 28 0 = 0
Statically determinate structure

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37

r
a
= 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 5
3 beam members n
m
= 3(2) = 6
4 beam joints n
j
= 4(2) = 8
1 moment release n
c
= 1
DI = 5 + 6 8 1 = 2
Statically indeterminate structure

r
a
= 3(3) + 2 + 1 = 12
28 frame members n
m
= 28(3) = 84
21 frame joints n
j
= 21(3) = 63
No internal release n
c
= 0
DI = 12 + 84 63 0 = 33
Statically indeterminate structure

r
a
= 4(3) = 12
28 frame members and 12 truss members
n
m
= 28(3) + 12(1) = 96
6 frame joints and 14 compound joints
n
j
= 6(3) + 14(3) = 60
No internal release n
c
= 0
DI = 12 + 96 60 0 = 48
Statically indeterminate structure

1.9.2 Check of external static indeterminacy

For a given statically stable structure, let r
a
be the number of all components of the support
reactions, n
et
be the number of independent equilibrium equations available for the entire structure
and n
cr
be the number of additional static conditions that can be set up without introducing new
static unknowns. The structure is externally, statically determinate if and only if

a et cr
r n n (1.19)

and the structure is externally, statically indeterminate if and only if

a et cr
r n n (1.20)

This check of external static indeterminacy is essential when the support reactions of the structure
are to be determined.
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38
In general, for plane structures, the number of independent equilibrium equations that can be
set up for the entire structure (n
et
) is equal to 3, except for beam structures where the number of
independent equilibrium equations reduces to 2 (the equilibrium of forces in the direction along the
beam axis is automatically satisfied). Additional static conditions are typically the conditions
associated with internal releases present within the structure; for instance, points where components
of internal forces are prescribed such as moment release or hinge, shear release, and axial
release. It is important to note that not all the static conditions can be incorporated in the counting
of n
cr
but ones that introduce no additional unknowns other than the support reactions can be
counted. These additional equations can be set up in terms of equilibrium equations of certain parts
of the structure resulting from proper sectioning the structure at the internal releases.
To clearly demonstrate the check of external static indeterminacy, let consider a frame
structure as shown in Figure 1.53. For this structure, we obtain r
a
= 2(2) = 4, n
m
= 6(3) = 18, n
j
=
6(3) = 18, n
c
= 2(1) = 2 DI = 4 +18 18 2 = 2; thus the structure is statically determinate. In
et
= 3 for frame structure and n
cr
= 1 since one additional equation (without introducing
additional unknowns other than support reactions) can be set up by sectioning at the hinge A and
then enforcing moment equilibrium about the point A of one part of the structure. The static
condition associated with the hinge B cannot be included in n
cr
since no new equation can be set up
without introducing additional unknown internal forces along the cut. It is evident that r
a
= 4 = n
et
+
n
cr
the structure is externally, statically determinate and, therefore, all support reactions can be
determined from static equilibrium. Since the structure is also statically indeterminate, from the
definition provided above, this implies that the structure is internally, statically indeterminate.

Figure 1.53: Schematic of externally statically determinate structure

1.9.3 DI of truss structures

Consider a statically stable truss structure that consists of m members and n joints. For this
particular structure, we obtain n
m
= m(1) = m, n
j
= n(2) = 2n and n
c
= 0. Upon using the general
formula (1.18), the degree of static indeterminacy of a truss is given by

2n m r DI
a
(1.21)

It is important to emphasize that there cannot be an internal release at interior points of all truss
members since each member possesses only one component of internal forces; presence of the
(axial) internal release will render the structure statically unstable.

B
A
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39
Example 1.2 Determine the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) of the following statically stable
truss structures

r
a
= 2 + 2 = 4
m = 35
n = 18
DI = 4 + 35 2(18) = 3
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 3
n
cr
= 0
r
a
= 4 > n
et
+ n
cr
= 3
Externally statically indeterminate

r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3
m = 14
n = 8
DI = 3 + 14 2(8) = 1
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 3
n
cr
= 0
r
a
= 3 = n
et
+ n
cr

Externally statically determinate

r
a
= 2 + 2 = 4
m = 10
n = 7
DI = 4 + 10 2(7) = 0
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 3
n
cr
= 1
r
a
= 4 = n
et
+ n
cr

Externally statically determinate (or
implies from DI as well)

1.9.4 DI of beam structures

Consider a statically stable beam structure that consists of m members and n joint. For this
particular structure, we obtain n
m
= m(2) = 2m and n
j
= n(2) = 2n. Upon using the general formula
(1.18), the degree of static indeterminacy of a beam is given by

c a
n n) (m 2 r DI (1.22)

It is important to emphasize that in the determination of r
a
, components of the support reactions in
the direction parallel to the beam axis must be ignored since there is no internal axial force in any
beam members. In addition, the number of members of a given beam is not unique but it depends
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40
primarily on the choice of joints or nodes considered; in general, joints are located at the supports
and free ends. However, the choice of joints and members does not affect the final value of DI.

Example 1.3 Determine the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) of the following statically stable
beam structures

r
a
= 2(2) + 3(1) = 7
m = 4
n = 5
n
c
= 2
DI = 7 + 2(4 5) 2 = 3
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 2
n
cr
= 2
r
a
= 7 > n
et
+ n
cr
= 4
Externally statically indeterminate

r
a
= 2 + 2(1) = 4
m = 3
n = 4
n
c
= 2
DI = 4 + 2(3 4) 2 = 0
Statically determinate
n
et
= 2
n
cr
= 2
r
a
= 4 = n
et
+ n
cr

Externally statically determinate

r
a
= 2 + 3(1) = 5
m = 4
n = 5
n
c
= 0
DI = 5 + 2(4 5) 0 = 3
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 2
n
cr
= 0
r
a
= 5 > n
et
+ n
cr
= 2
Externally statically indeterminate

1.9.5 DI of frame structures

Consider a statically stable frame structure that consists of m members and n joints. For this
particular structure, we obtain n
m
= m(3) = 3m and n
j
= n(3) = 3n. Upon using the general formula
(1.18), the degree of static indeterminacy of a frame is given by

c a
n n) (m 3 r DI (1.23)

Note that the free end must be treated as a joint or node.
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41
Example 1.4 Determine the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) of the following statically stable
frame structures

r
a
= 2(3) + 2 = 8
m = 7
n = 8
n
c
= 3 1 = 2
DI = 8 + 3(7 8) 2 = 3
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 3
n
cr
= 2
r
a
= 8 > n
et
+ n
cr
= 5
Externally statically indeterminate

r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3
m = 7
n = 6
n
c
= 0
DI = 3 + 3(7 6) 0 = 6
Statically indeterminate
n
et
= 3
n
cr
= 0
r
a
= 3 = n
et
+ n
cr

Externally statically determinate

r
a
= 3 + 1 = 4
m = 3
n = 4
n
c
= 1
DI = 4 + 3(3 4) 1 = 0
Statically determinate
n
et
= 3
n
cr
= 1
r
a
= 4 = n
et
+ n
cr
= 4
Externally statically determinate

1.10 Investigation of Static Stability of Structures

Static stability of the real structure is essential and must extensively be investigated to ascertain that
the structure can maintain its functions and purposes under external actions and excitations without
excessive movement or collapse of the entire structure and its parts. In the structural modeling or
structural idealization, the stability assurance can be achieved by requiring that all suitable idealized
structures must be statically stable. This requirement is also essential in the sense that the
subsequent process of static structural analysis can be performed.
As previously mentioned, loss of stability of the structure can occur either on the entire
structure or on the certain parts. The primary sources of instability are due to an insufficient number
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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42
of supports provided, inappropriate directions of constraints provided, inappropriate arrangement of
constituting members that forms insufficient internal constraints, or presence of too many of
internal releases. Here, we summarize three basic lemmas that can be used to investigate the static
stability of a given idealized structure.

1.10.1 Lemma 1

From section 1.9, it can be deduced that if the structure is statically stable, it must be either
statically determinate (DI = 0) or statically indeterminate (DI > 0); thus DI of the structure is
nonnegative if the structure is statically stable. This statement is mathematically equivalent to if DI
< 0, then the structure is statically unstable. This lemma is simple and can be used to deduce the
instability of the structure by the knowledge of negative DI. It is important to emphasize that, for
any structure possessing DI 0, the lemma fails to provide information about their stability.

Example 1.5 Use lemma 1 to check instability of the following structures.

Truss structure
r
a
= 1 + 1 = 2
m = 9
n = 6
DI = 2 + 9 2(6) = 1 < 0
Lemma 1 Statically unstable

Frame structure
r
a
= 1 + 1 +1 = 3
m = 3
n = 4
n
c
= 0
DI = 3 + 3(3 4) 0 = 0
Lemma 1 No conclusion about its
stability

Beam structure
r
a
= 2 + 1 +1 = 4
m = 2
n = 3
n
c
= 2
DI = 4 + 2(2 3) 2 = 0
Lemma 1 No conclusion about its
stability
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43

Frame structure
r
a
= 3 + 3 +1 = 7
m = 5
n = 6
n
c
= 1
DI = 7 + 3(5 6) 1 = 3
Lemma 1 No conclusion about its
stability

1.6.2 Lemma 2

The second lemma comes from the definition of the static instability condition of a structure: a
structure is statically unstable if and only if there exists at least one pattern of a rigid body
displacement developed within the structure under a particular action. This lemma can be used to
conclude the instability of the structure by identifying one mechanism or rigid body displacement.

1.6.3 Lemma 3

The third lemma comes from the definition of the static stability condition of a structure: a structure
is statically stable if and only if there is no development of a rigid body displacement in any part of
the structure under any action. This lemma can be employed to conclude the stability of the
structure by investigating all possible mechanisms or rigid body displacement.

Example 1.6 Investigate the static stability of truss structures shown in the figures below. The
structure I is obtained by adding the truss members a and b to the structure I and the structure III is
obtained by adding the truss member c to the structure I.

Solution

Structure I: the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) is computed as follows: r
a
= 2 + 1 +1 = 4, n
m
=
11(1) = 11, n
j
= 8(2) = 16, n
c
= 0 DI = 4 + 11 16 0 = 1 < 0. Thus, from lemma 1, it can be
Structure I
Structure II
Structure III
a b
c
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44
concluded that the structure I is statically unstable. Note that one can also use lemma 2 to conclude
this instability by sketching the mechanism as shown in the figure below.

Structure II: the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) is computed as follows: r
a
= 2 + 1 +1 = 4, n
m
=
13(1) = 13, n
j
= 8(2) = 16, n
c
= 0 DI = 4 + 13 16 0 = 1 > 0. Thus, static stability of the
structure cannot be concluded from the lemma 1. However, by investigating all parts of this
structure, there exists a pattern of rigid body displacement as shown in the figure below. Therefore,
the lemma 2 deduces that the structure is statically unstable.

Structure III: the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) is computed as follows: r
a
= 2 + 1 +1 = 4, n
m
=
12(1) = 12, n
j
= 8(2) = 16, n
c
= 0 DI = 4 + 12 16 0 = 0. Thus, static stability of the structure
cannot be concluded from lemma 1. However, by investigating all parts of this structure, there is no
development of rigid body displacement within any parts of the structure. Therefore, lemma 3
deduces that the structure is statically stable and, in addition, the structure is statically determinate
since DI = 0.

Example 1.7 Investigate the static stability of frame structures shown in the figure below. The
structure II and structure III are obtained by adding the horizontal member to the structure I with the
location of the hinge a being above or below the added member.

Structure I
a
Structure II Structure III
a a
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45
Solution

Structure I: the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) is computed as follows: r
a
= 3 + 3 = 6, n
m
= 4(3)
= 12, n
j
= 5(3) = 15, n
c
= 4 DI = 6 + 12 15 4 = 1 < 0. Thus, from lemma 1, it can be
concluded that the structure I is statically unstable. Note that one can also use lemma 2 to conclude
this instability by sketching the mechanism as shown in the figure below.

Structure II: the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) is computed as follows: r
a
= 3 + 3 = 6, n
m
=
7(3) = 21, n
j
= 7(3) = 21, n
c
= 4 DI = 6 + 21 21 4 = 2 > 0. Thus, static stability of the
structure cannot be concluded from the lemma 1. However, by investigating all parts of this
structure, there exists a pattern of rigid body displacement as shown in the figure below. Therefore,
the lemma 2 deduces that the structure is statically unstable.

Structure III: the degree of static indeterminacy (DI) is computed as follows: r
a
= 3 + 3 = 6, n
m
=
7(3) = 21, n
j
= 7(3) = 21, n
c
= 4 DI = 6 + 21 21 4 = 2 > 0. Thus, static stability of the
structure cannot be concluded from lemma 1. However, by investigating all parts of this structure,
there is no development of rigid body displacement within any parts of the structure. Therefore,
lemma 3 deduces that the structure is statically stable and, in addition, the structure is statically
indeterminate since DI > 0.

1. For each statically stable truss shown below, determine its degree of static indeterminacy and
also use static indeterminacy criteria to identify whether it belongs to following classes (class 1:
externally, statically determinate structures; class 2: externally, statically indeterminate
structures; class 3: internally, statically indeterminate structures; class 4: statically determinate
structures; class 5: statically indeterminate structures). Note that each structure may belong to
several classes.

Exercises
Structure I
Structure II
a a
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46

2. For each statically stable beam shown below, determine its degree of static indeterminacy and
also use static indeterminacy criteria to identify whether it belongs to following classes (class 1:
externally, statically determinate structures; class 2: externally, statically indeterminate
structures; class 3: internally, statically indeterminate structures; class 4: statically determinate
structures; class 5: statically indeterminate structures). Note that each structure may belong to
several classes.

3. For each statically stable frame shown below, determine its degree of static indeterminacy and
also use static indeterminacy criteria to identify whether it belongs to following classes (class 1:
externally, statically determinate structures; class 2: externally, statically indeterminate
structures; class 3: internally, statically indeterminate structures; class 4: statically determinate
structures; class 5: statically indeterminate structures). Note that each structure may belong to
several classes.
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48
4. Investigate the static stability of the structures shown below using Lemma 1, Lemma 2 and
Lemma 3. If the structure is statically unstable, show the sketch of possible rigid body
displacements.

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49
CHAPTER 2

ANALYSIS OF DETERMINATE STRUCTURES

This chapter focuses primarily on analysis of statically determinate structures. The key objective of
the analysis is to determine unknown static quantities such as support reactions and internal forces
resulting from external applied loads. As already discussed in the previous chapter, statically
determinate structures belong to a special class of structures that all support reactions and internal
forces at any location of the structure can completely be determined from equilibrium equations. In
following sections, we first emphasize the definition of unknown static quantities (i.e. support
reactions and internal forces) and a notion of applied loads, and then discuss essential tools for
performing static analysis of statically determinate structures, e.g. equilibrium equations, method of
structure partitioning, and free body diagram (FBD). Next, we demonstrate applications of
equilibrium equations to determine support reactions of externally, statically determinate structures.
Finally, analysis of the internal forces for certain classes of structures such as trusses, beams and
rigid frames are presented. In addition, for the case of beams and rigid frames, the sketch of their
qualitative elastic curve (or deformed shape) is also discussed.

2.1 Static Quantities

Static quantities are the quantities associated with forces, intensity of forces (e.g. pressure, traction,
and stress), or resultants of forces (e.g. moment and torque). Three basic static quantities interested
in the analysis of structures are applied loads, support reactions, and internal forces as shown in
Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Schematic indicating applied loads, support reactions and internal forces

Applied loads represent prescribed forces, intensity of forces, resultants of forces, or in
combination that are exerted to the structure by surrounding environments. It is necessary that
applied loads must be known a priori (from idealization of excitations) before the analysis
procedure is carried out.
Support reactions represent unknown forces, intensity of forces, resultants of forces, or in
combination that are exerted to the structure by (idealized) supports to maintain its equilibrium and
stability under the action of applied loads or other excitations. The support reactions are naturally
unknown a priori which can be obtained from static analysis.
Support reactions
Internal forces
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50
Internal forces represent intensity of forces (e.g. stress) or resultant forces (e.g. axial force,
shear force, bending moment, torque) induced at a material point or over a particular section of the
structure under the action of applied loads or other excitations. Similar to the support reactions, the
internal forces are unknown a priori which can be obtained from static analysis. The choice of the
internal forces used to characterize the behavior of any structure depends primarily on the type of
structures and the nature of excitations. This will be discussed further below.

2.2 Tools for Static Analysis

Two key methodological components essential for determining support reactions and internal forces
at any location of a structure are the static equilibrium equations and the method of structure
partitioning. The first component is utilized generally to construct a necessary and sufficient set of
equations to solve for unknown support reactions and internal forces, while the latter component
accommodates the construction of equilibrium equations over certain portions of the structure in
addition to those associated with the entire structure in order to supply adequate number of
equations.

2.2.1 Static equilibrium

Equilibrium condition of a body is a statement of conservation of linear momentum and angular
momentum of the body. More precisely, the body is in equilibrium if and only if the linear
momentum and angular momentum are conserved for any part of the body (the entire body can also
be considered as a part of its body). For a two-dimensional body occupied a region on the X-Y
plane as shown schematically in Figure 2.2, equilibrium of this body implies that all forces and
moments applied to the body must satisfy the following three equations:

F
X
= 0 (2.1)

F
Y
= 0 (2.2)

M
AZ
= 0 (2.3)

where A is an arbitrary point used for computing the moment about the Z-axis and {X, Y, Z; O}
denotes a reference Cartesian coordinate system. In particular, equations (2.1) and (2.2) indicate
that the sum of components of all forces in X-direction and in Y-direction must vanish while the
last equation (2.3) requires that the sum of moments about a point A in Z-direction must also
vanish. As already pointed out in chapter 1, equilibrium condition of a two-dimensional body
subjected to a system of general forces and moments provides exactly three independent equations
(for a body subjected to special systems of applied loads, the number of independent equations can
be less than three; readers are suggested to consult the section 1.7 for extensive discussion).
It is important to emphasize that a set of three independent equations resulting from the
equilibrium condition of a two-dimensional body is not unique. This non-uniqueness is due
primarily to that the point for taking moment (i.e. point A) can be chosen arbitrarily (see discussion
in section 1.7 of chapter 1). Here, we present four different but equivalent sets of three equilibrium
equations that can be employed in static analysis of two-dimensional structures.

2.2.1.1 Set 1

A set consists of the equilibrium of forces in X-direction (2.1), the equilibrium of forces in Y-
direction (2.2), and the equilibrium of moments about an arbitrarily selected point A (2.3).
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51

Figure 2.2: Schematic of two-dimensional body subjected to applied loads

2.2.1.2 Set 2

A set consists of the equilibrium of forces in X-direction (2.1), the equilibrium of moments about an
arbitrarily selected point A (2.3), and the equilibrium of moments about another arbitrary selected
point B, i.e.

M
BZ
= 0 (2.4)

The only constraint placed on the choice of points A and B to render (2.1), (2.3) and (2.4) all
independent is that the straight line connecting A and B must not parallel to the Y-axis.

2.2.1.3 Set 3

A set consists of the equilibrium of forces in Y-direction (2.2), the equilibrium of moments about an
arbitrarily selected point A (2.3), and the equilibrium of moments about another arbitrary selected
point B (2.4). Again, the only constraint placed on the choice of points A and B to render (2.2),
(2.3) and (2.4) all independent is that the straight line connecting A and B must not parallel to the
X-axis.

2.2.1.4 Set 4

A set consists of the equilibrium of moments about an arbitrarily selected point A (2.3), the
equilibrium of moments about an arbitrary selected point B (2.4), and the equilibrium of moments
about an arbitrary selected point C, i.e.

M
CZ
= 0 (2.5)

The only constraint placed on the choice of points A, B and C to render (2.3), (2.4) and (2.5) all
independent is that the A, B and C must not belong to the same straight line.
To prove the equivalence among the above four sets, lets assume that the body is subjected
to a system of forces P
1
, P
2
, , and P
N
acting at points (X
1
, Y
1
), (X
2
, Y
2
), , (X
N
, Y
N
),
respectively, and a system of moments M
1
, M
2
, , and M
K
as shown in Figure 2.3. Let A, B, and C
be three arbitrarily selected points with coordinates (X
A
, Y
A
), (X
B
, Y
B
), and (X
C
, Y
C
), respectively.
The equilibrium of forces in the X-direction and Y-direction takes the form

N
iX
i=1
F = 0

(2.6)
Y
X
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

52

Figure 2.3: Schematic of two-dimensional body subjected to a system of forces and moments

N
iY
i=1
F = 0

(2.7)

where the subscripts X and Y indicate the X-component and Y-component of the force F
i
,
respectively. Similarly, equilibrium of moments about point A, B and C can readily be obtained as

N N K
iX A i iY i A i
i=1 i=1 i=1
F (Y Y) + F (X X ) + M = 0

(2.8)

N N K
iX B i iY i B i
i=1 i=1 i=1
F (Y Y) + F (X X ) + M = 0

(2.9)

N N K
iX C i iY i C i
i=1 i=1 i=1
F (Y Y) + F (X X ) + M = 0

(2.10)

Upon simple manipulations, equation (2.9) can be expressed as

N N K N N
iX A i iY i A i B A iX A B iY
i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1
F (Y Y) + F (X X ) + M + (Y Y ) F + (X X ) F = 0

(2.11)

Similarly, equation (2.10) can also be written as

N N K N N
iX A i iY i A i C A iX A C iY
i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1
F (Y Y) + F (X X ) + M + (Y Y ) F + (X X ) F = 0

(2.12)

It is evident from (2.11) and (2.12) that equations (2.9) and (2.10) are not independent of the three
equations (2.6), (2.7) and (2.8) but, in fact, they are the linear combinations of those three. Thus, the
Set 1 is equivalent to the Set 2 provided that X
A
X
B
does not vanish or, in the other word, a
straight line connecting points A and B is not parallel to the Y-axis. It can readily be verified by
employing equations (2.6) and (2.8) and then dividing the final result by X
A
X
B
that (2.11) can be
reduced to equation (2.7). This similar argument can also be used to prove the equivalence between
Set 3 and Set 1. Finally, the equivalence between Set 4 and Set 1 can be verified by first substituting
(2.8) into (2.11) and (2.12) to obtain

Y
X
A
B
C
F
1

F
2

F
N

M
1

M
2

M
K

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

53
N N
B A iX A B iY
i=1 i=1
(Y Y ) F + (X X ) F = 0

(2.13)

N N
C A iX A C iY
i=1 i=1
(Y Y ) F + (X X ) F = 0

(2.14)

Equations (2.13) and (2.14) are equivalent to equations (2.6) and (2.7) if and only if (Y
B
Y
A
)( X
A

X
C
) (Y
C
Y
A
)( X
A
X
B
) 0 or, equivalently, the three points A, B, C do not belong to the same
straight line.
There is no strong evidence to support and decide the best choice from the four sets given
before. In general, the choice is a matter of taste and preference of an individual and, sometimes, it
is problem dependent. The most reasonable choice is the one that allows all unknowns appearing in
all three equations be solved in an easy manner as much as possible. In addition, after one of the
four sets is already chosen, the order of three equations in the set to be employed and the choice of
points used for taking moments are generally selected to eliminate the unknowns as many as
possible in order to avoid solving a large system of linear equations. This strategy becomes more
apparent in examples 2.1-2.3.

2.2.2 Method of structure partitioning

To determine the internal forces at any location of the structure or to compute some components of
the support reactions for certain structures, the consideration of equilibrium of certain parts of the
structure is required in addition to that of the entire structure. From the fact that the structure is in
equilibrium if and only if any part of the structure is in equilibrium, any portion of the structure
resulting from partitioning of the structure must be in equilibrium with applied loads acting to that
portion (i.e. reactions at supports present in that portion and internal forces exerted to that portion
by the rest of the structure). Structure partitioning is simply a process to decompose the structure
into two or several parts by introducing a sufficient number of fictitious or imaginary cuts at certain
locations of the structures. For instance, a rigid frame shown in Figure 2.4 is partitioned into two
parts by a fictitious cut at point B. One crucial function of the fictitious cut is to allow us to access
and see the internal forces at the location of the cut. As can be observed from free body diagrams of
the two parts in Figure 2.4, the internal forces {F
B
, V
B
, M
B
} at point B appear in both FBDs.

Figure 2.4: Schematic of the entire structure and two parts resulting from partitioning at point B
B
A
C
P
M
X
Y
R
AY

R
AX

R
AM

M
B

F
B

V
B

R
CY

M
B

F
B

V
B

M
P
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

54
Since each portion of the structure resulting from partitioning must be in equilibrium,
several equilibrium equations are therefore provided in addition to the equilibrium equations set up
on the entire structure. However, the number of unknowns associated with the internal forces
appearing at the cuts also increases at the same time. Hence, locations of the cuts and the number of
the cuts are important and must properly be chosen in order to ensure that the number of all
unknowns does not exceed the number of available equilibrium equations. In addition, the
imaginary cut must be made at the point where the internal forces are of interest. For instance, the
cut must be made at point B of the rigid frame in Figure 2.4 if the internal forces {F
B
, V
B
, M
B
} are
to be determined.

2.3 Determination of Support Reactions

This section demonstrates the application of static equilibrium to compute all support reactions of
externally, statically determinate structures (note that statically determinate structures are also
contained in this class of structures). Recalling the definition provided in subsection 1.8.2 of chapter
1, all support reactions of externally, statically determinate structures can completely be obtained by
solving static equilibrium equations. A brief summary of guidelines for determining support
reactions is given below:

Identify type of all supports
Determine the number of unknown support reactions (r
a
)
Determine the number of independent equilibrium equations that can be set up for the
entire structure (n
et
)
Determine the number of additional static conditions that can be set up without
introducing new static unknowns (n
cr
); consult subsection 1.9.2 of chapter 1 for extensive
discussion
If r
a
> n
et
+ n
cr
, the structure is externally statically indeterminate and support reactions
cannot completely be obtained by using only equilibrium equations. If r
a
= n
et
+ n
cr
, the
structure is externally statically determinate and support reactions can be determined as
described below. It is worth noting that if a given structure is known to be statically
determinate (i.e. DI = 0), it automatically implies that r
a
= n
et
+ n
cr
.
If r
a
= n
et
, all support reactions can be obtained from equilibrium of the entire structures
and the following steps are suggested: (i) sketch a free body diagram (FBD) of the entire
structure, (ii) write down all independent equilibrium equations, and (iii) solve for
unknown support reactions
If r
a
> n
et
, all support reactions cannot be obtained from equilibrium of the entire
structures alone and the subsequent steps are as follows: (i) introduce suitable fictitious
cuts; in general, fictitious cuts are made at the internal releases present within the
structure (e.g. hinges, shear releases, axial releases), (ii) ensure that the number of
fictitious cuts is sufficient to supply adequate number of equations to solve for all
unknowns (i.e. all support reactions and extra unknowns associated with the internal
forces induced at the cuts), (iii) sketch a free body diagram of the entire structure and
free body diagrams of parts resulting from the cuts, (iv) write down all independent
equilibrium equations for the entire structure and for parts resulting from the cuts, and
(v) solve for unknown support reactions.

It is important to emphasize again that after the free body diagram(s) is sketched, a careful choice of
reference points for computing moment and the order of equilibrium equations employed can
significantly reduce the computational effort associated with solving linear equations. This becomes
apparent in following examples.
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

55
Example 2.1 Determine all support reactions of a rigid frame shown below

Solution The given structure is constrained at points A and B by a pinned support and a roller
support, respectively; thus, the total number of support reactions is r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3. The number of
independent equilibrium equations for a two-dimensional rigid frame is n
et
= 3. Since r
a
= n
et
, the
structure is externally, statically determinate and all support reactions can be obtained by
considering equilibrium of the entire structure. FBD of the entire structure is given below where
{R
AX
, R
AY
} and R
BY
are unknown support reactions at point A and point B, respectively. To
demonstrate the equivalence among four sets of equilibrium equations mentioned in section 2.2.1,
we apply each set separately and then compare the final results.

Option I: Use equilibrium equations from the Set 1

[F
X
= 0] : R
AX
+ P = 0

R
AX
= P Leftward

[M
A
= 0] : (R
BY
)(2L) PL (P)(L) (4P)(L) = 0

R
BY
= 3P Upward

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
+ R
BY
4P = 0

R
AY
= P Upward

Option II: Use equilibrium equations from the Set 2

[F
X
= 0] : R
AX
+ P = 0
A B
P
4P
PL
L L
L
C D
R
AX

R
AY

R
BY

Y
X
A B
C D
P
4P
PL
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

56
R
AX
= P Leftward

[M
A
= 0] : (R
BY
)(2L) PL (P)(L) (4P)(L) = 0

R
BY
= 3P Upward

[M
B
= 0] : (R
AY
)(2L) + (4P)(L) (P)(L) PL = 0

R
AY
= P Upward

Option III: Use equilibrium equations from the Set 3

[M
A
= 0] : (R
BY
)(2L) PL (P)(L) (4P)(L) = 0

R
BY
= 3P Upward

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
+ R
BY
4P = 0

R
AY
= P Upward

[M
C
= 0] : (R
AX
)(L) + (R
BY
)(2L) (4P)(L) PL = 0

R
AX
= P Leftward

Option IV: Use equilibrium equations from the Set 4

[M
A
= 0] : (R
BY
)(2L) PL (P)(L) (4P)(L) = 0

R
BY
= 3P Upward

[M
B
= 0] : (R
AY
)(2L) + (4P)(L) (P)(L) PL = 0

R
AY
= P Upward

[M
C
= 0] : (R
AX
)(L) + (R
BY
)(2L) (4P)(L) PL = 0

R
AX
= P Leftward

It is evident that use of any set of equilibrium equations leads to the same results. While the order of
equilibrium equations employed does not matter, those containing only one unknown are considered
first. This allows the unknown be easily obtained without solving any system of linear equations.

Example 2.2 Determine all support reactions of a beam shown below

Solution Since r
a
= 2 + 1 + 1 = 4, m = 2, n = 3, n
c
= 2, then DI = 4 + 2(2) 2(3) 2 = 0. Thus, the
structure is statically determinate and all support reactions can be determined form static
equilibrium. However, the number of independent equilibrium equations that can be set up for a
A
B
P = qL q
L
C
L L L
D
E
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

57
beam is n
et
= 2 < r
a
; thus, the support reactions cannot be obtained by considering only equilibrium
of the entire structure. To clarify this, let us sketch the FBD of the entire beam as shown below.

Equilibrium of the entire beam requires that

[M
A
= 0] : R
AM
+ (R
CY
)(2L) + (R
EY
)(4L) (qL)(L/2) (qL)(3L) = 0

R
AM
+ 2R
CY
L + 4R
EY
L = 7qL
2
/2

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
+ R
CY
+ R
EY
qL qL = 0

R
AY
+ R
CY
+ R
EY
= 2qL

It is emphasized that there are only two independent equilibrium equations and they are insufficient
to be solved for four unknown support reactions R
AM
, R
AY
, R
CY
and R
EY
. To overcome this
problem, two additional equations associated with the presence of two moment releases or hinges at
points B and D, i.e. M = 0 at B and M = 0 at D, must be employed.
By introducing two cuts, one at point B and the other at point just to the right of point D
called DR, the original structure is decomposed into three parts and the FBD of each part is shown
below. Note that the cut is not made exactly at point D due to the application of a concentrated load
at point D and we choose to avoid the question on how to distribute this concentrated load to the left
and right parts of the point D. For this particular choice of the cut (cut at point DR), the
concentrated load P = qL appears at the point DR of the FBD of the middle part.

The left portion contains three unknowns, i.e., {R
AM
, R
AY
, V
B
}; the middle portion also contains
three unknowns, i.e., {R
CY
, V
B
, V
DR
}; and the right portion contains only two unknowns, i.e., {V
DR
,
R
EY
}. The total number of unknowns (including all support reactions and the shear forces appearing
at the cuts) now becomes six, i.e., {R
AM
, R
AY
, R
CY
, R
EY
, V
B
, V
DR
}. Two independent equilibrium
equations can be set up for each individual portion and this leads to a set of six independent linear
equations sufficient for determining all unknowns.
To avoid solving a system of six linear equations, we first consider the right portion in
which the number of unknowns is equal to the number of independent equilibrium equations. By
first applying equilibrium of moments about point E and then considering equilibrium of forces in
Y-direction, we obtain
R
AM

R
AY
R
EY

R
CY

Y
X
A
B
P = qL
q
C
D
E
V
DR

V
B

A B
C
D
E
Y
X
B
V
DR
V
B

R
AM

R
AY

q
R
EY
R
CY

P = qL
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

58
[M
E

= 0] : V
DR
L = 0

V
DR
= 0

[F
Y
= 0] : R
EY
+ V
DR
= 0

R
EY
= 0

Since the shear force V
DR
is already known, the number of unknowns for the middle portion now
reduces to two, i.e., {R
CY
, V
B
}, and they can be solved by considering equilibrium of this portion as
follows:

[M
B

= 0] : (R
CY
)(L) (qL)(2L) (V
DR
)(2L) = 0

R
CY
= 2qL Upward

[F
Y
= 0] : V
B
+R
CY
qL V
DR
= 0

V
B
= qL Downward

Since the shear force V
B
is already known, the number of unknowns for the left portion now
reduces to two, i.e., {R
AM
, R
AY
}, and they can be solved by considering equilibrium of this portion
as follows:

[M
A

= 0] : R
AM
(qL)(L/2) (V
B
)(L) = 0

R
AM
= qL
2
/2 Clockwise

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
qL V
B
= 0

R
AY
= 0

Example 2.3 Determine all support reactions of a truss shown below

Solution Since r
a
= 2 + 2 = 4, m = 10, n = 7, n
c
= 0, then DI = 4 + 10(1) 7(2) 0 = 0. Thus, the
structure is statically determinate and all support reactions can be determined from static
0.4L
0.4L
2P
4P
A
B
C
0.4L
0.2L
0.4L 0.2L
0.4L 0.4L 0.2L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

59
equilibrium. However, the number of independent equilibrium equations that can be set up for a
beam is n
et
= 3 < r
a
; thus, the support reactions cannot be obtained by considering only the
equilibrium of the entire structure. Partitioning of the structure to construct additional equations is
then required.

First, let us consider the equilibrium of the entire structure (its FBD is shown above). By applying
equilibrium of moments about point A and B, the two support reactions {R
AY
, R
BY
determined:

[M
A
= 0] : (R
BY
)(2L) (2P)(L) (4P)(L) = 0

R
BY
= 3P Upward

[M
B
= 0] : (R
AY
)(2L) (2P)(L) + (4P)(L) = 0

R
AY
= P Upward

The remaining equilibrium equation associated with equilibrium of forces in X-direction only
provides a relation between the two unknowns {R
AX
, R
BX
}:

[F
A
= 0] : R
AX
+ R
BX
+ 2P = 0

To obtain an additional equation, we introduce a cut at point just to the right of point C and then
consider the right portion resulting from that cut; the FBD is shown in the figure below. Since point
C is a pinned or hinge joint, only two new unknowns {F
X
, F
Y
} are introduced at the cut. In addition,
the applied loads acting at point C do not appear in the FBD of the right portion due to that the cut
is not made exactly at point C but at point just to the right of point C. By considering equilibrium of
moments about point C and then using the known value of R
BY
, we obtain

[M
C
+
= 0] : (R
BX
)(L) + (R
BY
)(L) = 0

R
BX
= 3P Leftward

Once R
BX
is known, the reaction R
AX
can readily be obtained from above equation, i.e., R
AX
= 2P
R
BX
= P (Rightward).

Y
X
2P
4P
A
B
C
R
AX

R
AY

R
BX

R
BY

F
X

F
Y

B
C
R
BX

R
BY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

60
2.4 Static Analysis of Truss

In this section, we focus our attention on the analysis of statically determinate trusses with the
primary objective to determine all support reactions and internal forces due to external applied
loads. This section starts with a brief introduction to characteristics of trusses, notations and terms
used throughout. Next, we present two standard methods typically employed to determine the
internal force of each member of the truss. Various examples are then presented to demonstrate the
principle and procedure of each method.

2.4.1 Characteristics of truss

An idealized structure is termed a truss if and only if (i) all members are straight, (ii) all members
are connected by pinned (or hinge or truss) joints, (iii) all applied loads are in terms of concentrated
forces and they act only at joints, and (iv) all supports provide only constraints against translations.
Examples of trusses are shown schematically in Figure 2.5. Note that concentrated moments are not
allowed to be applied to any joint of the truss since they provide no rotational constraint.
From above definition, it can readily be verified that any member of the truss possesses only
one component of the internal force (i.e. the axial force) and this axial force is constant throughout
the member. In addition, the angle between any two members joining the same pinned joint is not
preserved; the angle measured before and after application of applied loads is generally not
identical. To demonstrate this feature, let us consider a truss shown in Figure 2.6. After subjected
to applied loads, this truss is deformed to a new state and the configuration associated with this state
is termed the deformed configuration (represented by a dash line). Clearly, angles between any two
members before and after movement are not necessarily the same, e.g.
0
and
0
.

Figure 2.5: Example of truss structures
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

61

Figure 2.6: Schematic of undeformed and deformed configurations of a truss

2.4.2 Sign and convention

For support reactions of a given truss, there is no specific notation for their label. Typically, they
are named based on the label of the joint where the support is located and their direction with
respective to a reference coordinate system. For example (see Figure 2.7), support reactions induced
at a pinned support located at a point A can be labeled R
AX
and R
AY
where the first one denotes the
reaction at the point A in the X-direction and the last one denotes the reaction at the point A in the
Y-direction, and, similarly, the support reaction induced at a roller support located at a point B can
be labeled R
BY
. Note that the upper case R is used only to distinguish the reaction from the other
two static quantities, applied loads and internal forces. The sign convention of the support reaction
is defined based on the reference coordinate system; specifically, it is positive if it directs along the
positive coordinate direction otherwise it is negative. In the analysis for support reactions, it is
typical to assume a priori that all components of support reactions are positive or direct along the
coordinate directions (as shown in Figure 2.7) in order to prevent any confusion and error. The
actual direction of all support reactions can be known once the analysis is complete. If the value of
the support reaction obtained is positive, the assumed direction of such reaction is correct, and if its
value is negative, the assumed direction of such reaction is wrong and must be reversed.

Figure 2.7: Labels of support reactions and their sign convention

For the internal force or member force of trusses, it is standard to follow notations and sign
convention as described below:

A member joining joint i and joint j is called member ij or equivalently member ji.
u
0

|
0

u
|
Y
X
R
AX

R
AY

R
BY

A B
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

62
The internal force (or the axial force or the member force) of a member ij is denoted by
F
ij
. The internal force F
ij
is positive if and only if the member ij is in tension and negative
if and only if the member ij is in compression.

Figure 2.8 shows the schematic of the internal force at both ends of the member ij and at the joints i
and j for a member in tension and a member in compression. It is worth pointing out that for a
member in tension, the internal force directs outward from the joint in the FBD of that joint and
directs outward from the member end in the FBD of that member and this observation is reverse if
the member is in compression.

Figure 2.8: Schematic of the internal force in FBD of joints and member

2.4.3 Determination of support reactions

In the analysis of statically determinate trusses, all support reactions have been generally computed
before the process in determining the internal or member forces starts. The procedure to obtain
these quantities for truss structure follows exactly that given in the section 2.3. For some trusses
such as those shown in Figure 2.5, the number of support reactions is equal to 3 and, hence, the
consideration of equilibrium of the entire structure provides a sufficient number of equations to
solve for those unknowns. For instance, the truss shown in Figure 2.7 has three unknown support
reactions {R
AX
, R
AY
, R
BY
} and they can readily be computed as follow:

the reaction R
BY
is obtained from equilibrium of moment about point A of the entire
structure;
the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the entire
structure; and
the reaction R
AX
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in X-direction of the entire
structure.

Figure 2.9: Schematic of a truss that a number of support reactions is more than three
Member in compression
F
ij
F
ij
F
ij
F
ij

i
j
Member in tension
F
ij
F
ij
F
ij
F
ij

i
j
Y
X
R
AX

R
AY
R
BY

R
CX

A
B
C
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

63
For some trusses, the number of support reactions may exceed three, while they are still
statically determinate (see for example a truss shown in Figure 2.9). In this case, it requires, in
addition, the consideration of equilibrium of certain parts of the structure that results from fictitious
cuts at proper locations such as a joint connecting between two sub-trusses (see for example a joint
D of a truss shown in Figure 2.9). The need for introducing cuts is to supplement extra equations
sufficient for, when combined with a set of equilibrium equations for the entire structure, solving all
unknown reactions.
To clearly demonstrate the above argument, consider, for example, a truss shown in Figure
2.9. This structure is obviously statically determinate (i.e., r
a
= 4, n
m
= 32(1) = 32, n
j
= 18(2) = 36,
n
c
= 0 DI = 4 + 32 36 0 = 0) and this therefore ensures that all support reactions can be
obtained from static equilibrium. However, it is evident that all four support reactions {R
AX
, R
AY
,
R
BY
, R
CX
} cannot be obtained by considering only equilibrium of the entire structure (it yields only
three independent equations). To overcome such degeneracy, we can introduce a cut at the point D
and then separate the truss into two parts as shown in Figure 2.10. While we introduce two extra
unknowns {F
X
, F
Y
} at the cut, the total number of unknowns (4 + 2 = 6) is now equal to the number
of equilibrium equations that can be set up for the two parts (3 + 3 = 6). To obtain all support
reactions without solving a system of six linear equations, equilibrium of both the entire structure
and its parts may be considered together as follow:

the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about the point D of the left
part;
the reaction R
BY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in the Y-direction of the entire
structure;
the reaction R
CX
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about the point D of the right
part; and
the reaction R
AX
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in the X-direction of the entire
structure.

Figure 2.10: Schematic of two parts of the truss resulting from a cut at point D

2.4.4 Method of joints

For a truss consisting of r
a
support reactions, n joints and m member, the total number of unknowns
is r
a
+ m and the total number of independent equilibrium equations that can be set up for all joints
is 2n (two independent equilibrium equations can be set up for each joint). Since the degree of static
indeterminacy DI = (r
a
+ m) 2n = 0 for statically determinate trusses, the number of equilibrium
equations at all joints is therefore sufficient for determining all unknown member forces and also
support reactions.
Y
X
R
AX

R
AY
R
BY

R
CX

A
B
C
D D
F
X

F
Y

F
Y

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

64
The above idea constitutes a basis for the development of a well-known technique, called
the method of joints, for determining all member forces of statically determinate trusses. In this
technique, each joint of the truss is first isolated from the structure and its corresponding free body
diagram is then sketched (see Figure 2.11 for examples of FBDs for isolated joints).

Figure 2.11: (a) Schematic of a 2D truss and (b) FBDs of joints 3, 4, 7 and 8

Since the internal force of any truss member consists of only the axial force, all forces acting
to each joint (member forces and applied loads) constitute a system of concurrent forces. For two-
dimensional truss, two independent equilibrium equations can be set up for each joint, one
corresponding to equilibrium of forces in the X-direction (EF
X
= 0) and the other corresponding to
equilibrium of forces in the Y-direction (EF
Y
= 0). Once equilibrium equations of all joints are set
up, such a system of linear equation can, in principle, be solved to obtain all member forces and
support reactions.
To reduce computational effort especially when manual calculation is performed, we
typically choose to avoid solving a large system of linear equations. Following guidelines can be
useful when applied along with the method of joints.
To prevent confusion and accidental errors, the member force is assumed a priori to be
in tension in the sketch of joint FBD.
Support reactions should be computed first by using a procedure stated in the section
2.4.3 in order to reduce the number of unknowns. However, this is not a must since a set
of equations constructed at all joint is sufficient for determining both member forces and
support reactions.
Joint that consists of only two unknowns should be considered first since such
unknowns can be solved by considering only equilibrium of that joint. Consider for
example a truss shown in Figure 2.11. Once the support reactions {R
1X
, R
1Y
, R
4Y
} are
computed, either joint 4 or joint 5 can be considered first since they contain only two
unknowns {F
15
, F
56
} and {F
34
, F
48
Once the member forces {F
34
, F
48
} are obtained, joint 8 now becomes a good candidate
for the next step since it contains only two unknowns {F
38
, F
78
}. This process can be
repeated until there is no joint containing two unknowns. Determination of all support
reactions before application of the method of joints, while is not necessary, increases the
possibility to find joints that contain only two unknowns.
If there exists a joint such that (1) it contains only two members, (2) the angle between
those two members is not equal to 180 degrees, and (3) there is no applied load in both
7 8
3 4
7 8
3 4
(a) (b)
5 6
1 2
F
34

F
48

F
37

F
23

F
38

F
38

F
78

F
27

F
67

P
1

P
2

P
1

P
3
P
4
P
5
P
6

P
7

P
5
P
6

P
7

R
4Y

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

65
directions, then the member forces of the two members vanish. This argument can
readily be proved by considering equilibrium of that joint and the fact that a pair of
nonparallel forces can be in equilibrium if and only if they vanish identically. For
instance, a joint F in a truss shown in Figure 2.12 satisfies above conditions thus
rendering the member forces F
AF
and F
FG
Figure 2.13 for clarity).

Figure 2.12: Schematic of truss containing members of zero member forces

Figure 2.13: FBDs of joints B, D, F, H and J of truss shown in Figure 2.12

If there exists a joint such that (1) it contains only two members, (2) the angle between
those two members is not equal to 180 degrees, and (3) there is only one applied load or
one component of the support reaction in the direction parallel to one member, then the
member force of the other member vanishes. This argument can readily be proved by
considering equilibrium of forces of that joint in the direction perpendicular to the
applied load. For instance, a joint J in the truss shown in Figure 2.12 satisfies above
conditions and this gives F
EJ
= 0 (see also the FBD of the joint J in Figure 2.13 for
clarity).
If there exists a joint such that (1) it contains only three members, (2) two of the three
members are parallel, and (3) there is no applied load at that joint, then the member
force of the third member that are not parallel to the other two vanishes. Again, this
argument can be verified by considering equilibrium of forces of that joint in the
direction perpendicular to the two parallel members. For instance, joints B, D, and H in
the truss shown in Figure 2.12 satisfies above conditions and this yields F
BG
= F
DI
= F
CH

= 0 (see also the FBDs of the joint B, D, and H in Figure 2.13 for clarity).
C
D
A
B
G
H
E
F J
I
P
1

P
2

P
3

P
4

F
F
FG
= 0
F
AF
= 0
J
F
IJ

F
EJ
= 0
P
4

B
F
AB

F
BC

F
BG
= 0
D
F
CD
F
DE

F
DI
= 0
H
F
GH
F
HI

F
CH
= 0
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

66
For a joint that all forces acting to that joint can be represented by a set of three forces,
equilibrium of such joint implies that vectors of the three forces must form sides of a
triangle. This feature allows magnitude of two of the three forces be obtained by the law
of sine provided that magnitude of one force is known. From equilibrium of the joint, it
is implied in addition that the direction of each vector (as indicated by an arrow) must
ensure a zero sum of the three vectors (i.e. the three arrows form a closed loop triangle).
This latter property is sufficient for identifying direction of two forces provided that the
direction of the other force is known.

Figure 2.14: Schematic of a 2D truss and FBDs of joints 1, 4 and 6

For instance, consider a truss shown in Figure 2.14. A joint 6 contains only three forces
(i.e. one applied load and two member forces) as shown in the FBD of this joint. From
the law of sine, we obtain

36 56
o o o
F F 2P
= =
sin90 sin30 sin60

From above equation, the two unknowns {F
36
, F
56
} can readily be solved since the
applied load is known. In addition, the members 36 and 56 must be in compression and
tension, respectively, for the joint to be in equilibrium with the applied load 2P (see a
triangle representing those three forces in Figure 2.14). Next, consider a joint 1
containing a pinned supports. While there are four forces acting at this joint (i.e. two
5
6
3
4
1
2
2P
P 2P
R
3Y
= 4P R
1Y
= P
R
1X
= 2P
60
o

60
o

30
o

60
o

30
o

4
F
24

F
14

F
45

-F
36

F
56

2P
F
14

F
12

P
2P
F
24

F
14

F
45

30
o

60
o

30
o

60
o

30
o

60
o

2P F
12

1
F
12

F
14

P
2P
6
F
36

F
56

2P
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

67
reactions and two member forces), the support reaction 2P and the member force F
12
are
parallel and can be combined into one force as shown in Figure 2.15. Since reactions are
known, the two unknown member forces {F
12
, F
14
} can be obtained from the law of sine:

14 12
o o o
F 2P F P
= =
sin90 sin30 sin60

From the diagram of forces, it is evident that both members 12 and 14 are in tension.
Finally, let us consider a joint 4 that contains three member forces {F
14
, F
24
, F
45
} as
shown by its FBD in Figure 2.14. Since the magnitude and direction of the member force
F
14
are already known from the joint 1, the members 24 and 45 must be in compression
and in tension, respectively, and the magnitude of {F
24
, F
45
} can be computed from the
law of sine:

45 24 14
o o o
F F F
= =
sin60 sin30 sin90

Note that the negative sign appearing in F
36
, F
12
, and F
24
is due to that the length of
each side of the triangle must be non-negative and the member force is always positive
in tension. Note also that the consideration of equilibrium of joints containing only three
forces by representing them by sides of the triangle and then applying the law of sine
provides an attractive alternative to that by solving the following two equilibrium
equations of forces in X- and Y-directions, i.e. EF
X
= 0 and EF
Y
= 0.
If all support reactions are determined before the method of joints is applied, there will
be r
a
equations exceeding the number of member forces. These equations can be used as
a final check of support reactions and member forces already computed. Specially, if all
support reactions and member forces are computed correctly, these r
a
equations must be
satisfied automatically; on the contrary, if some equilibrium equations are not satisfied,
either support reactions or member forces are wrong.

As a final remark, the method of joints is a good candidate if all member forces are to be
determined but, if only certain member forces are of interest, the method leads to a significant
amount of effort associated with determination of other member forces. For instance, if only the
member force F
37
of the truss shown in Figure 2.11(a) is of interest, the joint 4 and the joint 8 must
be considered first before the joint 3 can be treated. Another drawback of the method of joints
becomes evident when the technique is applied to statically determinate trusses with all of their
joints containing at least three members (e.g. trusses shown in Figure 2.15). For these particular
structures, the method of joints leads to a large system of linear equations to be solved.

Figure 2.15: Example of determinate trusses with all joints containing at least three members
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

68
Example 2.4 Determine all support reactions and then compute all member forces for a truss shown
below by the method of joints

Solution The structure given above is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3, m = 13, n = 8, n
c
=
0, then DI = 3 + 13(1) 8(2) 0 = 0); thus all support reactions and member forces can be
determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 3, they can be
computed by the consideration of equilibrium of the entire structure as shown below (the FBD of
the entire structure is also shown below).

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : R
2Y
3P 2P P = 0

R
2Y
= 6P Upward

[EM
2
= 0] + : (R
1X
)(L) (3P)(L) (2P)(2L) (P)(3L) = 0

R
1X
= 10P Rightward

[EF
X
= 0] + : R
1X
+ R
2X
= 0

R
2X
= 10P Leftward

The member forces are then determined by the method of joints. Since the joint 7 contains only two
non-parallel members and there is no applied load, it can be deduced that F
57
= F
78
= 0. Based on
the known member forces {F
57
, F
78
} and the known support reactions {R
1X
, R
2X
, R
2Y
}, only joints 2
and 8 that contain only two unknowns. Let us start with the joint 8. The member forces {F
58
, F
68
}
can be obtained as follow:
Y
X
3P 2P P
L L L
L
1

3

5 7

2

4
6

8

45
o
45
o
45
o

R
2X

R
2Y
R
1X

Y
X
1

3

5 7

2

4

6

8

3P 2P P
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

69
[EF
Y
= 0] | + : F
58
cos45
o
F
78
P = 0

F
58
= 2 P (Compression)

[EF
X
= 0] + : F
58
sin45
o
F
68
= 0

F
68
= P (Tension)

Since member force F
58
and F
68
are negative and positive, respectively, the members 58 and 68 are
therefore in compression and in tension, respectively. Note that since the member force F
78
= 0, the
joint 8 contains only three non-zero forces and this allows the law of sine be alternatively used to
determine the two unknown member forces {F
58
, F
68
} as follow:

o 58 68
58 o o o o
o
68 o
F F P P
= = F sin90 2P (Compression)
sin90 sin45 sin45 sin45
P
F sin45 P (Tension)
sin45

= =
= =

Once the member force F
58
is determined, the joint 5 now contains only two unknown {F
35
, F
56
}.
Since the member force F
57
= 0, the joint 5 contains only three non-zero forces and they are shown
in the diagram below. The unknowns {F
35
, F
56
} are obtained as follow:

o 35 56 58
35 o o o o
o
56 o
F F F 2P
= = F sin45 P (Compression)
sin45 sin45 sin90 sin90
2P
F sin45 P (Tension)
sin90

= =
= =

Once the member forces F
56
and F
68
are determined, the next joint to be considered is the joint 6
since it contains only two unknowns {F
36
, F
46
}. By considering a FBD of the joint 6 and then setting
two equilibrium equations, we obtain

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : F
36
cos45
o
F
56
2P = 0

F
36
= 32 P (Compression)

[EF
X
= 0] + : F
36
sin45
o
F
46
+ F
68
= 0

F
46
= 4P (Tension)

Once the member forces F
35
and F
36
are determined, the next joint to be considered is the joint 3
since it contains only two unknowns {F
36
, F
46
}. By considering a FBD of the joint 3 and then setting
two equilibrium equations, we obtain

[EF
X
= 0] + : F
36
cos45
o
+ F
35
F
13
= 0

F
13
= 4P (Compression)

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : F
36
sin45
o
+ F
34
= 0

F
34
= 3P (Tension)
-F
58

-F
35

F
56

45
o

45
o

-F
58

F
68

P
45
o

45
o

8
F
58

F
68

F
78
= 0
P
45
o

6
F
56

F
46
F
68

F
36

2P
45
o

3
F
34

F
13
F
35

F
36

45
o

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

70
Once the member forces F
34
and F
46
are determined, the next joint to be considered is the joint 4
since it contains only two unknowns {F
14
, F
24
}. By considering a FBD of the joint 4 and then setting
two equilibrium equations, we obtain

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : F
14
cos45
o
F
34
3P = 0

F
14
= 62 P (Compression)

[EF
X
= 0] + : F
14
sin45
o
F
24
+ F
46
= 0

F
24
= 10P (Tension)

Once the member forces F
13
and F
14
are determined, the next joint to be considered is the joint 1
since it contains only one unknown {F
12
}. By considering a FBD of the joint 1 and then setting two
equilibrium equations, we obtain

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : F
14
sin45
o
+ F
12
= 0

F
12
= 6P (Tension)

[EF
X
= 0] + : F
14
cos45
o
+ F
13
+ R
1X
= 0 ?

(62P)(1/2) 4P+ 10P = 0 OK

It is evident that the second equation is not needed in the calculation of member forces and, in
addition, there are still two equations left at joint 2. This is not a surprise since three equilibrium
equations associated with the entire structure were already employed in the calculation of support
reactions. As a result, the three equilibrium equations (one at joint 1 and the other two at joint 2)
constitute no new independent equation but, in fact, they are linear combinations of other
equilibrium equations established above. Although they are not required in the calculation of
member forces, such extra equations are still useful as a part of verification of calculated results; if
all member forces are computed accurately, they must automatically satisfy those equations. For
instance, two equilibrium equations at joint 2 must also be satisfied as follow:

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : R
2y
F
12
= 0 ?

: 6P 6P = 0 OK

[EF
X
= 0] + : R
2x
+ F
24
= 0 ?

: 10P + 10P = 0 OK

2.4.5 Method of sections

As already pointed out in the previous section, the method of joints becomes inefficient if the
internal forces of certain members are of interest. To further enhance the efficiency of computation
of member forces of statically determinate trusses, another technique called a method of sections is
introduced. This method simply employs static equilibrium conditions along with the method of
structure partitioning.
To outline and clearly demonstrate the method of sections, let us consider a truss shown in
Figure 2.16(a). Assume that the member forces {F
23
, F
27
, F
67
} are of interest. As a first step, all
support reactions {R
1X
, R
1Y
, R
4Y
} are determined via the consideration of equilibrium of the entire
truss. To access and see the member forces {F
23
, F
27
, F
67
}, we need to introduce a fictitious cut or a
4
F
34

F
24
F
46

F
14

3P
45
o

1
F
12

R
1X

F
13

F
14

45
o

2
F
12

F
24

R
2X

R
2Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

71
section passing through the members 23, 27 and 67 as shown by a dash line in Figure 2.16(a). This
cut not only exposes the member forces {F
23
, F
27
, F
67
} but also divides the structure into two parts
with the FBD of each part shown in Figure 2.16(b) and 2.16(c). As is evident, either the FBD of the
right part or the FBD of the left part contains exactly three unknowns {F
23
, F
27
, F
67
}. Thus, the
consideration of equilibrium of either one of those two parts yields a sufficient number of equations
for solving the three unknown member forces. For instance, enforcing equilibrium of moments
about joint 7 of the right part yields the member force F
23
; enforcing equilibrium of moments about
joint 2 of the right part yields the member force F
67
; and enforcing equilibrium of forces in the Y-
direction of the right part yields the member force F
27
. It is worth noting that other equivalent sets
of three equilibrium equations can also be used and that the left part of the truss can also be
employed to determine {F
23
, F
27
, F
67
}. Note, however, that the consideration of equilibrium of those
two parts, while given totally six equations, still yields only three independent equations since the
other three equations are equivalent to those employed for computing the support reactions {R
1X
,
R
1Y
, R
4Y
}.

Figure 2.16: (a) Schematic of a truss and location of fictitious cut (b) & (c) FBDs of parts resulting
from partitioning

If the member force F
37
is of interest, we may introduce a fictitious cut as shown in Figure
2.17(a). This cut passes through the member 37 and divides the structure into two parts with the
corresponding FBDs shown in Figure 2.17(b) and (c). It is obvious that both FBDs contain exactly
three unknown member forces {F
23
, F
37
, F
78
} and they can in principle be determined from
equilibrium equations set up for one of these two parts. To determine the member force F
37
, we
simply enforce equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the left part. If the member forces {F
23
, F
78
}
(a)
(b) (c)
1

2

3
4

5

6
7 8

1

2

5

6

3
4

7 8

F
67
F
67

F
27

F
27

F
23
F
23

R
1X

R
1Y
R
4Y

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

72
are also of interest, they can be obtained by enforcing equilibrium of moments about joint 7 and
joint 3, respectively.

Figure 2.17: (a) Schematic of a truss and location of fictitious cut and (b) & (c) FBDs of parts
resulting from partitioning

To apply the method of sections in an efficient manner, following remarks may be taken into
account to reduce computational effort:

Since the internal force is constant throughout the member, the location through which
the section passes does not affect the results. This therefore provides flexibility for
choosing a path for sectioning.
To prevent confusion and errors, it is generally assumed a positive sign convention for
all unknown member forces (i.e. members are assumed in tension). If the negative
member force is obtained, the member is therefore in compression.
All support reactions should be determined before the method of sections is applied in
order to reduce the number of unknowns appearing in any parts resulting from the
sectioning.
If a section introduces only three unknown member forces along the cut, such unknown
forces can be determined from equilibrium of either one of the two parts provided that
all forces are not concurrent forces, e.g. sections shown in Figure 2.16 and Figure 2.17.
If a section and a reference point used for taking the moment are chosen appropriately,
the member force can readily be obtained from equilibrium of moments. For instance, if
the member force F
12
of trusses shown in Figure 2.18 is to be computed, the section and
reference point A may be chosen as shown below.
(a)
(b) (c)
1

2

3
4

5

6
7
8

1

2

5

6

3
4

7
8

F
78
F
78

F
37

F
37

F
23
F
23

R
1X

R
1Y
R
4Y

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

73

Figure 2.18: Schematic of trusses, sections, FBD of parts of truss, and reference point A

The method of sections has been found more efficient than the method of joints when the internal
forces are to be determined for certain members. However, for certain trusses, both methods may be
used together to increase the efficiency. For instance, in the analysis of the last two trusses shown in
Figure 2.18 (every joint of these truss contains at least three members), the method of sections is
applied first to determine some member forces. The method of joints can subsequently be used to
compute all remaining member forces in a simple fashion since it is always possible to find joints
containing only two unknowns.

Example 2.5 Determine all support reactions and then use the method of sections to compute the
member forces F
23
, F
25
, F
35
, and F
56
of a truss shown below

Y
X
4L
3L
3L
3L
P
P
3P
3P
2
1
3
4
6
5
7
A
F
12

1
2
1 2
A
F
12

1
2
A
F
12

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

74
Solution The structure given above is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3, m = 11, n = 7, n
c
=
0, then DI = 3 + 11(1) 7(2) 0 = 0); thus all support reactions and member forces can be
determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 3, they can be
computed by considering equilibrium of the entire structure as shown below.

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : R
4Y
3P = 0

R
4Y
= 3P Upward

[EM
4
= 0] + : (R
3X
)(6L) (P)(9L) (P)(3L) (3P)(4L) = 0

R
3X
= 4P Leftward

[EF
X
= 0] + : R
4X
+ R
3X
+ P + P + 3P = 0

R
4X
= P Leftward

Next, by introducing a fictitious cut S
1
and then considering equilibrium of the top part of the truss,
the member forces F
23
and F
25
can be obtained as follow:

[EM
5
= 0] + : (F
23
)(4L) (P)(3L) = 0

F
23
= 3P/4 (Tension)

[EM
1
= 0] + : (F
25
)(3L) = 0

F
25
= 0

Alternatively, the member forces F
23
and F
25
can also be obtained by considering equilibrium of the
bottom part of the truss as shown below:

[EM
5
= 0] + : P(3L) + (3P + R
4X
)(6L) (F
23
+ R
4Y
)(4L) = 0

F
23
= 3P/4 (Tension)

[EM
1
= 0] + : (R
3X
F
25
)(3L) + (3P + R
4X
)(9L) + P(6L) (3P)(4L) = 0

F
25
= 0
S
1

P
P
3P
3P
R
3X
R
4X
R
4Y
2
1
3
4
6
5
7
Y
X
5
P
2
1
F
15

F
25

F
23

P
3P
3P
R
3X
R
4X
R
4Y
3
4
6
5
7
F
15

F
25

F
23

1
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

75

Next, by introducing another fictitious cut S
2
and again considering equilibrium of the top part of
the truss, the member forces F
35
and F
56
can then be obtained as follow:

[EM
3
= 0] + : (F
56
)(4L) (R
3X
)(3L) (P)(6L) = 0

F
56
= 3P/2 (Tension)

[EF
X
= 0] + : (F
35
)(4/5) + P + R
3X
= 0

F
35
= 15P/4 (Compression)

Similar to the previous case, the member forces F
35
and F
56
can equivalently be obtained by
considering equilibrium of the bottom part of the truss as shown below:

[EM
3
= 0] + : (F
56
3P)(4L) + (3P + R
4X
)(3L) = 0

F
56
= 3P/2 (Tension)

[EF
X
= 0] + : (F
35
)(4/5) + P + 3P + R
4X
= 0

F
35
= 15P/4 (Compression)

Example 2.6 Determine all support reactions and all member forces for a truss shown below

S
2

P
P
3P
3P
R
3X
R
4X
R
4Y
2
1
3
4
6
5
7
Y
X
P
R
3X
2
1
5
3
F
56

F
35

F
23

P
3P
3P
R
4X
R
4Y
3
4
6
7
F
56

F
35

F
23

2P
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5

a
6
a
7

a
9
a
10

a
11

a
12
a
13

a
8

a
14

6@4L
2@3L
Y
X
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

76
Solution The structure given above is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3, m = 25, n = 14, n
c
=
0, then DI = 3 + 25(1) 14(2) 0 = 0); thus, all support reactions and member forces can be
determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 3, they can be
computed by considering equilibrium of the entire structure as shown below.

[EF
X
= 0] + : R
a8X
= 0

[EM
a8
= 0] + : (R
a14Y
)(24L) (2P)(12L) = 0

R
a14Y
= P

[EF
Y
= 0] | + R
a14Y
+ R
a8Y
2P = 0

R
a8Y
= P

From geometry and loading of a given truss, it can readily be verified that the following member
forces vanish:

F
a2a6
= F
a3a11
= F
a4a7
= F
a6a10
= F
a6a9
= F
a1a9
= F
a7a12
= F
a7a13
= F
a5a13
= 0

F
a1a8
= F
a5a14
; F
a8a9
= F
a13a14
; F
a1a2
= F
a4a5
; F
a1a6
= F
a5a7

F
a9a10
= F
a12a13
; F
a2a3
= F
a3a4
; F
a6a11
= F
a7a11
; F
a10a11
= F
a11a12

Next, by applying the method of joints to joints a
2
, a
9
, a
6
and a
10

Joint a
2
: [EF
X
= 0] F
a1a2
= F
a2a3

Joint a
9
: [EF
X
= 0] F
a8a9
= F
a9a10

Joint a
6
: [EF
X
= 0] F
a1a6
= F
a6a11

Joint a
10
: [EF
X
= 0] F
a9a10
= F
a10a11

Now, it still remains to determine the member forces F
a2a3
, F
a6a11
, F
a10a11
and F
a1a8
. To compute the
member forces F
a2a3
, F
a6a11
and F
a10a11
, we apply the method of sections along with introducing a
fictitious cut S
1
that passes through the members a
2
a
3
, a
6
a
11
and a
10
a
11
as indicated in the above
figure and detail calculations are given below.
2P
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5

a
6
a
7

a
9
a
10

a
11

a
12
a
13

a
8

a
14

R
a8Y

R
a8X

R
a14Y

Y
X
S
1

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

77

[EM
a1
= 0] + : (F
a10a11
)(6L) (P)(4L) = 0

F
a10a11
= 2P/3 (Tension)

[EM
a11
= 0] + : (F
a2a3
)(6L) (P)(12L) = 0

F
a2a3
= 2P (Compression)

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : (F
a6a11
)(3/5) + P = 0

F
a6a11
= 5P/3 (Tension)

Finally, the member force F
a1a8
is obtained by applying the method of joints to joint a
8
as shown
below (sinu = 3/13 and cosu = 2/13).

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : F
a1a8
sinu + P = 0

F
a1a8
= 13P/3 (Compression)

[EF
X
= 0] + : F
a1a8
cosu + F
a8a9
= 0 ?

(13P/3)(2/13) + 2P/3 = 0 OK

Note that the second equation is just an extra equation that can be used to partially verify computed
results. All member forces are summarized below:

F
a1a8
= F
a5a14
= 13P/3 (Compression)

F
a8a9
= F
a13a14
= F
a9a10
= F
a10a11
= F
a11a12
= F
a12a13
= 2P/3 (Tension)

F
a1a2
= F
a2a3
= F
a3a4
= F
a4a5
= 2P (Compression)

F
a1a6
= F
a6a11
= F
a5a7
= F
a7a11
= 5P/3 (Tension)

F
a1a9
= F
a2a6
= F
a6a9
= F
a6a10
= F
a3a11
= F
a4a7
= F
a7a12
= F
a5a13
= F
a7a13
= 0

As a final remark, the method of joints and method of sections described above is applied under the
assumption that the displacement at all joints is infinitesimal allowing equilibrium to be enforced in
the undeformed state (whose geometry is considered known a priori). For a truss undergoing large
displacement, equilibrium must be checked based on the (unknown) geometry in the deformed state
and, for this particular case, only equilibrium equations are not sufficient to determine support
reactions and internal forces (see Rungamornrat et al (2008) for the analysis of truss with
consideration of geometric nonlinearity).
Y
X
a
1
a
2

a
6

a
9
a
10

a
8

R
a8X
= 0
R
a8Y
= P
F
a6a11

F
a2a3

a
11

F
a10a11

F
a8a9

F
a1a8

u a
8

R
a8X
= 0
R
a8Y
= P
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

78
2.5 Static Analysis of Beams

This section devotes to the static analysis of another type of structures termed beams. The primary
objective is to present basic techniques commonly used in the determination of support reactions
and the internal forces at any location, i.e. the shear force diagram (SFD) and the bending moment
diagram (BMD). In addition, sketch of a qualitative elastic or deformed shape of beam under
external applied loads is also discussed. The section starts with a brief introduction on
characteristics of beams and standard notations and sign convention commonly used for beam.
Next, a basic technique based upon the method of sections to determine the internal forces at a
particular location of interest is presented. A more general technique based on the differential and
integral formula is further introduced to construct the SFD and BMD. Finally, guidelines useful for
sketching the elastic curve are summarized. Various examples are also presented to demonstrate the
principle and details of each technique.

2.5.1 Characteristics of beams

An idealized structure is called a beam if and only if (i) all members are straight and form a
straight-line-configuration structure, (ii) all members are generally connected by beam joints (full
moment release is allowed for certain joints), and (iii) all applied loads must form a system of
transverse loads. Examples of beams are shown schematically in Figure 2.19. Note that there is no
restriction on the type of supports present in beams, i.e. roller supports, pinned supports, guide
supports and fixed supports are allowed. Note, however, that the component of support reactions in
the direction of the beam axis, if exists, can be ignored since all applied loads are transverse loads.
From above definition, it can readily be verified that the internal forces at any location of the
beam can be represented by two components called the shear force and the bending moment. The
shear force is the resultant force in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the beam and the
bending moment is the resultant moment in the direction perpendicular to the plane of transverse
loads, see Figure 2.20. Unlike the truss member, the shear force and bending moment are in general
not constant throughout the member. Another different feature is that the angle between the two
members connecting to any beam joint is preserved before and after undergoing deformation
provided that such a joint contains no moment release.

Figure 2.19: Schematic of some statically determinate beams
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

79

Figure 2.20: Schematic indicating two components of the internal force in beam

2.5.2 Sign and convention

A reference Cartesian coordinate system commonly used for beam, denoted by {O; X, Y, Z} where
O is the origin and {X, Y, Z} represents three mutually perpendicular axes following a standard
right handed rule, is defined such that the X-axis directs along the axis of the beam and the X-Y
plane is a plane of transverse loads. Note that there is no restriction on the location of the origin O.
An example of the reference coordinate system for a beam is shown in Figure 2.21.
The sign convention and notations for support reactions of beams can be defined in a similar
fashion to those for support reactions of trusses. For instance, reactions at the fixed support of the
beam shown in Figure 2.21 are denoted by R
AY
and R
AM
where the former stands for a force
reaction in the Y-direction and the latter stands for a moment reaction in the Z-direction, and a force
reaction in the Y-direction of the roller support located at a point B is denoted by R
BY
. Since all
support reactions are unknown a priori, it is common in the analysis to assume that they possess a
positive direction, i.e. they direct along the positive coordinate axes (see examples of positive sign
convention for reactions in Figure 2.21). Once results are obtained, the actual direction of each
reaction can be decided from their sign; specifically, if the computed reaction is positive, the
assumed direction is correct but, if the computed reaction is negative, the actual direction is
opposite to the assumed direction.

Figure 2.21: Schematic showing a reference coordinate system and sign convention and notations of
support reactions of a beam

For the shear force and bending moment, it is standard to follow notations and sign convention
given below.

The shear force at a particular point A is denoted by a symbol V
A
and the shear force as a
function of position x along the beam is denoted by V(x). The shear force at any point is
Shear force
Bending moment

R
BY

R
AM

A
B
Y
X
R
AY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

80
considered to be positive if and only if it tends to produce a clockwise rotation of the
infinitesimal beam element in the neighborhood of that point; otherwise it is negative.
The positive and negative shear forces are shown in Figure 2.22. A traditional strategy
commonly used to memorize the sign convention for the shear force is that the shear
force at any point is considered positive if and only if, when a cut is made at that point,
the shear force directs upward in the FBD of the right part of a beam and directs
downward in the FBD of the left part of a beam.

Figure 2.22: Schematic indicating positive and negative sign convention for shear force

The bending moment at a particular point A is denoted by a symbol M
A
and the bending
moment as a function of position x along the beam is denoted by M(x). The bending
moment at any point is considered to be positive if and only if it produces a compressive
stress at the top and produces a tensile stress at the bottom; otherwise it is negative. The
positive and negative bending moments are shown in Figure 2.23. A traditional strategy
commonly used to memorize the sign convention for the bending moment is that the
positive bending moment produces a concave upward curve or a smile shape while the
negative moment produces a concave downward curve or a sad shape.

Figure 2.23: Schematic indicating positive and negative sign convention for bending moment

2.5.3 Determination of support reactions

A standard procedure for determining support reactions of statically determinate beams follows
exactly that given in the section 2.3. For a beam containing only two components of support
reactions, consideration of equilibrium of the entire beam is sufficient for solving all unknown
reactions. For instance, support reactions {R
AY
, R
BY
} of a simply-supported beam shown in Figure
2.24 can be obtained by solving two equilibrium equations set up on the entire beam as follows:

the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments of the entire structure about a
point A, and
the reaction R
BY
is obtained either from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the entire
structure or from equilibrium of moments of the entire structure about a point B.
Negative shear force Positive shear force
Negative bending moment
Top fiber
Bottom fiber
Positive bending moment
Top fiber
Bottom fiber
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

81

Figure 2.24: Schematic of a simply-supported beam and its FBD

For various beams, they may contain more than two components of support reactions while
still statically determinate, for instance, the third beam shown in Figure 2.19, the beam shown in
Figure 2.21 and the beam shown in Figure 2.25. For this particular case, only the consideration of
equilibrium of the entire beam is insufficient to determine all support reactions. Additional
conditions related to the presence of internal releases within the beam must be employed to supply
adequate number of equations. These extra equations can equivalently be viewed as equilibrium
equations written for some parts of the beam that resulting from suitable cuts (e.g. cuts passing
through the location of the internal releases).

Figure 2.25: Schematic of a two-span beam containing four support reactions

To clearly demonstrate how to determine support reactions for this particular case, consider, for
example, the beam shown in Figure 2.25. This structure is obviously statically determinate (i.e., r
a
=
4, n
m
= 2(2) = 4, n
j
= 3(2) = 6, n
c
= 2 DI = 4 + 4 6 2 = 0) and this therefore ensures that all
support reactions can be obtained only from static equilibrium. Since there are four unknowns
reactions {R
AM
, R
AY
, R
CY
, R
EY
}, we still need to construct two additional equations, when used
together with those two constructed on the entire beam, to render a sufficient number of equations.
To achieve this task, let us first introduce a cut at a hinge D and consider the right part of the beam
(see FBD in Figure 2.26(a)) and next introduce a cut at a point just to the right of a hinge B and
consider the right part of the beam (see FBD in Figure 2.27(b)). Note that we intend not to make a
cut exactly at the hinge B since we want to avoid an argument related to how to distribute a
concentrated load acting at the hinge B to the left and right parts of the beam. The unknown
reactions {R
AM
, R
AY
, R
CY
, R
EY
} can then be computed as follow:

the reaction R
EY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point D of the right
part of the beam shown in Figure 2.26(a),
the reaction R
CY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point B
R
of the right
part of the beam shown in Figure 2.26(b),
R
BY

Y
X
R
AY

A
B
A
B
A B
C
D
E
X
Y
R
CY

R
AM

R
AY

R
EY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

82
the reaction R
AM
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point A of the entire
beam shown in Figure 2.26(c), and
the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the entire
structure.

Figure 2.26: (a) FBD of right part of beam when a cut is made at hinge D, (b) FBD of right part of
the beam when a cut is made at point just to the right of hinge B, and (c) FBD of entire beam

Alternatively, let us introduce two cuts simultaneously, one at point just to the right of a hinge B
and the other at a hinge D. With these two cuts, we can sketch corresponding FBDs of three parts of
the beam as shown in Figure 2.27. While we introduce two extra unknowns {V
BR
, V
D
} at the cut,
the total number of unknowns (4 + 2 = 6) is now equal to the number of equilibrium equations that
can be set up for the three parts (2 + 2 + 2 = 6). To obtain all reactions without solving a system of
six linear equations, we can consider equilibrium of each part as follow:

Figure 2.27: Free body diagrams of three parts of the beam resulting from two cuts at point just to
the right of hinge B and at hinge D

the reaction R
EY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point D of the right
part of the beam shown in Figure 2.27(c),
the shear force V
D
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the right part
of the beam shown in Figure 2.27(c),
the reaction R
CY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point B
R
of the middle
part of the beam shown in Figure 2.27(b),
the shear force V
BR
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the middle
part of the beam shown in Figure 2.27(b),
X
Y
A
B
C
D
E
R
AY
R
EY
R
CY

R
AM

(c)
C
D
E
R
EY
R
CY

B
R

V
BR

(b)
D
E
R
EY

V
D

(a)
X
Y
A
B
R
AM

R
AY

V
BR

C
D
R
CY

V
BR

V
D

D
E
R
EY

V
D

(a) (b) (c)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

83
the reaction R
AM
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point A of the left part
of the beam shown in Figure 2.27(a), and
the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the left part of
the beam shown in Figure 2.27(a).

It is remarked that while the both solution strategies yield identical results, the intermediate
unknowns {V
BR
, V
D
} must be solved in the second strategy in order to obtain all support reactions.

2.5.4 Method of sections

In various situations, the shear force and bending moment at some specific locations are of interest.
The method of sections similar to that employed in the analysis of member forces in trusses can
efficiently be applied here. The procedure starts with introducing a cut at a location where the shear
force and bending moment are to be determined in order to access and see those unknown internal
forces and then follows by applying static equilibrium equations to solve for such unknowns. If all
support reactions are determined before the method of sections is applied, only two unknowns (one
corresponding to the shear force and the other corresponding to the bending moment) are introduced
at the cut and appear in the FBD of both parts of the beam resulting from the cut. Consideration of
equilibrium of either part provides two independent equilibrium equations and this is sufficient for
solving the two unknown internal forces at a particular location. Procedures for determining shear
force and bending moment at a particular point P by the method of sections can be summarized as
follow (see for example a beam shown in Figure 2.28):

Determine all support reactions following guideline given in section 2.5.4
Introduce a cut at point P and then separate the beam into two parts
Choose one of the two parts that seems to involve less computation
Sketch the FBD of a selected part; both shear force and bending moment are assumed a
priori to be positive.
Apply equilibrium of forces of the selected part in Y-direction; this yields the shear force
at point P (V
P
). If the computed shear force is positive, the assumed direction is correct;
otherwise, the actual direction is opposite to the assumed direction.
Apply equilibrium of moments of the selected part about a point P; this yields the
bending moment at point P (M
P
). If the computed bending moment is positive, the
assumed direction is correct; otherwise, the actual direction is opposite to the assumed
direction.

Figure 2.28: Schematic indicating a cut used to access the shear force and bending moment at point
P and FBDs of the two parts resulting from the cut

R
BY

R
AM

A
B
Y
X
R
AY

P
R
AM

A
R
AY

P
M
P

V
P

R
BY

B
P
M
P

V
P

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

84
It is remarked that the method of sections can be used not only to determine shear force and
bending moment at a particular point but also to determine the shear force and bending moment at
any location of the beam, i.e. V(x) and M(x). Procedures to obtain V(x) and M(x) are similar to
those described above except that a cut must be made at any point x instead of a specific location. In
addition, the entire beam needs to be separated into several subintervals due to the discontinuity
induced by the presence of supports, concentrated applied loads, and locations where distributed
loads change their distribution. The function forms of V(x) or M(x) for those subintervals are
generally different and need to be constructed separately. Once the shear force and bending moment
as a function of position x along the beam are determined, graphs of V(x) and M(x) can be plotted
with the x-axis directing along the axis of the beam. These two graphical representations are known
as a shear force diagram (SFD) and a bending moment diagram (BMD), respectively. Example 2.7
and Example 2.8 demonstrate applications of the method of sections to determine shear force and
bending moment at some specific locations and to construct V(x) and M(x) and sketch the
corresponding SFD and BMD, respectively.

Example 2.7 Determine shear force and bending moment at points A
R
, B
L
, B
R
, C
L
, C
R
, D
L
, D
R
of a
beam shown below. Subscripts L and R is used to indicate a point just to the left and a point just to
the right of the indicated point, e.g. C
L
, C
R
are point just to the left and point just to the right of the
point C.

Solution The given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2, n
m
= 1(2) = 2, n
j
= 2(2) = 4, n
c
= 0,
then DI = 2 + 2 4 0 = 0); thus all support reactions and the internal forces at any location can be
determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 2, they can be
obtained from equilibrium of the entire structure as shown below.

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
qL qL = 0

R
AY
= 2qL Upward

[M
A
= 0] : R
Am
(qL)(L) + qL
2
(qL)(3L+L/2) = 0

R
Am
= 7qL
2
/2 CCW
A
B
P
o
= qL
q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

Y
X
L L L L
R
AY

R
AM

A
B C D E
Y
X
P
o
= qL
q
M
o
= qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

85
The shear force and bending moment at point A
R
are obtained by making a cut at point just to the
right of point A and then considering equilibrium of the left part:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V
AR
= 0

V
AR
= 2qL

[M
A
= 0] : R
AM
+ M
AR
= 0

M
AR
= 7qL
2
/2

Similarly, the shear force and bending moment at point B
L
are obtained by making a cut at point
just to the left of point B and then considering equilibrium of the left part:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V
BL
= 0

V
BL
= 2qL

[M
BL
= 0] : R
AM
R
AY
L+ M
BL
= 0

M
BL
= 3qL
2
/2

Note that the distance between the point A and point B
L
is denoted by L

## and, in the limit as B

L

approaches the point B, L

## = L. Next, the shear force and bending moment at point B

R
are obtained
by making a cut at point just to the right of point B and then considering equilibrium of the left part:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V
BR
qL = 0

V
BR
= qL

[M
BR
= 0] : R
AM
R
AY
L+ M
BR
= 0

M
BR
= 3qL
2
/2

Similarly, in the limit as B
R
approaches the point B, L
+
= L. Next, the shear force and bending
moment at point C
L
are obtained by making a cut at point just to the left of point C and then
considering equilibrium of the left part:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V
CL
qL = 0

V
CL
= qL

[M
CL
= 0] : R
AM
2R
AY
L + qL
2
+ M
CL
= 0

M
CL
= qL
2
/2

The shear force and bending moment at point C
R
can be obtained by making a cut at point just to
the right of point C and then considering equilibrium of the left part:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V
CR
qL = 0

V
CR
= qL

[M
CR
= 0] : R
AM
2R
AY
L + 2qL
2
+ M
CR
= 0

M
CR
= 3qL
2
/2

R
AY

R
AM

M
AR

V
AR

A B
L

R
AY

R
AM

V
BL

M
BL

L

qL
A B
R

R
AY

R
AM

V
BR

M
BR

L
+

A B
R
AY

R
AM

V
CL

M
CL

L
qL
C
L

L

qL
2

A B
R
AY

R
AM

V
CR

M
CR

L
qL
C
R

L
+

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

86
The shear force and bending moment at point D
L
can be obtained by making a cut at point just to
the left of point C and then considering equilibrium of the right part:

[F
Y
= 0] : V
DL
qL = 0

V
DL
= qL

[M
DL
= 0] : M
DL
(qL)(L/2) = 0

M
DL
= qL
2
/2

Finally, the shear force and bending moment at point D
R
can be obtained by making a cut at point
just to the right of point D and then considering equilibrium of the right part:

[F
Y
= 0] : V
DR
qL = 0

V
DR
= qL

[M
DR
= 0] : M
DR
(qL)(L/2) = 0

M
DR
= qL
2
/2

From results obtained, it is worth noting that at a point where a concentrated force is applied, there
is a jump of the shear force equal to the magnitude of the concentrated force while there is no jump
of the bending moment. For instance, at the point B, we have

V
BR
V
BL
= qL

M
BR
M
BL
= 0

Next, at a point where a concentrated moment is applied, there is a jump of the bending moment
equal to the magnitude of the concentrated moment while there is no jump of the shear force. For
instance, at the point C, we have

V
CR
V
CL
= 0

M
CR
M
CL
= qL
2

Finally, at a point where the distributed load is discontinuous, there is no jump of both the bending
moment and the shear force. For instance, at the point D, we have

V
DR
V
DL
= 0

M
DR
M
DL
= 0

Example 2.8 Determine all support reactions and then use the method of sections to construct the
SFD and BMD of a beam shown below.

q
D
L

E
V
DL

M
DL

L
+

q
D
R

E
V
DR

M
DL

L

A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
L L L L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

87
Solution The given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2, n
m
= 2(2) = 4, n
j
= 3(2) = 6, n
c
= 0,
then DI = 2 + 4 6 0 = 0); thus all support reactions and the internal forces at any location can be
determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 2, they can be
obtained from equilibrium of the entire structure as shown below.

[M
A
= 0] : 3R
DY
L + qL
2
(3qL)(2L) (2qL)(3L+L/2) = 0

R
DY
= 4qL Upward

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
+ R
DY
3qL 2qL = 0

R
AY
= qL Upward

Since there are three points of discontinuity within the beam (i.e. points B, C, and D), the beam is
then divided into four subintervals (i.e. subintervals AB, BC, CD and DE) and the shear force V(x)
and bending moment M(x) are to be obtained for each subinterval as shown below. Starting with the
subinterval AB, a cut is made at any point x (0, L) and equilibrium of the left part of the beam is
considered:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V(x) = 0

V(x) = qL

[M
x
= 0] : M(x) (R
AY
)(x) = 0

M(x) = qLx

Next, the shear force V(x) and bending moment M(x) within the subinterval BC are obtained by
introducing a cut at any point x (L, 2L) and considering equilibrium of the left part of the beam:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V(x) = 0

V(x) = qL

[M
x
= 0] : M(x) (R
AY
)(x) + qL
2
= 0

M(x) = qLx qL
2

Next, the shear force V(x) and bending moment M(x) within the subinterval CD are obtained by
introducing a cut at any point x (2L, 3L) and considering equilibrium of the left part of the beam:

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
V(x) 3qL = 0

V(x) = 2qL

[M
x
= 0] : M(x) (R
AY
)(x) + qL
2
+ (3qL)(x-2L) = 0

M(x) = 2qLx + 5qL
2

R
AY
R
DY

A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
A
R
AY

V(x)
M(x)
x
A
R
AY

V(x)
M(x)
x
B
qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

88

Finally, the shear force V(x) and bending moment M(x) within the last subinterval DE are obtained
by making a cut at any point x (3L, 4L) and equilibrium of the right part of the beam is
considered as follows:

[F
Y
= 0] : V(x) 2q(4L x) = 0

V(x) = 8qL 2qx

[M
x
= 0] : M(x) (2q)(4L x)(4L x)/2 = 0

M(x) = q(4L x)
2

The shear force V(x) and the bending moment M(x) for the entire beam are summarized and the
corresponding shear force diagram (SFD) and bending moment diagram (BMD) are sketched as
shown below.

Shear force

V(x) = qL , x (0, L)
V(x) = qL , x (L, 2L)
V(x) = 2qL , x (2L, 3L)
V(x) = 8qL2qx , x (3L, 4L)

Bending moment

M(x) = qLx , x (0, L)
M(x) = qLxqL
2
, x (L, 2L)
M(x) = 2qLx + 5qL
2
, x (2L, 3L)
M(x) = q(4Lx)
2
, x (3L, 4L)

From above SFD and BMD, the maximum positive shear force is equal to 2qL occurring at point
just to the right of the point D; the maximum negative shear force is equal to 2qL occurring at the
entire subinterval CD; the maximum positive bending moment is equal to qL
2
occurring at points C
and a point just to the left of the point B; and the maximum negative bending moment is equal to
qL
2
occurring at point D.
A
R
AY

V(x)
M(x)
x
B
qL
2

3qL
C
4L x
V(x)
M(x)
E
2q
qL
2qL
2qL
SFD
BMD
qL
2
qL
2

qL
2

A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
R
AY

R
DY

qL
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

89
2.5.5 Method of differential and integral formula

It has been apparent from the previous section that the method of sections can become inefficient
when applied to construct SFD and BMD of beams. This is due to the need to obtain the shear force
and bending moment as a function of position along the entire beam, i.e. V(x) and M(x); the
construction of these two functions is somewhat cumbersome especially when there are many
points of loading discontinuity (e.g. points where supports are present, concentrated forces and
moments are applied, distributed loads change their distribution, etc.) thus requiring to form V(x)
and M(x) in several subinterval separately.
To overcome this tedious task, another technique called a method of differential and
integral formula is introduced. This technique is still based primarily on static equilibrium but the
key equilibrium equations employed are expressed in both differential form and integral form. The
special feature of these equations is that they relate the shear force and bending moment to the
external applied loads in both local and global senses and, therefore, allow the shear force and
bending moment be obtained as a function of position without introducing any cut along the beam.

2.5.5.1 Equilibrium equations in differential form

Consider a beam that is in equilibrium with applied transverse loads as shown schematically in
Figure 2.29(a). Lets introduce two cuts, one at the coordinate x and the other at the coordinate x +
dx, and then sketch the FBD of an infinitesimal element dx as shown in Figure 2.29(b). The shear
force and bending moment at x are denoted by V(x) and M(x), respectively, and the shear force and
bending moment at x + dx are denoted by V(x) + dV and M(x) + dM, respectively, where dV and
dM are increments of shear force and bending moment. Note that the positive sign conventions for
the shear force, bending moment, and the distributed load q (distributed load is considered to be
positive if its direction is along the Y-axis) are assumed.

Figure 2.29: (a) Schematic of a beam subjected to transverse loads and (b) FBD of an infinitesimal
element dx

By enforcing static equilibrium of the infinitesimal element dx shown in Figure 2.29(b) and then
taking appropriate limit process, we obtain the following two equilibrium equations in a differential
form:

Y
dV(x)
F 0 V(x) + qdx V(x) dV = 0 q(x)
dx
(2.15)

Z
dM(x)
M 0 M(x) + dM M(x) V(x)dx qdx(dx/2) = 0 V(x)
dx
(2.16)
X
(a) (b)
Y
x
dx
q
dx
V(x)
M(x)
q
V(x) + dV
M(x) + dM
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

90
It is important to emphasize that the equation (2.15) is valid at any point x such that the distributed
load q is continuous and it is free of any concentrated force while the equation (2.15) is valid at any
point x such that the shear force is continuous and it is free of any concentrated moment.
The first equation (2.15) states that the spatial rate of change of the shear force or the slope
of the shear force diagram at any point is equal to the value of the distributed load q applied at that
point. Based on this argument, following cases can be deduced:

A segment of the beam that is free of distributed load and concentrated force (i.e. q = 0)
must have a constant shear or, equivalently, a portion of the SFD corresponding to that
segment possesses a zero slope or, in the other word, assumes a horizontal straight line;
for instance, segments AB, CD, FG, and IJ of a beam shown in Figure 2.30.
The shear force of a beam segment that is subjected only to uniformly distributed load q
possesses a linear distribution across that segment or, equivalently, a portion of the SFD
corresponding to that beam segment assumes a straight line (e.g. segments BC and JK of
a beam shown in Figure 2.30). The slope of this straight line depends on the direction of
q; the slope is positive when q directs upwards otherwise it is negative.
If the distributed load q directs upward (i.e. q > 0) with monotonically increasing
magnitude over a segment of the beam, a portion of the SFD corresponding to that
segment assumes a rising and concave upward curve (e.g. segment GH shown in Figure
2.30). On the contrary, if the magnitude of the distributed load decreases monotonically
(while its direction is still upward), the corresponding portion of the SFD assumes a
rising and concave downward curve (e.g. segment HI shown in Figure 2.30).
If the distributed load q directs downward (i.e. q < 0) with monotonically increasing
magnitude over a segment of the beam, a portion of the SFD corresponding to that
segment assumes a dropping and concave downward curve (e.g. segment DE shown in
Figure 2.30). On the contrary, if the magnitude of the distributed load decreases
monotonically (while its direction is still downward), the corresponding portion of the
SFD assumes a dropping and concave upward curve (e.g. segment EF shown in Figure
2.30).

Figure 2.30: SFD of a beam subjected to different types of distributed load
A B C D E
Y
X
F G H I J K
SFD
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

91
The second equation (2.16) states that the spatial rate of change of the bending moment or the
slope of the bending moment diagram at any point is equal to the value of shear force at that point.
Based on this argument, following cases can be deduced:

A segment of the beam that the shear force identically vanishes (i.e. V = 0) must have a
constant shear or, equivalently, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that segment
possesses a zero slope or, in the other word, assumes a horizontal straight line (e.g.
segment AB shown in Figure 2.31).
For a segment of the beam that possesses a constant positive shear force, the bending
moment increases linearly or, equivalently, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that
segment assumes a rising straight line (e.g. segment BC shown in Figure 2.31).
For a segment of the beam that possesses a constant negative shear force, the bending
moment decreases linearly or, equivalently, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that
segment assumes a dropping straight line (e.g. segment GH shown in Figure 2.31).
If the shear force is positive and increases monotonically in magnitude over a segment of
the beam, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that segment assumes a rising and
concave upward curve (e.g. segment EF shown in Figure 2.31).
If the shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over a segment of
the beam, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that segment assumes a rising and
concave downward curve (e.g. segment FG shown in Figure 2.31).
If the shear force is negative and increases monotonically in magnitude over a segment of
the beam, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that segment assumes a dropping and
concave downward curve (e.g. segment CD shown in Figure 2.31).
If the shear force is negative and decreases monotonically in magnitude over a segment
of the beam, a portion of the BMD corresponding to that segment assumes a dropping
and concave upward curve (e.g. segment DE shown in Figure 2.31).

Figure 2.31: SFD and the corresponding BMD of a beam
A B
BMD
SFD
C D
E F G H
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

92
2.5.5.2 Equilibrium equations in integral form

Now, let A and B be two points within the beam and x
A
and x
B
be their X-coordinates; without loss
of generality, lets assume further that the point B is on the right of point A, i.e., x
B
> x
A
. By
directly integrating equation (2.15) from the point A to the point B, we then obtain the integral
formula

AB A
x
x
A B
Q V dx q V V
B
A

(2.17)

where V
A
and V
B
are shear forces at the points A and B, respectively, and Q
AB
is the sum of all
distributed load over the segment AB. This equation implies that the shear force at the point B can
be obtained by adding the total load over the segment AB to the shear force at the point A. It is
important to emphasize that equation (2.17) applies only to the case that there is no concentrated
force acting to the segment AB. Note that the sign convention of the total load Q
AB
follows that of
Similarly, by directly integrating equation (2.16) from the point A to the point B, we obtain
the integral formula

AB A
x
x
A B
AreaV M dx V M M
B
A

(2.18)

where M
A
and M
B
are the bending moment at the point A and point B, respectively, and AreaV
AB
is
the area of the shear force diagram over the segment AB. This equation implies that the bending
moment at the point B can be obtained by adding the area of the shear force diagram over the
segment AB to the bending moment at the point A. It is important to emphasize that the relation
(2.18) applies to the case that there is no concentrated moment acting to the portion AB. The sign
convention of the area AreaV
AB
follows directly from that of the shear force V; it can therefore be
either positive or negative.
Both the relations (2.17) and (2.18) can be used to determine the shear force and bending
moment at a particular point when there exists at least one point that the shear force and the bending
moment are known. If the relation (2.18) is to be employed in the construction of BMD, the SFD
must be known a priori.

2.5.5.3 Discontinuity of shear force and bending moment

It has been found in various situations that actual applied loads are suitable to be modeled by
concentrated forces or concentrated moments in the idealized structure. Presence of such
concentrated loads within the beam may introduce the discontinuity of certain components of the
internal force at the location where the concentrated loads are applied. Here, we employ static
equilibrium to establish the discontinuity conditions of the shear force and bending moment at
points where the concentrated loads are applied.
First, let us investigate the discontinuity condition at the location where a concentrate force
is applied. Let P
o
be a concentrated force applied to a point A of the beam (this force is considered
to be positive if it directs upward in Y-direction otherwise it is negative). By introducing two cuts at
a point just to left and a point just to the right of the point A and then considering equilibrium of an
infinitesimal element containing a point A (its free body diagram is shown in Figure 2.32) along
with taking appropriate limit process, we obtain the discontinuity conditions of the shear force and
bending moment:
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

93

Figure 2.32: FBD of infinitesimal element containing a point where concentrated force is applied

AR AL o
V V P (2.19)

AR AL
M M (2.20)

where V
AR
and V
AL
are the shear force at a point just to the right and a point just to the left of the
point A, respectively, and M
AR
and M
AL
are the bending moment at a point just to the right and a
point just to the left of the point A, respectively. It is evident from (2.19) and (2.20) that, at the
location where a concentrated force is applied, the shear force is not defined and is discontinuous
with the magnitude of the jump equal to the magnitude of the concentrated force while the bending
moment is still continuous. In addition, the shear force experiences a positive jump if the
concentrated force is positive (or directs upward in the Y-direction) and it experiences a negative
jump if the concentrated force is negative (or directs downward in the opposite Y-direction).
Next, let us consider the discontinuity condition at a location where a concentrated moment
M
o
is applied. Let M
o
be a concentrated moment applied to a point A (this moment is considered to
be positive if it directs in a counter clockwise direction or in the Z-direction otherwise it is
negative). By introducing two cuts at a point just to left and a point just to the right of the point A
and then considering equilibrium of an infinitesimal element containing a point A (its free body
diagram is shown in Figure 2.33) along with taking appropriate limit process, we obtain the
discontinuity conditions of the shear force and bending moment:

Figure 2.33: FBD of infinitesimal element containing a point where concentrated moment is applied

AR AL
V V (2.21)

AR AL o
M M M (2.22)

Equations (2.21) and (2.22) imply that at a point where the concentrated moment is applied, the
bending moment is discontinuous with the magnitude of the jump equal to the magnitude of the
concentrated moment while the shear force experiences no jump but it is not defined at this point.
We emphasize in addition that the bending moment experiences a positive jump if the concentrated
moment is negative (or directs in a clockwise direction or Z-direction) and it experiences a negative
jump if the concentrated moment is positive (or directs in a counter clockwise direction or opposite
Z-direction).
Finally, let us investigate the location where the distributed load q is discontinuous, say a
point A. By introducing two cuts at a point just to left and a point just to the right of the point A and
then considering equilibrium of an infinitesimal element containing a point A (its free body diagram
is shown in Figure 2.34) along with taking appropriate limit process, we obtain the discontinuity
conditions of the shear force and bending moment:
A
V
AL

M
AL

V
AR

M
AR

P
o

A
V
AL

M
AL

V
AR

M
AR

M
o

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

94

Figure 2.34: FBD of infinitesimal element containing point where distributed load is discontinuous

AR AL
V V (2.23)

AR AL
M M (2.24)

This implies that both the shear force and bending moment are continuous at a location where the

2.5.5.4 Procedures for constructing SFD and BMD

The differential formula (2.15) and (2.16), the integral formula (2.17) and (2.18) and the
discontinuity conditions (2.19)-(2.24) constitutes basic components for constructing the SFD and
BMD of a beam. In particular, the two integral formula (2.17) and (2.18) are employed to obtain the
shear force and the bending moment at the right end of any segment when values at the left end of
those quantities are known and there is no point of loading discontinuity within the segment (e.g.
concentrated forces and moments). The two differential formulae (2.15) and (2.16) are then used to
identify the type of a curve that connects a part of the SFD and BMD over a segment where values
of the shear force and bending moment are already known at its ends. The discontinuity conditions
are used to dictate the jump of the shear force and bending moment in the SFD and BMD due to the
presence of concentrated forces and moments. Here, we summarize standard procedures or
guidelines for constructing the SFD and BMD of a beam.

Determine all support reactions
concentrated forces and moments are applied, and points where distributed load changes
its distribution
Identify all possible segments such that points of loading discontinuity must be at the
ends of each segment
Identify a point that both the shear force and bending moment are known as a starting
point (in general, the left end of the beam is chosen since all forces and moments are
known at both ends of the beam once the reactions are already determined.)
Start drawing the SFD as follow: (i) start with the first segment on the left of the beam
since the shear force at the left end of this segment is already known, (ii) use the integral
formula (2.17) to compute the shear force at the right end of the segment, (iii) use the
differential formula (2.15) to identify the type of a curve and then use that curve to draw
the SFD over the segment, (iv) choose the segment just to the left of the previous
segment as a current segment to be considered, and (v) use the jump conditions (2.19),
(2.21) and (2.23) along with the value of the shear force at the right end of the previous
segment to obtain the shear force at left end of the current segment. Repeat from steps
(ii) until all segments are considered. Note that, for the last segment, the shear force at
the right end of the segment must be consistent with the force applied at that end.
Once the SFD is obtained, the BMD can be constructed as follow: (i) start with the first
segment on the left of the beam since the bending moment at the left end of this segment
A
V
AL

M
AL

V
AR

M
AR

q
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

95
is already known, (ii) use the integral formula (2.18) to compute the bending moment at
the right end of the segment, (iii) use the differential formula (2.16) to identify the type
of a curve and then use that curve to draw the BMD over the segment, (iv) choose the
segment just to the left of the previous segment as a current segment to be considered,
and (v) use the jump conditions (2.20), (2.22) and (2.24) along with the value of the
bending moment at the right end of the previous segment to obtain the bending moment
at the left end of the current segment. Repeat from the step (ii) until all segments are
considered. Note that, for the last segment, the bending moment at the right end of the
segment must be consistent with the moment applied at that end.

Once the SFD and BMD are completed, one can identify both the magnitude and location of the
maximum shear force and maximum bending moment. In general, the maximum shear force can
occur at the supports, the locations where the distributed load q vanishes, and locations where the
concentrated forces are applied. Similarly, the maximum bending moment can occur at the supports,
the locations where the shear force vanishes, the locations where the shear force changes its sign,
and the locations where the concentrated moments are applied.

Example 2.9 Draw the SFD and BMD of a beam shown in the example 2.8 using the method of
differential and integral formula

Solution All support reactions of this beam were already determined in the example 2.8 and the
FBD diagram of the entire beam is shown again below.

From above FBD, there are three points of loading discontinuity within the beam (excluding
the two ends of the beam), e.g. points B, C and D. Specifically, the point B is a point where the
concentrated moment is applied, the point C is a point where the concentrated force is applied, and
the point D is a point where the support reaction (viewed as the concentrated force) is applied and
the distributed load is discontinuous. Thus, we can divide the entire beam into four segments: AB,
BC, CD and DE. The shear force and the bending moment at the left end of the beam (i.e. point A)
A
= R
AY
= qL and M
A
= 0.
First, let us construct the SFD. The differential formula (2.15), the integral formula (2.17),
and the discontinuity conditions (2.19), (2.21) and (2.23) are utilized for each segment as follow:
A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
L L L L
R
AY
= qL R
DY
= 4qL
A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

96
Segment AB
- V
A
= qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
BL
= V
A
+ 0 =
qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment BC
- The concentrated moment is applied at point B + equation (2.21) there is no jump
of the shear force at point B V
BR
= V
BL
= qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
CL
= V
BR
+ 0 =
qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment CD
- The negative concentrated force equal to 3qL is applied at point C + equation (2.19)
there is a jump of the shear force at point C V
CR
= V
CL
3qL = 2qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
DL
= V
CR
+ 0 =
2qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment DE
- The positive concentrated force equal to 4qL is applied at point D there is a jump
of the shear force at point D V
DR
= V
DL
+ 4qL = 2qL
- A negative uniform distributed load 2q is applied over the segment + equation
(2.17) V
E
= V
DR
+ (2q)(L) = 0 consistent with condition at the right end of
the beam
- A negative uniform distributed load 2q is applied over the segment + equation
(2.15) SFD over the segment is a dropping straight line

Once the SFD is obtained, the BMD can then be constructed. The differential formula (2.16), the
integral formula (2.18), and the discontinuity conditions (2.20), (2.22) and (2.24) are utilized for
each segment as follow:
R
AY
= qL R
DY
= 4qL
qL
2qL
2qL
SFD
A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
qL
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

97
Segment AB
- M
A
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
BL
= M
A
+
(qL)(L) = qL
2

- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a rising straight line
Segment BC
- The positive concentrated moment equal to qL
2
is applied at point B + equation
(2.22) there is a jump of the bending moment at point B M
BR
= M
BL
qL
2
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
CL
= M
BR
+
(qL)(L) = qL
2

- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a rising straight line
Segment CD
- The concentrated force is applied at point C + equation (2.20) there is no
discontinuity of the bending moment at point C M
CR
= M
CL
= qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment is (2qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
DL
= M
CR
+
(2qL)(L) = qL
2

- The shear force is constant and negative over the segment + equation (2.16)
BMD over the segment is a dropping straight line
Segment DE
- The concentrated force is applied at point D + equation (2.20) there is no
discontinuity of the bending moment at point D M
DR
= M
DL
= qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment is (2qL)(L)/2 + equation (2.18) M
EL
= M
DR
+
(2qL)(L)/2 = 0 consistent with condition at the right end of the beam
- The shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment + equation (2.16) BMD over the segment is a rising and concave
downward curve

qL
2qL
2qL
SFD
BMD
qL
2
qL
2

qL
2

A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
qL
R
AY
= qL R
DY
= 4qL
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

98
Example 2.10 Draw the SFD and BMD of a beam shown below using the method of differential
and integral formula.

Solution The given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3, n
m
= 2(2) = 4, n
j
= 3(2) = 6, n
c

= 1, then DI = 3 + 4 6 1 = 0); thus, all support reactions and the internal forces at any location
can be determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 3, they
cannot be obtained from equilibrium of the entire structure alone. By making a cut at point just to
the left of the hinge B and then considering equilibrium of the right part (part BF), one of the
reactions can be determined. The rest of the reactions can be computed from equilibrium of the
entire beam. Details of calculation are shown below:

Equilibrium of part BF:

[M
BR
= 0] : 3R
EY
L (2q)(L)(L/2) qL
2
(qL)(4L) = 0

R
EY
= 2qL Upward

Equilibrium of entire beam:

[M
A
= 0] : R
AM
+ 4R
EY
L (2q)(2L)(L) qL
2
(qL)(5L) = 0

R
AM
= 2qL
2
CCW

[F
Y
= 0]
:
R
AY
+ R
EY
(2q)(2L) qL = 0

R
AY
= 3qL Upward
A
P
o
= qL 2q
L
C
L L L
D
E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
L
F
B
B
R

V
BR

FBD of part BF
R
AM

R
EY
R
AY

FBD of entire beam
A B
P
o
= qL 2q
C D
E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
F
R
EY

P
o
= qL 2q
C D
E
M
o
= qL
2

X
F
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

99
From the FBD of the entire structure, there are three points of loading discontinuity within the beam
(excluding the two ends of the beam), e.g. points C, D and E. Specifically, the point C is a point
where the distributed load is discontinuous, the point D is a point where the concentrated moment is
applied, and the point E is a point where the support reaction (viewed as the concentrated force) is
applied. Note that the point B, while it is an internal release, is not considered as a point of loading
discontinuity since, at this point, the distributed load is continuous and there is no applied
concentrated load. Therefore, we can divide the entire beam into four segments: AC, CD, DE and
EF. Once the support reactions are determined, the shear force and the bending moment at the left
end of the beam (i.e. point A) are known, i.e. V
A
= R
AY
= 3qL and M
A
= R
AM
= 2qL
2
.
First, let us construct the SFD. The differential formula (2.15), the integral formula (2.17),
and the discontinuity conditions (2.19), (2.21) and (2.23) are utilized for each segment as described
below:

Segment AC
- V
A
= 3qL
- A negative uniform distributed load 2q is applied over the segment + equation
(2.17) V
CL
= V
A
+ (2q)(2L) = qL
- A negative uniform distributed load 2q is applied over the segment + equation
(2.15) SFD over the segment is a dropping straight line
Segment CD
- The distributed load is discontinuous at point C + equation (2.23) there is no
discontinuity of the shear force at point C V
CR
= V
CL
= qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
DL
= V
CR
+ 0 =
qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment DE
- The negative concentrated moment is applied at point C + equation (2.21) there is
no discontinuity of the shear force at point D V
DR
= V
DL
= qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
EL
= V
DR
+ 0 =
qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment EF
- The positive concentrated force equal to 2qL is applied at point E + equation (2.19)
there is a jump of the shear force at point E V
ER
= V
EL
+ 2qL = qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
FL
= V
ER
+ 0 =
qL consistent with condition at the right end of the beam
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line

The SFD is shown in the figure below. It is evident that there exists a point within the segment AC,
say a point G, such that the shear force vanishes. In particular, the point G is located, with a
distance L/2, on the right of the hinge B. The segment AC can further be separated into two sub-
segments AG and GC; the shear force is positive for the first sub-segment while it is negative for
the second sub-segment.
In the construction of the BMD, the differential formula (2.16), the integral formula (2.18),
and the discontinuity conditions (2.20), (2.22) and (2.24) are utilized for each segment as described
below:

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

100

Segment AG
- M
A
= R
AM
= 2qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment is (3qL)(3L/2)/2 + equation (2.18) M
GL
= M
A

+ (3qL)(3L/2)/2 = qL
2
/4
- The shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment + equation (2.16) BMD over the segment is a rising and concave
downward curve with a zero slope at point G
Segment GC
- No loading discontinuity at point G there is no discontinuity of the bending
moment at point G M
GR
= M
GL
= qL
2
/4
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L/2)/2 + equation (2.18) M
CL
= M
GR

+ (qL)(L/2)/2 = 0
- The shear force is negative and increases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment + equation (2.16) BMD over the segment is a dropping and concave
downward curve
Segment CD
- The distributed load is discontinuous at point C + equation (2.24) there is no
discontinuity of the bending moment at point C M
CR
= M
CL
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
DL
= M
CR
+ (
qL)(L) = qL
2

- The shear force is constant and negative over the segment + equation (2.16)
BMD over the segment is a dropping straight line
Segment DE
- The negative concentrated moment qL
2
is applied at point D + equation (2.22)
there is a jump of the bending moment at point D M
DR
= M
DL
(qL
2
) = 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
EL
= M
DR
+ (
qL)(L) = qL
2

- The shear force is constant and negative over the segment + equation (2.16)
BMD over the segment is a dropping straight line
Segment EF
- The positive concentrated force 2qL is applied at point E + equation (2.20) there
is no discontinuity of the bending moment at point E M
ER
= M
EL
= qL
2

SFD
qL
qL
qL
3qL
G
qL
qL
qL
R
AM

R
EY
R
AY

A B
P
o
= qL 2q
C D
E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
F
L/2
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

101
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
FL
= M
ER
+
(qL)(L) = 0 consistent with the condition at the right end of the beam
- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a rising straight line

From above SFD and BMD, the maximum positive shear force is equal to 3qL occurring at point A;
the maximum negative shear force is equal to qL occurring at the entire subinterval CE; the
maximum positive bending moment is equal to qL
2
/4 occurring at point G; and the maximum
negative bending moment is equal to 2qL
2
occurring at point A.

Example 2.11 Draw the SFD and BMD of a beam shown below using the method of differential
and integral formula

2qL
2

qL
2

SFD
qL
qL
qL
3qL
L/2
G
qL
qL
qL
R
AM

R
EY
R
AY

A B
P
o
= qL 2q
C D
E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
F
BMD
qL
2

qL
2
/4
A B
qL
q
L
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
Y
L L L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

102
Solution Since r
a
= 2 + 1 + 1 = 4, n
m
= 2(2) = 4, n
j
= 3(2) = 6, n
c
= 2, then DI = 4 + 4 6 2 = 0.
Thus, the structure is statically determinate and all support reactions can be determined form static
equilibrium. However, the number of independent equilibrium equations that can be set up for
beams is n
et
= 2 < r
a
; thus, the support reactions cannot be obtained by considering only equilibrium
of the entire structure. To overcome this problem, two additional equations associated with the
presence of two moment releases or hinges at points B and D, i.e. M = 0 at B and M = 0 at D, must
be employed.
By introducing a cut at the point D and considering moment equilibrium of the right part of
the beam, the reaction R
EY
can be determined; by introducing a cut at the point just to the right of
the point B and considering moment equilibrium of the right part of the beam, the reaction R
CY
can
be determined; finally, by considering equilibrium of the entire beam, the rest of reactions can
readily be determined. Details of calculations are shown below:

Equilibrium of part DE

[EM
DR
= 0] + : R
EY
L (q)(L/2)(2L/3) = 0

R
EY
= qL/3 Upward

Equilibrium of part BE

[EM
DR
= 0] +
:
R
CY
L + 3R
EY
L qL
2
/3 (q)(L/2)(2L+2L/3) = 0

R
CY
= 2qL/3 Upward

Equilibrium of entire beam

[EM
A
= 0] + : R
AM
+ 2R
CY
L + 4R
EY
L (qL)(L) qL
2
/3 (qL/2)(3L+2L/3) = 0

R
AM
= qL
2
/2 CCW

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : R
AY
+ R
CY
+R
EY
qL (q)(L/2) = 0

R
AY
= qL/2 Upward
FBD of entire beam
FBD of a part BE
FBD of a part DE
R
AY

R
EY
R
CY

R
AM

B
R

V
BR

A
B
qL
q
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
Y R
EY
R
CY

q
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
R
EY

q
D
E
X
V
D

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

103
From the FBD of the entire structure, there are three points of loading discontinuity within the beam
(excluding the two ends of the beam), e.g. points B, C and D. Specifically, the point B is a point
where the concentrated force is applied, the point C is a point where the concentrated moment and
the support reaction (viewed as the concentrated force) are applied, and the point D is a point where
the distributed load changes its distribution but still continuous. Therefore, we can divide the entire
beam into four segments: AB, BC, CD and DE. Once the support reactions are determined, the
shear force and the bending moment at the left end of the beam (i.e. point A) are known, i.e. V
A
=
R
AY
= qL/2 and M
A
= R
AM
= qL
2
/2.
First, let us construct the SFD. The differential formula (2.15), the integral formula (2.17),
and the discontinuity conditions (2.19), (2.21) and (2.23) are utilized for each segment as described
below:

Segment AB
- V
A
= qL/2
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
BL
= V
A
+ 0 =
qL/2
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment BC
- The negative concentrated force qL is applied at point B + equation (2.19) there
is a jump of the shear force at point B V
BR
= V
BL
+ (qL) = qL/2
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
CL
= V
BR
+ 0 =
qL/2
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment CD
- The positive concentrated force 2qL/3 is applied at point C + equation (2.19)
there is a jump of the shear force at point C V
CR
= V
CL
+ (2qL/3) = qL/6
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
DL
= V
CR
+ 0 =
qL/6
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment DE
- The distributed load changes its distribution at point D there is no discontinuity
of the shear force at point D V
DR
= V
DL
= qL/6
- The distributed load is negative and increases monotonically in magnitude over the
segment + equation (2.17) V
EL
= V
DR
(q)(L)/2 = qL/3 consistent with the
condition at the right end of the beam
- The distributed load is negative and increases monotonically in magnitude over the
segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the segment is a dropping and concave
downward curve

From the SFD shown above, it is evident that there exists a point within the segment DE, say a
point F, such that the shear force vanishes. The exact location of the point G is obtained as

(qs/L)(s/2) = qL/6 s = L/3

where s is the distance between the point D and point F. In addition, the value of the distributed at
the point F is q/3. The segment DE can now be separated into two sub-segments DF and FE; the
shear force is positive for the first sub-segment while it is negative for the second sub-segment.
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

104

In the construction of the BMD, the differential formula (2.16), the integral formula (2.18), and the
discontinuity conditions (2.20), (2.22) and (2.24) are utilized for each segment of the beam as
described below:

Segment AB
- M
A
= R
AM
= qL
2
/2
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL/2)(L) + equation (2.18) M
BL
= M
A
+
(qL/2)(L) = 0
- The shear force is constant and positive over a segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a rising straight line
Segment BC
- The negative concentrated force qL is applied at point B + equation (2.20) there
is no discontinuity of the bending moment at point B M
BR
= M
BL
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL/2)(L) + equation (2.18) M
CL
= M
BR
+
(qL/2)(L) = qL
2
/2
- The shear force is constant and negative over a segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a dropping straight line
Segment CD
- The negative concentrated moment qL
2
/3 is applied at point C + equation (2.22)
there is a jump of the bending moment at point C M
CR
= M
CL
(qL
2
/3) =
qL
2
/6
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL/6)(L) + equation (2.18) M
DL
= M
CR
+
(qL/6)(L) = 0
- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a rising straight line
Segment DF
- The distributed load changes its distribution at point D but it is still continuous
there is no discontinuity of the bending moment at point D M
DR
= M
DL
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is 2(qL/6)( L/3)/3 + equation (2.18) M
FL
=
M
DR
+ qL
2
/93 = qL
2
/93
- The shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment + equation (2.16) BMD over the segment is a rising and concave
downward curve with a zero slope at point F
SFD
qL/2
qL/2
qL/6
s
F
R
AY
R
EY
R
CY

R
AM

A B
qL
q
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
Y
qL/3
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

105
Segment FE
- There is no loading discontinuity at point F there is no discontinuity of the
bending moment at point F M
FR
= M
FL
= qL
2
/93
- Area of the SFD over the segment is qL
2
/93 + equation (2.18) M
EL
= M
FR

qL
2
/93 = 0 consistent with the condition at the right end of the beam
- The shear force is negative and increases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment + equation (2.16) BMD over the segment is a dropping and concave
downward curve

From above SFD and BMD, the maximum positive shear force is equal to qL/2 occurring at the
entire segment AB; the maximum negative shear force is equal to qL/2 occurring at the entire
segment BC; the maximum positive bending moment is equal to qL
2
/93 occurring at point F; and
the maximum negative bending moment is equal to qL
2
/2 occurring at points A and C.

2.5.6 Qualitative elastic curve

In this section, we provide basic idea for sketching qualitative elastic curve of a beam (a curve
represented the deformed configuration of the neutral axis of the beam) under applied loads once
the bending moment diagram (BMD) is determined. The key assumptions employed are those
associated with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory; i.e. (i) beam is made from a linearly elastic material;
(ii) plane section remains plane before and after undergoing deformation; (iii) no shear deformation;
and (iv) no internal axial force and no axial deformation of the neutral axis. Schematics of Euler-
Bernoulli beam before and after undergoing deformation are indicated in Figure 2.35. According to
the kinematics assumption of deformation of the cross section, it is standard to represent the entire
beam by its neutral axis. The elastic or deformed curve is therefore the deformed configuration of
the neutral axis.
SFD
qL/2
qL/2
qL/6
s
F
R
AY
R
EY
R
CY

R
AM

A B
qL
q
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
Y
qL/3
BMD
qL
2
/2
qL
2
/6
qL
2
/93
qL
2
/2
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

106

Figure 2.35: Schematics of undeformed and deformed configurations of a beam under bending

Let v(x) and u(x) be the deflection and the rotation at any point x as shown schematically in Figure
2.36. The deflection v(x) is considered to be positive if it directs upward in the Y-direction and the
rotation u(x) is considered to be positive if it directs in a counter clockwise direction or in the Z-
direction. By assuming that the deflection and the rotation are infinitesimally small in comparison
with the length of the beam, the deflection v(x), the rotation u(x), and the curvature k(x) are related
through the following relations

dx
dv
(x) = (2.25)

2
2
dx
v d
dx
d
(x) = = (2.26)

Figure 2.36: Schematics indicating the deflection and rotation at any point x

It is evident from the relation (2.26) that the curvature k(x) is positive if the deflection is concave
upward (i.e.
2 2
d v/dx 0 > ), negative if the deflection is concave downward (i.e.
2 2
d v/dx 0 < ), and
zero if it is an inflection point (i.e.
2 2
d v/dx 0 = ). In addition, a direct consequence of the
infinitesimal displacement and rotation assumption leads to zero displacement in the longitudinal
direction of the beam or, equivalently, the preservation of the projected length of the beam onto its
undeformed axis. This behavior implies that any point of the beam displaces only in a vertical
direction or, more precisely, in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
By exploiting the kinematics assumption of the beam cross section, utilizing material
constitutive, and computing the moment resultant of the cross section, it leads to a well-known
moment-curvature relationship:

EI
M(x)
(x) = (2.27)
Deformed state Undeformed state
NA
NA
v(x)
u(x)
X
Y
x
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

107
where E is the Youngs modulus and I is the moment of inertia of the cross section. It can be
deduced from the relations (2.26) and (2.27) that

A segment of a beam possessing the positive bending moment undergoes a positive
curvature and, as a result, leading to a concave upward elastic curve (see Figure 2.37);

Figure 2.37: Schematics of concave upward elastic curve

A segment of a beam possessing the negative bending moment undergoes a negative
curvature and, as a result, leading to a concave downward elastic curve (see Figure 2.38);

Figure 2.38: Schematics of concave downward elastic curve

A segment of a beam possessing the zero bending moment undergoes a zero curvature
and, as a result, leading to a straight-line elastic curve; and
A point within the beam where the bending moment changes sign at that point is an
inflection point on the elastic curve.

To sketch the qualitative elastic curve, the following procedures are suggested:

Construct BMD for the entire beam
Use equation (2.27) to identify the shape of elastic curve at any segment of the beam
Patch all segments of elastic curve together
Check compatibility with all supports and internal releases.

It is important to emphasize that the deflection of the beam is continuous everywhere except at the
shear releases and the rotation of the beam is continuous everywhere except at the moment releases
or hinges. Figure 2.39 shown below indicate the discontinuity occurs at the shear release and the
moment release.

Figure 2.39: Schematics of deformed shape in the neighborhood of the shear and moment releases
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

108
Example 2.12 Compute all support reactions, sketch the SFD and BMD, and then sketch the elastic
curve of a beam shown below

Solution The given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3, n
m
= 1(2) = 2, n
j
= 2(2) = 6, n
c

= 1, then DI = 3 + 2 4 1 = 0); thus, all support reactions and the internal forces at any location
can be determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 3, they
cannot be obtained from equilibrium of the entire structure alone. By making a cut at the hinge B
and then considering equilibrium of the right part (part BD), one of the reactions can be determined.
The rest of the reactions can be computed from equilibrium of the entire beam. Details of
calculation are shown below:

Equilibrium of a part BD

[M
BR
= 0] : 2R
DY
L (2qL)(L) = 0

R
DY
= qL Upward

Equilibrium of entire beam

[M
A
= 0] : R
AM
+ 3R
DY
L (q)(L)(L/2) (2qL)(2L) = 0

R
AM
= 3qL
2
/2 CCW

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
+ R
DY
(q)(L) 2qL = 0

R
AY
= 2qL Upward
A
B
2qL
L
C
D
X
Y
q
L L
R
AY

R
AM

R
DY

A
B
2qL
C
D
X
Y
q
FBD of part BD
2qL
C
D
R
DY

X
V
B

B
FBD of entire beam
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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109
From the FBD of the entire structure, there are two points of loading discontinuity within the beam
(excluding the two ends of the beam), e.g. points B and C. Specifically, the point B is a point where
the distributed load is discontinuous and the point C is a point where the concentrated forced is
applied. Therefore, we can divide the entire beam into three segments: AB, BC, and CD. Once the
support reactions are determined, the shear force and the bending moment at the left end of the
beam (i.e. point A) are known, i.e. V
A
= R
AY
= 2qL and M
A
= R
AM
= 3qL
2
/2.
First, let us construct the SFD. The differential formula (2.15), the integral formula (2.17),
and the discontinuity conditions (2.19), (2.21) and (2.23) are utilized for each segment as shown
below:

Segment AB
- V
A
= 2qL
- A negative uniform distributed load q is applied over the segment + equation (2.17)
V
BL
= V
A
+ (q)(L) = qL
- A negative uniform distributed load q is applied over the segment + equation (2.15)
SFD over the segment is a dropping straight line
Segment BC
- The distributed load is discontinuous at point B + equation (2.23) there is no
discontinuity of the shear force at point B V
BR
= V
BL
= qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
CL
= V
BR
+ 0 =
qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line
Segment CD
- The negative concentrated force 2qL is applied at point C + equation (2.19)
there is a jump of the shear force at point C V
CR
= V
CL
+ (2qL) = qL
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.17) V
DL
= V
DR
+ 0 =
qL consistent with condition at the right end of the beam
- There is no distributed load over the segment + equation (2.15) SFD over the
segment is a horizontal straight line

Once the SFD is obtained, the BMD can then be constructed. The differential formula (2.16), the
integral formula (2.18), and the discontinuity conditions (2.20), (2.22) and (2.24) are utilized for
each segment as described below:

Segment AB
- M
A
= 3qL
2
/2
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (2qL + qL)(L)/2 + equation (2.18) M
BL
=
M
A
+ 3qL
2
/2 = 0
- The shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over the
segment + equation (2.16) BMD over the segment is a rising and concave
downward curve
Segment BC
- The distributed load is discontinuous at point B + equation (2.24) there is no
discontinuity of the bending moment at point B M
BR
= M
BL
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
CL
= M
BR
+
(qL)(L) = qL
2

- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment + equation (2.16) BMD
over the segment is a rising straight line
Segment CD
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

110
- The concentrated force is applied at point C + equation (2.20) there is no
discontinuity of the bending moment at point C M
CR
= M
CL
= qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment is (qL)(L) + equation (2.18) M
DL
= M
CR
+ (
qL)(L) = 0 consistent with condition at the right end of the beam
- The shear force is constant and negative over the segment + equation (2.16)
BMD over the segment is a dropping straight line

From movement constraints provided by roller and fixed supports, a moment release, and the BMD
shown below, we obtain the following information that is useful for sketching an elastic curve:

Point A: fixed support there is no rotation and deflection at this point
Point B: hinge the rotation is discontinuous at this point while displacement is still
continuous
Point D: roller support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the
rotation is allowed
Segment AB: bending moment is negative the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave downward
Segment BD: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward

SFD
qL
BMD
Elastic curve
qL
2

Hinge
qL
2qL
R
AY

R
AM

R
DY

A
B
2qL
C
D
X
Y
q
3qL
2
/2
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

111
Example 2.13 Sketch the elastic curve of the beam shown in example 2.9

Solution From movement constraints provided by roller and pinned supports and the BMD
obtained in example 2.9, we obtain the following information that is useful for sketching an elastic
curve:
Point A: pinned support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the
rotation is allowed
Point D: roller support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the
rotation is allowed
Point F: change sign of bending moment inflection point
Segment AB: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Segment BC: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Segment CF: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Segment FD: bending moment is negative the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave downward
Segment DE: Bending moment is negative the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave downward

The resulting elastic curve is shown below.

A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
L L L L
Elastic curve
BMD
qL
2
qL
2

A
B
P
o
= 3qL
2q
C D E
M
o
= qL
2

X
Y
R
AY
= qL R
DY
= 4qL
F
qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

112
Example 2.14 Sketch the elastic curve of the beam shown in example 2.11

Solution From movement constraints provided by roller and fixed supports, moment releases, and
the BMD obtained in example 2.11, we obtain the following information that is useful for sketching
an elastic curve:
Point A: fixed support there is no rotation and deflection at this point
Point C: roller support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the
rotation is allowed
Point E: roller support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the rotation
is allowed
Point B: hinge the rotation is discontinuous at this point while displacement is still
continuous
Point D: hinge the rotation is discontinuous at this point while displacement is still
continuous
Segments AB, BC, CD: bending moment is negative the elastic curve of these
segments must be concave downward
Segment DE: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward

The resulting elastic curve is shown below.

A
B
qL
q
L
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
Y
L L L
F
R
AY
R
EY
R
CY

R
AM

A
B
qL
q
C
D
E
qL
2
/3
X
Y
BMD
qL
2
/2
qL
2
/6
qL
2
/93
qL
2
/2
Elastic curve
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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113
2.6 Static Analysis of Frames

The primary objective of this section is to generalize the concept and techniques presented in the
previous section to analyze a more general class of structures called frames. Basic quantities of
interest from the static analysis are still the support reactions and the internal forces at any location.
However, as will be clear in later discussion, the internal force of a frame is relatively more
complex than that of a truss and a beam since it consists of all three components known as the axial
force, the shear force and the bending moment. This section begins with a brief introduction on
characteristics of frames and standard notations and sign convention commonly used. A brief
overview on how to determine support reactions of statically determinate frames is addressed along
with some useful remarks. In the analysis for the internal forces, both the method of sections and
the method of differential and integral formula are outlined. While these two methods are similar in
accord to those employed in the analysis of beams, they possess an additional feature capable of
treating structures whose internal force fully containing the axial force, the shear force and the
bending moment. Finally, some guidelines for sketching a qualitative elastic curve for frames are
summarized. At the end of this section, some examples are also presented to clearly demonstrate all
techniques outlined.

2.6.1 Characteristics of frames

An idealized structure is called a planar frame if and only if (i) all members form a two-
dimensional structure, (ii) members are connected by rigid or frame joints (full or partial moment
releases are allowed for certain joints and this can be viewed as rigid joints supplying by moment
releases), and (iii) applied loads form a system of general two-dimensional forces and moments (i.e.
it includes both transverse and longitudinal loads). Examples of planar frames following the above
definition are shown in Figure 2.40. Note that there is no restriction on the type of supports present
in frames, i.e. roller supports, pinned supports, guide supports and fixed supports are allowed. The
pinned support and fixed support in frames contain two and three components of the reaction,
respectively; the restriction on the number of reactions as in the case of beams is now removed.
Note in addition that a one-dimensional structure shown in Figure 2.40 is also classified as a frame
since it is subjected to both transverse and longitudinal loads.

Figure 2.40: Schematic of some statically determinate frames
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

114
As a consequence of the above definition, the internal forces at any location of the beam can
be represented by three components of resultants called the axial force, the shear force and the
bending moment. The last two components of the internal force are defined in the same fashion as
those for the beams and the first component, i.e. the axial force, is the resultant force in the direction
parallel to the axis of the member, see Figure 2.41 for clarity. Like a beam member, the axial force,
the shear force and the bending moment along a member of the frame are in general not constant
but vary as a function of position. Note also that the displacement and rotation at any point within
the frame that contain no internal release are always continuous; for instance, the angle between any
two members connected by a rigid joint is preserved and there is no gap and overlapping at any
point containing no internal release after undergoing deformation.

Figure 2.41: Schematic indicating three components of the internal force in planar frame

2.6.2 Sign and convention

Since members of a frame can possess different orientations, it is generally impossible to find a
single reference Cartesian coordinate system with one of its axes directing along the axis of all
members as in the case of beams. As a result, it is common to employ two different types of
reference coordinate systems, one termed a global coordinate system and the other termed a local
coordinate system. The global coordinate system is a single coordinate system used as a reference
of the entire structure. A choice of the global coordinate system is not unique; in particular, an
orientation of the reference axes and a location of its origin can be chosen arbitrarily or for
convenience. The global reference axes are labeled by X, Y, and Z with their directions following
the right-hand rule. For a two-dimensional structure, the global coordinate system is typically
oriented such that the Z-axis directs normal to the plane of the structure. The local coordinate
system is a coordinate system defined for an individual member. The local reference axes are
Shear force
Axial force
Bending moment
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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115
labeled by x, y, and z. The local coordinate system for each member is commonly defined based on
the geometry and orientation of that member. Specifically, the origin is taken at one end of the
member; the x-axis directs along the axis of the member; the z-axis directs normal to the plane of
the structure (align with the Z-axis), and the y-axis follows from the right-hand rule. An example of
global and local coordinate systems of a planar frame is shown in Figure 2.42.

Figure 2.42: Global and local coordinate systems of a planar frame.

The sign convention and notations for support reactions of frames are defined in a similar
fashion as those for trusses and beams with reference to the global coordinate system. For instance,
reactions at the fixed support of a frame shown in Figure 2.43 are denoted by R
AX
, R
AY
and R
AM

where the first two symbols stand for a force reaction in the X-direction and a force reaction in the
Y-direction and the last symbol stands for a moment reaction in the Z-direction, and a force reaction
in the Y-direction of the roller support located at a point B is denoted by R
BY
. In the analysis for
support reactions, it is common to assume positive support reactions in a sketch of the FBD. Once
results are obtained, the actual direction of each reaction can be decided from their sign;
specifically, if the computed reaction is positive, the assumed direction is correct but, if the
computed reaction is negative, the actual direction is opposite to the assumed direction.

Figure 2.43: Schematic showing sign convention and notations of support reactions of a frame

The sign convention for the shear force and the bending moment for a frame member
depend primarily on a choice of the local coordinate system. Once the local coordinate system is
selected, the sign convention is defined in the same way as that for a beam (the local coordinate
system x-y of a frame member can be viewed as the X-Y axis of a beam member):

X
Y
x
y
y
x
y
x
R
BY

R
AM

A
B
R
AY

X
Y
R
AX

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

116
The shear force at a particular point A is denoted by a symbol V
A
and the shear force as a
function of position x along the member is denoted by V(x). The shear force at any point
is considered to be positive if and only if it tends to rotate an infinitesimal element in the
neighborhood of that point in the negative z-direction otherwise it is negative. The
positive and negative shear forces are shown in Figure 2.44.

Figure 2.44: Schematic indicating positive and negative sign convention for shear force

The bending moment at a particular point A is denoted by a symbol M
A
and the bending
moment as a function of position x along the member is denoted by M(x). The bending
moment at any point is considered to be positive if and only if it produces a compressive
stress at the top and produces a tensile stress at the bottom; otherwise it is negative. Note
that the top and bottom sides of the member are defined based on the local coordinate
system as shown in Figure 2.45.

Figure 2.45: Schematic indicating positive and negative sign convention for bending moment

Similar to the axial force in a truss member, the sign convention for the axial force in a
frame member is defined based primarily upon the characteristic of the axial deformation, thus
rendering it independent of the local coordinate system (or the member orientation). In particular,
Positive shear force
Negative shear force
x
y
x
y
Top fiber
Bottom fiber
Top fiber
Bottom fiber
Positive bending moment
Negative bending moment
x
y
x
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

117
the axial force at a particular point A is denoted by a symbol F
A
and the axial force as a function of
position x along the member is denoted by F(x). The axial force at any point is considered to be
positive if and only if it produces an elongation in the neighborhood of that point or it is in tension
otherwise it is negative. The positive axial force and the negative axial force are shown
schematically in Figure 2.46.

Figure 2.46: Schematic indicating positive and negative sign convention for axial force

2.6.3 Determination of support reactions

Determination of support reactions of statically determinate frame follows the same procedures
described in the section 2.3. For frames containing only three components of support reactions, such
unknown reactions can readily be determined from equilibrium of the entire structure. For example,
support reactions {R
AX
, R
AY
, R
BY
} of a frame shown in Figure 2.47 can be obtained as follows:

the reaction R
AX
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in X-direction;
the reaction R
BY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point A; and
the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction.

Figure 2.47: Schematic of a planar frame and its FBD
Negative axial force
Positive axial force
x
y
x
y
A
B
R
BY

Y
X
R
AY

R
AX

A
B
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

118
For various statically determinate frames, more than three components of support reactions
may be present; for instance, both the frame shown in Figure 2.43 and a frame shown in Figure 2.48
contain four and five components of support reactions, respectively. For this particular case, the
consideration of equilibrium of the entire structure provides only three independent equations and
this is insufficient to determine all unknown reactions. Since the structure is statically determinate,
there must be some internal releases that supply additional conditions, when combined with existing
equilibrium equations, adequate for resolving all unknowns. Such extra or additional conditions
available at the internal releases are commonly set up in a form of equilibrium equations of parts of
the structure resulting from introducing proper fictitious cuts.

Figure 2.48: Schematic of a statically determinate frame containing five support reactions

To clearly demonstrate the procedures, let us consider a frame shown in Figure 2.48. This
structure is obviously statically determinate (i.e., r
a
= 5, n
m
= 3(3) = 9, n
j
= 4(3) = 12, n
c
= 2 DI =
5 + 9 12 2 = 0) and this therefore ensures that all five support reactions can be obtained only
from static equilibrium. To solve for all reactions {R
AM
, R
AX
, R
AY
, R
BY
, R
CY
}, two strategies may
be used. The first strategy employs additional equilibrium equations of parts of the structure along
with equilibrium of the entire structure. Specifically, we first introduce a cut at a hinge E and
consider equilibrium of the right part of the structure (see FBD in Figure 2.49(a)); next, we
introduce a cut at a point just to the right of a hinge D and consider equilibrium of the right part of
the structure (see FBD in Figure 2.49(b)); and, finally, we consider equilibrium of the entire
structure. Details of equilibrium equations employed are shown below:

the reaction R
CY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about the point E of the right
part of the frame shown in Figure 2.49(a);
the reaction R
BY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point D
R
of the right
part of the frame shown in Figure 2.49(b);
the reaction R
AM
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point A of the entire
frame shown in Figure 2.49(c);
the reaction R
AX
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in the X-direction of the entire
structure; and
the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in the Y-direction of the entire
structure.
A
B
D E
C
X
Y
R
BY

R
AM

R
AY

R
CY

R
AX

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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119

Figure 2.49: (a) FBD of the right part of the frame when a cut is made at hinge E, (b) FBD of the
right part of the frame when a cut is made at the point just to the right of hinge D, and (c) FBD of
the entire frame

The second strategy employs equilibrium equations set up for all parts of the structure. Specifically,
we first introduce two cuts simultaneously, one at the hinge E and the other at point just to the right
of the hinge D. With these two cuts, the structure is divided into three parts whose the FBDs are
shown in Figure 2.50. While we introduce four extra unknowns {F
DR
, V
DR
, F
E
, V
E
} at the cuts and
the total number of unknowns becomes 5 + 4 = 9, it is equal to the number of equilibrium equations
that can be set up for the three parts (3 + 3 + 3 = 9). To obtain all reactions without solving a system
of nine linear equations, we can consider equilibrium of each part as follow:

the reaction R
CY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about the point E of the right
part of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(c), and
the axial force F
E
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in X-direction of the right part
of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(c), and
the shear force V
E
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the right part
of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(c), and
the reaction R
BY
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point B
R
of the middle
part of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(b), and
the axial force F
DR
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in X-direction of the middle
part of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(b), and
the shear force V
DR
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the middle
part of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(b), and
the reaction R
AM
is obtained from equilibrium of moments about a point A of the left part
of the frame shown in Figure 2.50(a), and
the reaction R
AX
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in X-direction of the left part of
the frame shown in Figure 2.50(a).
B
D
C
R
CY
R
BY

D
R

V
DR

E
C
R
CY

V
E

(a)
(b)
F
E

F
DR

(c)
A
B
D E
C
X
Y
R
BY

R
AM

R
AY

R
CY

R
AX

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

120
the reaction R
AY
is obtained from equilibrium of forces in Y-direction of the left part of
the frame shown in Figure 2.50(a).

As be apparent, while both strategies yield identical results, one may prefer the first strategy since it
is not required to solve for the intermediate unknowns {F
DR
, V
DR
, F
E
, V
E
} introduced at the cuts.

Figure 2.50: Free body diagrams of three parts of the frame resulting from two cuts at point just to
the right of hinge D and at hinge E

2.6.4 Method of sections

To determine the internal forces (i.e. axial force, shear force, and bending moment) at a particular
location of a statically determinate frame, the method of sections is similar to that used in the case
of beams can be employed. A fictitious cut is properly made to access the internal forces at a
specific location of interest and equilibrium of parts of the structure resulting from that cut is then
enforced to determine all unknown internal forces. Note in particular that three unknown internal
forces (i.e. axial force, shear force, and bending moment) are introduced at each cut except at the
internal releases where certain components of the internal force vanish, and that three independent
equilibrium equations (e.g. EF
X
= 0; EF
Y
= 0; and EM
AZ
= 0 or other equivalent sets) can be set up
for each part resulting from the cut.
Procedures for obtaining the internal force at a particular location of a frame can be
summarized below (see also a frame shown in Figure 2.51 to clarify such procedures):

Determine all support reactions
Introduce a fictitious cut at a point P (point where the internal force is determined) and
then separate the frame into two parts
Choose one of the two parts that seems to involve less computation
Sketch the FBD of a selected part; the positive sign convention of the internal forces
follows the local coordinate system of a member containing the point P
Consider equilibrium of the selected part and this yields three independent equations. For
instance, the axial force F
P
can directly be obtained from equilibrium of forces in the X-
direction; the shear force V
P
can directly be obtained from equilibrium of forces in the Y-
direction; and the bending moment M
P
can be obtained from equilibrium of moment
X
Y
(a)
E
C
R
CY

V
E

(c)
F
E

F
DR

B
E
R
BY

D
R

V
DR

(b)
V
E

F
E

A
R
AM

R
AY

R
AX

F
DR

V
DR

D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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121

Figure 2.51: Schematic indicating a cut made to access the axial force, shear force and bending
moment at point P and FBDs of the two parts resulting from the cut

Similar to the case of beams, the method of sections can also be used to determine the axial force,
the shear force and the bending moment at any point x of each frame member, i.e. F(x), V(x) and
M(x). Procedures to obtain F(x), V(x) and M(x) are similar to those described above except that a
cut must be made at any point x instead of a specific location. Similar to the SFD and BMD, a graph
of F(x) plotted along the local x-axis of each member is known as an axial force diagram (AFD).
Note however that the construction of the AFD, SFD and BMD by the method of sections is
somewhat cumbersome especially when there are many points of loading discontinuity and points
where members change their direction.

2.6.5 Method of differential and integral formula

An alternative technique to the method of sections for the construction of the AFD, SFD and BMD
of a frame is the method of differential and integral formula. This technique is based mainly upon
two sets of equations, one associated with equilibrium equations in a differential form and the other
corresponding to equilibrium equations in an integral form, and some special discontinuity
conditions at points of loading discontinuity. Note that this technique is similar in accord to that
presented in the section 2.5.5 for beams except that one equation associated with equilibrium of
forces in the direction of the member axis is added due to the presence of the axial force.
R
AM

R
AY

M
P

V
P

A
P
F
P

R
AX

B
P
M
P

V
P

F
P

R
BY

A
B
Y
X
P
x
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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122
2.6.5.1 Equilibrium equations in differential form

Consider a frame that is in equilibrium with applied loads as shown schematically in Figure 2.52(a).
Let us focus on a particular member (with a local coordinate system x-y) and introduce following
two cuts, one at the local coordinate x and the other at the local coordinate x + dx. An infinitesimal
element dx is then separated from the structure and its FBD is shown in Figure 2.52(b). The axial
force, shear force and bending moment at x are denoted by F(x), V(x) and M(x), respectively; the
axial, shear force and bending moment at x + dx are denoted by F(x) + dF, V(x) + dV and M(x) +
dM, respectively, where dF, dV and dM are increments of axial force, shear force and bending
moment; and the distributed transverse and longitudinal loads are denoted by q
y
and q
x
,
respectively. Note that all components of the internal forces follow the sign convention defined in
the section 2.6.2 while the distributed loads q
y
and q
x
are considered to be positive if their direction
is along the y-axis and x-axis, respectively.

Figure 2.52: (a) Schematic of a frame subjected to applied loads and (b) FBD of an infinitesimal
element dx

By enforcing static equilibrium of the infinitesimal element dx shown in Figure 2.52(b) and then
taking appropriate limit process, we obtain the following three equilibrium equations in a
differential form:

x x
dF(x)
F 0 q (x)
dx
= = (2.28)

y y
dV(x)
F 0 q (x)
dx
= = (2.29)

z
dM(x)
M 0 V(x)
dx
= = (2.30)

It is important to emphasize that the equation (2.28) is valid at any point x where the distributed
x
is continuous and it is free of a longitudinal concentrated force; the equation
(2.29) is valid at any point x where the distributed transverse load q
y
is continuous and it is free of a
transverse concentrated force; and the equation (2.30) is valid at any point x such that the shear
force is continuous and it is free of a concentrated moment.
(a) (b)
x
dx
q
y

x
y
q
x

V
M
q
y

q
x

F
V+dV
M+dM
F+dF
dx
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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123
The first equation (2.28) implies that the spatial rate of change of the axial force or the
slope of the axial force diagram at any point is equal to the negative distributed longitudinal load
q
x
acting to that point. The second equation (2.29) implies that the spatial rate of change of the
shear force or the slope of the shear force diagram at any point is equal to the distributed
y
acting that point. The last equation (2.30) implies that the spatial rate of change
of the bending moment or the slope of the bending moment diagram at any point is equal to the
shear force at that point. Similar to the case of beams, the three differential relations (2.28)-(2.30)
are very useful for identifying the type of curve connecting any two points in the AFD, the SFD and
the BMD (see the section 2.5.5.1 for more details on some specific types of curves).

2.6.5.2 Equilibrium equations in integral form

Now, let A and B be any two points within a frame member and let x
A
and x
B
be their x-coordinates
with respect to the local coordinate system of the member. By directly integrating equation (2.28)
from the point A to the point B, we obtain the integral formula

B
A
x
long
B A x A AB
x
F F q dx F Q = =
}
(2.31)

where F
A
and F
B
are the axial force at the point A and the point B, respectively, and
long
AB
Q is the sum
x
over the segment AB. This equation implies that the axial force at
the point B can be obtained by subtracting the total longitudinal load over the segment AB to the
axial force at the point A. Note that the equation (2.31) is valid if the segment AB is free of
concentrated longitudinal force and that the sign convention of the total load
long
AB
Q follows that of
x
.
Similarly, by directly integrating equation (2.29) from the point A to the point B, we obtain
the integral formula

B
A
x
tran
B A y A AB
x
V V q dx V Q = + = +
}
(2.32)

where V
A
and V
B
are the shear force at the point A and the point B, respectively and
tran
AB
Q is the sum
of all distributed transverse load q
y
over the segment AB. This equation implies that the shear force
at the point B can be obtained by adding the total transverse load over the segment AB to the shear
force at the point A. Note that the equation (2.32) is valid if the segment AB is free of concentrated
transverse force and that the sign convention of the total load
tran
AB
Q follows that of the distributed
y
.
Finally, by directly integrating equation (2.30) from the point A to the point B, we obtain the
integral formula

B
A
x
B A A AB
x
M M V dx M AreaV = + = +
}
(2.33)

where M
A
and M
B
are the bending moment at the point A and the point B, respectively and
AreaV
AB
denotes the area of the shear force diagram over the segment AB. This equation implies
that the bending moment at the point B can be obtained by adding the area of the shear force
diagram over the portion AB to the bending moment at the point A. Note that the equation (2.33) is
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

124
valid if the segment AB is free of concentrated moment and that the sign convention of the area
AreaV
AB
follows that of the shear force.

2.6.5.3 Discontinuity of axial force, shear force and bending moment

As already pointed out, the differential formula (2.28)-(2.30) and the integral formula (2.31)-(2.33)
are not valid for points of loading discontinuity or segments that contain those points, e.g. points
where the concentrated force is applied, points where the concentrated moment is applied, and
points where the distributed load is discontinuous. Knowledge of discontinuity conditions at such
points is required in the construction of the AFD, SFD, and BMD.
First, let us investigate the discontinuity condition at the location where a concentrated
longitudinal force is applied. Let P
o
be such a concentrated force applied to a point A of a particular
frame member (it is emphasized again that this force is considered to be positive if it directs in the
local x-direction of the member otherwise it is negative). By introducing two cuts at a point just to
left and a point just to the right of the point A and then considering equilibrium of a resulting
infinitesimal element (its free body diagram is shown in Figure 2.53 along with taking appropriate
limit process, we obtain the discontinuity conditions of the axial force, shear force and bending
moment:

Figure 2.53: FBD of infinitesimal element containing a point where concentrated longitudinal force
is applied

AR AL o
F F P = (2.34)

AR AL
V V = (2.35)

AR AL
M M = (2.36)

where {F
AR
, V
AR
, M
AR
} and {F
AL
, V
AL
, M
AL
} are the axial force, shear force and bending moment
at a point just to the right and a point just to the left of the point A, respectively. It is evident from
(2.34)-(2.36) that, at the location where a concentrated longitudinal force is applied, the axial force
is discontinuous with the magnitude of the jump equal to the magnitude of the concentrated
longitudinal force while the shear force and the bending moment are still continuous. In particular,
the axial force experiences a positive jump if the concentrated longitudinal force is negative (or
directs along the opposite local x-direction) and it experiences a negative jump if the concentrated
longitudinal force is positive (or directs along the local x-direction).
Next, let us consider the discontinuity conditions at a location where a concentrated
transverse force is applied. Let P
o
be such a concentrated force applied to a point A of a particular
frame member (it is emphasized again that this force is considered to be positive if it directs in the
local y-direction of the member otherwise it is negative). By introducing two cuts at a point just to
the left and a point just to the right of the point A and then considering equilibrium of a resulting
A
V
AL

M
AL

V
AR

M
AR

P
o

F
AL

F
AR

x
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

125
infinitesimal element (its free body diagram is shown in Figure 2.54) along with taking appropriate
limit process, we obtain the discontinuity conditions of the axial force, shear force and bending
moment:

Figure 2.54: FBD of infinitesimal element containing a point where concentrated transverse force is
applied

AR AL
F F = (2.37)

AR AL o
V V P = + (2.38)

AR AL
M M = (2.39)

Equations (2.37)-(2.39) imply that, at the location where a concentrated transverse force is applied,
the shear force is discontinuous with the magnitude of the jump equal to the magnitude of the
concentrated transverse force while the axial force and the bending moment are still continuous.
Unlike the previous case, the shear force experiences a positive jump if the concentrated transverse
force is positive (or directs along the local y-direction) and it experiences a negative jump if the
concentrated transverse force is negative (or directs along the opposite local y-direction).
Next, let us consider the discontinuity conditions at a location where a concentrated moment
M
o
is applied. Let M
o
be a concentrated moment applied to a point A (this moment is considered to
be positive if it directs to a counter clockwise direction or to the local z-direction of the member
otherwise it is negative). By introducing two cuts at a point just to the left and a point just to the
right of the point A and then considering equilibrium of a resulting infinitesimal element (its free
body diagram is shown in Figure 2.55) along with taking appropriate limit process, we obtain the
discontinuity conditions of the axial force, shear force and bending moment:

AR AL
F F = (2.40)

AR AL
V V = (2.41)

AR AL o
M M M = (2.42)

Equations (2.40)-(2.42) imply that at a location where the concentrated moment is applied, the
bending moment is discontinuous with the magnitude of the jump equal to the magnitude of the
concentrated moment while the axial force and the shear force are still continuous. In particular, the
bending moment experiences a positive jump if the concentrated moment is negative (or directs to a
clockwise direction or the local z-direction of the member) and it experiences a negative jump if the
concentrated moment is positive (or directs to a counter clockwise direction or opposite Z-
direction).
A
V
AL

M
AL

V
AR

M
AR

P
o

F
AL

F
AR

x
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

126

Figure 2.55: FBD of infinitesimal element containing a point where concentrated moment is applied

Finally, we state without proof that points of loading discontinuity such as points where the
distributed longitudinal or transverse load is discontinuous and points where both the distributed
loads are continuous but change their distribution do not produce the discontinuity in the axial
force, the shear force and the bending moment, i.e.

AR AL
F F = (2.43)

AR AL
V V = (2.44)

AR AL
M M = (2.45)

where A denotes a point where the distributed load is discontinuous or change its distribution.

2.6.5.4 Procedures for constructing AFD, SFD and BMD

The differential formula (2.28)-(2.30), the integral formula (2.31)-(2.33) and the discontinuity
conditions (2.34)-(2.45) are basic components essential for constructing the AFD, SFD and BMD of
a frame. In particular, the three integral formula (2.31)-(2.33) are employed to obtain the axial force,
the shear force and the bending moment at the right end of any segment when values of those
quantities at the left end are known and there is no point of loading discontinuity within the
segment. The three differential formula (2.28)-(2.30) are then used to identify the type of a curve
that connects a part of the AFD, SFD and BMD over a segment where values of the axial force,
shear force and bending moment are already known at its ends. The discontinuity conditions are
used to dictate the jump of the shear force and bending moment in the AFD, SFD and BMD where
the concentrated forces and moments are present. Here, we summarize standard procedures or
guidelines for constructing the AFD, SFD and BMD of a frame.
Determine all support reactions
concentrated forces and moments are applied, and points where distributed load changes
its distribution
Identify and mark points where members change their orientation
Separate a given frame into several members using points where members change their
orientation
Identify all possible segments within each member such that points of loading
discontinuity must be at the ends of each segment
Identify a point that the axial force, the shear force and the bending moment are known
(in general, a point containing only one member is chosen since all forces and moments
at that point are always known once the reactions are already determined.)
A
V
AL

M
AL

V
AR

M
AR

M
o

F
AL

F
AR

x
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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127
Draw the SFD as follow: (i) start with a member where the shear force is known at one of
its ends, (ii) use the differential formula (2.29), the integral formula (2.32) and the
discontinuity conditions (2.35), (2.38), (2.41) and (2.44) to construct the SFD over each
segment in the selected member (procedures are similar to those used for the case of
beams), (iii) choose the next member where the shear force is known at one end and then
follow step (ii), and (iv) repeat step (iii) until all members are considered
Draw the BFD as follow: (i) start with a member where the bending moment is known at
one of its ends, (ii) use the differential formula (2.30), the integral formula (2.33) and the
discontinuity conditions (2.36), (2.39), (2.42) and (2.45) to construct the BMD over each
segment in the selected frame member (procedures are similar to those used for the case
of beams), (iii) choose the next frame member where the bending moment is known at
one end and then follow step (ii), and (iv) repeat step (iii) until all members are
considered
Draw the AFD as follow: (i) start with a member where the axial force is known at one of
its ends, (ii) use the differential formula (2.28), the integral formula (2.31) and the
discontinuity conditions (2.34), (2.37), (2.40) and (2.43) to construct the AFD over each
segment in the selected frame member, (iii) choose the next frame member where the
axial force is known at one end and then follow step (ii), and (iv) repeat step (iii) until all
members are considered

Once the AFD, SFD and BMD are completed, one can identify both the magnitude and location of
the maximum axial force, maximum shear force and maximum bending moment. In general, the
maximum axial force and shear force can occur at the supports, the locations where the distributed
load q vanishes, the locations where the concentrated forces are applied, and the locations where
members change their orientation. Similarly, the maximum bending moment can occur at supports,
locations where the shear force vanishes, locations where the shear force changes its sign, locations
where the concentrated moments are applied, and locations where members change their
orientation.

2.6.6 Qualitative Elastic Curve

In this section, we demonstrate how to sketch a qualitative elastic curve or deformed curve of a
frame under applied loads once the bending moment diagram is constructed. The key assumptions
employed are those associated with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory utilized in the sketch of an elastic
curve of beams; i.e. (i) frame is made of a linearly elastic material; (ii) plane section remains plane
before and after undergoing deformation; (iii) no shear deformation; and (iv) no axial deformation.
According to a kinematics assumption of deformation of the cross section, it is sufficient to
represent any frame member by their axis and, therefore, the elastic or deformed curve is the
deformed configuration of such axis.
Let u(x), v(x) and u(x) be the longitudinal component of the displacement, transverse
component of the displacement, and the rotation at any point x within a frame member as shown in
Figure 2.56. The displacement u(x) and v(x) are considered to be positive if they direct to the
positive local x-direction and local y-direction, respectively, and the rotation u(x) is considered to
be positive if it directs to a counter clockwise direction or the local z-direction.
By assuming that the displacement and the rotation are infinitesimally small in comparison
with the characteristic length of the frame, the transverse displacement v(x), the rotation u(x), and
the curvature k(x) are related through the relations

dv
(x)
dx
= (2.46)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

128

Figure 2.56: Schematics indicating the longitudinal and transverse displacement and the rotation at
any point x within a frame member

2
2
d d v
(x)
dx dx
= = (2.47)

It is evident from the definition (2.47) that the curvature k(x) is positive if the transverse
displacement is concave upward with respect to the local coordinate system {x, y, z}, negative if the
displacement is concave downward, and zero if it is an inflection point. In addition, a direct
consequence of the small displacement and rotation assumption and the kinematic assumption (iv)
leads to that the longitudinal displacement is constant for the entire member or, equivalently, the
projection of the deformed curve to the undeformed axis possesses the same length as that of the
undeformed member. By considering the deformation of the cross section, employing material
constitutive, and computing the moment resultant of the cross section, it leads to a well-known
moment-curvature relationship

M(x)
(x)
EI
= (2.48)

where E is Youngs modulus and I is the moment of inertia of the cross section. It can be deduced
from the relations (2.47) and (2.48) that

A segment of a frame possessing the positive bending moment undergoes a positive
curvature and, as a result, leading to a concave upward elastic curve;
A segment of a frame possessing the negative bending moment undergoes a negative
curvature and, as a result, leading to a concave downward elastic curve;
A segment of a frame possessing the zero bending moment undergoes a zero curvature
and, as a result, leading to a straight-line elastic curve; and
A point within a frame where the bending moment changes sign at that point is an
inflection point on the elastic curve.

To sketch the qualitative elastic curve, the following procedures can be used:

Construct BMD for the entire beam
Use equation (2.48) to identify the shape of elastic curve at any segment of the frame
v(x)
u(x)
x
y
x
u(x)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

129
Patch all segments of elastic curve together
Check compatibility with all supports and internal releases.

It is important to emphasize that the longitudinal displacement at any point is continuous except at
the axial release, that the transverse displacement at any point is continuous except at the shear
release, and that the rotation at any point is continuous except at the moment release (hinge).
Schematics shown in Figure 2.57 indicate the deformation of a segment with no internal release and
the discontinuity induced at the axial release, shear release and the moment release.

Figure 2.57: Deformation of a segment with no internal release and the discontinuity induced at the
axial release, shear release and the moment release

Example 2.15 Determine all support reactions and draw AFD, SFD, BMD and elastic curve of a
frame shown below

Solution The given frame is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2 + 1 = 3, n
m
= 2(3) = 6, n
j
= 3(3) = 9, n
c

= 0, then DI = 3 + 6 9 0 = 0); thus, all support reactions and the internal forces at any location
can be determined from static equilibrium. Since the number of support reactions is equal to 3, they
u
o

u
o

A
q
qL
L
2L
X
Y
B
C
D
L
qL
3qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

130
can be obtained from equilibrium of the entire structure. The FBD of the entire structure and details
of calculation are shown below:

[EM
A
= 0] + : 2R
DY
L (qL)(L) (qL)(2L) (2qL)(L) + 3qL
2
= 0

R
DY
= qL Upward

[EF
X
= 0] + : R
AX
+ qL + qL = 0

R
AX
= 2qL Leftward

[EF
Y
= 0] | + : R
AY
+ R
DY
2qL = 0

R
AY
= qL Upward

For the given frame, there is only one point where members change their orientation, i.e. a point C;
therefore, only two frame members, a member AC and a member CD, are considered. For the
member AC, there is only one point of loading discontinuity (excluding the two ends of the
member), i.e. a point B where a concentrated transverse force is applied, while the member CD
axial force, shear force and bending moment at the point A are already known. First, let us construct
the AFD, SFD and BMD of the member AC. The differential formula (2.28)-(2.30), the integral
formula (2.31)-(2.33) and the discontinuity conditions (2.34)-(2.45) are utilized. The local
coordinate system for this particular member is shown in above figure.

AFD
- No point where the concentrated longitudinal force is applied + no longitudinal
distributed load being applied for the entire member it is sufficient to consider
only one segment AC
- F
A
= R
AY
= qL
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied for the entire member + equation
(2.31) F
C
= F
A
+ 0 = qL
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied for the entire member + equation
(2.28) AFD over the member is a horizontal straight line
R
DY

R
AY

R
AX

A
q
qL
X
Y
B
C
D
qL
3qL
2

y
x
F
C

V
C

M
C

A
qL B
C
R
AY

R
AX

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

131
SFD
- A concentrated transverse force is applied at point B member AC is divided into
two segments, AB and BC
- V
A
= R
AX
= 2qL
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment AB + equation (2.32)
V
BL
= V
A
+ 0 = 2qL
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment AB + equation (2.29)
SFD over the segment AB is a horizontal straight line
- The negative concentrated transverse force is applied at point B + equation (2.38)
there is a jump of the shear force at point B V
BR
= V
BL
qL = qL
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment BC + equation (2.32) V
C

= V
BR
+ 0 = qL
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment BC + equation (2.29)
SFD over the segment BC is a horizontal straight line
BMD
- No point where the concentrated moment is applied + SFD over the member AC
it is sufficient to consider only two segments, AB and BC
- M
A
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment AB is (2qL)(L) + equation (2.33) M
BL
= M
A
+
(2qL)(L) = 2qL
2

- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment AB + equation (2.30)
BMD over the segment is a rising straight line
- There is no concentrated moment applied at point B there is no jump of the
bending moment at point B M
BR
= M
BL
= 2qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment BC is (qL)(L) + equation (2.33) M
C
= M
BR
+
(qL)(L) = 3qL
2

- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment BC + equation (2.30)
BMD over the segment is a rising straight line

Next, let us consider the member CD. Once the axial force, shear force and bending moment at the
point C of the member AC are determined, the axial force, shear force and bending moment at the
point C of the member CD can readily be obtained. The FBD of the member CD and the
corresponding local coordinate system are shown in the figure below.

AFD
- No point where the concentrated longitudinal force is applied + no longitudinal
distributed load being applied for the entire member it is sufficient to consider
only one segment CD
- F
C
= qL qL = 0
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied for the entire member + equation
(2.31) F
D
= F
C
+ 0 = 0 consistent with condition at the point D
y
x
R
DY

q
D
C
qL
qL
qL
3qL
2

3qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

132
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied for the entire member + equation
(2.28) AFD over the member is a horizontal straight line
SFD
- No point where the concentrated transverse force is applied + the distributed
transverse load is continuous for the entire member it is sufficient to consider
only one segment CD
- V
C
= qL
- A negative uniform distributed transverse load is applied over the segment CD +
equation (2.32) V
D
= V
C
+ (q)(2L) = qL consistent with condition at the
point D
- A negative uniform distributed load is applied over the segment CD + equation
(2.29) SFD over the segment AB is a dropping straight line
BMD
- No point where the concentrated moment is applied + SFD over the member CD
it is sufficient to consider only two segments CE and ED where E is the mid point of
the segment CD
- M
C
= 3qL
2
3qL
2
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment CE is (qL)(L)/2 + equation (2.33) M
EL
= M
C
+
(qL)(L)/2 = qL
2
/2
- The shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment CE + equation (2.30) BMD over the segment is a rising and concave
downward curve
- There is no concentrated moment applied at point E there is a jump of the
bending moment at point E M
ER
= M
EL
= qL
2
/2
- Area of the SFD over the segment ED is (qL)(L)/2 + equation (2.33) M
D
= M
ER

+ (qL)(L)/2 = 0 consistent with condition at the point D
- The shear force is negative and increases monotonically in magnitude over a
segment ED + equation (2.30) BMD over the segment is a dropping and concave
downward curve

The AFD, SFD, and BMD of the entire frame are shown in the figure below. The maximum axial
force, shear force and maximum bending moment and the location where they occur are
summarized as follow: for a member AC, the maximum negative axial force is equal to qL
occurring at the entire segment AC, the maximum positive shear is equal to 2qL occurring at the
entire segment AB, and the maximum positive bending moment is equal to 3qL
2
occurring at a
point C; for the member CD, the maximum positive shear force is equal to qL occurring at a point
C, the maximum negative shear force is equal to qL occurring at point D, and the maximum positive
bending moment is equal to qL
2
/2 occurring at a point E.
From movement constraints provided by roller and pinned supports and the BMD shown
below, we obtain following information that is useful for sketching an elastic curve:
Point A: pinned support there is no vertical and horizontal displacements at this point
Point C: rigid joint both the displacement and rotation are continuous at this point
Point D: roller support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the
horizontal displacement and rotation are allowed
Segment AB: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Segment BC: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Segment CD: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

133
Length constraint of member AC: the vertical displacement at point C must vanish, i.e.
v
C
= 0
Length constraint of member CD: the horizontal displacement at point C and point D
must be identical, i.e. u
C
= u
D

AFD SFD
BMD
qL
2qL
qL
2qL
2

3qL
2

AFD
SFD
BMD
qL
qL
qL
2
/2
0
R
DY

R
AY

R
AX

A
q
qL B
C
D
qL
3qL
2

A
C D
u
C
u
D

C
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

134
Example 2.16 Determine all support reactions and draw AFD, SFD, BMD and elastic curve of the
statically determinate frame structure shown below.

Solution The given frame is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 3 + 1 = 4, n
m
= 3(3) = 9, n
j
= 4(3) = 12,
n
c
= 1, then DI = 4 + 9 12 1 = 0); thus, all support reactions and the internal forces at any
location can be determined from static equilibrium. However, the number of independent
equilibrium equations that can be set up for the entire frame is n
et
= 3 < r
a
; thus, the support
reactions cannot be obtained from equilibrium of the entire structure. To overcome this problem, an
additional equation associated with the presence of a hinge at point C, i.e. M = 0 at C, must be
employed.
By introducing a cut at the point C and employing moment equilibrium of the right part of
the frame, the reaction R
FY
can readily be determined and, by considering equilibrium of the entire
frame, the rest of reactions can be computed. Details of calculations are shown below:

Equilibrium of portion CDF

[M
C
= 0] : R
FY
L + (qL)(L) + qL
2
(qL)(L/2) = 0

R
FY
= 3qL/2 Downward
A
q
qL
L/2
L
X
Y
B
C
D
L/2
qL
qL
2

L
2L/3
L/3
F
E
FBD of portion CDF
FBD of entire frame
qL
C D
qL
2

F
E
R
FY

F
C

V
C

A
qL
B
C
D
qL
F
R
FY
R
AY

R
AX

R
AM

q
qL
2

E
q
X
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

135
Equilibrium of entire frame

[F
X
= 0] : R
AX
+ qL + qL = 0

R
AX
= 2qL Leftward

[M
A
= 0] : R
AM
+ 2R
FY
L + qL
2
(qL)(3L/2) (qL)(L/2) = 0

R
AM
= 4qL
2
CCW

[F
Y
= 0] : R
AY
+ R
FY
qL = 0

R
AY
= 5qL/2 Upward

For the given frame, there are only two points where members change their orientation, i.e. a points
C and D; therefore, only three frame members, a member AC, a member CD and a member DF, are
considered. In particular, the member AC contains one point of loading discontinuity (i.e. a point B
where a concentrated force is applied); the member CD contains no point of loading discontinuity;
and the member DF one point of loading discontinuity (i.e. a point E where a concentrated moment
is applied). Since all support reactions are already determined, the axial force, shear force and
bending moment at the point A are already known.
First, let us construct the AFD, SFD and BMD of the member AC. The local coordinate
system and the FBD for this particular member are shown in the figure below.

AFD
- A concentrated longitudinal force is applied at point B member AC is divided
into two segments, AB and BC
- F
A
= R
AX
cos45
o
R
AY
sin45
o
= 2qL/4
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the segment AB + equation (2.31)
F
BL
= F
A
+ 0 = 2qL/4
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the segment AB + equation (2.28)
AFD over the segment AB is a horizontal straight line
- The positive concentrated longitudinal force is applied at point B + equation (2.34)
there is a jump of the axial force at point B F
BR
= F
BL
qLcos45
o
= 32qL/4
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the segment BC + equation (2.31)
F
C
= F
BR
+ 0 = 32qL/4
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the segment BC + equation (2.28)
AFD over the segment BC is a horizontal straight line
y
B
qL
F
C

V
C

M
C

x
C
A
R
AY

R
AX

R
AM

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

136
SFD
- A concentrated transverse force is applied at point B member AC is divided into
two segments, AB and BC
- V
A
= R
AX
sin45
o
+ R
AY
cos45
o
= 92qL/4
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment AB + equation (2.32)
V
BL
= V
A
+ 0 = 92qL/4
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment AB + equation (2.29)
SFD over the segment AB is a horizontal straight line
- The negative concentrated transverse force is applied at point B + equation (2.38)
there is a jump of the shear force at point B V
BR
= V
BL
qLsin45
o
= 72qL/4
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment BC + equation (2.32) V
C

= V
BR
+ 0 = 72qL/4
- There is no transverse distributed load over the segment BC + equation (2.29)
SFD over the segment BC is a horizontal straight line
BMD
- No point where the concentrated moment is applied + SFD over the member AC
it is sufficient to consider only two segments, AB and BC
- M
A
= R
AM
= 4qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment AB is (92qL/4)(2L/2) + equation (2.33)
M
BL
= M
A
+ (92qL/4)(2L/2) = 7qL
2
/4
- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment AB + equation (2.30)
BMD over the segment is a rising straight line
- There is no concentrated moment applied at point B there is no jump of the
bending moment at point B M
BR
= M
BL
= 7qL
2
/4
- Area of the SFD over the segment BC is (72qL/4)(2L/2) + equation (2.33) M
C

= M
BR
+ (72qL/4)(2L/2) = 0
- The shear force is constant and positive over the segment BC + equation (2.30)
BMD over the segment is a rising straight line

Next, let us construct the AFD, SFD and BMD of the member CD. The local coordinate system and
the FBD for this particular member are shown in the figure below.

AFD
- No point of loading discontinuity within the member it is sufficient to consider
only one segment
- F
C
= (72qL/4)cos45
o
(32qL/4)sin45
o
= qL
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the member CD + equation (2.31)
F
D
= F
C
+ 0 = qL
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the member CD + equation (2.28)
AFD over the segment CD is a horizontal straight line
y
V
D

M
D

x
D C
32qL/4
72qL/4
0
F
D

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

137
SFD
- No point of loading discontinuity within the member it is sufficient to consider
only one segment
- V
C
= (72qL/4)sin45
o
+ (32qL/4)cos45
o
= 5qL/2
- A negative uniform distributed transverse load is applied over the member CD +
equation (2.32) V
D
= V
C
(q)(L) = 3qL/2
- A negative uniform distributed transverse load is applied over the member CD +
equation (2.29) SFD over the member CD is a dropping straight line
BMD
- No point of loading discontinuity within the member + SFD over the member CD
it is sufficient to consider only one segment
- M
C
= 0
- Area of the SFD over the segment AB is (5qL/2+3qL/2)(L/2) + equation (2.33)
M
D
= M
C
+ (5qL/2+3qL/2)(L/2) = 2qL
2

- The shear force is positive and decreases monotonically in magnitude over the
member CD + equation (2.30) BMD over the segment is a rising and concave
downward curve

Finally, let us construct the AFD, SFD and BMD of the member DF. The local coordinate system
and the FBD for this particular member are shown in the figure below.

AFD
- No point of longitudinal loading discontinuity within the member it is sufficient
to consider only one segment
- F
D
= 3qL/2
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the member DF + equation (2.31)
F
F
= F
D
+ 0 = 3qL/2 consistent with condition at the point F
- No longitudinal distributed load being applied to the member DF + equation (2.28)
AFD over the segment DF is a horizontal straight line
SFD
- No point of transverse loading discontinuity within the member it is sufficient to
consider only one segment
- V
D
= qL
- No transverse distributed load being applied to the member DF + equation (2.32)
V
F
= V
D
+ 0 = qL consistent with condition at the point F
qL
D
E
R
FY

y
qL
3qL/2
2qL
2

x
qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

138
- No transverse distributed load being applied to the member DF + equation (2.29)
SFD over the member DF is a horizontal straight line
BMD
- A concentrated moment is applied at point E + SFD over the member DF the
member DF is divided into two segments, DE and EF
- M
D
= 2qL
2

- Area of the SFD over the segment DE is (qL)(L/3) + equation (2.33) M
EL
= M
D

+ (qL)(L/3) = 5qL
2
/3
- The shear force is constant and negative over the segment DE + equation (2.30)
BMD over the segment is a dropping straight line
- A positive concentrated moment is applied at point E there is a jump of the
bending moment at point E M
ER
= M
EL
qL
2
= 2qL
2
/3
- Area of the SFD over the segment EF is (qL)(2L/3) + equation (2.33) M
F
= M
ER

+ (qL)(2L/3) = 0 consistent with condition at the point F
- The shear force is constant and negative over the segment EF + equation (2.30)
BMD over the segment is a dropping straight line

From movement constraints provided by roller and fixed supports, a moment release and the BMD
shown below, we obtain following information that is useful for sketching an elastic curve:
Point A: fixed support there is no vertical and horizontal displacements and rotation
at this point
Point C: hinge joint the rotation is discontinuous at this point while the displacement
is continuous
Point D: rigid joint both the displacement and rotation are continuous at this point
Point F: roller support there is no vertical displacement at this point while the
horizontal displacement and rotation are allowed
BMD SFD AFD
BMD
SFD
AFD
2qL
2

5qL
2
/3
2qL
2
/3
qL 3qL/2
5qL/2
3qL/2
qL
A
q
qL
B
C
D
qL
qL
2

F
E
R
FY
R
AY

R
AX

R
AM

B
M
D

A
F
D

S
F
D

3
2
q
L
/
4

7
2
q
L
/
4

9
2
q
L
/
4

2
q
L
/
4

2
7
q
L
/
4

2
4
q
L

2qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

139
Segment ABC: bending moment is negative the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave downward
Segment CD: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Segment DEF: bending moment is positive the elastic curve of this segment must be
concave upward
Length constraint of member AC: the vertical displacement and the horizontal
displacement at point C must be identical, i.e. u
C
= v
C

Length constraint of member CD: the horizontal displacement at point C and point D
must be identical, i.e. u
C
= u
D

Length constraint of member DF: the vertical displacement at point D must vanish, i.e.
v
D
= 0

1. Show that structures shown below are externally statically determinate. Sketch free body
diagram (FBD) of these structures and then apply static equilibrium equations to determine all
support reactions.

Exercises
A
C D
F
u
D
u
C

v
C

C
D
F
L
2P
P
L/2 L/2
2P P
2PL
L L L L
P q
L L 2L
2P
3P P
2P
L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2
L/2
L/2
L/2
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

140

2. For truss structures shown below, you are required to (i) show that they are statically
determinate, (ii) sketch FBD and then determine support reactions, (iii) identify zero member
forces (if they exist), and (iv) determine the remaining forces using either the method of joints or
method of sections.

qL
2q
L L
L
L
A
B C
D
L
q
qL
2qL
L
L
L
2P
L
P
L L
L
2P
4P
L/2 L/2 L/2
L
L L L L
L
P
P 2P
4P
4P
4P
3P
4L 4L
3L
3L
3L
3L
L L L L
L
L
2P
3P
L/2 L/2 L/2
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Analysis of Determinate Structures

141
3. For beam structures shown below, you are required to (i) show that they are statically
determinate, (ii) sketch FBD and then determine all support reactions, (iii) sketch shear force and
bending moment diagrams, (iv) identify the maximum shear force and bending moment, and (v)
sketch qualitative elastic curve.

4. For frame structures shown below, you are required to (i) show that they are statically
determinate, (ii) sketch FBD and then determine all support reactions, (iii) sketch axial force,
shear force and bending moment diagrams, (iv) identify the maximum axial force, shear force
and bending moment, and (v) sketch qualitative elastic curve.

qL
2qL
qL
2

q
L
L
L L
q
2qL
qL
2

L
L
qL
2L
qL
qL
2

L/2 L L
q
L/2
qL
L L
q
qL
2
/2
L
2qL
L L
q
L/2
qL
L/2
qL
L L
q
3qL
2

L
qL
2qL
L/2 L
2q
qL
2

L L L/2
qL
2qL
L L
2q
2qL
2

L L L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Analysis of Determinate Structures Jaroon Rungamornrat

142

q
qL
3L
2L
2L
qL
2qL
q
qL
2

L
L L
qL
2qL
qL
2

L
L
L L
L
q
2L 2L
3L
P
L
2L
2L
P
L
2L
2L
P
2qL
3qL
2

2L
2L
2L
P
2L
2L
2L
P
qL
2qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

143
CHAPTER 3

DIRECT INTEGRATION METHOD

This chapter devotes to a classical method, called a direct integration method, commonly used to
determine both the deflection and rotation of beams. The key idea of this approach is to combine
three basic components in structural mechanics (i.e. kinematics, constitutive law, and equilibrium
equation) to form a differential equation governing behavior of the beam. This equation is in fact an
equilibrium equation formulated in terms of the deflection and rotation of the beam. This
differential equation, when supplied by proper and sufficient boundary conditions at both ends of
the beam, constitutes a complete boundary value problem for a particular beam. Due to a special
form of the governing differential equation, the rotation and deflection of the beam can simply be
obtained via a direct integration technique (the name direct integration method results directly from
this solution strategy). Boundary conditions prescribed at both ends of the beam are then imposed to
uniquely determine arbitrary constants resulting from the integration. Following sections present the
development of governing differential equations, treatment of various boundary conditions,
treatment of data discontinuity, and finally applications of the direct integration method to analyze
various beam problems.

3.1 Basic Equations

In this chapter, we focus attention on a beam structure that is made from a linearly elastic material
whose constitutive behavior is completely characterized by a single material parameter termed the
Youngs modulus E (this parameter can be obtained via conducting proper laboratory experiments).
In the development of differential equations governing behavior of such beam, we follow Euler-
Bernoulli beam theory. More precisely, this theory is based on following key assumptions: (i) beam
is made from a linearly elastic material whose properties are uniform across the section, (ii) a plane
section remains plane after undergoing deformation, (iii) shear deformation is negligible, (iv) the
rotation of the beam is relatively small, and (v) equilibrium equation is set up in the undeformed
state. These assumptions play a central role in derivation presented below.

Figure 3.1: Schematic of a beam subjected to a set of transverse loads

Consider a beam of length L occupying a line defined by x = 0 and y e [a, a + L] as shown
schematically in Figure 3.1. Note that a constant a, which defines a coordinate of the left end of the
beam, can be chosen arbitrarily as a matter of preference. Without loss of generality, we may
choose a = 0 and, as a result, the left end of the beam is located at x = 0 while its right end is located
at x = L. The beam is subjected to a set of transverse loads as illustrated in Figure 3.1; this set of
Y
x dx
q = q(x)
X
P
o

M
o

a
A C D B
dx
*

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

144
applied loads may consist of a distributed transverse force q = q(x) and concentrated forces and
moments acting at certain points; q is positive if it directs upward or in Y-direction, otherwise it is
negative. Under these actions, the beam moves to a new deformed state as indicated by a red dash
line. More specifically, a point occupying the coordinate (x, 0) in the undeformed configuration
displaces to a point occupying the coordinate (x + u, v) in the deformed configuration where u =
u(x) and v = v(x) denote the longitudinal displacement and transverse displacement at point x,
respectively. Let V = V(x) and M = M(x) denote the shear force and bending moment at the cross
section located at any point x.

3.1.1 Kinematics

Figure 3.2: Schematic of undeformed and deformed infinitesimal elements

Let ds be an infinitesimal element connecting a point (x, 0) to a neighboring point (x + dx, 0) in the
undeformed configuration and dx
*
be the same infinitesimal element in the deformed configuration
as shown in Figure 3.2. In particular, dx
*
is a curve element connecting a point (x + u, v) to a point
(x + dx + u + du, v + dv) in the deformed configuration as shown in Figure 1(a). From geometric
consideration of the element dx
*
and the fact that there is no axial deformation for the entire beam
(i.e. dx
*
= dx), components of the displacement u and v can readily be related to the rotation u =
u(x) at any point (x, 0) by

dv
sin
dx
= (3.1)

du
cos 1
dx
= + (3.2)

From the definition of the curvature (a quantity that is commonly used to represent the deformation
of flexural members) and the inextensibility condition dx
*
= dx, we then obtain a relation between
the curvature k = k (x) and the rotation u = u(x) by

d
dx
u
k = (3.3)

From the assumption (iv), following approximations are sound and commonly recognized

u ~
u
+
u
u = u
120 6
sin
5 3
(3.4)
Y
(x, 0)
X
(x + dx, 0)
dx
(x + u, v)
(x + dx u + du, v + dv)
dx
*

u
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

145
1
24 2
1 cos
4 2
~
u
+
u
= u (3.5)

With the approximations (3.4) and (3.5), the relations (3.1) and (3.2) simply reduce to

dv

dx
= (3.6)

du
0
dx
= (3.7)

Equation (3.7) simply implies that the longitudinal displacement must be constant throughout the
beam and, when supplied by a proper constraint to prevent rigid translation in the longitudinal
direction, u must vanish identically for the entire beam. As a result, based on a small rotation
assumption, any point of the beam undergoes only a transverse displacement v and it is commonly
termed a deflection. Further, by combining (3.3) and (3.6), it leads to a linear relation between the
deflection v and the curvature k:

2
2
d v
(x)
dx
k = (3.8)

Equation (3.8) is commonly termed a linearized kinematics of a beam that undergoes a small
rotation. It is noted by passing that for beams undergoing large displacement and rotation, the
approximations (3.4) and (3.5) cannot be employed to accurately capture responses of those
structures. Various investigations of such problems using exact kinematics (i.e., exact relationship
between the deflection and the curvature) can be found in the literature (e.g., Tangnovarad, 2008;
Tangnovarad, 2011; Douanevanh, 2011; Douanevanh et al, 2011).
Since the beam is represented by a one dimensional line model or, equivalently, a cross
section is represented by a single point, the deformation at any point within a cross section cannot
completely be characterized only by the curvature k but requiring additional assumption on
kinematics of the cross section. To investigate this issue, let us consider an infinitesimal element of
length dx of the beam in the undeformed state and the corresponding element in the deformed state
as shown in Figure 3.3. From the assumptions (ii) and (iii), the geometry of the deformed element
must be a sector of hollow circular cross section. Next, let us define a neutral axis (NA) which is a
locus of points that undergo no deformation in the deformed state or, equivalently, there is no
change in length in the deformed state, i.e. dx
*
= dx, and let denote the radius of curvature of the
neutral axis in the deformed state. Note by passing that the elastic curve of a beam (as shown by a
red dash line in Figure 3.1) is in fact the neutral axis of the deformed beam. To obtain a formula for
a normal strain at any point within the cross section, let us consider a fiber of length dx located at
the distance y from the neutral axis. This fiber deforms to a curve fiber of length ds and, again from
the assumption (ii) and (iii), this deformed fiber is in fact an arc segment of a circle of radius y.
From the definition of the engineering strain, the normal strain at a point with a distance y from the
neutral axis is given by

ds dx ( y)d d d
(x, y) y
dx dx dx
u u u
c = = = (3.9)

where x denotes the coordinate of the cross section. Upon using (3.3), we finally obtain the normal
strain at any point within the cross section in terms of the curvature of that cross section as:

(x, y) y (x) c = k (3.10)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

146
Equation (3.10) implies that the normal strain at any point within the cross section varies linearly
with respect to the distance from the neutral axis. The negative sign simply indicates that the
positive curvature produces a compressive strain at all points above the neutral axis.

Figure 3.3: Schematic of undeformed infinitesimal element dx and corresponding deformed element

3.1.2 Constitutive law

From the assumption (i), the normal stress at any point within the cross section is related to the
normal strain at the same point via a linear stress-strain relation:

(x, y) E(x) (x, y) o = c (3.11)

where E = E(x) is Youngs modulus at any cross section. From (3.11) along with (3.10), it can be
deduced that the normal strain at any point within the cross section also varies linearly with respect
to the distance from the neutral axis.

3.1.3 Equilibrium equations

From assumption (v), we obtain following two equilibrium equations in differential form (see
derivation in subsection 2.5.5.1)
dV
q(x)
dx
= (3.12)

dM
V(x)
dx
= (3.13)

where V = V(x) and M = M(x) are the shear force and bending moment at any point x. Validity of
equations (3.12) and (3.13) depends primarily on the smoothness of loading data at point x as
elaborated in details below. For a point A that is free of concentrated force and moment and q is
continuous, V, M, dV/dx and dM/dx are well-defined at this point and, as a result, both (3.12) and
(3.13) are valid at this point. Also, it can readily be verified that there is no jump of the shear force
and bending moment at point A:
{ } 0 q(x)dx lim ) V(x ) V(x lim [V]
A
A
x
x
0
A A
0
A
= = c c +
}
c +
c
c c
(3.14)
{ } 0 V(x)dx lim ) M(x ) M(x lim [M]
A
A
x
x
0
A A
0
A
= = c c +
}
c +
c
c c
(3.15)
ds
dx
*
= dx

du
y
Neutral axis
Neutral axis
dx
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

147
where (x
A
, 0) is a coordinate of a point A. For a point that is free of concentrated force and
concentrated moment but q is discontinuous (such as a point B in Figure 3.1), V, M and dM/dx are
well-defined while dV/dx is not defined at this point; as a result, only the relation (3.13) is valid at
this point. In addition, by considering equilibrium at this point (see subsection 2.5.5.3), it can be
shown that there is no jump of the shear force and no jump of the bending moment at point B, i.e.

0 [V]
B
= (3.16)

0 [M]
B
= (3.17)

For a point that is subjected to a concentrated force P
o
(such as a point C in Figure 3.1), M is well-
defined while V, dV/dx and dM/dx are not defined at this point and, similarly, it can be deduced
from equilibrium at this point that the jump of the shear force and the bending moment satisfy

0 C
P [V] = (3.18)

0 [M]
C
= (3.19)

For a point that is subjected to a concentrated moment M
o
(such as a point D in Figure 3.1), V, M,
dV/dx and dM/dx are not defined at this point. Again, by considering equilibrium at this point, we
can conclude following jump conditions:

0 [V]
D
= (3.20)

0 D
M [M] = (3.21)

In addition, force and moment resultants of the normal stress o over the entire cross section
yield the axial force F(x) and the bending moment M(x) as follows:

A
F(x) (x,y)dA = o
}
(3.22)

A
M(x) y (x,y)dA = o
}
(3.23)

By substituting (3.10) and (3.11) into (3.22) and (3.23), it leads to

A
F(x) E(x)(x) ydA E(x)(x)y = =
}
(3.24)

2
A
M(x) E(x)(x) y dA E(x)I(x)(x) = =
}
(3.25)

where y is the distance from the centroid of the cross section to the neutral axis and I is the moment
of inertia of the cross section. From (3.24) and the fact that the axial force vanishes for the entire
beam (i.e. F(x) = 0), it implies that the neutral axis is located at the centroid of the cross section.
Equation (3.25) that can be viewed as a constitutive relation in the cross section level is also known
as a moment-curvature relationship. It is evident that the moment-curvature relationship (3.25) is
linear; this results directly from the linear stress-strain relation (3.11). For nonlinear elastic and
inelastic materials, the relation between the bending moment and the curvature is, in general,
nonlinear. Analysis of beams by taking material nonlinearity into account can be found, for
examples, in the work of Danmongkoltip (2009), Danmomgkoltip and Rungamornrat (2009) and
Pinyochotiwong et al (2009).
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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148
3.2 Governing Differential Equations

A set of differential equations governing behavior of the entire beam can be obtained by combining
kinematics, constitutive laws and equilibrium equations established in section 3.1. In this section,
we focus only on the case that the loading data q and the flexural rigidity EI are continuous
everywhere and, in addition, it is free of concentrated forces and moments. The treatment of the
discontinuity induced by discontinuous loading q, abrupt change of flexural rigidity EI, and
presence of concentrated forces and moments are deferred to later sections.
A complete set of differential equations governing the deflection v for an Euler-Bernoulli
beam consists of four basic equations: 1 kinematics (3.8), 2 equilibrium equations (3.12) and (3.13),
and 1 moment-curvature relation (3.25) as summarized again below

2
2
d v
(x)
dx
k = (3.26a)

dV
q(x)
dx
= (3.26b)

dM
V(x)
dx
= (3.26c)

M(x) EI(x)(x) = (3.26d)

where EI(x) = E(x)I(x) is termed the flexural rigidity of the beam. Note that the highest order of
differential equations appearing in this set is equal to 2 (i.e. equation (3.26a)).
Instead of using a system of four differential equations (3.26a)-(3.26d), it is common and
more convenient in the solution procedure to introduce a single differential equation that can
represent all four equations. This equation can be obtained via simple substitution as follows:

( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
dV d dM d d d v
q(x) EI(x)(x) EI(x)
dx dx dx dx dx dx
| |
| |
= = = =
| |
\ .
\ .
(3.27)

Clearly, the curvature k, the shear force V and the bending moment M are eliminated and (3.27)
involves only the unknown deflection v and prescribed loading data q and flexural rigidity EI. This
fourth-order differential equation is well-recognized as a governing equation for a beam undergoing
small rotation.
Another form of the governing equations that is also widely used in the analysis for
deflection of beams consists of three differential equations, 1 equation resulting from combining
(3.26a) and (3.26d) and 2 equilibrium equations (3.26b) and (3.26c):

2
2
d v
EI(x) M(x)
dx
= (3.28a)

dV
q(x)
dx
= (3.28b)

dM
V(x)
dx
= (3.28c)

This set involves differential equations of order less than or equal to 2. For statically determinate
beams, equations (3.28b) and (3.28c) can be solved independently of equation (3.28a) to obtain the
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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149
shear force V and bending moment M. In steady of directly solving the differential equations
(3.28b) and (3.28c), the shear force and bending moment can also be obtained via the method of
sections and the method of differential and integral formula as discussed in subsection 2.5.4 and
2.5.5. Once the bending moment is completely determined, equation (3.28a) is now a key
differential equation governing the deflection of the beam. For statically indeterminate beams, the
bending moment M cannot be fully obtained from (3.28b) and (3.28c) but it will involve extra static
unknowns (e.g. reactions and internal forces). Such extra unknowns can be determined once (3.28a)
is solved and extra kinematical conditions are imposed (see examples for clarification). The
differential equation (3.28a) along with the known bending moment M forms a second-order
differential equation for beams.
While it has not received the same level of popularity, another form of the governing
equations has proven more convenient than those stated above when it is applied to certain
situations. This set of governing equations consists of following two differential equations, 1
equation resulting from combining (3.26a), (3.26c) and (3.26d) and 1 equilibrium equation (3.26b):

2
2
d d v
EI(x) V(x)
dx dx
| |
=
|
\ .
(3.29a)

dV
q(x)
dx
= (3.29b)

This set involves differential equations of order less than or equal to 3. For statically determinate
beams, equations (3.29b) can be solved independently of equation (3.29a) to obtain the shear force.
Again, this can also be achieved by using the method of sections and the method of differential and
integral formula as discussed in subsections 2.5.4 and 2.5.5. Once the shear force V is completely
determined, equation (3.29a) becomes a key governing equation for the deflection v. For statically
indeterminate beam, the shear force V may not completely be obtained from (3.29b) but it will
contain extra static unknowns. Procedure for determining such extra unknowns is similar to the
previous case (also see examples for clarification). The differential equation (3.29a) along with the
known shear force V forms a third-order differential equation for beams.
Once the deflection of the beam is already solved, other quantities can be obtained as
follows: (i) if (3.27) is chosen as the key governing equation, the rotation is obtained from (3.6) and
the shear force and bending moment are obtained from (3.29a) and (3.28a), respectively; (ii) if
(3.28a)-(3.28c) are chosen as the key governing equations, the rotation is obtained from (3.6) and
the shear force is obtained from (3.29a); and (iii) if (3.29a) and (3.29b) are chosen as the key
governing equations, the rotation is obtained from (3.6) and the bending moment is obtained from
(3.28a).
Finally, we remark that all four sets of ordinary differential equations stated above are
mathematically equivalent and either one of them can be chosen in the analysis of beams. Equation
(3.27) is often termed the full-order differential equation while equations (3.28a) and (3.29a) are
known as the reduced-order differential equations. There is no strong evidence to support and
decide the best choice from these four sets; in general, the choice is a matter of test and preference
and, frequently, problem-dependent. This will become more apparent when they are applied to
solve various beam problems.

3.3 Boundary Conditions

To obtain a unique solution for a particular beam, it is required to specify sufficient end conditions
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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150
conditions play an important role in the determination of arbitrary constants resulting from
integration of the differential equation in the solution procedure.
From fundamental theorems on differential equations, it is required to specify n boundary
conditions to render the two-point, elliptic, ordinary differential equation of order n in terms of a
variable v to be well-posed (the term two-point is used to emphasize that a domain has two end
points). All such boundary conditions can only involve quantities associated with v and its
derivatives of order lower than n, i.e. dv/dx, d
2
v/dx
2
, , d
n-1
v/dx
n-1
. For instance, a two-point,
elliptic, ordinary differential equation of order 4 in terms of a variable v requires 4 boundary
conditions in terms of v, dv/dx, d
2
v/dx
2
or d
3
v/dx
3
. For a special class of two-point, elliptic,
ordinary differential equations of even order (i.e. n is even), boundary conditions can be divided
into two categories: essential boundary conditions and natural boundary conditions. The first
category involves quantities such as v and its derivative of order less than n/2 (i.e. v, dv/dx, d
2
v/dx
2
,
, d
n/2-1
v/dx
n/2-1
) while the other involves the remaining derivatives (i.e. d
n/2
v/dx
n/2
, d
n/2+1
v/dx
n/2+1
,
, d
n-1
v/dx
n-1
). In addition, exactly half of boundary conditions must be specified at each end point.
As is evident from the previous subsection, the full-order differential equation governing the
beam deflection, i.e. equation (3.27), is elliptic and is of order 4. As a result, boundary conditions at
both ends of the beam involve prescribed values of either the deflection v, the rotation dv/dx, the
bending moment EId
2
v/dx
2
, or the shear force d(EId
2
v/dx
2
)/dx. The first two are essential boundary
conditions and the last two are natural boundary conditions. For each end of the beam, exactly two
boundary conditions must be prescribed. To specify proper boundary conditions for each end of a
particular beam, following two guidelines are useful:

Both the deflection and the shear force cannot be prescribed independently at the end of
the beam. One boundary condition can be deduced from following three cases: (i) the
deflection is prescribed while the shear force is unknown a priori (e.g. roller support and
pinned-end support); (ii) the shear force is prescribed while the deflection is unknown a
priori (e.g. free end and guided support); and both the deflection and shear force are
unknown a priori but there exists a relation (generally obtained from considering force
equilibrium at the beam end) relating both quantities (e.g. beam end with a translational
spring).
Both the rotation and the bending moment cannot be prescribed independently at the end
of the beam. One boundary condition can be deduced from following three cases: (i) the
rotation is prescribed while the bending moment is unknown a priori (e.g. fixed-end
support and guided support); (ii) the bending moment is prescribed while the rotation is
unknown a priori (e.g. free end, roller support and pinned-end support); and both the
rotation and bending moment are unknown a priori but there exists a relation (generally
obtained from considering moment equilibrium at the beam end) relating both quantities
(e.g. beam end with a rotational spring).

With the above guidelines, we obtain boundary conditions for certain types of beam ends that are
mostly found in beam as demonstrated below. Comprehensive summary of Boundary conditions for
various beam ends can be found in Table 3.1.

3.3.1 Fixed-end support

For a beam end with a fixed-end support, both the deflection and rotation at this point are fully
prevented while the bending moment and the shear force are unknown a priori. Two boundary
conditions are therefore given by

v(0) 0 = and v (0) 0 ' = if a support is at the left end (3.30a)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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151
v(L) 0 = and v (L) 0 ' = if a support is at the right end (3.30b)

where v (x) ' denotes the first derivative of v(x), i.e. v (x) dv/dx ' = . If the vertical and rotational
settlements occur at this support, the prescribed values of the deflection and the rotation are now
non-zero and must be set equal to the settlements.

3.3.2 Pinned-end support or Roller support

From the small rotation assumption and a proper constraint against the rigid translation, there is no
component of the displacement parallel to the beam axis and this renders no difference between
kinematical constraints provided by a pinned-end support and a roller support. These two supports
provide a full constraint to beam end against the movement in the direction normal to the beam axis
(i.e. no deflection) while the bending moment is fully prescribed. Two boundary conditions at these
two supports are therefore given by

v(0) 0 = and
2
0 2
d v
EI (0) M
dx
= if a support is at the left end (3.31a)

v(L) 0 = and
2
0 2
d v
EI (L) M
dx
= if a support is at the right end (3.31b)

where M
0
is a moment acting at the supports; this applied moment is considered positive if it directs
in the Z-direction or counterclockwise, otherwise it is negative. The negative sign appearing only in
(3.31a) is due to that the counterclockwise applied moment acting at the left end produces a
negative bending moment at that point (following the sign convention defined in subsection 2.5.2 in
chapter 2) while the counterclockwise applied moment acting at the right end produces a positive
bending moment at that point. Boundary conditions, for a special case when there is no applied
moment M
0
, can readily be obtained by substituting M
0
= 0 into (3.31a) and (3.31b). In addition, if
the vertical settlement occurs at this support, the prescribed value of the deflection is now non-zero
and must be set equal to the settlement.

3.3.3 Guided support

For a beam end with a guided support, the rotation is fully prevented at this point while the shear
force is prescribed. Two boundary conditions are therefore given by

dv
(0) 0
dx
= and
2
0 2
d d v
EI (0) P
dx dx
| |
=
|
\ .
if a support is at the left end (3.32a)

dv
(L) 0
dx
= and
2
0 2
d d v
EI (L) P
dx dx
| |
=
|
\ .
if a support is at the right end (3.32b)

where P
0
is a concentrated force acting at the support; this applied force is considered positive if it
directs in the Y-direction or upward, otherwise it is negative. Again, the negative sign appearing
only in (3.32b) is due to that the upward applied force acting at the left end produces a positive
shear force at that point (following the sign convention defined in subsection 2.5.2 in chapter 2)
while the upward applied force acting at the right end produces a negative shear force at that point.
Boundary conditions, for a special case when there is no applied force P
0
by substituting P
0
= 0 into (3.32a) and (3.32b). In addition, if the rotational settlement occurs at this
support, the prescribed value of the rotation is now non-zero and must be set equal to the settlement.
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

152
Table 3.1: Boundary conditions for various types of beam end

Left end (x = 0) Boundary conditions Right end (x = L) Boundary conditions

v(0) 0 =
v (0) 0 ' =

v(L) 0 =
v (L) 0 ' =

v(0) 0 =
EIv (0) 0 '' =

v(L) 0 =
EIv (L) 0 '' =

v(0) 0 =
0
EIv (0) M '' =

v(L) 0 =
0
EIv (L) M '' =

v (0) 0 ' =
(EIv ) (0) 0
'
'' =

v (L) 0 ' =
(EIv ) (L) 0
'
'' =

v (0) 0 ' =
0
(EIv ) (0) P
'
'' =

v (L) 0 ' =
0
(EIv ) (L) P
'
'' =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
(EIv ) (0) 0
'
'' =

EIv (L) 0 '' =
(EIv ) (L) 0
'
'' =

0
EIv (0) M '' =
0
(EIv ) (0) P
'
'' =

0
EIv (L) M '' =
0
(EIv ) (L) P
'
'' =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
s
(EIv ) (0) k v(0) 0
'
'' + =

v (L) 0 ' =
s
(EIv ) (L) k v(L) 0
'
'' =

EIv (0) 0 ' =
s
(EIv ) (0) k v(0) 0
'
'' + =

v (L) 0 ' =
s
(EIv ) (L) k v(L) 0
'
'' =

EIv (0) k v (0) 0
u
'' ' =
(EIv ) (0) 0
'
'' =

EIv (L) k v (L) 0
u
'' ' + =
(EIv ) (L) 0
'
'' =

v(0) 0 =
EIv (0) k v (0) 0
u
'' ' =

v(L) 0 =
EIv (L) k v (L) 0
u
'' ' + =

EIv (0) k v (0) 0
u
'' ' =
s
(EIv ) (0) k v(0) 0
'
'' + =

EIv (L) k v (L) 0
u
'' ' + =
s
(EIv ) (L) k v(L) 0
'
'' =

M
0
M
0

P
0
P
0

P
0
P
0

M
0
M
0

k
s
k
s

k
s
k
s

k
u

k
u

M
0

M
0

k
u

k
u

k
u

k
s

k
u

k
s

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153
3.3.4 Free end

For a free end of a beam, there is no constraint on both the deflection and the rotation. As a result,
both the bending moment and the shear force are fully prescribed and this leads to following two
boundary conditions

2
0 2
d v
EI (0) M
dx
= and
2
0 2
d d v
EI (0) P
dx dx
| |
=
|
\ .
for a left free end (3.33a)

2
0 2
d v
EI (L) M
dx
= and
2
0 2
d d v
EI (L) P
dx dx
| |
=
|
\ .
for a right free end (3.33b)

where P
0
and M
0
are applied force and applied moment at the free end; sign convention of P
0
and
M
0
are the same as stated in the two previous cases. Boundary conditions, for a special case when
there is no applied force and applied moment, can readily be obtained by substituting P
0
= 0 and M
0

= 0 into (3.33a) and (3.33b).

3.3.5 Beam end with a translational spring

Consider a beam end connected to a linear translational spring with a spring constant k
s
. For this
particular case, both the shear force and the deflection at this end are unknown a priori; therefore,
neither of these two quantities can be treated as a boundary condition. Presence of a translational
spring generally induces a force proportional to the deflection of the beam end (in fact it is equal to
the product of the deflection and the spring constant) and in the direction opposite to the deflection.
To construct a proper boundary condition, we consider force equilibrium of an infinitesimal element
containing the end point as shown schematically in Figure 3.4 and this leads to one boundary
condition:

2
s 0 s 0 2
d d v
V(0) k v(0) P EI (0) k v(0) P 0
dx dx
| |
+ = + =
|
\ .
for a translational spring at the left end (3.34a)

2
s 0 s 0 2
d d v
V(L) k v(L) P EI (L) k v(0) P 0
dx dx
| |
+ = + =
|
\ .
for a translational spring at the right end (3.34b)

where P
0
is an applied force at the beam end. The other boundary condition can be deduced from
the rotational constraint.

Figure 3.4: FBD of beam end containing translational spring and subjected to force P
0

Right end (x = L) Left end (x = 0)
k
s
v(0)
V(0)
M(0)
P
0

k
s
v(L)
V(L)
M(L)
P
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

154
3.3.6 Beam end with a rotational spring

Consider a beam end connected to a linear rotational spring with a spring constant k
u
. For this
particular case, both the bending moment and the rotation at this end are unknown a priori;
therefore, neither of these two quantities can be treated as a boundary condition. Presence of a
rotational spring generally induces a moment proportional to the rotation of the beam end (in fact it
is equal to the product of the rotation and the spring constant) and in the direction opposite to the
rotation. To construct a proper boundary condition, we consider moment equilibrium of an
infinitesimal element containing the end point as shown schematically in Figure 3.5 and this leads
to one boundary condition:

2
0 0 2
dv d v dv
M(0) k (0) M EI (0) k (0) M 0
dx dx dx
u u
+ = + = for a rotational spring at the left end (3.35a)

2
0 0 2
dv d v dv
M(L) k (L) M EI (0) k (0) M 0
dx dx dx
u u
+ = + = for a rotational spring at the right end (3.35b)

where M
0
is an applied moment at the beam end. The other boundary condition can be deduced
from the translational constraint.

Figure 3.5: FBD of beam end containing rotational spring and subjected to moment M
0

If the reduced-order differential equation (i.e. second-order and third-order differential
equations) is chosen as a key governing equation, consideration of boundary conditions as described
above still applies. However, it is important to emphasize that not all four boundary conditions at
both ends of the beam apply to the reduced-order differential equations since some of them are used
in the construction of either the shear force or the bending moment. If the second-order differential
equation is employed, only two boundary conditions are needed for determining constants from the
integration and they involve only the deflection and the rotation. If the third-order differential
equation is employed, only three boundary conditions are needed to determine constants from the
integration and they involve only the deflection, the rotation, and the bending moment.

3.4 Boundary Value Problem

For a beam of length L that is fully supplied by data such as flexural rigidity, applied loads and
kinematical constraints, a set of differential equations that completely characterizes behavior of the
entire beam (e.g. equations (3.26a)-(3.26d), or equation (3.27), or equations (3.28a)-(3.28c), or
equations (3.29a)-(3.29b)) furnished by proper and sufficient boundary conditions at both ends
forms a boundary value problem for the given beam.
Right end (x = L) Left end (x = 0)

dv
k (0)
dx

V(0)
M(0)
M
0

dv
k (L)
dx

V(L)
M(L) M
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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155

Figure 3.6: Schematic of a cantilever beam subjected to uniformly distributed load q

For instance, let us consider a cantilever beam of length L and constant flexural rigidity EI
and subjected to a uniformly distributed load q for the entire beam as shown in Figure 3.6. If
equations (3.26a)-(3.28d) are used as the key governing equations, a boundary value problem for
this particular beam becomes

2
2
d v
(x) for x (0, L)
dx
k = e (3.36a)

dV
q for x (0, L)
dx
= e (3.36b)

dM
V(x) for x (0, L)
dx
= e (3.36c)

M(x) EI(x) for x (0, L) = e (3.36d)

v(0) 0 = (3.36e)

v (0) 0 ' = (3.36f)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (3.36g)

EIv (L) 0 ''' = (3.36h)

If a fourth-order differential equation (3.27) is employed as a key governing equation, a boundary
value problem for this particular beam becomes

4
4
d v
EI q for x (0, L)
dx
= e (3.37a)

v(0) 0 = (3.37b)

v (0) 0 ' = (3.37c)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (3.37d)

EIv (L) 0 ''' = (3.37e)

If equations (3.28a)-(3.28c) are chosen as the key governing equations, we may first apply force and
moment equilibrium equations (3.28b) and (3.28c) to obtain the bending moment M(x) = q(L
x)
2
/2. A boundary value problem for this particular beam can then be formulated in terms of the
second-order differential equation:
q
EI
Y
X
L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

156
2 2
2
d v q(L x)
EI for x (0, L)
dx 2

= e (3.38a)

v(0) 0 = (3.38b)

v (0) 0 ' = (3.38c)

If equations (3.29a)-(3.29b) are chosen as the key governing equations, we may first apply force
equilibrium equation (3.29b) to obtain the shear force for the entire beam V(x) = q(L x). A
boundary value problem for this particular beam can then be formulated in terms of the third-order
differential equation:

( )
3
3
d v
EI q L x for x (0, L)
dx
= e (3.39a)

v(0) 0 = (3.39b)

v (0) 0 ' = (3.39c)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (3.39d)

3.5 Solution Procedure

Since the ordinary differential equation(s) involved in the boundary value problem formulated
above contains only a single derivative term, a direct integration technique can therefore be
exploited to solve such differential equations. Arbitrary constants resulting from the integration can
then be obtained by enforcing boundary conditions for a particular beam treated. To demonstrate
the procedure, let us consider first a boundary value problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order
differential equation (3.27). A direct integration of this equation yields the shear force V(x):

2
1 2
d d v
V(x) EI(x) q(x)dx C
dx dx
| |
= = +
|
\ .
}
(3.40)

where C
1
is an arbitrary constant resulting from the integration. By performing one more integration
of (3.40), it leads to the bending moment M(x):

2
1 2 2
d v
M(x) EI(x) q(x)dxdx C x C
dx
= = + +
} }
(3.41)

where C
2
is again another arbitrary constant resulting from the second integration. By dividing both
sides of (3.41) by EI(x) and then performing a direct integration, it results in the rotation u(x):

( )
1 2 3
dv 1 1
(x) q(x)dxdxdx C x C dx C
dx EI(x) EI(x)
u = = + + +
} } } }
(3.42)

where C
3
is an arbitrary constant resulting from the third integration. Finally, by taking the last
integration of (3.42), it yield the deflection v(x):

( )
1 2 3 4
1 1
v(x) q(x)dxdxdxdx C x C dxdx C x C
EI(x) EI(x)
= + + + +
} } } } } }
(3.43)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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157
where C
4
is an arbitrary constant resulting from the last integration. For the special case of beam
with constant flexural rigidity, (3.40)-(3.43) simply reduce to

3
1 3
d v
V(x) EI q(x)dx C
dx
= = +
}
(3.44a)

2
1 2 2
d v
M(x) EI q(x)dxdx C x C
dx
= = + +
} }
(3.44b)

2
1 2 3
dv 1
EI (x) EI q(x)dxdxdx C x C x C
dx 2
u = = + + +
} } }
(3.44c)

3 2
1 2 3 4
1 1
EIv(x) q(x)dxdxdxdx C x C x C x C
6 2
= + + + +
} } } }
(3.44d)

Four arbitrary constants {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can uniquely be obtained from four boundary conditions
available at both ends of the beams.
Next, let us consider a boundary value problem formulated in terms of the second-order
differential equation (3.28a). By dividing both sides of this equation by EI(x) and then performing a
direct integration, it results in the rotation u(x):

1
dv 1
(x) M(x)dx C
dx EI(x)
u = = +
}
(3.45)

By performing one more integration, it leads to the deflection v(x):

1 2
1
v(x) M(x)dxdx C x C
EI(x)
= + +
} }
(3.46)

Similarly, if the flexural rigidity is constant throughout the beam, (3.45) and (3.46) become

1
dv
EI (x) EI M(x)dx C
dx
u = = +
}
(3.47a)

1 2
EIv(x) M(x)dxdx C x C = + +
} }
(3.47b)

Two arbitrary constants {C
1
, C
2
} resulting from the integrations can uniquely be obtained from two
boundary conditions available at both ends of the beams.
Finally, let us consider a boundary value problem formulated in terms of the third-order
differential equation (3.29a). A direct integration of this equation yields the bending moment M(x):

2
1 2
d v
M(x) EI(x) V(x)dx C
dx
= = +
}
(3.48)

By dividing both sides of (3.48) by EI(x) and then performing another direct integration, it results in
the rotation u(x):

1 2
dv 1 1
(x) V(x)dxdx C dx C
dx EI(x) EI(x)
u = = + +
} } }
(3.49)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

158
Finally, by performing the last integration, it leads to the deflection v(x):

1 2 3
1 1
v(x) V(x)dxdxdx C dxdx C x C
EI(x) EI(x)
= + + +
} } } } }
(3.50)

For the special case of beam with constant flexural rigidity, (3.48)-(3.50) reduce to

2
1 2
d v
M(x) EI V(x)dx C
dx
= = +
}
(3.51a)

1 2
dv
EI (x) EI V(x)dxdx C x C
dx
u = = + +
} }
(3.51b)

2
1 2 3
1
EIv(x) V(x)dxdxdx C x C x C
2
= + + +
} } }
(3.51c)

Again, three arbitrary constants {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} resulting from the integrations can uniquely be
obtained from three boundary conditions available at both ends of the beams.

Example 3.1 Consider a cantilever beam of length L and constant flexural rigidity EI as shown
below. The beam is subjected to a distributed load q = q
0
(x/L)
n
where q
0
and n are non-negative
constants. Determine the shear force, bending moment, deflection and the rotation of the beam.

Solution To clearly demonstrate the application of the full-order and the reduced-order differential
equations, this problem is solved in three different ways as indicated below.

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
The beam is fully fixed at the left end while the shear force and the bending moment at the
right end vanish. A boundary value problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential
equation for this particular beam is given by

n
4
0 4
d v x
EI q for x (0, L)
dx L
| |
= e
|
\ .
(e3.1.1)

v(0) 0 = (e3.1.2)

v (0) 0 ' = (e3.1.3)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.1.4)

EIv (L) 0 ''' = (e3.1.5)
q = q
0
(x/L)
n

EI
Y
X
L
q
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

159
Performing direction integrations of (3.1.1) yields

n n+1
3
0
0 1 1 3
q L d v x x
EI q dx C C
dx L n+1 L
| | | |
= + = +
| |
\ . \ .
}
(e3.1.6)

n+1 n+2
2 2
0 0
1 2 1 2 2
q L q L d v x x
EI dx C x C C x C
dx n+1 L (n+1)(n+2) L
| | | |
= + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .
}
(e3.1.7)

n+2 n+3
2 3
2 2 0 0
1 2 3 1 2 3
q L q L dv x 1 x 1
EI dx C x C x C C x C x C
dx (n+1)(n+2) L 2 (n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2
| | | |
= + + + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
}
(e3.1.8)

n+4
4
3 2 0
1 2 3 4
q L x 1 1
EIv C x C x C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 2
| |
= + + + +
|
\ .
(e3.1.9)

Four constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can be obtained as follows:

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
3
C 0 =

EIv (L) 0 ''' =
0 0
1 0 1
q L q L
C P C
n+1 n+1
+ = =

EIv (L) 0 '' =
2 2 2
0 0 0
1 2 2 1
q L q L q L
C L C 0 C C L
(n+1)(n+2) (n+1)(n+2) n+2
+ + = = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.1.6)-(e3.1.9), we obtain the shear force, the bending
moment, the deflection and the rotation for the given beam:

n+1
3
0
3
q L d v x
V(x) EI 1
dx n+1 L

| |
= =
`
|
\ .

)

n+2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x x
M(x) EI (n+2) n +1
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| |
= = +
`
|
\ .

)

n+3 2
3
0
q L dv x 1 x x
EI (x) EI (n+2)(n+3) (n+1)(n+3)
dx (n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L L

| | | |
u = = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

n+4 3 2
4
0
q L x 1 x 1 x
EIv(x) (n+2)(n+3)(n+4) (n+1)(n+3)(n+4)
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 L 2 L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

Option II: Use second-order differential equation
Since the given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2, n
m
= 1(2) = 2, n
j
= 2(2) = 4, n
c
= 0,
then DI = 2 + 2 4 0 = 0), all support reactions and the bending moment can readily be obtained
from static equilibrium as demonstrated below.

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
n
L
AY 0 AY
0
x
R q dx 0 R
L
| |
+ = =
|
\ .
}
0
q L
n+1

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

160

[EM
A
= 0] + :
n
L 2
0
A 0 A
0
q L x
M q xdx 0 M
L n+2
| |
+ = =
|
\ .
}

[EM
x
= 0] + :
n
x
A AY 0
0
M(x) M R x q (x )d 0
L
| |
+ =
|
\ .
}

n+2
2
0
q L x x
M(x) (n+2) n +1
(n+1)(n+2) L L

| |
= +
`
|
\ .

)

Once, the bending moment M(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms
of the second-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

n+2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x x
EI (n+2) n +1 for x (0, L)
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| |
= + e
`
|
\ .

)
(e3.1.10)

v(0) 0 = (e3.1.11)

v (0) 0 ' = (e3.1.12)

Performing direction integrations of (3.1.10) yields

n+2
2
0
1
q L dv x x
EI (n+2) n +1 dx C
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| |
= + +
`
|
\ .

)
}

n+3 2
3
0
1
q L x 1 x x
(n+2)(n+3) (n+1)(n+3) C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.1.13)
n+3 2
3
0
1 2
q L x 1 x x
EIv (n+2)(n+3) (n+1)(n+3) dx C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L L

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

n+4 3 2
4
0
1 2
q L x 1 x 1 x
(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) (n+1)(n+3)(n+4) C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 L 2 L

| | | | | |
= + + +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.1.14)
q = q
0
(x/L)
n

Y
X
L
q
0

q = q
0
(x/L)
n

Y
X
x
V(x)
M(x)
R
AY

M
A

A
R
AY

M
A

A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

161
Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} can be obtained as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
1
C 0 =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} into (e3.1.13)-(e3.1.14), we obtain the same deflection and the same
rotation as those obtained in option I. Once the deflection v is solved, the shear force can readily be
obtained using the relation (3.29a) and, again, the final result is identical to that obtained in option I.

Option III: Use third-order differential equation
By considering force equilibrium of the left portion of the beam (whose its FBD is indicated
above), we then obtain the shear force at any point x, V(x), as

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
n
x
AY 0
0
x
R q dx V(x) 0
L
| |
+ =
|
\ .
}

n+1
0
q L x
V(x) 1
n+1 L

| |
=
`
|
\ .

)

Once, the shear force V(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the
third-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

n+1
3
0
3
q L d v x
EI 1 for x (0, L)
dx n+1 L

| |
= e
`
|
\ .

)
(e3.1.15)

v(0) 0 = (e3.1.16)

v (0) 0 ' = (e3.1.17)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.1.18)

Performing direction integrations of (3.1.15) yields

n+1 n+2
2 2
0 0
1 1 2
q L q L d v x x x
EI 1 dx C (n+2) C
dx n+1 L (n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | |
= + = +
` `
| |
\ . \ .

) )
}
(e3.1.19)

n+2
2
0
1 2
q L dv x x
EI (n+2) dx C x C
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| |
= + +
`
|
\ .

)
}

n+3 2
3
0
1 2
q L x 1 x
(n+2)(n+3) C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.1.20)

n+3 2
3
2 0
1 2 3
q L x 1 x 1
EIv (n+2)(n+3) dx C x C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L 2

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

n+4 3
4
2 0
1 2 3
q L x 1 x 1
(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) C x C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 L 2

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.1.21)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

162
Three constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} can be obtained as follows:

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
2
C 0 =

EIv (L) 0 '' =
2 2
0 0
1 1
q L q L
C 0 C
n+2 n+2
+ = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} into (e3.1.19)-(e3.1.21), we obtain the deflection, the rotation, and the
bending moment identical to those obtained in option I.
The shear force V(x), the bending moment M(x), the rotation u(x), and the deflection v(x)
obtained above can be specialized to a beam subjected to different distributed loads: (i) a uniformly
distributed load (n = 0), (ii) a linearly distributed load (n = 1) and (iii) a parabolic distributed load (n
= 2) as shown in a table below.

n Type of distributed load EIv, EIu, M, V

0

4 3 2
4
0
q L x x x
EIv(x) 4 6
24 L L L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

3 2
3
0
q L x x x
EI (x) 3 3
6 L L L

| | | |
u = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

2
2
0
q L x x
M(x) 2 1
2 L L

| | | |
= +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

0
x
V(x) q L 1
L
| |
=
`
|
\ . )

1

5 3 2
4
0
q L x x x
EIv(x) 10 20
120 L L L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

4 2
3
0
q L x x x
EI (x) 6 8
24 L L L

| | | | | |
u = +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

3
2
0
q L x x
M(x) 3 2
6 L L

| | | |
= +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

2
0
q L x
V(x) 1
2 L

| |
=
`
|
\ .

)

2

6 3 2
4
0
q L x x x
EIv(x) 20 45
360 L L L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

5 2
3
0
q L x x x
EI (x) 10 15
60 L L L

| | | | | |
u = +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

4
2
0
q L x x
M(x) 4 3
12 L L

| | | |
= +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

3
0
q L x
V(x) 1
3 L

| |
=
`
|
\ .

)

EI, L
Y
X
q = q
0
(x/L)
EI, L
Y
X
q = q
0
(x/L)
2

q = q
0

EI, L
Y
X
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

163
Example 3.2 Consider a simply-supported beam of length L and constant flexural rigidity EI as
shown below. The beam is subjected to a distributed load q = q
0
(x/L)
n
where q
0
and n are non-
negative constants. Determine the shear force, bending moment, deflection and the rotation of the
beam.

Solution As another example for demonstrating the use of the second-order, third-order, and fourth-
order differential equations, the problem is again solved in three different ways similar to example
3.1.

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
Since the left end and right end of the beam are supported by pinned-end and roller supports,
respectively, the deflection and bending moment vanish at both ends of the beam. A boundary value
problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential equation for this particular beam is
therefore given by

n
4
0 4
d v x
EI q for x (0, L)
dx L
| |
= e
|
\ .
(e3.2.1)

v(0) 0 = (e3.2.2)

EIv (0) 0 '' = (e3.2.3)

v(L) 0 = (e3.2.4)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.2.5)

Performing direction integrations of (3.2.1) yields

n n+1
3
0
0 1 1 3
q L d v x x
EI q dx C C
dx L n+1 L
| | | |
= + = +
| |
\ . \ .
}
(e3.2.6)

n+1 n+2
2 2
0 0
1 2 1 2 2
q L q L d v x x
EI dx C x C C x C
dx n+1 L (n+1)(n+2) L
| | | |
= + + = + +
| |
\ . \ .
}
(e3.2.7)

n+2 n+3
2 3
2 2 0 0
1 2 3 1 2 3
q L q L dv x 1 x 1
EI dx C x C x C C x C x C
dx (n+1)(n+2) L 2 (n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2
| | | |
= + + + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
}
(e3.2.8)

n+4
4
3 2 0
1 2 3 4
q L x 1 1
EIv C x C x C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 2
| |
= + + + +
|
\ .
(e3.2.9)
q = q
0
(x/L)
n

EI
Y
X
L
q
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

164
It is not surprising that (e3.2.6)-(e3.2.9) are identical to (e3.1.6)-(e3.3.9) since the loading data q(x)
for both cases is identical. Four constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can then be obtained by
using boundary conditions (e3.2.2)-(e3.2.5):

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
2
C 0 =

EIv (L) 0 '' =
2
0 0
1 2 1
q L q L
C L C 0 C
(n+1)(n+2) (n+1)(n+2)
+ + = =

v(L) 0 =
4
3 2 0
1 2 3 4
q L 1 1
C L C L C L C 0
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) 6 2
+ + + + =

3
0
3
(n+6)q L
C
6(n+2)(n+3)(n+4)
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.2.6)-(e3.2.9), we obtain the shear force, the bending
moment, the deflection and the rotation for the given beam:

n+1
3
0
3
q L d v x 1
V(x) EI
dx n+1 L n+2

| |
= =
`
|
\ .

)

n+2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x x
M(x) EI
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | |
= =
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

n+3 2
3
0
q L dv x (n+3) x (n+1)(n+6)
EI (x) EI
dx (n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L 6(n+4)

| | | |
u = = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

n+4 3
4
0
q L x (n+3)(n+4) x (n+1)(n+6) x
EIv(x)
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 L 6 L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

Option II: Use second-order differential equation
Since the given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2, n
m
= 1(2) = 2, n
j
= 2(2) = 4, n
c
= 0,
then DI = 2 + 2 4 0 = 0), all support reactions can be obtained by considering equilibrium of the
entire beam and the bending moment can readily be computed from moment equilibrium of the left
portion as demonstrated below.

[EM
A
= 0] + :
n
L
0
BY 0 BY
0
q L x
R L q xdx 0 R
L n+2
| |
+ = =
|
\ .
}

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
n
L
0 0
AY BY 0 AY BY
0
q L q L x
R R q dx 0 R R
L n+1 (n+1)(n+2)
| |
+ + = = =
|
\ .
}

[EM
x
= 0] + :
n
x
AY 0
0
M(x) R x q (x )d 0
L
| |
=
|
\ .
}

n+2
2
0
q L x x
M(x)
(n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | |
=
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

165

Once, the bending moment M(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms
of the second-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

n+2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x x
EI for x (0, L)
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | |
= e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.2.10)

v(0) 0 = (e3.2.11)

v(L) 0 = (e3.2.12)

Performing direction integrations of (3.2.10) yields

n+2
2
0
1
q L dv x x
EI dx C
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | |
= +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

n+3 2
3
0
1
q L x (n+3) x
C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L

| | | |
= +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.2.13)
n+3 2
3
0
1 2
q L x (n+3) x
EIv dx C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

n+4 3
4
0
1 2
q L x 1 x
(n+3)(n+4) C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.2.14)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} can be obtained from boundary conditions (e3.2.11) and
(e3.2.12) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

v(L) 0 =
4 3
0 0
1 2 1
(n+6)q L (n+6)q L
C L C 0 C
6(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) 6(n+2)(n+3)(n+4)
+ + = =
q = q
0
(x/L)
n

Y
X
L
q
0

q = q
0
(x/L)
n

Y
X
x
V(x)
M(x)
R
AY

A
R
AY

A
R
BY

B
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

166
By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} into (e3.2.13)-(e3.2.14), we obtain the same deflection and the same
rotation as those obtained in option I. Once the deflection v is solved, the shear force V(x) can
readily be obtained using the relation (3.29a) and, again, the final result is identical to that obtained
in option I.

Option III: Use third-order differential equation
By considering force equilibrium of the left portion of the beam (whose its FBD is indicated
above), we then obtain the shear force at any point x, V(x), as

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
n
x
AY 0
0
x
R q dx V(x) 0
L
| |
+ =
|
\ .
}

n+1
0
q L x 1
V(x)
n+1 L n+2

| |
=
`
|
\ .

)

Once, the shear force V(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the
third-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

n+1
3
0
3
q L d v x 1
EI for x (0, L)
dx n+1 L n+2

| |
= e
`
|
\ .

)
(e3.2.15)

v(0) 0 = (e3.2.16)

v(L) 0 = (e3.2.17)

EIv (0) 0 '' = or EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.2.18)

Note that either one of the two conditions stated in (e3.2.18) can be treated as a boundary condition
since the condition M(0) M(L) EIv (0) EIv (L) 0 '' '' + = + = has already been employed in the
determination of the shear force (i.e. it is used to determine the support reactions). Performing
direction integrations of (3.2.15) yields

n+1 n+2
2 2
0 0
1 1 2
q L q L d v x 1 x x
EI dx C C
dx n+1 L n+2 (n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | | | |
= + = +
` `
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

) )
}
(e3.2.19)

n+2
2
0
1 2
q L dv x x
EI dx C x C
dx (n+1)(n+2) L L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

n+3 2
3
0
1 2
q L x (n+3) x
C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.2.20)

n+3 2
3
2 0
1 2 3
q L x (n+3) x 1
EIv dx C x C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) L 2 L 2

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

n+4 3
4
2 0
1 2 3
q L x 1 x 1
(n+3)(n+4) C x C x C
(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) L 6 L 2

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.2.21)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

167
Three constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} can be obtained from (e3.2.16)-(e3.2.18) as follows:

EIv (0) 0 '' =
1
C 0 =

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =

v(L) 0 =
4 3
2 0 0
1 2 3 2
(n+6)q L (n+6)q L 1
C x C L C 0 C
6(n+2)(n+3)(n+4) 2 6(n+2)(n+3)(n+4)
+ + + = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} into (e3.2.19)-(e3.2.21), we obtain the deflection, the rotation, and the
bending moment identical to those obtained in option I.
The shear force V(x), the bending moment M(x), the rotation u(x), and the deflection v(x)
obtained above can be specialized to a beam subjected to different distributed loads: (i) a uniformly
distributed load (n = 0), (ii) a linearly distributed load (n = 1) and (iii) a parabolic distributed load (n
= 2) as shown in a table below.

n Type of distributed load EIv, EIu, M, V

0

4 3
4
0
q L x x x
EIv(x) 2
24 L L L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

3 2
3
0
q L x 3 x 1
EI (x)
6 L 2 L 4

| | | |
u = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

2
2
0
q L x x
M(x)
2 L L

| | | |
=
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

0
x 1
V(x) q L
L 2
| |
=
`
|
\ . )

1

5 3
4
0
q L x 10 x 7 x
EIv(x)
120 L 3 L 3 L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

4 2
3
0
q L x x 7
EI (x) 2
24 L L 15

| | | |
u = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

3
2
0
q L x x
M(x)
6 L L

| | | |
=
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

2
0
q L x 1
V(x)
2 L 3

| |
=
`
|
\ .

)

2

6 3
4
0
q L x x x
EIv(x) 5 4
360 L L L

| | | | | |
= +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

5 2
3
0
q L x 5 x 2
EI (x)
60 L 2 L 3

| | | |
u = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

4
2
0
q L x x
M(x)
12 L L

| | | |
=
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

3
0
q L x 1
V(x)
3 L 4

| |
=
`
|
\ .

)

q = q
0

EI, L
Y
X
EI, L
Y
X
q = q
0
(x/L)
EI, L
Y
X
q = q
0
(x/L)
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

168
Example 3.3 Consider a beam of length L and constant flexural rigidity EI as shown below. The
beam is subjected to a moment M
0
at the left end and a force P
0
at the right end. Determine the
shear force, bending moment, deflection and the rotation of the beam.

Solution In this example, we show how to treat boundary conditions associated with concentrated
force and concentrated moment acting to both ends of the beam. Again, a solution procedure for
three different approaches using second-order, third-order, or fourth-order differential equations is
demonstrated.

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
At the left end of the beam, the deflection is fully prevented and the bending moment is
prescribed equal to applied moment M
0
(this applied moment produces a positive bending moment
at the left end) while, at the right end, the rotation is fully prevented and the shear force is
prescribed equal to P
0
(this applied force produces a positive shear force at the right end). In
addition, there is no distributed load (i.e. q = 0) acting to this beam. Therefore, a boundary value
problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential equation for this particular beam is
given by

4
4
d v
EI 0 for x (0, L)
dx
= e (e3.3.1)

v(0) 0 = (e3.3.2)

0
EIv (0) M '' = (e3.3.3)

v (L) 0 ' = (e3.3.4)

0
EIv (L) P ''' = (e3.3.5)

By performing four direction integrations of (3.3.1), it simply leads to following results:

3
1 3
d v
EI C
dx
= (e3.3.6)

2
1 2 2
d v
EI C x C
dx
= + (e3.3.7)

2
1 2 3
dv 1
EI C x C x C
dx 2
= + + (e3.3.8)

3 2
1 2 3 4
1 1
EIv C x C x C x C
6 2
= + + + (e3.3.9)
EI
Y
X
L
M
0

P
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

169
Four constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can then be obtained by using boundary conditions
(e3.3.2)-(e3.3.5):

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =

0
EIv (0) M '' =
2 0
C M =

0
EIv (L) P ''' =
1 0
C P =

v (L) 0 ' =
2 2
1 2 3 3 0 0
1 1
C L C L C 0 C M L P L
2 2
+ + = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.3.6)-(e3.3.9), we obtain the shear force, the bending
moment, the deflection and the rotation for the given beam:

3
0 3
d v
V(x) EI P
dx
= =

2
0 0 2
d v
M(x) EI P x M
dx
= = +

2
2
0 0
dv 1 x x
EI (x) EI P L 1 M L 1
dx 2 L L

| | | |
u = = +
` `
| |
\ . \ . )
)

3 2
3 2
0 0
1 x x 1 x x
EIv(x) P L 3 M L 2
6 L L 2 L L

| | | | | | | |
= +
` `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

) )

Option II: Use second-order differential equation
Since the given beam is statically determinate (i.e. r
a
= 2, n
m
= 1(2) = 2, n
j
= 2(2) = 4, n
c
= 0,
then DI = 2 + 2 4 0 = 0), all support reactions can be obtained by considering equilibrium of the
entire beam and the bending moment can readily be computed from moment equilibrium of the left
portion as demonstrated below.

[EM
A
= 0] + :
B 0 0 B 0 0
M M P L 0 M M P L = = +

Y
X
L
Y
X
x
V(x)
M(x)
R
AY

A
R
AY

M
B

M
0

P
0

B
A
M
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

170
[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
AY 0 AY 0
R P 0 R P = =

[EM
x
= 0] + :
AY 0 0 0
M(x) R x M 0 M(x) P x M = = +

Once, the bending moment M(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms
of the second-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

2
0 0 2
d v
EI P x M for x (0, L)
dx
= + e (e3.3.10)

v(0) 0 = (e3.3.11)

v (L) 0 ' = (e3.3.12)

Performing two direction integrations of (3.3.10) yields

( )
2
0 0 1 0 0 1
dv 1
EI P x M dx C P x M x C
dx 2
= + + = + +
}
(e3.3.13)
2 3 2
0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2
1 1 1
EIv P x M x dx C x C P x M x C x C
2 6 2
| |
= + + + = + + +
|
\ .
}
(e3.3.14)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} can be obtained from boundary conditions (e3.3.11) and
(e3.3.12) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

v (L) 0 ' =
2 2
0 0 1 1 0 0
1 1
P L M L C 0 C P L M L
2 2
+ + = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} into (e3.3.13)-(e3.3.14), we obtain the same deflection and the same
rotation as those obtained in option I. Once the deflection v is solved, the shear force V(x) can
readily be obtained using the relation (3.29a) and, again, the final result is identical to that obtained
in option I.

Option III: Use third-order differential equation
By considering force equilibrium of the left portion of the beam (whose its FBD is indicated
above), we then obtain the shear force at any point x, V(x), as

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
AY 0
R V(x) 0 V(x) P = =

Once, the shear force V(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the
third-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

3
0 3
d v
EI P for x (0, L)
dx
= e (e3.3.15)

v(0) 0 = (e3.3.16)

0
EIv (0) M '' = (e3.3.17)

v (L) 0 ' = (e3.3.18)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

171
By performing direction integrations of (3.3.15), it yields following results:

2
0 1 0 1 2
d v
EI P dx C P x C
dx
= + = +
}
(e3.3.19)

2
0 1 2 0 1 2
dv 1
EI P xdx C x C P x C x C
dx 2
= + + = + +
}
(e3.3.20)

2 2 3 2
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
EIv P x dx C x C x C P x C x C x C
2 2 6 2
= + + + = + + +
}
(e3.3.21)

Three constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} can be obtained from (e3.3.16)-(e3.3.18) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =

0
EIv (0) M '' =
1 0
C M =

v (L) 0 ' =
2 2
0 1 2 2 0 0
1 1
P L C L C 0 C P L M L
2 2
+ + = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} into (e3.3.19)-(e3.3.21), we obtain the deflection, the rotation, and the
bending moment identical to those obtained in option I.

Example 3.4 Consider a beam of length L and constant flexural rigidity EI and constrained by a
roller support at the left end and a linear translational spring of constant k
s
at the right end as shown
below. The beam is subjected to a downward linear distributed load q = q
0
(1 x/L) and a clockwise
moment M
0
at the right end. Determine the shear force, bending moment, deflection and the rotation
of the beam.

Solution In this example, we demonstrate how to treat a boundary condition at the beam end
connected by a linear translational spring.

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
At the left end of the beam, the deflection is fully prevented by a pinned-end support and the
bending moment vanishes while, at the right end, the deflection is partially constrained by a linear
translational spring of spring constant k
s
and the bending moment is prescribed equal to M
0
(the
applied moment produces a positive bending moment at the right end). In addition, there is a
downward linear distributed load q = q
0
(1 x/L) acting to this beam. Therefore, a boundary value
problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential equation for this particular beam is
given by
EI
Y
X
L
M
0

k
s

q
0

q = q
0
(1 x/L)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

172
4
0 4
d v x
EI q 1 for x (0, L)
dx L
| |
= e
|
\ .
(e3.4.1)

v(0) 0 = (e3.4.2)

EIv (0) 0 '' = (e3.4.3)

s
EIv (L) k v(L) 0 ''' = (e3.4.4)

0
EIv (L) M '' = (e3.4.5)

By performing four direction integrations of (3.4.1), it simply leads to following results:

2
3
0
0 1 1 3
q L d v x x x
EI q 1 dx C 2 C
dx L 2 L L

| | | | | |
= + = +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
}
(e3.4.6)

2 3 2
2 2
0 0
1 2 1 2 2
q L q L d v x x x x
EI 2 dx C x C 3 C x C
dx 2 L L 6 L L

| | | | | | | |
= + + = + +
` `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

) )
}
(e3.4.7)

3 2
2
2 0
1 2 3
q L dv x x 1
EI 3 dx C x C x C
dx 6 L L 2

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

4 3
3
2 0
1 2 3
q L x x 1
4 C x C x C
24 L L 2

| | | |
= + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.4.8)

4 3
3
3 2 0
1 2 3 4
q L x x 1 1
EIv 4 dx C x C x C x C
24 L L 6 2

| | | |
= + + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
}

5 4
4
3 2 0
1 2 3 4
q L x x 1 1
5 C x C x C x C
120 L L 6 2

| | | |
= + + + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.4.9)

Four constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can then be obtained by using boundary conditions
(e3.4.2)-(e3.4.5):

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
2
C 0 =

0
EIv (L) M '' =
2
0 0 0
1 2 0 1
q L q L M
C L C M C
3 3 L
+ + = =

s
EIv (L) k v(L) 0 ''' =
4
3 2 0 s 0
1 1 2 3 4
q L k q L 1 1
C C L C L C L C 0
2 EI 30 6 2

+ + + + + =
`
)

3
0 0
3 3 3
s s
M L q L 6EI 15EI
C 1 1
6 k L 45 2k L
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.3.6)-(e3.3.9), we obtain the shear force, the bending
moment, the deflection and the rotation for the given beam:
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

173
2
3
0 0
3
q L M d v x x 2
V(x) EI 2
dx 2 L L 3 L

| | | |
= = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

3 2
2 2
0
0 2
q L d v x x x x
M(x) EI 3 2 M
dx 6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= = +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)

4 3 2 2
3
0 0
3 3
s s
q L M L dv x x x 8 15EI x 1 6EI
EI (x) EI 4 4 1 1
dx 24 L L L 15 2k L 2 L 3 k L

| | | |
| | | | | | | |
u = = + +
` ` | |
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ .
) )

5 4 3 3
4
0 0
3 3
s s
q L M L x x 20 x 8 15EI x x 6EI x
EIv(x) 5 1 1
120 L L 3 L 3 2k L L 6 L k L L

| | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
= + +
` ` | |
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
\ . \ .
) )

For a special case associated with
s
k , a translational spring now acts as a roller support. Above
results, when specialized to this particular case, are given by

2
3
0 0
3
q L M d v x x 2
V(x) EI 2
dx 2 L L 3 L

| | | |
= = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

3 2
2 2
0
0 2
q L d v x x x x
M(x) EI 3 2 M
dx 6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= = +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)

4 3 2 2
3
0 0
q L M L dv x x x 8 x 1
EI (x) EI 4 4
dx 24 L L L 15 2 L 3

| | | | | | | |
u = = +
` `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

) )

5 4 3 3
4
0 0
q L M L x x 20 x 8 x x x
EIv(x) 5
120 L L 3 L 3 L 6 L L

| | | | | | | | | | | |
= +
` `
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

) )

Option II: Use second-order differential equation
Since the given beam is statically determinate, all support reactions can be obtained by
considering equilibrium of the entire beam and the bending moment can readily be computed from
moment equilibrium of the left portion as demonstrated below.

Y
X
L
Y
X
x
V(x)
M(x)
R
AY

A
R
AY

M
0

B
A
q = q
0
(1 x/L)
R
BY

q = q
0
(1 x/L)
R
BY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

174
[EM
A
= 0] + :
0 0 0
BY 0 BY
q L q L M L
R L M 0 R
2 3 6 L
| |
= = +
|
\ .

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
0 0 0
AY BY AY
q L q L M
R R 0 R
2 3 L
+ = =

[EM
x
= 0] + :
2
0
AY
q x x
M(x) R x 1 0
2 3L
| |
+ =
|
\ .

3 2
2
0
0
q L x x x x
M(x) 3 2 M
6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)

Once, the bending moment M(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms
of the second-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

3 2
2 2
0
0 2
q L d v x x x x
EI 3 2 M for x (0, L)
dx 6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= + e
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.4.10)

v(0) 0 = (e3.4.11)

0 0
BY s
q L M
R k v(L)
6 L
= + = (e3.4.12)

Performing two direction integrations of (3.4.10) yields

3 2
2
0
0 1
q L dv x x x x
EI 3 2 dx M dx C
dx 6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
} }

4 3 2 2
3
0 0
1
q L M L x x x x
4 4 C
24 L L L 2 L

| | | | | | | |
= + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.4.13)

4 3 2 2
3
0 0
1 2
q L M L x x x x
EIv 4 4 dx dx C x C
24 L L L 2 L

| | | | | | | |
= + + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
} }

5 4 3 3
4 2
0 0
1 2
q L M L x x 20 x x
5 C x C
120 L L 3 L 6 L

| | | | | | | |
= + + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.4.14)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} can be obtained from boundary conditions (e3.4.11) and
(e3.4.12) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

0 0
s
q L M
k v(L)
6 L
+ =
4 2
0 0 s 0 0
1 2
q L M k q L M L
C L C
6 L EI 45 6

+ = + +
`
)

3
0 0
1 3 3
s s
M L q L 6EI 15EI
C 1 1
6 k L 45 2k L
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

175
By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} into (e3.4.13)-(e3.4.14), we obtain the same deflection and the same
rotation as those obtained in option I. Once the deflection v is solved, the shear force V(x) can
readily be obtained using the relation (3.29a) and, again, the final result is identical to that obtained
in option I.

Option III: Use third-order differential equation
By considering force equilibrium of the left portion of the beam (whose its FBD is indicated
above), we then obtain the shear force at any point x, V(x), as

[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
2
0 0 0
AY
q x q L M x x x 2
R V(x) 2 0 V(x) 2
2 L 2 L L 3 L

| | | | | |
= = +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

Once, the shear force V(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the
third-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

2
3
0 0
3
q L M d v x x 2
EI 2 for x (0, L)
dx 2 L L 3 L

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.4.15)

v(0) 0 = (e3.4.16)

EIv (0) 0 '' = (e3.4.17)

0 0
BY s
q L M
R k v(L)
6 L
= + = (e3.4.18)

Note that both (e3.4.3) and (e3.4.5) cannot be treated as boundary conditions at the same time since
a sum of end moments was already used in the determination of support reactions. By performing
direct integrations of (3.4.15), it yields the following results:

2
2
0 0
1 2
q L M d v x x 2
EI 2 dx dx C
dx 2 L L 3 L

| | | |
= + +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
} }

3 2
2
0
0 1
q L x x x x
3 2 M C
6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.4.19)

3 2
2
0
0 1 2
q L dv x x x x
EI 3 2 dx M dx C x C
dx 6 L L L L

| | | | | | | |
= + + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
} }

4 3 2 2
3
0 0
1 2
q L M L x x x x
4 4 C x C
24 L L L 2 L

| | | | | | | |
= + + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.4.20)

4 3 2 2
3
2 0 0
1 2 3
q L M L x x x x 1
EIv 4 4 dx dx C x C x C
24 L L L 2 L 2

| | | | | | | |
= + + + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
} }

5 4 3 3
4 2
2 0 0
1 2 3
q L M L x x 20 x x 1
5 C x C x C
120 L L 3 L 6 L 2

| | | | | | | |
= + + + +
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.4.21)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

176
Three constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} can be obtained from (e3.4.16)-(e3.4.18) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
1
C 0 =

0 0
s
q L M
k v(L)
6 L
+ =
4 2
2 0 0 s 0 0
1 2 3
q L M k q L M L 1
C L C L C
6 L EI 45 6 2

+ = + + +
`
)

3
0 0
2 3 3
s s
M L q L 6EI 15EI
C 1 1
6 k L 45 2k L
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} into (e3.4.19)-(e3.4.21), we obtain the deflection, the rotation, and the
bending moment identical to those obtained in option I.

3.6 Treatment of Discontinuity

In the previous section, we focused only on beams that have constant flexural rigidity and are
subjected to either continuous distributed load on the entire span or concentrated force and moment
at their ends. Here, we enhance the capability of the direct integration technique to treat various
types of interior discontinuity mostly found in beams, for instance, a point of abrupt change in
flexural rigidity (point D in Figure 3.7), a point where q is discontinuous (points B, C, J and K in
Figure 3.7), a point where a concentrated force is applied (point F in Figure 3.7), a point where a
concentrated moment is applied (point E in Figure 3.7), a hinge point (point I in Figure 3.7), and a
shear release (point L in Figure 3.7). Two commonly used techniques, a domain decomposition
technique and a discontinuity-function technique, are proposed to handle above situations.

Figure 3.7: Schematic of beams subjected to various types of interior discontinuity

3.6.1 Domain decomposition technique

A direct integration method, when supplied by a domain decomposition technique, has a capability
to treat discontinuity within a beam. The basic idea is to identify locations of discontinuity and use
this information to decompose a beam into several segments containing only continuous data. Each
segment resulting from the decomposition can therefore be solved independently using the same
procedure as described in section 3.5. The total number of unknown constants resulting from the
integration depends primarily on the number of segments and the order of governing differential
equation employed, and they can be determined from boundary conditions at the beam ends and
Y
q(x)
X
P
o

M
o

B E F C D
L
Y
X
I
q(x)
J K
A G
H
M
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

177
continuity conditions at the inter-boundary of all segments. For instance, a cantilever beam shown
in Figure 3.7 must be decomposed into at least six segments, i.e. segments AB, BC, CD, DE, EF
and FG, and constants from integration can be obtained by imposing boundary conditions at points
A and G and continuity conditions at points B, C, D, E and F. An important step in the solution
procedure is to properly and sufficiently set up continuity conditions at the segment inter-boundary.
Following guidelines are useful for setting up continuity conditions for various types of
discontinuity.

A point of abrupt change in flexural rigidity: the shear force, the bending moment, the
deflection, and the rotation are continuous at this point
A point of discontinuous distributed load: the shear force, the bending moment, the
deflection, and the rotation are continuous at this point
A point where a concentrated force is applied: the deflection and the rotation are
continuous at this point while the shear force and the bending moment must satisfy the
jump conditions (3.18) and (3.19)
A point where a concentrated moment is applied: the deflection and the rotation are
continuous at this point while the shear force and the bending moment must satisfy the
jump conditions (3.20) and (3.21)
A hinge point: the deflection and the shear force are continuous at this point while the
bending moment vanishes and the rotation is discontinuous
A shear release: the rotation and the bending moment are continuous at this point while
the shear force vanishes and the deflection is discontinuous

Note that if two types of discontinuity or more are present simultaneously at one point, the
continuity conditions stated above must be properly combined. For instance, at a point where both
the concentrated force and moment are applied, the deflection and rotation are continuous while the
shear force and bending moment satisfy the jump conditions (3.18) and (3.21), respectively; at a
hinge point subjected to a concentrated force, the deflection is continuous, the shear force satisfies
the jump condition (3.18), the rotation is discontinuous, and the bending moment vanishes; and, at a
point where the distributed load is discontinuous and a concentrated moment is applied, the
deflection and rotation are continuous while the shear force and bending moment satisfy the jump
conditions (3.20) and (3.21).
Another crucial remark is that the number of continuity conditions at a point of discontinuity
must be matching to the choice of a key governing differential equation employed. In general, at
each point of discontinuity, the second-order, the third-order, and the fourth-order differential
equations require two continuity conditions in terms of the deflection and rotation, three continuity
conditions in terms of the deflection, rotation and bending moment, and four continuity conditions
in terms of the deflection, rotation, shear force and bending moment, respectively. To clearly
demonstrate the domain decomposition technique, let us consider following examples.

Example 3.5 Consider a cantilever beam subjected to distributed load and concentrated forces as
shown below. The flexural rigidity of the segment AB and segment BC are given by 2EI and EI,
respectively. Determine the shear force, bending moment, deflection and the rotation of the beam.

q
0
L
2EI
Y
X
L/2
q
0

EI
L/2
2q
0
L
A B C
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

178
Solution For this particular beam, the flexural rigidity and loading data are discontinuous at point
B; in particular, at this point, the flexural rigidity changes abruptly from 2EI to EI, the distributed
0
to 0, and a concentrated load q
0
L is applied. Therefore, the beam
must be decomposed into two segments (i.e. a segment AB and a segment BC) and, clearly, data
associated with these two segments are continuous. At point B, the displacement, the rotation, and
the bending moment are continuous while the shear force experiences a jump given by (3.18). Here,
we demonstrate the domain decomposition technique when either a second-order, third-order or the
fourth-order differential equations is employed as a key governing equation.

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
A boundary value problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential equation for
this particular beam is given by

Segment AB:
4
0 4
d v
2EI q for x (0, L/2)
dx
= e (e3.5.1)

Segment BC:
4
4
d v
EI 0 for x (L/2, L)
dx
= e (e3.5.2)

Boundary conditions: v(0) 0 = (e3.5.3a)
v (0) 0 ' = (e3.5.3b)
EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.5.3c)

0
EIv (L) 2q L ''' = (e3.5.3d)

Continuity conditions: v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
= (e3.5.4a)
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' = (e3.5.4b)
2EIv (L/2 ) EIv (L/2 )
+
'' '' = (e3.5.4c)

0
2EIv (L/2 ) EIv (L/2 ) q L
+
''' ''' = + (e3.5.4d)

where the symbols x

and x
+
denote the left limiting point and the right limiting point of a point x,
respectively. By performing direct integrations of (3.5.1) and (3.5.2), it leads to following results:

3
0 1 3
3
5 3
d v
2EI q x C for x (0, L/2)
dx
d v
EI C for x (L/2,L)
dx
= + e
= e
(e3.5.5a)
2
2
0 1 2 2
2
5 6 2
d v 1
2EI q x C x C for x (0, L/2)
dx 2
d v
EI C x C for x (L/2,L)
dx
= + + e
= + e
(e3.5.5b)
3 2
0 1 2 3
2
5 6 7
dv 1 1
2EI q x C x C x C for x (0, L/2)
dx 6 2
dv 1
EI C x C x C for x (L/2,L)
dx 2
= + + + e
= + + e
(e3.5.5c)
4 3 2
0 1 2 3 4
3 2
5 6 7 8
1 1 1
2EIv q x C x C x C x C for x (0, L/2)
24 6 2
1 1
EIv C x C x C x C for x (L/2,L)
6 2
= + + + + e
= + + + e
(e3.5.5d)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

179
Eight constants resulting from the integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} and {C
5
, C
6
, C
7
, C
8
} can be obtained
from boundary conditions (e3.5.3a)-(e3.5.3d) and continuity conditions (e3.5.4a)-(e3.5.4d) as
follows:

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =
v (0) 0 ' =
3
C 0 =
0
EIv (L) 2q L ''' =
5 0
C 2q L =
EIv (L) 0 '' =
2
5 6 6 0
C L C 0 C 2q L + = =

0
2EIv (L/2 ) EIv (L/2 ) q L
+
''' ''' = +
0 0
1 5 0 1
q L 7q L
C C q L C
2 2
+ = + =

2EIv (L/2 ) EIv (L/2 )
+
'' '' =
2
2 0
0 1 2 5 6 2
21q L 1 1 1
q L C L C C L C C
8 2 2 8
+ + = + =

v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' =
3 2 2
0 1 2 5 6 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
q L C L C L C L C L C
2EI 48 8 2 EI 8 2
| | | |
+ + = + +
| |
\ . \ .

3
0
7
29q L
C
96
=

v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
=
4 3 2 3 2
0 1 2 5 6 7 8
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
q L C L C L C L C L C L C
2EI 384 48 8 EI 48 8 2
| | | |
+ + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .

4
0
8
55q L
C
768
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} and {C
5
, C
6
, C
7
, C
8
} into (e3.5.5a)-(e3.5.5d), we obtain the shear
force, the bending moment, the deflection and the rotation for the given beam:

3
0 3
3
0 3
d v x 7
2EI q L for x (0, L/2)
dx L 2
V(x)
d v
EI 2q L for x (L/2,L)
dx
| |
= e
` |
\ . )
=

= e

2
2 2
0
2
2
2
0 2
q L d v x x 21
2EI 7 for x (0, L/2)
dx 2 L L 4
M(x)
d v x
EI 2q L 1 for x (0, L/2)
dx L

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
=

| |
= e
`
|
\ . )

3 2
3
0
2
3
0
q L x 21 x 63 x
for x (0, L/2)
12EI L 2 L 4 L
(x)
q L x x 29
2 for x (L/2,L)
EI L L 96

| | | | | |
+ e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
u =

| | | |
+ e
`
| |
\ . \ .
)

4 3 2
4
0
3 2
4
0
q L x x 63 x
14 for x (0, L/2)
48EI L L 2 L
v(x)
q L x x 29 x 55
3 for x (L/2,L)
3EI L L 32 L 256

| | | | | |
+ e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
=

| | | | | |
+ e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

180
Option II: Use second-order differential equation
Since the given beam is statically determinate, we use a method of sections to determine the
bending moment at any point within the segment AB and segment BC as demonstrated below:

FBD 2:
2
2
2 0
0 0 0
q L 1 x x 21
M(x) 2q L(L x) q L(L/2 x) q (L/2 x) 7
2 2 L L 4

| | | |
= = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

FBD 1:
2
0 0
x
M(x) 2q L(L x) 2q L 1
L
| |
= =
`
|
\ . )

Now, a boundary value problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential equation for
this particular beam is given by

Segment AB:
2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x x 21
2EI 7 for x (0, L/2)
dx 2 L L 4

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.5.6)

Segment BC:
2
2
0 2
d v x
EI 2q L 1 for x (L/2, L)
dx L
| |
= e
`
|
\ . )
(e3.5.7)

Boundary conditions: v(0) 0 = (e3.5.8a)
v (0) 0 ' = (e3.5.8b)

Continuity conditions: v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
= (e3.5.9a)
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' = (e3.5.9b)

Performing direct integrations of (3.5.6) and (3.5.7) yields following results:

3 2
3
0
1
2
3
0 3
q L dv x 21 x 63 x
2EI C for x (0, L/2)
dx 6 L 2 L 4 L
dv x x
EI q L 2 C for x (L/2,L)
dx L L

| | | | | |
= + + e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.5.10a)
FBD 1
FBD 2
Y
X
x
L x
2q
0
L
C
q
0
L
Y
X
L/2 x
q
0

L/2
2q
0
L
A B C
A
x
M(x)
M(x)
V(x)
V(x)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

181
4 3 2
4
0
1 2
3 2
4
0
3 4
q L x x 63 x
2EIv 14 C x C for x (0, L/2)
24 L L 2 L
q L x x
EIv 3 C x C for x (L/2,L)
3 L L

| | | | | |
= + + + e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

| | | |
= + + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.5.10b)

Four constants resulting from the integration {C
1
, C
2
} and {C
3
, C
4
} can be obtained from boundary
conditions (e3.5.8a)-(e3.5.8b) and continuity conditions (e3.5.9a)-(e3.5.9b) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
1
C 0 =
v (0) 0 ' =
2
C 0 =
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' =
3 3 3
0 0 0
1 3 3
43q L 3q L 29q L 1 1
C C C
2EI 48 EI 4 96
| | | |
+ = + =
| |
\ . \ .

v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
=
4 4 4
0 0 0
1 2 3 4 4
33q L 5q L 55q L 1 1 1 1
C L C C L C C
2EI 128 2 EI 24 2 768
| | | |
+ + = + + =
| |
\ . \ .

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} and {C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.5.10a)-(e3.5.10b), we obtain the same deflection and
the same rotation as those obtained in option I. Once the deflection v is solved, the shear force V(x)
can readily be obtained using the relation (3.29a) and the final result is identical to that obtained in
option I.

Option III: Use third-order differential equation
Again, by considering force equilibrium of portions of the beam whose FBD indicated
above, we can readily obtain the shear force at any point x, V(x), as

Segment AB:
0 0 0 0
x 7
V(x) 2q L q L q (L/2 x) q L
L 2
| |
= + + =
`
|
\ . )

Segment BC:
0
V(x) 2q L =

Now, a boundary value problem formulated in terms of the fourth-order differential equation for
this particular beam is given by

Segment AB:
3
0 3
d v x 7
2EI q L for x (0, L/2)
dx L 2
| |
= e
`
|
\ . )
(e3.5.11)

Segment BC:
3
0 3
d v
EI 2q L for x (L/2, L)
dx
= e (e3.5.12)

Boundary conditions: v(0) 0 = (e3.5.13a)
v (0) 0 ' = (e3.5.13b)
EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.5.13c)

Continuity conditions: v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
= (e3.5.14a)
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' = (e3.5.14b)
2EIv (L/2 ) EIv (L/2 )
+
'' '' = (e3.5.14c)

Performing three direct integrations of (3.5.11) and (3.5.12) leads to following results:
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

182
2
2 2
0
1 2
2
0 4 2
q L d v x x
2EI 7 C for x (0, L/2)
dx 2 L L
d v
EI 2q Lx C for x (L/2,L)
dx

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
= + e
(e3.5.15a)
3 2
3
0
1 2
2
2
0 4 5
q L dv x 21 x
2EI C x C for x (0, L/2)
dx 6 L 2 L
dv x
EI q L C x C for x (L/2,L)
dx L

| | | |
= + + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
| |
= + + e
|
\ .
(e3.5.15b)
4 3
4
2 0
1 2 3
3
4
2 0
4 5 6
q L x x 1
2EIv 14 C x C x C for x (0, L/2)
24 L L 2
q L x 1
EIv C x C x C for x (L/2,L)
3 L 2

| | | |
= + + + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
| |
= + + + e
|
\ .
(e3.5.15c)

Six constants resulting from the integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} and {C
4
, C
5
, C
6
} can be obtained from
boundary conditions (e3.5.13a)-(e3.5.13c) and continuity conditions (e3.5.14a)-(e3.5.14c) as
follows:

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =
v (0) 0 ' =
2
C 0 =
EIv (L) 0 '' =
2
4 0
C 2q L =
2EIv (L/2 ) EIv (L/2 )
+
'' '' =
2 2
2 0 0
1 0 4 1
13q L 21q L
C q L C C
8 8
+ = + =
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' =
3 2 3
0 0 0
1 4 5 5
5q L q L 29q L 1 1 1 1
C L C L C C
2EI 12 2 EI 4 2 96
| | | |
+ = + + =
| |
\ . \ .

v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
=
4 4 4
2 2 0 0 0
1 4 5 6 6
9q L q L 55q L 1 1 1 1 1
C L C L C L C C
2EI 128 8 EI 24 8 2 768
| | | |
+ = + + + =
| |
\ . \ .

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} and {C
4
, C
5
, C
6
} into (e3.5.15a)-(e3.5.15c), we obtain the deflection,
the rotation, and the bending moment identical to those obtained in option I.

Example 3.6 Determine the deflection and rotation of a prismatic beam of constant flexural rigidity
EI as shown below by using a second-order differential equation

Solution For a given beam, the prescribed data is discontinuous at points B and C; in particular, at
point B, a concentrated moment is applied and, at point C, the distributed load changes abruptly
from 0 to q
0
and a concentrated load (in terms of a support reaction) is applied. Therefore, the beam
q
0
L
2

Y
X
L/2 L/4
q
0

A
B D
L/4
C
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

183
must be decomposed into at least three segments (e.g. a segment AB, a segment BC and a segment
CD). To formulate a boundary value problem in terms of a second-order differential equation, we
first determine all support reactions and the bending moment M(x) for all three segments by using
static equilibrium along with the method of sections as demonstrated below:

FBD 1:
( )
2 0
CY 0 0
13q L 1
R q L q (L/4)(7L/8)
3L/4 8
= + =

0
AY 0 CY
11q L
R q (L/4) R
8
= =

FBD 2:
2
0
AY
11q L x
M(x) R x
8 L
| |
= =
|
\ .

FBD 3:
2
2 0
AY 0
11q L x 8
M(x) R x q L
8 L 11
| |
= + =
`
|
\ . )

FBD 4:
2
2
2 2 0
AY 0 CY 0
q L 1 x x
M(x) R x q L R (x 3L/4) q (x 3L/4) 2 1
2 2 L L

| | | |
= + + = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

Since both the deflection and rotation at point B and C must be continuous, a boundary value
problem formulated in terms of the second-order differential equation for this beam is given by
FBD 1
FBD 2
FBD 3
FBD 4
q
0
L
2

Y
X
q
0

A
B D
C
R
AY
R
CY

Y
X
A
R
AY

q
0
L
2

Y
X
A
B
R
AY

q
0
L
2

Y
X
q
0

A
B
C
R
AY
R
CY

x
M(x)
V(x)
x
M(x)
V(x)
M(x)
V(x)
x
L/2 L/4 L/4
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

184
Segment AB:
2 2
0
2
11q L d v x
EI for x (0, L/2)
dx 8 L
| |
= e
|
\ .
(e3.6.1)
Segment BC:
2 2
0
2
11q L d v x 8
EI for x (L/2, L/4)
dx 8 L 11
| |
= e
`
|
\ . )
(e3.6.2)
Segment BC:
2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x x
EI 2 1 for x (L/4, L)
dx 2 L L

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.6.3)

Boundary conditions: v(0) 0 = (e3.6.4)

Continuity conditions: v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
= (e3.6.5a)
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' = (e3.6.5b)
v (3L/4 ) v (3L/4 )
+
' ' = (e3.6.5c)

Interior support & continuity condition: v(3L/4 ) 0

= (e3.6.6a)
v(3L/4 ) 0
+
= (e3.6.6b)

Note that conditions (e3.6.6a) and (e3.6.6b) result from the presence of a roller support at point C
and the continuity of the deflection. By performing direct integrations of (e3.6.1)-(e3.6.3), it leads
to following results:

2
3
0
1
2
3
0
3
3 2
3
0
5
11q L x
C for x (0, L/2)
16 L
11q L dv x 16 x
EI C for x (L/2, 3L/4)
dx 16 L 11 L
q L x x x
3 3 C
6 L L L
| |
+ e
|
\ .

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

| | | | | |
+ +
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
for x (3L/4, L)

(e3.6.7a)
3
4
0
1 2
3 2
4
0
3 4
4 3 2
4
0
11q L x
C x C for x (0, L/2)
48 L
11q L x 24 x
EIv C x C for x (L/2, 3L/4)
48 L 11 L
q L x x x
4 6
24 L L L
| |
+ + e
|
\ .

| | | |
= + + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

| | | | | |
+

| | |
\ . \ . \ .

5 6
C x C for x (3L/4, L)

+ + e
`

)
(e3.6.7b)

Six constants resulting from the integration {C
1
, C
2
}, {C
3
, C
4
} and {C
5
, C
6
} can be obtained from
boundary and continuity conditions (e3.6.4)-(e3.6.6b) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 = (e3.6.8a)
v (L/2 ) v (L/2 )
+
' ' =
3 3 3
0 0 0
1 3 1 3
11q L 21q L q L
C C C C
64 64 2
+ = + = (e3.6.8b)
v (3L/4 ) v (3L/4 )
+
' ' =
3 3 3
0 0 0
3 5 3 5
93q L 21q L 135q L
C C C C
256 128 256
+ = + = (e3.6.8c)
v(3L/4 ) 0

=
4 4
0 0
3 4 3 4
189q L 189q L 3
C L C 0 3C L 4C
1024 4 256
+ + = + = (e3.6.8d)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

185
v(3L/4 ) 0
+
=
4 4
0 0
5 6 5 6
171q L 171q L 3
C L C 0 3C L 4C
2048 4 512
+ + = + = (e3.6.8e)
v(L/2 ) v(L/2 )
+
=
4 4
0 0
1 2 3 4
11q L 37q L 1 1
C L C C L C
384 2 384 2
+ + = + +

4
0
1 3 4
q L
C L C L 2C
4
= (e3.6.8f)

By solving a system of linear equations (e3.6.8b)-(e3.6.8f), we obtain

3
0
1
67q L
C
768
= ,
3
0
3
317q L
C
768
= ,
3
0
5
11q L
C
96
= ,
4
0
4
q L
C
8
= ,
4
0
6
5q L
C
2048
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
}, {C
3
, C
4
} and {C
5
, C
6
} into (e3.6.7a)-(e3.6.7b), we obtain the deflection
and the rotation for the given beam:

2
3
0
2
3
0
3 2
3
0
11q L x 67
for x (0, L/2)
16EI L 528
11q L x 16 x 317
(x) for x (L/2, 3L/4)
16EI L 11 L 528
q L x x x
3 3
6EI L L L

| |
e
`
|
\ .

)

| | | |
u = + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
| | | | | |
+
| |
\ . \ . \
11
for x (3L/4, L)
16

e
`
|

.

)

3
4
0
3 2
4
0
0
11q L x 67 x
for x (0, L/2)
48EI L 176 L
11q L x 24 x 317 x 6
v(x) for x (L/2, 3L/4)
48EI L 11 L 176 L 11
q

| | | |
e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

| | | | | |
= + e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)

4 3 2
4
L x x x 11 x 15
4 6 for x (3L/4, L)
24EI L L L 4 L 256

| | | | | | | |
+ + e
`
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .

)

Example 3.7 Determine the deflection and rotation of a beam shown below by using a second-order
differential equation

Solution For a given beam, the prescribed data is discontinuous at point B; in particular, at this
point, the flexural rigidity changes abruptly from 3EI to EI, the distributed load changes abruptly
from 0 to q
0
, and a hinge is present. From this discontinuity information, we decompose the beam
into two segments (i.e. a segment AB and a segment BC). Since the beam is statically determinate,
Y
X
2L/3 L/3
q
0

A
C
B 3EI
EI
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

186
all support reactions and the bending moment M(x) for both segments can be obtained by using
static equilibrium along with the method of sections as demonstrated below:

FBD 1: ( )
0
CY 0
q L 1
R q (L/3)(L/6)
L/3 6
= =
FBD 2:
0 0
AY CY
q L q L
R R
3 6
= = ;
2
0
A 0 CY
q L
M q (L/3)(5L/6) R L
9
= =
FBD 3:
2
0
AY A
q L x 2
M(x) R x M
6 L 3
| |
= =
`
|
\ . )

FBD 4:
2
2
2 0
CY 0
q L 1 x 5 x 1
M(x) R (L x) q (L x)
2 2 L 6 L 3

| | | |
= = +
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

Since the deflection is continuous at hinge B while the rotation is discontinuous, a boundary value
problem formulated in terms of the second-order differential equation for this beam is given by

Segment AB:
2 2
0
2
q L d v x 2
EI for x (0, 2L/3)
dx 6 L 3
| |
= e
`
|
\ . )
(e3.7.1)
Segment BC:
2
2 2
0
2
q L d v x 5 x 1
EI for x (2L/3, L)
dx 2 L 6 L 3

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
(e3.7.2)
Y
X
2L/3 L/3
q
0

A
C
B
R
CY
R
AY

M
A

Y
X
L/3
q
0

C
B
R
CY

V
B

FBD 1
FBD 2
Y
X
x
A
R
AY

M
A

FBD 3
Y
X
L x
q
0

C
EI
R
CY

FBD 4
M(x)
V(x)
x
M(x)
V(x)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

187
Boundary conditions: v(0) 0 = (e3.7.3a)
v (0) 0 ' = (e3.7.3b)
v(L) 0 = (e3.7.3c)
Continuity conditions: v(2L/3 ) v(2L/3 )
+
= (e3.7.4)

By performing direct integrations of (e3.7.1)-(e3.7.2), it leads to following results:

2
2
0
1
3 2
2
0
3
q L dv x 4 x
3EI C for x (0, 2L/3)
dx 12 L 3 L
q L dv x 5 x x
EI C for x (2L/3, L)
dx 6 L 4 L L

| | | |
= + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

| | | | | |
= + + e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.7.5a)

3 2
2
0
1 2
4 3 2
2
0
3 4
q L x x
3EIv 2 C x C for x (0, 2L/3)
36 L L
q L x 5 x x
EIv 2 C x C for x (2L/3, L)
24 L 3 L L

| | | |
= + + e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)

| | | | | |
= + + + e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

)
(e3.7.5b)

Four constants resulting from the integration {C
1
, C
2
} and {C
3
, C
4
} can be obtained from boundary
conditions (e3.7.3a)-(e3.7.3c) and continuity condition (e3.7.4) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =
v (0) 0 ' =
1
C 0 =
v(L) 0 =
2 2
0 0
3 4 3 4
q L q L
C L C 0 C L C
36 36
+ + = + =
v(2L/3 ) v(2L/3 )
+
=
2 2 2
0 0 0
1 2 3 4 3 4
4q L 2q L 2q L 1 2 1 2
C L C C L C 2C L 3C
3EI 243 3 EI 243 3 243
| | | |
+ + = + + + =
| |
\ . \ .

By solving the last two linear equations simultaneously, we obtain

3
0
3
89q L
C
972
= ,
4
0
4
31q L
C
486
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} and {C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.7.5a)-(e3.7.5b), we then obtain

2
2
0
3 2
2
0
q L x 4 x
for x (0, 2L/3)
36EI L 3 L
(x)
q L x 5 x x 89
for x (2L/3, L)
6EI L 4 L L 162

| | | |
e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
u =

| | | | | |
+ e
`
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
)

3 2
2
0
4 3 2
2
0
q L x x
2 for x (0, 2L/3)
108EI L L
v(x)
q L x 5 x x 178 x 124
2 for x (2L/3, L)
24EI L 3 L L 81 L 81

| | | |
e
`
| |
\ . \ .

)
=

| | | | | | | |
+ + e
`
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

188
3.6.2 Discontinuity-function technique

As evident from the previous subsection, the number of integration constants involved in the
domain decomposition technique becomes vast as the number of segments resulting from the
decomposition increases. This therefore renders the technique losing popularity and impractical for
analysis of beams under complex loading conditions; more precisely, when several points of
discontinuity are introduced. To reduce such cumbersome determination of integration constants, a
solution technique based upon a single domain formulation is more preferable. Loading
discontinuities present within a beam may be represented in terms of discontinuous functions and,
as a result, the distributed load q, the shear force V and the bending moment M (appearing as input
data in the fourth-order, third-order, and second-order differential equations, respectively) can be
expressed in terms of a single function for the entire beam. Before demonstrating application of this
technique to handle loading discontinuity, we first introduce certain special functions and their
properties essential for further use.
Let a be a real number and H(x a) be a real-value function defined by

0 for x
(x )
1 for x
a
H a
a
<
=

>

(3.52)

This special function is commonly termed as unit-step or Heaviside function due to its graphical
interpretation as shown in Figure 3.8. It is evident that H is continuous everywhere except at x = a
where it experiences a unit jump, i.e.

{ } 1 ) ( ) ( lim ) ]( [
0
= c c +
c
a H a H a H (3.53)

Due to the finite jump at point a, it can readily be verified that a definite integral of the Heaviside
function over an interval of infinitesimal length and containing a point a always vanishes, i.e.

0 0 0 0
lim (x )dx lim (x )dx lim 1dx lim 0
a a a
a a a
H a H a
+c +c +c
c c c c
c
= = = c =
} } }
(3.54)

Next, let o(x a) and (x a) be defined in terms of the first and second derivatives of H(x a) as
follows:

(x )
(x )
dH a
a
dx

o = (3.55)

2
2
d (x ) d (x )
(x )
dx dx
a H a
a
o
= = (3.56)

Note that both o(x a) and (x a) defined by (3.55) and (3.56) are not functions defined in an
ordinary sense but, in fact, they are commonly termed the distribution functional (comprehensive
details for this topic can easily be found in textbooks of mathematics). Both o(x a) and (x a)
vanish everywhere except at x = a where both distributions are not well-defined; graphical
interpretation of these two distributions is shown in Figure 3.8. By integrating (3.55) and (3.56)
over an interval containing the point a, it leads to following useful results:

(x )dx ( ) ( ) 1
a
a
a H a H a
+c
c
o = + c c =
}
(3.57)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

189

Figure 3.8: Graphical interpretation of functions H(x a), o(x a) and (x a)

(x )dx ( ) ( ) 0
a
a
a a a
+c
c
= o + c o c =
}
(3.58)

In addition, it can also be verified that

1
(x )dx (x ) C a H a o = +
}
(3.59)

2
(x )dx (x ) C a a = o +
}
(3.60)

where C
1
and C
2
are arbitrary constants of integration. Now, let f be a continuous function and
define a cut-off function of the function f at point a, denoted by
a
f , by

0 for x <
(x) (x) (x )
(x) for x >
a
a
f f H a
f a

= =

(3.61)

The graphical interpretation of the cut-off function
a
f is shown in Figure 3.9. It is obvious either
from the definition or from its graph, the cut-off function
a
f takes the value of the function f for x >
a while vanishing for x < a. We state without proof following two properties regarding to the
differentiation and integration of the cut-off function:

d (x) d (x)
(x ) ( ) (x )
dx dx
a
f f
H a f a a = + o (3.62)

A
x
x
(x)dx (x ) (x)dx + C
a
f H a f =
} }
(3.63)
1
x = a
(x a)
o(x a)
H(x a)
x
x
x
x = a
x = a
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

190

Figure 3.9: Graphical interpretation of function f and it cut-off function
a
f

Figure 3.10: Graphical interpretation of function f and it cut-off function
a
f

where C is an arbitrary constant of integration. For the special case when f vanishes at x = a, i.e. f(a)
= 0, the formula (3.62) simply reduces to

d (x) d (x)
(x )
dx dx
a
f f
H a = (3.64)

concentrated forces and concentrated moments) within a beam using special functions stated above,
let us consider a model problem as shown in Figure 3.10. The prismatic cantilever beam is assumed
to be subjected to a concentrated load P at x = x
A
, a concentrated moment M at x = x
B
and a
0
(x) from x = x
C
to x = L. The primary objective here is to represent all applied
loads in terms of a single representation of the distributed load q(x) valid for the entire beam.
The discontinuity of the distributed load can readily be treated by using special features
of the cut-off function. For this particular case, the distributed load shown in Figure 3.10
can simply be represented by

0 A
q(x) q (x) (x x ) H = (3.65)

Obviously, this single representation provides the right behavior and complete
information of the distributed load for the entire beam; more precisely, it vanishes for x <
x
C
and is equal to q
0
(x) for x > x
C
.
For a concentrated load P, it is motivated by its localized nature (i.e. it is applied only at
x = x
A
) and the jump conditions (3.18) and (3.19) to represent a concentrated load in
terms of a distributed load of a form

A
q(x) P (x x ) = o (3.66)
(x)
a
f
x
f(x)
x = a
q(x)
x
C

Y
X
x
B

x
A

R
O

M
O

P
M
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

191
To verify the representation (3.66), let us explore behavior of the shear force, bending
moment and the jump conditions at x = x
A
. By substituting (3.66) into (3.12) and then
performing a direct integration, it leads to

A A 1
V(x) = P (x x )dx = P (x x ) C H o +
}
(3.67)

where C
1
is an arbitrary constant of integration. The shear force given by (3.67)
possesses the right behavior in that (i) the jump condition (3.18) is satisfied and (ii) its
function form is correct (i.e. the concentrated force can produce only constant shear
force). Now, let investigate the bending moment. By performing an integration of (3.13)
with use of (3.67), we obtain

A
x
A 1 A 1 2 A A 1 2
x
M(x) = P (x x )dx C x = (x x ) Pdx C x C (x x )P (x x ) C x C H H H + + + = + +
} }
(3.68)

where C
2
is another arbitrary constant of integration. The bending moment given by
(3.68) also possesses the right behavior since (i) the jump condition (3.19) is satisfied and
(ii) its function form is correct (i.e. the concentrated force can produce up to linear
bending moment).
For a concentrated moment M, it is suggested by its localized nature (i.e. it is applied
only at x = x
A
) along with the jump conditions (3.20) and (3.21) to represent a
concentrated moment in terms of the distribution (x a) as follows:

A
q(x) M (x x ) = (3.69)

Substituting (3.69) into (3.12) and then performing a direct integration yield the shear
force

A A 1
V(x) = M (x x )dx = M (x x ) C o +
}
(3.70)

where C
1
is an arbitrary constant of integration. The shear force given by (3.70)
possesses the right behavior in that (i) the jump condition (3.21) is satisfied and (ii) the
function form is correct (i.e. the concentrated moment can produce only constant shear
force). Next, by integrating (3.13) along with the result (3.70), we obtain the bending
moment within a beam:

A 1 A 1 2
M(x) = M (x x )dx C x = M (x x ) C x C H o + + +
}
(3.71)

where C
2
is an arbitrary constant of integration. The bending moment obtained from
(3.71) also possesses the right behavior since (i) the jump condition (3.21) is satisfied and
(ii) the function form is correct (i.e. the concentrated moment can produce up to linear
bending moment).

By incorporating (3.65), (3.66) and (3.69), all applied loads to the cantilever beam shown in Figure
3.10 can be represented by a single representation:

0 A A A
q(x) q (x) (x x ) P (x x ) M (x x ) H = + o + (3.72)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

192
With the representation (3.72), this beam can now be solved using the fourth-order differential
equation without decomposing the beam into four separate segments. It is important to emphasize
that direct integrations involved in the solution procedure must carefully be treated via properties
(3.59), (3.60) and (3.63). By substituting (3.72) into (3.12) and then integrating the result, we obtain

A
x
A 0 A A O
x
V(x) = (x x ) q (x)dx P (x x ) M (x x ) R H H + + o +
}
(3.73)

where a constant of integration R
o
is obtained by using the boundary condition V(0) = R
o
. Again,
the shear force given by (3.73) can also be used along with the third-order differential equation to
solve this particular problem without domain decomposition. Alternatively, by substituting (3.73)
into (3.13) and then integrating the result, it leads to

A A
x x
A 0 A A A O O
x x
M(x) = (x x ) q (x)dxdx (x x )P (x x ) M (x x ) R x M H H H + + +
} }
(3.74)

where a constant of integration M
o
is obtained by using the boundary condition M(0) = M
o
. This
known moment M(x) can also be used along with the second-order differential equation to solve
this problem. Applications of the discontinuity-function technique along with the solution
procedure by direct integration technique for all three types of the governing differential equations
are shown in examples below.

Example 3.8 Determine the deflection and rotation of a prismatic beam shown below by using a
second-order, third-order and fourth-order differential equations

Solution From prescribed loadings and boundary conditions provided by pinned and roller
supports, we obtain

{ }
2
0 0 0
q(x) q (x L/3) 1 q L (x L/2) q L (x 2L/3) H = o + (e3.8.1)

v(0) 0 = (e3.8.2a)

EIv (0) 0 '' = (e3.8.2b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.8.2c)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.8.2d)

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
A boundary value problem for this particular beam formulated in terms of the fourth-order
differential equation is given by
(c)
Y
X
q
0
q
0
L
q
0
L
2

L/3 L/6 L/6 L/3
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

193
{ }
4
2
0 0 0 4
d v
EI q (x L/3) 1 q L (x L/2) q L (x 2L/3) for x (0, L)
dx
H = o + e (e3.8.2)

v(0) 0 = (e3.8.3a)

EIv (0) 0 '' = (e3.8.3b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.8.3c)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.8.3d)

Performing direction integrations of (3.8.2) yields

3
2
0 0 0 1 3
d v L L L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x q L (x ) q L (x ) C
dx 3 3 2 3
H H

= + o +
`
)
(e3.8.3)

2
2 2 2
0 0 0 1 2 2
d v 1 L L 1 L L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x q L(x ) (x ) q L (x ) C x C
dx 2 3 3 2 2 2 3
H H H

= + + +
`
)
(e3.8.4)

3 3 2 2 0
0 0
q L dv 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) q L (x ) (x )
dx 6 3 3 6 2 2 2 3 3
H H H

= +
`
)

2
1 2 3
1
C x C x C
2
+ + + (e3.8.5)

2
4 4 3 2 0 0
0
q L q L 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EIv q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) (x ) (x )
24 3 3 24 6 2 2 2 3 3
H H H

= +
`
)

3 2
1 2 3 4
1 1
C x C x C x C
6 2
+ + + + (e3.8.6)

Four constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can then be obtained by using boundary conditions
(e3.8.3a)-(e3.8.3d):

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
2
C 0 =

EIv (L) 0 '' =
2
2 2 0 0
0 0 1 2 1
q L 2q L 2 1
q L q L C L C 0 C
9 2 2 9

+ + + = =
`
)

v(L) 0 =
4 4
4 3 2 0 0
0 1 2 3 4
q L q L 2 1 1 1
q L C L C L C L C 0
243 24 48 18 6 2

+ + + + + =
`
)

3
0
3
139q L
C
3888
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.8.3)-(e3.8.6), we obtain the shear force, the bending
moment, the deflection and the rotation for the given beam:

2 0
0 0 0
2q L L L L 2L
V(x) q (x ) (x ) x q L (x ) q L (x )
3 3 2 3 9
H H

= + o
`
)

2 2 2 0
0 0 0
2q Lx 1 L L 1 L L 2L
M(x) q (x ) (x ) x q L(x ) (x ) q L (x )
2 3 3 2 2 2 3 9
H H H

= +
`
)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

194
2 3
3 3 2 2 0 0 0
0 0
q L q Lx 139q L 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EI (x) q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) q L (x ) (x )
6 3 3 6 2 2 2 3 3 9 3888
H H H

u = + +
`
)

2 3 3
4 4 3 2 0 0 0 0
0
q L q L q Lx 139q L x 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EIv(x) q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) (x ) (x )
24 3 3 24 6 2 2 2 3 3 27 3888
H H H

= + +
`
)

Option II: Use third-order differential equation

By considering equilibrium of the entire beam, we then obtain support reactions as follows:

[EM
A
= 0] + :
2 0
BY 0 0 0 BY
14q L
R L q (L/3)(L/6) q L(L/2) q L 0 R
9
= =
[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
0 0
AY BY 0 AY
q L 2q L
R R q L 0 R
3 9
+ = =

By first substituting (e3.8.1) into (3.12), then integrating the result and finally determining a
constant of integration from V(0) = R
AY
= 2q
0
L/9, we obtain the shear force V(x)

2 0
0 0 0
2q L L L L 2L
V(x) q (x ) (x ) x q L (x ) q L (x )
3 3 2 3 9
H H

= + o
`
)
(e3.8.7)

Once V(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the third-order
differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

3
2 0
0 0 0 3
2q L d v L L L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x q L (x ) q L (x ) for x (0, L)
dx 3 3 2 3 9
H H

= + o e
`
)
(e3.8.9)

v(0) 0 = (e3.8.10a)

EIv (0) 0 '' = (e3.8.10b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.8.10c)

Performing direction integrations of (e3.8.9) yields

2
2 2 2 0
0 0 0 1 2
2q Lx d v 1 L L 1 L L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x q L(x ) (x ) q L (x ) C
dx 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 9
H H H

= + +
`
)
(e3.8.11)

3 3 2 2 0
0 0
q L dv 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) q L (x ) (x )
dx 6 3 3 6 2 2 2 3 3
H H H

= +
`
)

2
0
1 2
q Lx
C x C
9
+ + (e3.8.12)
EI
Y
X
q
0
q
0
L
q
0
L
2

R
AY
R
BY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

195
2
4 4 3 2 0 0
0
q L q L 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EIv q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) (x ) (x )
24 3 3 24 6 2 2 2 3 3
H H H

= +
`
)

3
2 0
1 2 3
q Lx 1
C x C x C
27 2
+ + + (e3.8.13)

Three constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} can be obtained from boundary conditions (e3.8.10a)
and (e3.8.10c) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =

EIv (0) 0 '' =
1
C 0 =

v(L) 0 =
4 2 4 3
4 2 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 3 2
q L q L q L 139q L 2 1 1
q L C L C L C 0 C
243 24 48 18 27 2 3888

+ + + + = =
`
)

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} into (e3.8.11)-(e3.8.13), we obtain the same shear force, deflection and
rotation as those obtained in option I.

Option III: Use second-order differential equation
By substituting (e3.8.7) into (3.13), then integrating the result and finally determining the
constant of integration from M(0) = 0, it yields

2 2 2 0
0 0 0
2q Lx 1 L L 1 L L 2L
M(x) q (x ) (x ) x q L(x ) (x ) q L (x )
2 3 3 2 2 2 3 9
H H H

= +
`
)
(e3.8.14)

Once, the bending moment M(x) is obtained, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms
of the second-order differential equation for this particular beam as follows:

2
2 2 2 0
0 0 0 2
2q Lx d v 1 L L 1 L L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x q L(x ) (x ) q L (x ) for x (0, L)
dx 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 9
H H H

= + e
`
)
(e3.8.15)

v(0) 0 = (e3.8.16)

v(L) 0 = (e3.8.17)

Performing direction integrations of (3.8.15) yields

2
3 3 2 2 0 0
0 0 1
q L q Lx dv 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EI q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) q L (x ) (x ) C
dx 6 3 3 6 2 2 2 3 3 9
H H H

= + +
`
)

(e3.8.18)

2 3
4 4 3 2 0 0 0
0
q L q L q Lx 1 L L 1 L L 2L 2L
EIv q (x ) (x ) x (x ) (x ) (x ) (x )
24 3 3 24 6 2 2 2 3 3 27
H H H

= +
`
)

1 2
C x C + + (e3.8.19)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} can be obtained as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

196
v(L) 0 =
2 3 3
4 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 1
q L q L q L 139q L 2 1
q L C L C 0 C
243 24 48 18 27 3888

+ + + = =
`
)

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} into (e3.8.18)-(e3.8.19), we obtain the same deflection and the same
rotation as those obtained in option I. Once the deflection v is solved, the shear force can readily be
obtained using the relation (3.29a) and, again, the final result is identical to that obtained in option I.

Example 3.9 Determine the deflection and rotation of the beam shown below by using the second-
order differential equation along with the discontinuity-function technique

Solution Support reactions are obtained first by considering equilibrium of the entire structure as
shown below

[EM
A
= 0] + :
2 0
BY 0 0 0 BY
37q L
R (3L/4) q L q (L/4)(5L/8) 2q L(L) 0 R
32
+ = =
[EF
Y
= 0] | + :
0 0
AY BY 0 AY
q L 35q L
R R 2q L 0 R
4 32
+ = =

All applied loads within the beam can now be expressed in terms of the distributed load by

{ }
2 0
0 0
37q L
q(x) q (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) q L (x L/4)
32
H H = + o

The bending moment is then obtained by first integrating (3.12) and then using the obtained result
to integrate (3.13) and final results are given by

{ }
2 0 0
0 0
37q L 35q L
V(x) q (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) q L (x L/4)
32 32
H H H = + o +

{ }
2 2 0 0
q 37q L
M(x) (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4)
2 32
H H H = +

2 0
0
35q Lx
q L (x L/4)
32
H +
q
0
L
2

Y
X
L/4 L/4
q
0

A
B D
L/4
C
L/4
2q
0
L
q
0
L
2

Y
X
q
0

A
B D
C
2q
0
L
R
AY
R
BY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

197
A boundary value problem for this particular beam formulated in terms of the second-order
differential equation is given by

{ }
2
2 2 0 0
2
q 37q L d v
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4)
dx 2 32
H H H = +

2 0
0
35q Lx
q L (x L/4) for x (0, L)
32
H + e (e3.9.1)

v(0) 0 = (e3.9.2a)

v(L) 0 = (e3.9.2b)

Performing direction integrations of (3.9.1) yields

{ }
3 3 2 0 0
q 37q L dv
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4)
dx 6 64
H H H = +

2
2 0
0 1
35q Lx
q L (x L/4) (x L/4) C
64
H + + (e3.9.3)

{ }
4 4 3 0 0
q 37q L
EIv (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4)
24 192
H H H = +

2 3
2 0 0
1 2
q L 35q Lx
(x L/4) (x L/4) C x C
2 192
H + + + (e3.9.4)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} can be obtained as follows:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =
v(L) 0 =
4 4 4 4 3
0 0 0 0 0
1 2 1
q L 37q L q L 35q L 621q L 1 1
C L C 0 C
24 16 256 12288 32 192 4096

+ + + + = =
`
)

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} into (e3.9.3)-(e3.9.4), it leads to the deflection and rotation of the beam:

{ }
4 4 3 0 0
q 37q L
EIv (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4)
24 192
H H H = +

2 3 3
2 0 0 0
q L 35q Lx 621q L x
(x L/4) (x L/4)
2 192 4096
H +
{ }
3 3 2 0 0
q 37q L
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4) (x 3L/4)
6 64
H H H u = +

2 3
2 0 0
0
35q Lx 621q L
q L (x L/4) (x L/4)
64 4096
H +

It is obvious from the above two example problems that the discontinuity-function technique
significantly reduces effort associated with the determination of constants resulting from direct
integrations. The number of constants is still identical to the case that the loading data is continuous
everywhere. While solutions obtained from this technique are left in terms of H(x a), o(x a) and
(x a), they can readily be expressed for each individual segments by recalling the definition of
those special function and distributions. For instance, the deflection and rotation obtained above can
also be expressed as
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

198
3 3
0 0
2 3 3
2 0 0 0
2 3 3
4 2 0 0 0 0
4 4 0 0
35q Lx 621q L x
for x [0,L/4]
192 4096
q L 35q Lx 621q L x L
(x ) for x [L/4,L/2]
2 4 192 4096
EIv
q q L 35q Lx 621q L x L L
(x ) (x ) for x [3L/4,L]
24 2 2 4 192 4096
q 37q L L 3L
(x ) (x )
24 2 4
e
+ e
=
+ e

+
`
)
2 3 3
3 2 0 0 0
q L 35q Lx 621q L x 3L L
(x ) (x ) for x [3L/4,L]
192 4 2 4 192 4096

+ e

2 3
0 0
2 3
2 0 0
0
2 3
3 2 0 0 0
0
3 3 2 0 0
35q Lx 621q L
for x [0,L/4]
64 4096
35q Lx 621q L L
q L (x ) for x [L/4,L/2]
4 64 4096
EI
q 35q Lx 621q L L L
(x ) q L (x ) for x [3L/4,L]
6 2 4 64 4096
q 37q L L 3L 3L
(x ) (x ) (x ) q
6 2 4 64 4
e
+ e
u =
+ e

+
`
)
2 3
2 0 0
0
35q Lx 621q L L
L (x ) for x [3L/4,L]
4 64 4096

+ e

3.7 Treatment of Statically Indeterminate Beams

In this section, we generalize the direct integration technique to have a capability to treat statically
indeterminate beams.
If the fourth-order differential equation is used in the formulation of the boundary value
problem, the displacement is chosen as the primary unknown and the key governing equation is in
fact the equilibrium equation expressed in terms of this primary unknown. As a result, a direct
integration technique with this type of differential equation is classified as a displacement method.
The crucial nature of the displacement method is that there is no prejudice on the static
indeterminacy; equivalently, the technique can be applied equally to both statically determinate and
statically indeterminate beams. Solution procedure stated above therefore requires no generalization
when applying to statically indeterminate beam.
If the reduced-order (i.e. second-order and third-order) differential equations are used in the
formulation of the boundary value problem, the shear force V(x) and the bending moment M(x)
must be determined first. The fact that the equilibrium equation is the only tool available for
obtaining V(x) and M(x), limits the capability of the technique to statically determinate beams.
More precisely, for statically determinate beams, both V(x) and M(x) can completely be obtained in
terms of prescribed loading data merely by using equilibrium equations while, for statically
indeterminate beams, available equilibrium equations are not sufficient to solve for these two
quantities. To overcome such limitation and enhance the capability of the technique to treat
statically indeterminate beams, following strategy is followed: (i) a (statically stable) primary
structure is obtained by fictitiously removing static quantities (e.g. support reactions and internal
forces at certain points) from the original statically indeterminate beam until it becomes statically
determinate; (ii) the released static quantities, commonly termed redundants, are applied back to the
locations where they are released but, now, they are viewed as (unknown) applied loads on the
primary structure; (iii) either V(x) or M(x) of the primary structure with redundants in step (ii) can
now be obtained from equilibrium equation; (iv) identify boundary conditions associated with the
structure in step (ii); (v) identify kinematical conditions at released locations to make structure in
step (ii) identical to the original structure; (vi) use information from steps (iv) and (v) to determine
constants of integration and all redundants; and (vii) obtain quantities of interest.
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

199

Figure 3.11: (a) Schematic of statically indeterminate beam of second degree, (b) primary structure
resulting from removing support reactions at point C and D, and (c) primary structure after
redundants are applied

To clearly demonstrate the above strategy, let us consider a model problem shown in Figure
3.11(a). This beam is statically indeterminate of second degree (i.e. r
a
= 4, n
m
= 2(2) = 4, n
j
= 3(2) =
6, n
c
= 0, then DI = 4 + 4 6 0 = 2). First, we construct a primary structure by removing two
support reactions R
CY
and R
DY
at points C and D; this primary structure is shown in Figure 3.11(b).
Next, the redundants R
1
and R
2
are applied back to the primary structure as shown in Figure 3.11(c).
It is evident that the beams shown in Figure 3.11(a) and Figure 3.12(c) are different in nature; more
specifically, the former is statically indeterminate while the latter is statically determinate with
applied redundants. Support reactions (at point A), shear force, and bending moment of the beam in
Figure 3.11(c) can readily be obtained by static equilibrium. If the second-order differential
equation is chosen as a key governing equation, two boundary conditions (of the structure in Figure
3.11(c)) are v(0) = 0 and v'(0) = 0. If the third-order differential equation is chosen as a key
governing equation, three boundary conditions are v(0) = 0, v'(0) = 0 and EIv''(L) = 0. Next, by
comparing beams in Figure 3.11(a) and Figure 3.12(c), the former beam can be viewed as a special
case of the latter in the sense that the redundant R
1
and R
2
appearing in Figure 3.11(a) are
unknowns and can still vary arbitrarily while both support reactions R
CY
and R
DY
in Figure 3.11(c)
possess a single value to maintain zero deflection at points C and D. Thus, the necessary and
sufficient conditions for turning the beam in Figure 3.11(a) to the original structure are v(x
C
) = 0
and v(x
D
) = 0. Steps (vi) and (vii) follow exactly the same procedure as discussed in previous
subsections.
It is worth noting that a primary structure constructed in step (i) is generally not unique. Any
set of redundants that produces statically stable structure with DI = 0 is acceptable. There is no
prejudice on a set of redundants chosen and no strong evidence to support the best choice. In
general, the choice is often problem dependent and, most of the time, a matter of preference. Note
also that boundary conditions specified in step (iv) are for structure in step (ii) not the original one.
M
Y
X
q
0

A B C D
M
Y
X
q
0

A B C D
R
1
R
2

R
CY
R
DY

(c)
(b)
(a)
M
Y
X
q
0

A B C
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

200
Example 3.10 Determine the deflection and rotation of a statically indeterminate beam shown
below by using a second-order, third-order and fourth-order differential equations

Solution Note that the given beam is statically indeterminate to the first degree (i.e. r
a
= 3, n
m
= 1(2)
= 2, n
j
= 2(2) = 4, n
c
= 0, then DI = 3 + 2 4 0 = 1) and the applied load can be expressed as

0
q(x) q (x L/2) H = (e3.10.1)

Option I: Use fourth-order differential equation
A boundary value problem for this particular beam formulated in terms of the fourth-order
differential equation is given by

4
0 4
d v
EI q (x L/2)
dx
H = (e3.10.2)

v(0) 0 = (e3.10.3a)

EIv (0) 0 ' = (e3.10.3b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.10.3c)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.10.3d)

Performing direction integrations of (3.10.2) yields

3
0 1 3
d v
EI q (x L/2) (x L/2) C
dx
H = + (e3.10.4)
2
2 0
1 2 2
q d v
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) C x C
dx 2
H = + + (e3.10.5)
3 2 0
1 2 3
q dv 1
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) C x C x C
dx 6 2
H = + + + (e3.10.6)
4 3 2 0
1 2 3 4
q 1 1
EIv (x L/2) (x L/2) C x C x C x C
24 6 2
H = + + + + (e3.10.7)

Four constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} can then be obtained by using boundary conditions
(e3.10.3a)-(e3.10.3d) as follows:

v(0) 0 =
4
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
3
C 0 =
EIv (L) 0 '' =
2 2
0 0
1 2 1 2
q L q L
C L C 0 C L C
8 8
+ + = + = (e3.10.8)
Y
X
q
0

A
B
L/2 L/2
EI
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

201
v(L) 0 =
4 2
3 2 0 0
1 2 3 4 1 2
q L q L 1 1
C L C L C x C 0 C L 3C
384 6 2 64
+ + + + = + = (e3.10.9)

By solving (e3.10.8) and (e3.10.9) simultaneously, we obtain

0
1
23q L
C
128
= and
2
0
2
7q L
C
128
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
} into (e3.10.6)-(e3.10.7), we obtain the deflection and the rotation
for the given beam:

2 2
3 0 0 0
q 23q Lx 7q L x
EI (x) (x L/2) (x L/2)
6 256 128
H u = +
3 2 2
4 0 0 0
q 23q Lx 7q L x
EIv(x) (x L/2) (x L/2)
6 768 256
H = +

Option II: Use third-order differential equation
Since the given beam is statically indeterminate to the first degree, a primary structure is
obtained by removing only one redundant. Here, we choose a support reaction at point B, R
BY
, as a
redundant and the corresponding primary structure subjected to this redundant is shown below

To obtain the shear force V(x), we first substitute (e3.10.1) into (3.12), then integrate the result, and
finally determine a constant of integration by using the condition V(L) = R
BY

0 0 BY
V(x) q (x L/2) (x L/2) q L/2 R H = + (e3.10.10)

Boundary conditions associated with above primary structure are v(0) = v'(0) = EIv''(0) = 0 and a
kinematical condition required to turn above structure to the original structure is v(L) = 0. Now, we
can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the third-order differential equation for this
particular beam as follow:

3
0 0 BY 3
d v
EI q (x L/2) (x L/2) q L/2 R for x (0, L)
dx
H = + e (e3.10.11)

v(0) 0 = (e3.10.12a)

v (0) 0 ' = (e3.10.12b)

EIv (L) 0 '' = (e3.10.12c)

v(L) 0 = (e3.10.12d)
R
BY

Y
X
q
0

A
B
L/2 L/2
EI
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

202
Performing direction integrations of (e3.10.11) yields

2
2 0 0
BY 1 2
q q Lx d v
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) R x C
dx 2 2
H = + + (e3.10.13)

2 2
3 0 0 BY
1 2
q q Lx R x dv
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) C x C
dx 6 4 2
H = + + + (e3.10.14)

3 3
4 2 0 0 BY
1 2 3
q q Lx R x 1
EIv (x L/2) (x L/2) C x C x C
24 12 6 2
H = + + + + (e3.10.15)

Three constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} and the redundant R
BY
can be obtained from boundary
conditions (e3.10.12a)-(e3.10.12d) as follow:

v(0) 0 =
3
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
2
C 0 =

EIv (L) 0 '' =
2 2 2
0 0 0
BY 1 BY 1
q L q L 3q L
R L C 0 R L C
8 2 8
+ + = = (e3.10.16)

v(L) 0 =
4 4 2 3
2 0 0 0 BY
1 2 3 BY 1
q L q L 31q L R L 1
C L C L C 0 R L 3C
384 12 6 2 64
+ + + + = = (e3.10.17)

By solving (e3.10.16) and (e3.10.17) simultaneously, we obtain

0
BY
41q L
R
128
= and
2
0
1
7q L
C
128
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
, C
3
} and R
BY
into (e3.10.14)-(e3.10.15), we obtain the same deflection and
rotation as those obtained in option I.

Option III: Use second-order differential equation
The same primary structure as shown in option II is considered again here. To obtain the
bending moment M(x), we first substitute (e3.10.10) into (3.13), then integrate the result, and
finally determine a constant of integration by using the condition M(L) = 0. This leads to

2
2 0 0 0
BY
q q Lx 3q L
M(x) (x L/2) (x L/2) R (L x)
2 2 8
H = + + (e3.10.18)

Two boundary conditions associated with above primary structure are v(0) = v'(0) = 0 and a
kinematical condition required to turn above structure to the original structure is v(L) = 0. Now, we
can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the second-order differential equation for this
particular beam as follow:

2 2
2 0 0 0
BY 2
q q Lx 3q L d v
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) R (L x) for x (0, L)
dx 2 2 8
H = + + e (e3.10.19)

v(0) 0 = (e3.10.20a)

v (0) 0 ' = (e3.10.20b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.10.20c)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

203
Performing direction integrations of (e3.10.19) yields

2 2 2
3 0 0 0
BY 1
q q Lx 3q L x dv x
EI (x L/2) (x L/2) R (Lx ) C
dx 6 4 8 2
H = + + + (e3.10.21)

3 2 2 2 3
4 0 0 0
BY 1 2
q q Lx 3q L x Lx x
EIv (x L/2) (x L/2) R ( ) C x C
24 12 16 2 6
H = + + + + (e3.10.22)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} and the redundant R
BY
can be obtained from boundary
conditions (e3.10.20a)-(e3.10.20c) as follow:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
1
C 0 =

v(L) 0 =
4 4 4 3
0 0 0 0 BY
1 2 BY
q L q L 3q L 41q L R L
C L C 0 R
384 12 16 3 128
+ + + + = =

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} and R
BY
into (e3.10.21)-(e3.10.22), we obtain the same deflection and
rotation as those obtained in option I.

Example 3.11 Determine the deflection and rotation of a statically indeterminate beam shown
below by using a second-order differential equations

Solution Since the given beam is statically indeterminate to the first degree (i.e. r
a
= 3, n
m
= 2(2) =
4, n
j
= 3(2) = 6, n
c
= 0, then DI = 3 + 4 6 0 = 1), a primary structure is obtained by removing the
roller support at point B. The primary structure subjected to the redundant R
BY
is shown below.

By considering equilibrium of the entire structure, we can readily obtain support reactions at point
A and C as R
AY
= R
CY
= q
0
L R
BY
/2. All applied loads acting to above primary structure can then
be expressed as

0 BY
q(x) q R (x L) = + o (e3.11.1)
Y
X
q
0

A
C
L L
EI EI
B
Y
X
q
0

A
C
L L
EI EI
B
R
BY

R
AY

R
CY

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

204
First, the shear force V(x) is obtained by integrating (3.12) along with the use of (e3.11.1):

BY
0 BY 0
R
V(x) q x R (x L) q L
2
H = + + (e3.11.2)

A constant of integration is obtained from V(0) = R
AY
. To obtain the bending moment M(x), we
substitute (e3.11.2) into (3.13) and then perform a direct integration. Once a condition M(0) = 0 is
employed to determine a constant of integration, we then obtain

2
0 BY
BY 0
q x R x
M(x) R (x L) (x L) q Lx
2 2
H = + + (e3.11.3)

Now, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the second-order differential equation
for this particular beam as follow:

2 2
0 BY
BY 0 2
q x R x d v
EI R (x L) (x L) q Lx for x (0, 2L)
dx 2 2
H = + + e (e3.11.4)

v(0) 0 = (e3.11.5a)

v(2L) 0 = (e3.11.5b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.11.5c)

Note that (e3.11.5a) and (e3.11.5b) are boundary conditions for the primary structure while
(e3.11.5c) is a kinematical condition rendering the primary structure identical to the original
structure. By performing direction integrations of (e3.11.4), it leads to

3 2 2
2 0 0 BY BY
1
q x q Lx R R x dv
EI (x L) (x L) C
dx 6 2 2 4
H = + + + (e3.11.6)

4 3 3
3 0 0 BY BY
1 2
q x q Lx R R x
EIv (x L) (x L) C x C
24 6 6 12
H = + + + + (e3.11.7)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} and the redundant R
BY
can be obtained from boundary
conditions (e3.11.5a)-(e3.11.5c) as follow:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

v(2L) 0 =
4 4 3 3 3
2 0 0 0 BY BY
1 2 1 BY
2q L 4q L 4q L R L 2R L
2C L C 0 4C R L
3 6 3 3 3
+ + + + = =
v(L) 0 =
4 4 3 3
2 0 0 0 BY
1 2 1 BY
q L q L 3q L R L
C L C 0 12C R L
24 6 12 2
+ + + = =

By solving above two linear equations simultaneously, we obtain

0
BY
5q L
R
4
= and
3
0
1
q L
C
48
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} and R
BY
into (e3.11.6)-(e3.11.7), we then obtain the deflection and rotation
for the given beam:
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

205
3 2 3 2
0 0 0 0
q x 3q Lx q L 5q L(x L)
EI (x) (x L)
6 16 48 8
H

u = + +

4 3 3 3
0 0 0 0
q x q Lx q L x 5q L(x L)
EIv(x) (x L)
24 16 48 24
H

= + +

Example 3.12 Determine the deflection and rotation of a statically indeterminate beam shown
below by using a second-order differential equations

Solution Since the given beam is statically indeterminate to the second degree (i.e. r
a
= 4, n
m
= 2(2)
= 4, n
j
= 3(2) = 6, n
c
= 0, then DI = 4 + 4 6 0 = 2), a primary structure is obtained by removing
two roller supports at points B and C. The primary structure subjected to the two redundant R
BY
and
R
CY
is shown below.

Applied loads acting within the primary structure including the redundant R
BY
can be expressed as

0 BY
q(x) M (x L) R (x L) = + o (e3.12.1)

First, the shear force V(x) is obtained by integrating (3.12) along with the use of (e3.12.1):

{ }
0 BY CY
V(x) M (x L) R (x L) 1 R H = o + (e3.12.2)

A constant of integration is obtained from V(2L) = R
CY
. To obtain the bending moment M(x), we
substitute (e3.12.2) into (3.13) and then perform a direct integration. Once a condition M(2L) = 0 is
employed to determine a constant of integration, we then obtain

{ } { }
0 BY CY
M(x) M (x L) 1 R (x L) (x L) x L R (x 2L) H H = + + (e3.12.3)

Now, we can formulate a boundary value problem in terms of the second-order differential equation
for this particular beam as follow:
Y
X
M
0

A
C
L L
EI EI
B
Y
X
A
C
L L
EI EI B
R
BY
R
CY

M
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

206
{ } { }
2
0 BY CY 2
d v
EI M (x L) 1 R (x L) (x L) x L R (x 2L) for x (0, 2L)
dx
H H = + + e (e3.12.4)

v(0) 0 = (e3.12.5a)

v (0) 0 ' = (e3.12.5b)

v(L) 0 = (e3.12.5c)

v(2L) 0 = (e3.12.5d)

Note that (e3.12.5a) and (e3.12.5b) are boundary conditions for the primary structure while
(e3.12.5c) and (e3.12.5d) are kinematical conditions rendering the primary structure identical to the
original structure. By performing direction integrations of (e3.12.4), it leads to

{ }
2 2 2
0 BY CY 1
dv (x L) x x
EI M (x L) (x L) x R (x L) Lx R ( 2Lx) C
dx 2 2 2
H H

= + + +
`
)
(e3.12.6)

2 2 3 3 2 3
2
0 BY CY 1 2
(x L) x (x L) x Lx x
EIv M (x L) R (x L) R ( Lx ) C x C
2 2 6 6 2 6
H H

= + + + +
` `
) )
(e3.12.7)

Two constants of integration {C
1
, C
2
} and the redundants R
BY
and R
CY
can be obtained from
boundary conditions (e3.12.5a)-(e3.12.5d) as follow:

v(0) 0 =
2
C 0 =

v (0) 0 ' =
1
C 0 =

v(L) 0 =
2 3 3
0 CY 0 BY
BY CY
M L 5R L 3M R L
0 2R + 5R
2 3 6 L
+ + = =

v(2L) 0 =
2 3 3
0 CY 0 BY
BY CY
3M L 8R L 9M 5R L
0 5R 16R
2 6 3 L
+ + = + =

By solving above two linear equations simultaneously, we obtain

0
BY
3M
R
7L
= and
0
CY
3M
R
7L
=

By substituting {C
1
, C
2
} and R
BY
and R
CY
into (e3.12.6)-(e3.12.7), we then obtain the deflection
and rotation for the given beam:

{ }
2
2 0
0
3M (x L)
EI (x) M (x L) (x L) x (x L) x 3Lx
7L 2
H H

u = +
`
)

2 2 3 3 2
0
0
3M (x L) x (x L) x 3Lx
EIv(x) M (x L) (x L)
2 2 7L 6 3 2
H H

= +
` `
) )

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

207

1. Use second-order, third-order and fourth-order differential equations to solve for deflection and
rotation of statically determinate beams shown below

2. Apply domain decomposition technique along with the second-order differential equation to
solve for deflection and rotation of statically determinate beams shown below

Exercises
L
EI
q
0
(1 x/L)
L
EI
4q
0
x(L x)/L
2

L
EI
P
L
EI
M
q
0
(1 x/L)
L
EI
L
EI
M M
L
EI
L
EI
q
0

q
0
(1 x/L)
L a
EI
q
0

EI
a L a a
P
L a
EI
q
0

EI
a a L a
q
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

208

L a
EI
q
0

EI
a a L a
q
0

L a
EI
q
0

EI
a
L a a
P
L a
EI
q
0

a
L a
EI
q
0

a
L a
EI
q
0

EI
a L a a
P
L a
EI
q
0

EI
a a L a
q
0

L a
EI
a L a
EI
a
M M
L a
EI EI
a L a a
q
0

M
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Direct Integration Method

209
3. Apply discontinuity-function technique along with the second-order differential equation to
solve for deflection and rotation of statically determinate beams shown in problem 2

4. Determine the deflection and rotation of statically determinate beams containing internal releases
and points where the flexural rigidity is discontinuous

5. Use second-order, third-order and fourth-order differential equations to solve for deflection and
rotation of statically indeterminate beams shown below

L a
oEI
a L a a
q
0

EI
q
0

L a
oEI
a L a a
q
0

EI
q
0

oEI
EI
EI
L/4 L/4 L a a
q
0

EI
q
0

EI
L/2
L
q
0

EI
q
0

EI
L
L
q
0

EI
q
0

EI
L/2
EI
L/2
q
0

EI
P
EI
L L a a
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Direct Integration Method Jaroon Rungamornrat

210

EI EI
EI EI
P
L a a
P
L a a
L a a L a a
M
M
EI
L a a
M
L a
EI
a
q
0

EI EI
L a a L a a
q
0
q
0

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

211
CHAPTER 4

METHOD OF CURVATURE (MOMENT) AREA

A method of curvature area (or commonly known as a moment area method) is a classical
technique that can be used to determine the displacement and rotation at any point of flexure-
dominating structures such as beams and rigid frames. As obvious from its name, key governing
equations for this technique involve the area of the curvature diagram (or a bending moment
diagram divided by the flexural rigidity EI) of each member; more precisely, these equations
present the relationship among the curvature of a member (in terms of its area and first moment of
area), the relative displacement, and the relative rotation of both ends of the member. It is worth
noting that those relative quantities are measures of the member deformation due to the bending
effect and, when combined with prescribed boundary conditions (e.g., known displacements and/or
rotations at supports), it allows the displacement and rotation at any points be calculated. In the
following sections, we present basic assumptions and limitations of the method, a complete
derivation of the two curvature area equations, their physical interpretation and key remarks. At the
end of the chapter, various example problems are solved to clearly demonstrate the technique.

4.1 Basic Assumptions

Consider a two-dimensional, flexure-dominated structure consisting of several components as
shown in Figure 4.1. Let S
o
denote the undeformed configuration of a structure (a configuration
corresponding to a state of the structure that is free of applied loads, internal forces and
displacements) and let S denote the deformed configuration of the structure (a configuration
corresponding to a state of the structure that undergoes deformation and change of position due to
excitations from surrounding environment). Let further define u, v and u as the longitudinal
component of the displacement (i.e. displacement parallel to the member axis), the transverse
component of the displacement (i.e. displacement normal to the member axis), and the rotation at
any point of the structure as shown schematically in Figure 4.2. In the development of the curvature
area equations presented further below, following assumptions are employed:

Figure 4.1: (a) Schematic of two-dimensional rigid frame and (b) schematic of undeformed
configuration S
o
and deformed configuration S

(i) Geometry: a structure consists of one-dimensional, straight segments termed members and they
are connected by points termed nodes or joints. Members and nodes in both the undeformed
configuration S
o
and the deformed configuration S can be represented graphically by lines and
points, respectively, as shown in Figure 4.1.
node member
S
S
o

(a) (b)
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

212

Figure 4.2: Schematic indicating longitudinal displacement u, transverse displacement v and
rotation u at any point

(ii) Structure kinematics: the displacement components u, v and the rotation u at any point of the
structure is relatively small, i.e. |u/L|, |v/L|, |u| << 1 where L represents the characteristic dimension
of the structure. As a consequence of this assumption, following approximations are legitimate
(ii.1) there is no difference between S
o
and S and this therefore allows the known geometry
of S
o
be used in the analysis;
(ii.2) the rotation is related to the transverse displacement by a linear relation u = dv/dx; and
(ii.3) the curvature at any point, denoted by k, is related to the transverse displacement by a
linearized kinematics, i.e., k = d
2
v/dx
2
.
(iii) Member kinematics: only deformation due to bending moment is considered while axial and
shear deformations are neglected. As a consequence of this assumption, following approximations
are legitimate
(iii.1) a plane section that is normal to the axis of the member in S
o
always remains plane
and normal to the axis of the member in S;
(iii.2) the normal strain resulting from the bending moment varies linearly across the cross
section normal to the axis of the member; and
(iii.3) there is no change in length of any segment of the structure.
(iv) Constitutive relation: material constituting any part of the structure is isotropic and linearly
elastic. Following additional simplifications are also imposed
(iv.1) the Young's modulus E is sufficient to completely characterize the material behavior;
(iv.2) the Young's modulus E is uniform across the cross section normal to the axis of the
member, but can be a function of position along the axis of the member;
(iv.3) normal stresses in the transverse direction is small and neglected; and
(iv.4) lateral deformation due to Poisson effect is neglected.
(v) Static equilibrium: equilibrium of a structure is enforced in the undeformed state, i.e. all
equilibrium equations are set up based on the known geometry of S
o
.
Additional idealizations resulting from combination of above assumptions should also be
addressed. By combining assumptions (ii) and (iii.3), it leads to that the projection of any deformed
segment onto its undeformed axis has the same length as that of its undeformed segment (see Figure
4.3, this assumption leads to L = L
o
and therefore u
A
= u
B
). Combining assumptions (iii.2) and
(iv.2) leads to the linear distribution of the bending stress across the cross section normal to the axis
of a member.
S
S
o

v
u
u
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

213

Figure 4.3: Schematic indicating projection of deformed segment onto its original undeformed axis

4.2 Derivation of Curvature Area Equations

Consider a straight segment AB which is a part of a structure as shown schematically in Figure 4.4.
This segment is chosen such that there is no discontinuity of the displacement and rotation at any
interior point, i.e. containing no internal releases such as hinges, shear releases and axial releases
within the segment. A local coordinate system {o; x, y, z} of the segment in the undeformed
configuration is defined such that its origin o is at point A, the x-coordinate direction is along the
axis of the segment, the y-coordinate direction is perpendicular to axis of the segment, and the z-
coordinate direction directs outward from the paper. According to this local coordinate system, the
longitudinal component u
P
and transverse component v
P
of the displacement at any point P become
the components of the displacement in the x-direction and the y-direction, respectively, and the
rotation u
P
at any point P becomes an angle measured in radian from the x-axis to the tangent line at
that point in the deformed configuration. Both u
P
and v
P
are considered positive if they direct along
the positive coordinate directions and the rotation u
P
is considered positive if the tangent line at
point P rotates in a counterclockwise direction (for instance, u
A
and u
B
of the segment AB in Figure
4.4 are negative and positive, respectively). We also introduce a single coordinate system {O; X, Y,
Z}, termed the global coordinate system, for the entire structure. The Z-coordinate direction is taken
to be same as the z-coordinate direction while the choice of X- and Y-coordinate directions is
arbitrary and a matter of preference. Components of the displacement at any point P in the X- and
Y-directions are denoted by U
P
and V
P
, respectively. Note that the rotation at any point P measured
in the global coordinate system, denoted by O
P
, is the same as that measured in the local coordinate
system, i.e. O
P
= u
P
. The bending moment M at any cross sections of the segment AB is assumed to
be known and the corresponding curvature diagram k = M/EI is shown in Figure 4.4 where EI is the
flexural rigidity of the segment.
Upon employing kinematics, constitutive relations, equilibrium of the cross section and
assumptions indicated above, we obtain the relation among the bending moment M = M(x), the
curvature k = k(x), the rotation u = u(x) and the transverse displacement v = v(x) at any point x of
the segment AB as (also see section 3.1 in chapter 3 for derivation)

2
2
d d v M
= = =
dx dx EI
(4.1)
S
S
o

u
A

u
B

v
A

v
B

L
L
o

B
A
B
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

214

Figure 4.4: Schematic of segment AB undergoing deformation and associated curvature diagram

By directly integrating equation (4.1) from x = 0 to x = e [0, L
o
] and then using the boundary
condition u(0) = u
A
, we obtain the rotation at any point by

A
0
M
( ) = + dx
EI
u
}
(4.2)

By substituting = L
o
and using the boundary condition u(L
o
) = u
B
into (4.2), it leads to the first
curvature area equation

o
L
B A
0
M
= + dx
EI
u u
}
(4.3)

By employing the relation u() = dv/d, integrating equation (4.2) from = 0 to = L
o
, and then
using displacement boundary conditions v(0) = v
A
and v(L
o
) = v
B
, we obtain

o o o
L L L
B A A o A A o
0 0 0 x
M M
v = v + L + dxd = v + L + d dx
EI EI

u u
} } } }
(4.4)

Note that the last term is obtained by changing order of integration of the double integral. Since the
bending moment M and the flexural rigidity EI are only functions of x, i.e. M = M(x) and EI =
EI(x), the inner integral of the double integral in equation (4.4) can be integrated explicitly to obtain

o o o
L L L
B A A o A A o o
0 x 0
M M
v = v + L + d dx = v + L + (L x) dx
EI EI
u u
} } }
(4.5)
S
S
o

u
A

u
B

v
A

v
B

B
A
B
A
L
o

x
y
U
A

V
A

U
B

V
B

u
A

u
B

X
Y

M
/
E
I

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

215
Equation (4.5) is known as the second curvature area equation. An alternative form of the second
curvature area equation can be obtained by replacing u
A
in (4.5) by that from (4.3). This leads to

o o
L L
B A B o o
0 0
M M
v = v + dx L + (L x) dx
EI EI
| |
u |
|
\ .
} }

o
L
A B B o
0
M
v = v L + x dx
EI
u
}
(4.6)

From the derivation of (4.6), it is important to emphasize that the equations (4.3), (4.5) and (4.6) are
not all independent but only two from these three equations are independent. Note further that the
first curvature area equation (4.3) and the second curvature area equation (4.5) or (4.6) are valid for
a segment containing no discontinuity of the displacement and rotation (i.e. presence of the internal
releases within a segment is prohibited). It is worth noting that the derivation of both curvature area
equations presented above also applies to the case of nonlinear moment-curvature relationship.
Instead of replacing the curvature k by M/EI at the beginning of the derivation, all equations can be
obtained directly in terms of the curvature k and the final general form of the first and second
curvature area equations becomes

o
L
B A
0
= + dx u u k
}
(4.7a)
o
L
B A A o o
0
v = v + L + (L x) dx u k
}
(4.7b)

The form of these two equations is clearly independent of the constitutive relation or, equivalently,
the moment-curvature relationship. Applications of such pair of curvature area equations to the
analysis of nonlinear elastic beams can be found in the work of Pinyochotiwong et al (2009).
As be evident from (4.3) and (4.6) or (4.7), the first and second curvature area equations
provide no information about the longitudinal component of the displacement at both ends of the
segment. To relate those two quantities, i.e. u
A
and u
B
, we invoke the inextensibility assumption (no
axial deformation) and this gives rise to a simple relation:

B A
u = u (4.8)

This equation is known as the length constraint equation. As will be clear in later presentation, the
first and second curvature area equations along with the length constraint equation form a sufficient
set of equations to quantitatively determine the displacement and rotation at any point of the
structure.

4.3 Interpretation of Curvature Area Equations

In this section, the geometrical interpretation of the first and second curvature area equations is
discussed. Such graphical demonstration may significantly be useful when these two equations are
employed in the determination of the displacement and rotation of beams and rigid frames.

4.3.1 First curvature area equation

Let us define a relative quantity u
B/A
such that u
B/A
= u
B
u
A
. This quantity physically means an
angle between a tangent line at the end A and a tangent line at the end B of the segment in the
deformed configuration as shown in Figure 4.5 and is termed the relative end rotation of the
segment AB. The sign convention of the relative angle u
B/A
follows directly from that of the angle
u
B
and u
A
; i.e. it is positive if the angle sweeping from the tangent line at the end A to the tangent
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

216
line at the end B is in a counterclockwise direction. Let further define A
f,AB
as the area under a
graph of a function f between a point A and a point B, i.e.

B
A
x
f,AB
x
A = f(x) dx
}
(4.9)

The first curvature area equation simply states that the relative end rotation of the segment AB is
equal to the area of the curvature-diagram (or M/EI-diagram) between the point A and the point B
or, equivalently,

B/A M/EI,AB
= A u (4.10)

It is important to remark that the area of the curvature over the segment AB can either be positive or
negative depending primarily on values of the bending moment; for instance, the negative bending
moment over the entire segment produces the negative area of the curvature.

Figure 4.5: Schematic indicating relative end rotation u
B/A
and area of curvature over segment AB

4.3.2 Second curvature area equation

Let t
B/A
be a relative quantity defined by t
B/A
= v
B
(v
A
+ u
A
L
o
). This quantity then has a graphical
representation as the displacement deviation of the end B measured relative to a tangent line of the
end A in the direction perpendicular to its original undeformed axis as shown in Figure 4.6. The
deviation t
B/A
is positive if a vector connecting a point on the tangent line of the end A and the end
B directs in the positive y-direction; otherwise, it is negative. The integral term appearing in the
S
S
o

B
A
B
A
u
A

u
B

M
/
E
I

u
B/A

L
o

A
M
/E
I, A
B

x
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

217
relation (4.6) can be interpreted graphically as the first moment of the area of the curvature-diagram
(or M/EI-diagram) over the segment AB about the end B, i.e.

o
L
o M/EI,AB B
0
M
(L x) dx = A x
EI

}
(4.11)

where
B
x is the distance, measured along the undeformed axis of the segment, from the end B to
the centroid of the curvature-diagram.

Figure 4.6: Schematic indicating displacement deviation t
B/A
and centroid of curvature diagram

The second curvature area equation (4.6) states that the displacement deviation t
B/A
of the
segment AB due to the bending moment is equal to the first moment of area of the curvature-
diagram (or M/EI-diagram) about the end B, i.e.

B/A M/EI,AB B
t = A x (4.12)

The geometrical interpretation of the relation (4.7) can also be established in a similar fashion as
shown in Figure 4.7. The displacement deviation of the end A measured relative to a tangent line of
the end B in the direction perpendicular to its original undeformed axis, denoted by t
A/B
= v
A
(v
B

u
B
L
o
), is equal to the first moment of area of the curvature-diagram (or M/EI-diagram) about the
end A, i.e.

A/B M/EI,AB A
t = A x (4.13)
S
S
o

B
A
B
A
u
A

v
B

M
/
E
I

t
B/A

L
o

B
x
CG
x
y
u
A
L
o

v
A
+ u
A
L
o

v
A

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

218
where
A
x is the distance, measured along the undeformed axis of the segment, from the end A to
the centroid of curvature diagram. Note that the displacement deviation t
A/B
is positive if a vector
connecting a point on the tangent line of the end B to the end A directs in the positive y-direction;
otherwise, it is negative.

Figure 4.7: Schematic indicating the displacement deviation t
A/B
and centroid of curvature diagram

4.4 Applications of Curvature Area Equations

Let us consider a planar, flexure-dominating structure where the bending moment at any cross
section is already known (either by means of static equilibrium for statically determinate structures
or by certain structural analysis techniques for statically indeterminate structures). For any straight
segment AB which is a part of this structure, there exists three kinematical degrees of freedom at
each end of the segment; one is associated with the end rotation and the other two are associated
with transverse and longitudinal components of the displacement. For instance, we have {
AB
A
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
A
u } at the end A and {
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } at the end B. The superscript AB is used only to
emphasize that those kinematical quantities belong to the segment AB. The rotation and transverse
components of the displacement at both ends {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } are related by the first curvature
area equation (4.3) and the second curvature area equation (either equation (4.6) or (4.7)), while the
longitudinal components of the displacement at both ends {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } are related by the length
constraint equation (4.8). These four equations are summarized again below:

AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u (4.14)

AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v + L ) = A x u (4.15a)
S
S
o

B
A
B
A
u
B

v
B

M
/
E
I

t
A/B

L
o

A
x
CG
y
u
B
L
o

v
B
u
B
L
o

v
A

x
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

219
AB AB AB
A/B A B B AB M/EI,AB A
t = v (v L ) = A x u (4.15b)

AB AB
B A
u u = (4.16)

From this set of equations, following remarks can be deduced:
(1) Only three equations from this set are linearly independent. One of them is the length
constraint equation (4.16) and the other two come from the three equations (4.14),
(4.15a) and (4.15b).
(2) There are six kinematical unknowns that are involved in the above equations, two end
rotations {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u }, two end transverse displacements {
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } and two end
longitudinal displacements {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u }.
(3) If one of the longitudinal displacements {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } is known, the other can readily be
computed from the length constraint equation (4.16).
(4) If one of the end rotations {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } and one of the transverse displacements {
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } are known, the other end rotation can readily be obtained from the first curvature
area equation (4.14) and the other transverse displacement can be obtained from the
second curvature area equation (4.15a) or (4.15b).
(5) If both transverse displacements {
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } are known, one of the end rotations {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } can be computed from the second curvature area equation (4.15a) or (4.15b) and
the other end rotation can then be determined from the first curvature area equation
(4.14).
(6) If the end rotation and the longitudinal and transverse displacements at one end are
known, the rotation, transverse displacement, longitudinal displacement at the other end
can readily be obtained from (4.14), (4.15a) or (4.15b), and (4.16), respectively.
(7) Both {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } cannot be prescribed arbitrarily and independently for a given bending
moment diagram; they must satisfy the first curvature area equation (4.14).
(8) Both {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } cannot be prescribed arbitrarily and independently; they must satisfy
the length constraint equation (4.16).
(9) For statically stable beams (with rigid body movement properly prevented), the
longitudinal component of the displacement vanishes everywhere since there is no axial
deformation. As a consequence, the length constraint equation (4.16) is satisfied
automatically and is not necessary to be considered. The total number of kinematical
unknowns per segment now reduces from six to four, i.e. two end rotations and two end
transverse displacements, and only the first and second curvature area equations are
available to solve two unknowns once the other two are known. In addition, the global
and local coordinate systems for beams can be chosen such that they are coincident and,
as a result, there is no need to distinguish between the local and global displacements
and rotations.

The above remarks are useful when the curvature area equations are applied to determine the
displacement and rotation at any points within the structure. For instance, the remark (6) implies
that if there exists a point in the structure where the displacement and the rotation are known, the
displacement and rotation at all other points can then be readily obtained from (4.14)-(4.16). The
key point is to choose a proper straight segment that contains a point where the displacement and
rotation are already known. For example, consider a rigid frame shown in Figure 4.8. The
displacement and rotation at a fixed support at point A (with respect to the reference global
coordinate system) are known, i.e.
A
U 0 = ,
A
V 0 = , and
A
0 O = . By using the relations
AB
A A
U = v ,
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

220
AB
A A
V = u , and
AB
A A
= O u , the transverse and longitudinal displacements and the rotation at end A of a
segment AB are known and then, by applying (4.14)-(4.16) to this segment, the longitudinal and
transverse displacements and the rotation at end B of the segment AB {
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } can be
obtained. Next, by using the continuity relations
BC AB
B B B
u = U v = ,
BC AB
B B B
v = V u = , and
BC AB
B B B
= u O = u ,
the displacement and rotation at point B with respect to the global coordinate system {
B
U ,
B
V ,
B
}
and with respect to the local coordinate system of a segment BC {
BC
B
u ,
BC
B
v ,
BC
B
u } are now known. By
applying (4.14)-(4.16) again to the segment BC, the transverse and longitudinal displacement and
the rotation at the end C {
BC
C
u ,
BC
C
v ,
BC
C
u } can readily be computed. Next, by using the continuity
relations
CD BC
C C C
v = U u = ,
CD BC
C C C
u = V v = , and
CD BC
C C C
= u O = u , the displacement and rotation at the
point C with respect to the global coordinate system {
C
U ,
C
V ,
C
} and with respect to the local
coordinate system of a segment CD {
CD
C
u ,
CD
C
v ,
CD
C
u } are now known. By applying (4.14)-(4.16) to
the segment CD, the displacement and rotation at the end D {
CD
D
u ,
CD
D
v ,
CD
D
u } can be obtained.
Finally, by using the relations
CD
D D
U v = ,
CD
D D
V u = , and
CD
D D
O = u , the displacement and rotation at
the point D with respect to the global coordinate system {
D
U ,
D
V ,
D
} are known.

Figure 4.8: Schematic of statically determinate frame containing a fixed-support. The shaded area
represents the curvature diagram of the structure

For certain structures, a point whose the displacement and the rotation are known a priori
may not exist, but a straight segment can be properly chosen from the structure and then (4.14)-
(4.16) are applied to solve for the remaining components of the displacement and rotation at both
ends. After the displacement and rotation at a particular point were resolved, calculation of the
displacement and rotation at other points follows the same procedure as discussed in the previous
case. To clearly demonstrate the idea, let us consider a statically determinate beam subjected to a
concentrated load as shown in Figure 4.9. From the prescribed boundary conditions, the transverse
displacement at points A and B vanishes and, from the inextensibility condition, the longitudinal
displacement at any point identically vanishes. For a segment AB, it contains only two unknowns
{
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u } and, by using the remark (5), these two unknowns can readily be determined. Once the
deflection (or transverse displacement) and rotation at points A and B are completely determined,
X
A
y
x, y
B C
D
x, y
x
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

221
the deflection and rotation at any points within the beam can then be calculated. For instance, the
deflection and rotation at point D can be obtained by considering a segment BD and using the
continuity at point B, i.e.
AB BD
B B
v = v , and
AB BD
B B
= u u , and the deflection and rotation at any point C
within the segment AB can be obtained by considering either a segment AC or a segment CB since
the deflection and rotation at points A and B are already known.

Figure 4.9: Schematic of statically determinate beam subjected to concentrated load and the
corresponding curvature diagram

For structures with a general configuration, a sufficient number of segments must be
considered to establish a sufficient number of equations to solve for unknown displacements and
rotations at the ends of all segments. After these unknowns were determined, a similar procedure as
previously described is employed to determine the displacement and rotation at other points. To
illustrate such a procedure, let us consider a statically determinate rigid frame subjected to a
horizontal concentrated force as shown in Figure 4.10. From boundary conditions at supports, two
degrees of freedom at point A are prescribed, i.e.
A A
U V 0 = = , and one degree of freedom at point
D is prescribed, i.e.
D
V 0 = . It is obvious that there is no a straight segment containing only three
unknowns. As a result, it is impossible to completely determine the displacement and rotation at a
point using only one straight segment. However, by separating the structure into three segments
AB, BC and CD, the total number of kinematical degrees of freedom associated with both ends of
the three segments is equal to 3x6 = 18 where three of them are prescribed and the remaining fifteen
are unknown. The number of equations that can be established for the three segments is equal to
3x3 = 9. Six additional equations are obtained from the continuity of the displacement and rotation
at the joint B and the joint C. Once the 15 equations are solved simultaneously, displacements and
rotations at points A, B, C, and D are now known. The displacement and rotation at other points can
readily be determined; for instance, the displacement and rotation at point E can be computed from
a segment AE or a segment EB, and the displacement and rotation at a point F can be computed
from a segment BF or a segment FC. For this particular structure, an alternative strategy may be
employed to avoid solving a large system of linear equations. For the segment AB, {
AB
A
u ,
AB
A
v } are
prescribed and {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } are unknown. Toward using the remark (3),
AB
B
u can be
obtained from the length constraint equation (4.14) while {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } still cannot be solved
from the first and second curvature area equations (4.15)-(4.16). For the segment CD,
CD
D
u is
prescribed and {
CD
C
u ,
CD
C
v ,
CD
C
u ,
CD
D
v ,
CD
D
u } are unknown. Again, from the remark (3),
CD
C
u can be
obtained from (4.14) while {
CD
C
v ,
CD
C
u ,
CD
D
v ,
CD
D
u } still cannot be obtained by solving (4.15) and
A
X, x
B
D
Y, y
M/EI-diagram
C
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

222
(4.16). For the segment BC, {
BC
B
v ,
BC
C
v } are known from the continuity relations, i.e.
BC AB
B B
v u = and
BC CD
C C
v u = , along with the known
AB
B
u from the segment AB and the known
CD
C
u from the segment
CD, while {
BC
B
u ,
BC
B
u ,
BC
C
u ,
BC
C
u } are still unknown. By using the remark (5), {
BC
B
u ,
BC
C
u } can be
determined from (4.15) and (4.16) while the other two unknowns {
BC
B
u ,
BC
C
u } still cannot be
solved. Now, we return to the segment AB. With results obtained for the segment BC and the
continuity at point B (e.g.
AB BC
B B
u = u ), the remaining two unknowns {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
v } can be obtained by
solving (4.15) and (4.16). By returning to the segment BC, the two unknowns {
BC
B
u ,
BC
C
u } can now
be obtained from the continuity at the point B (e.g.
BC AB
B B
u v = ) and the length constraint equation
(4.14). By returning to the segment CD, the remaining two unknowns {
CD
D
v ,
CD
D
u } can now be
computed from (4.15) and (4.16) since {
CD
C
v ,
CD
C
u } are already known from the continuity at point
C. With a procedure utilized above, the displacements and the rotations at points A, B, C, and D can
be determined without solving 15 linear equations simultaneously.

Figure 4.10: Schematic of statically determinate frame subjected to concentrated force and the
corresponding curvature diagram

Note that, for a structure consisting of segments with an arbitrary orientation or containing supports
with directions of constraint neither aligned with and normal to the axis of the connecting segment
as shown schematically in Figure 4.11, it may not be possible to use above strategy to avoid solving
a large system of linear algebraic equations. This results primarily from the fact that the length
constraint equation and the first and second curvature area equations have been derived within the
context of a straight segment and based on its local reference coordinate system. This limitation
renders the method of curvature area efficient only for structures with simple configurations. To
enhance their capability, equations (4.14)-(4.16) must be established in terms of quantities referring
to a global coordinate system and to be valid for a part of structure consisting of several straight
segments. Details of such development will be discussed within the context of a conjugate structure
analogy presented in the chapter 5.
A y
x, y
B
C
x, y
D
x
M/EI
M/EI
E
F
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

223

Figure 4.11: Schematic of structure consisting of segments with arbitrary orientation and supports
with a direction of constraint neither aligned with and normal to the axis of connecting segments

As a final remark, for structures containing the moment releases or hinges as shown
schematically in Figure 4.12, straight segments chosen in the calculation must not contain those
hinges except at their ends. For instance, segment AC and segment CE cannot be used in the
calculation while segments AB, BC, CD, DE and EF are allowed. This restriction results from the
fact that both the first and second curvature area equations were derived based on a key assumption
that the rotation at any point within the segment must be continuous.

Figure 4.12: Schematic of structures containing moment releases or hinges

4.4.1 Construction of BMD by method of superposition

It is obvious that in applications of both the first and second curvature area equations to any
segment, it is required to compute the area and the first moment of area of the curvature diagram
over that segment. While this can be achieved, in principle, by performing integration of the total
curvature of the segment, it can lead to substantial computational effort especially when the total
curvature diagram is complex. To avoid such direct integration, the total curvature diagram over a
given segment is often decomposed into several sub-curvature diagrams whose area and centroid
can readily be computed. By linearity of the problem, the area of the total curvature diagram is
equal to the sum of the area of all sub-curvature diagrams and, similarly, the first moment of area of
the total curvature diagram is equal to the sum of the first moment of area of all sub-curvature
diagrams.
Before demonstrating the construction of sub-curvature diagrams, we review how to sketch
the bending moment diagram of a cantilever beam subjected to various loading conditions. These
useful results will be essential for decomposing the total bending moment diagram over a straight
segment into several simple bending moment diagrams called sub-BMD (simple in this sense
A
B
C
D
D
E
A
B
C
F
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

224
means its area and its centroid can readily be computed without performing direct integration) and
these bending moment diagrams are used further to construct sub-curvature diagrams.

4.4.1.1 Cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated load

Consider a cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated force P at a distance h from the fixed
support. The bending moment diagram for this particular loading condition simply forms a triangle
of base h and height +Ph or Ph (depending on the direction of the concentrated force) as shown
schematically in Figure 4.13. The centroid of the BMD is located at a distance h/3 from the fixed
support and the area can simply be computed from a simple formulae Area = (height)(base)/2.

Figure 4.13: Cantilever beams subjected to a concentrated force and the corresponding BMD

4.4.1.2 Cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated load

Consider a cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated moment M at a distance h from the fixed
support. The bending moment diagram for this particular loading condition simply forms a
rectangle of base h and height +M or M (depending on the direction of the concentrated moment
and the location of the fixed support) as shown schematically in Figure 4.14. The centroid of the
BMD is located at a distance h/2 from the fixed support and the area can simply be computed from
a simple formulae Area = (height)(base).

Figure 4.14: Cantilever beams subjected to a concentrated moment and the corresponding BMD
2h/3
Ph
Ph
P
Ph
P
Ph
h/3
2h/3 h/3
P
P
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
h/2 h/2 h/2 h/2
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

225
4.4.1.3 Cantilever beam subjected to uniformly distributed load

Consider a cantilever beam subjected to a uniformly distributed load q over a distance h from the
fixed support. The bending moment diagram for this particular loading condition simply forms a
parabola of base h and height +qh
2
/2 or qh
2
/2 (depending on the direction of distributed load q) as
shown schematically in Figure 4.15. The centroid of the BMD is located at a distance h/4 from the
fixed support and the area can simply be computed from a simple formulae Area = (height)(base)/3.

Figure 4.15: Cantilever beams subjected to uniformly distributed load and the corresponding BMD

4.4.1.4 Cantilever beam subjected to power-law distributed load

Consider a cantilever beam subjected to distributed load q over a distance h from the fixed support.
The distributed load possesses the following form q(x) = c(x/h)
n
where c is a constant representing
the value of distributed load at the fixed support, n is a positive integer, and x is a distance
measured from the end point of the loading zone toward the fixed support. The bending moment
n+2
-curve of base h and height +ch
2
/(n
+ 1)(n + 2) as shown schematically in Figure 4.16. The centroid of the BMD is located at a distance
oh from the fixed support where o = 1/(n + 4) and the area can simply be computed from a simple
formulae Area = (height)(base)/(n + 3). For n = 1, the distributed load varies linearly over the
distance h and the height of the BMD is ch
2
/6. The centroid is located at a distance h/5 from the
fixed support and the area can be computed from a formulae Area = (height)(base)/4.

Figure 4.16: Cantilever beams subjected to power-law distributed load and the corresponding BMD
qh
2
/2
q
qh
2
/2
q
q
qh
2
/2
qh
2
/2
q
3h/4 h/4
3h/4 h/4
d
c(x/h)
n

d
x
(1o)h
d
oh
c(x/h)
n

c(x/h)
n

d
x
(1o)h oh
c(x/h)
n

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

226
To construct sub-curvature diagrams (sub-CDs) of a given prismatic straight segment, following
procedures are recommended:
choose one end of the segment as a fixed support and treat it as a fictitious cantilever
beam
identify all forces and moments acting to the segment (i.e. all external applied loads and
the internal forces appearing at the non-fixed end)
sketch the sub-BMD for each loading condition using results from the sections 4.4.1.1-
4.4.1.4
divide each sub-BMD by the flexural rigidity EI of the segment to obtain sub-curvature
diagrams
the area of each sub-curvature diagram over the segment is equal to the area of the
corresponding sub-BMD divided by the flexural rigidity EI
the centroid of each sub-curvature diagram is the same as the centroid of the
corresponding sub-BMD
For instance, consider a beam of length 3L subjected to a concentrate load 3qL and a distributed
load 2q as shown schematically in Figure 4.17. The flexural rigidity of the segment AB and
segment BD are 2EI and EI, respectively. We first separate the beam into three prismatic segments
AB, BC and CD and sub-curvature diagrams for each segment are then constructed as follows:

Figure 4.17: Sub-BMDs and sub-CDs of a beam with 3 segments
qL
2

2qL
2

qL
2

qL
2

Sub-BMDs
qL
2
/EI
2qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/2EI
Sub-CDs
A
C D B
2q
3qL
4qL
qL
2EI, L EI, L EI, L
qL
2qL
qL
2

2q
A
B
C
B
C D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

227
Segment AB: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at point just
to the left of point B point B is chosen as a fixed support a cantilever segment AB
is now subjected to a positive reaction qL at point A bending moment diagram can
readily be obtained using results from section 4.4.1.1.
Segment BC: This segment is separated from the structure by making two cuts, one at a
point just to the right of point B and the other at a point just to left of point C point C
is chosen as a fixed support a cantilever segment BC is now subjected to a negative
shear force 2qL and a positive moment qL
2
which appear at the cut at point B
bending moment diagrams can be obtained using results from section 4.4.1.1 and section
4.4.1.2.
Segment CD: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at a point
just to the right of point C point C is chosen as a fixed support a cantilever
segment CD is now subjected to a negative uniform distributed load 2q bending
moment diagrams can be obtained using results from section 4.4.1.3.
It is important to emphasize that the choice of the fixed support can be chosen arbitrarily and, most
of the time, it is a matter of preference. In general, one may choose the end of the segment to be a
fixed support to avoid determining the internal forces along the cut as much as possible. While the
sub-curvature diagrams can appear very different when different choices of the fixed support are
employed, the total curvature diagrams for each segment resulting from any choice are identical.
Figure 4.18 shows the sub-bending moment diagrams and sub-curvature diagrams of the same beam
shown in Figure 4.17 but with different choice of the fixed support.
Segment AB: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at point just
to the left of point B point A is chosen as a fixed support a cantilever segment AB
is now subjected to a positive shear force qL and a positive moment qL
2
bending
moment diagrams can then be obtained using results from sections 4.4.1.1 and 4.4.1.2.
Segment BC: This segment is separated from the structure by making two cuts, one at
point just to the right of point B and the other at point just to left of point C point B is
chosen as a fixed support a cantilever segment BC is now subjected to a negative
shear force 2qL and a negative moment qL
2
bending moment diagrams can then be
obtained using results from sections 4.4.1.1 and 4.4.1.2.
Segment CD: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at point just
to the right of point C point D is chosen as a fixed support a cantilever segment
CD is now subjected to negative uniform distributed load 2q, a positive shear force 2qL,
and a negative moment qL
2
bending moment diagrams can then be obtained using
results from sections 4.4.1.1, 4.4.1.2, and 4.4.1.3.
By comparing sub-curvature diagrams from Figure 4.17 and Figure 4.18, it is suggested that the
segment AB should be fixed at point B, the segment BC can be fixed either at the point B or the
point C, and the segment CD should be fixed at the point C in order to minimize the number of sub-
curvature diagrams and also reduce the calculation of internal forces (i.e. shear force and bending
moment) at the cut. For instance, if point A is chosen as a fixed support for the segment AB, it is
unavoidable to compute both the shear force an bending moment at point B before sub-bending
moment diagrams can be constructed. Similarly, if point D is chosen as a fixed support for the
segment CD, the shear force and bending moment at point C are needed.
Instead of separating the beam into three segments, it is also possible to construct the sub-
curvature diagrams by considering only two segments. For example, the same beam shown in
Figure 4.17 may be separated into a segment AB and a segment BD, as shown schematically in
Figure 4.19. Sub-BMD and sub-curvature diagrams for these two segments can readily be obtained
as follows:
Segment AB: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at a point
just to the left of point B point B is then chosen as a fixed support a cantilever
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

228
segment AB is now subjected to a positive reaction qL at point A bending moment
diagram can then be obtained using results from section 4.4.1.1.
Segment BD: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at point just
to the right of point B point B is then chosen as a fixed support a cantilever
segment BD is now subjected to a negative distributed load 2q over its entire span, a
positive distributed load 2q over a half-span, and a positive reaction 4qL bending
moment diagram can then be obtained using results from sections 4.4.1.1 and 4.4.1.3.
It is worth noting that the sub-curvature diagrams constructed in this fashion will not be suitable,
when we need to apply the first and second moment area equations to the segment BC, since the
area and centroid of the sub-curvature diagram associated with the distributed load over the segment
Another possible choice for constructing the sub-curvature diagrams is to separate the beam
into two segments, a segment AC and a segment CD, as shown in Figure 4.20:

Figure 4.18: Sub-BMDs and sub-CDs of beam shown in Figure 4.17
qL
2

qL
2

2qL
2

qL
2

Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs
qL
2

qL
2

2qL
2

qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/EI
2qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/2EI
qL
2
/2EI
qL
2
/EI
2qL
2
/EI
A
C D B
2q
3qL
4qL
qL
2EI, L
EI, L EI, L
qL
2qL
qL
2

2q
A B
C B
C
D
qL
2

2qL
qL
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

229
Segment AC: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at a point
just to the left of point C point C is then chosen as a fixed support a cantilever
segment AC is now subjected to a positive reaction qL at point A and a negative
concentrated force 3qL at point B bending moment diagram can then be obtained
using results from section 4.4.1.1.
Segment CD: This segment is separated from the structure by making a cut at a point
just to the right of point C point C is then chosen as a fixed support a cantilever
segment CD is now subjected to a negative distributed load 2q over its entire span
bending moment diagram can then be obtained using results from section 4.4.1.3.

Figure 4.19: Sub-BMDs and sub-CDs of beam shown in Figure 4.17
4qL
2

qL
2

4qL
2

Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs
qL
2

4qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/2EI
4qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/EI
A
C D B
2q
3qL
4qL
qL
2EI, L
EI, L EI, L
qL
2q
2q
A B
B
D
4qL
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

230
For this particular case, special attention must be paid to the discontinuity of the flexural rigidity at
point B. The sub-bending moment diagram associated with the reaction at the point A forms a
single triangle while the corresponding sub-curvature diagram is discontinuous at point B.

Figure 4.20: Sub-BMDs and sub-CDs of beam shown in Figure 4.17

Example 4.1 Consider a cantilever beam of length 2L and subjected to concentrated force P and
concentrated moment PL as shown below. Determine the tip deflection and tip rotation of a beam
for the following two cases: 1) the flexural rigidity EI is constant throughout the beam and 2) the
flexural rigidity of segments AB and BC is given by 2EI and EI, respectively.

A
B
L
C
P
PL
L
qL
2q
A
B
C D
C
3qL
3qL
2

2qL
2

Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs
3qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/2EI
2qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/EI
qL
2

qL
2
/EI
A
C D B
2q
3qL
4qL
qL
2EI, L EI, L EI, L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

231
Solution Since the given structure is a beam, there are only two kinematical quantities at each point,
i.e. the rotation and the vertical displacement (or deflection). From boundary conditions, the beam is
fully fixed at point A and, therefore, the deflection and rotation vanish at that point, i.e.
A A
v 0 u = = .
The tip deflection and the rotation can then be obtained by applying the first and second curvature
area equations to the segment AC. Sub-curvature diagrams of this beam can be constructed by
considering only one segment AC (with a fixed point A) with results shown below.

From the bending moment diagram, a qualitative elastic curve of the beam can be sketched as
shown below:

Case 1): consider the segment AC
AC
A
0 u = and
AC
C
v 0 = there remain two unknowns
AC
C
u and
AC
C
v first and second curvature area equations are sufficient to solve for these two unknowns as
shown below

1
st
curvature area equation:
AC AC
C/A C A M/EI,AC
= = A u u u
( ) ( )
2
AC
C
PL 1 PL 3PL
0 2L L
EI 2 EI 2EI
| | | |
u = + =
| |
\ . \ .

2
AC
C
3PL

2EI
u = CCW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
AC AC AC
C/A C A A AC M/EI,AC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
A
B
L
C
L
Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs Case 1)
Sub-CDs Case 2)
PL/EI
PL/EI
PL PL
PL
PL/EI
PL/2EI
PL/EI
PL/2EI
P
PL
A
B C
t
C/A
=
AC
C
v
u
C/A
=
AC
C
u

B
C
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

232
( )( ) ( )
3
AC
C
PL 1 PL 2L 7PL
v 0 2L L L L+
EI 2 EI 3 6EI
| | | | | |
= + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

3
AC
C
7PL
v
6EI
= Upward

Case 2): consider the segment AC
AC
A
0 u = and
AC
C
v 0 = there remain two unknowns
AC
C
u and
AC
C
v first and second curvature area equations are sufficient to solve for these two unknowns as
shown below

1
st
curvature area equation:
AC AC
C/A C A M/EI,AC
= = A u u u
( ) ( ) ( )
2
AC
C
PL PL 1 PL 5PL
0 L L L
EI 2EI 2 2EI 4EI
| | | | | |
u = + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

2
AC
C
5PL

4EI
u = CCW

2
nd
curvature area equation:
AC AC AC
C/A C A A AC M/EI,AC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u

( ) ( ) ( )
3
AC
C
PL L PL 3L 1 PL 5L 5PL
v 0 L L L
EI 2 2EI 2 2 2EI 3 6EI
| | | | | | | | | | | |
= + + =
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

3
AC
C
5PL
v
6EI
= Upward

While sketch of a qualitative elastic curve is not necessary in the application of curvature area
equations (at least within the context of the current development), it can still be useful to gain
physical insight into kinematical quantities of interest. In addition, geometric consideration of
qualitative elastic curve can be employed to retrieve relations such as
AC AC
C/A C A
= u u u and
AC AC AC
C/A C A A AC
t = v (v L ) + u without memorization. For instance, it is obvious from the above elastic
curve that
AC
C/A C
= u u and
AC
C/A C
t = v .

Example 4.2 For a prismatic beam of flexural rigidity EI and subjected to applied loads shown
below, determine the deflection and rotation at point C and the maximum deflection within the span
AB

Solution From boundary conditions, the deflections at point A and point B vanish, i.e.
A B
v v 0 = = .
With these conditions, there exists only one segment (i.e. a segment AB) within the beam that
contains only two kinematical unknowns, i.e. {
AB
A
,
AB
B
}. For mathematical convenience, we should
apply the curvature area equations to the segment AB first in order to obtain the remaining
unknowns at points A and B. Once those unknowns are resolved (i.e. the deflection and rotation at
points A and B are completely known), any segments containing either the point A or the point B as
one of its ends can be chosen to determine the deflection and rotation at any point of interest. For
2L
qL
2q
L
A
C B
EI
EI
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

233
instance, the deflection and rotation at point C can be obtained by applying the curvature area
equations to the segment BC.
Let us start with the construction of sub-curvature diagrams for the entire beam. First, two
support reactions are determined from equilibrium of the entire beam. Next, the beam is separated
into two segments, i.e. segment AB and segment BC, with point B being chosen as a fixed point for
both segments. The final sub-curvature diagrams are shown below.

Segment AB:
AB
A
v 0 = and
AB
B
v 0 = there remain only two unknowns
AB
A
u and
AB
B
u first and
second curvature area equations are sufficient to obtain these two unknowns as shown below.

2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 4
AB
A
1 3qL 2L 1 4qL 2L 2qL
2L 2L 2L
2 EI 3 3 EI 4 3EI
| | | |
| | | |
u = + =
| | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

3
AB
A
qL

3EI
u = CW
1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u
( ) ( )
3 2 2 3
AB
B
qL 1 3qL 1 4qL qL
2L 2L
3EI 2 EI 3 EI 3EI
| | | | | |
u = + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

AB
B
0 u =
2L
L
A
C B
EI
EI
Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs
3qL/2
7qL/2
4qL
2

qL
2

3qL
2

4qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/EI
3qL
2
/EI
qL
2q
A
C
B
t
B/A

u
B/A

AB
A
u

AB
B
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

234
Since there is no internal release at point B, the deflection and rotation at this particular point must
BC AB
B B
v v 0 = = and
BC AB
B B
0 u = u = . To obtain the rotation and deflection at
point C, we now consider a segment BC.

Segment BC:
BC
B
v 0 = and
BC
B
0 u = there remain only two unknowns
BC
C
v and
BC
C
u first and
second curvature area equations are sufficient to obtain these two unknowns

1
st
curvature area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B M/EI,BC
= = A u u u
( )
2 3
BC
C
1 qL qL
0 L
2 EI 2EI
| |
u = =
|
\ .

3
BC
C
qL

2EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
BC BC BC
C/B C B B BC M/EI,BC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( )
2 4
BC
C
1 qL 2L qL
v L
2 EI 3 3EI
| |
| |
= =
| |
\ .
\ .

4
BC
C
qL
v
3EI
= Downward

To determine the maximum deflection within the span AB, first we need to identify the location
where it occurs. This can be achieved simply by using the necessary condition that the rotation
vanishes at the point where the deflection is maximum. To proceed, let the maximum deflection be
located at point D with the distance x from point A. Since the deflection and rotation at point A are
already known, the segment AD now contains only two unknowns and they can be obtained from
the first and second curvature area equations. Note however that the sub-curvature diagrams shown
above are not well-suited for the segment AD since their area and centroid cannot be easily
calculated. As a result, we reconstruct sub-curvature diagrams again, but only for the segment AD,
as shown below (in this construction, the segment AD is fixed at point D).

x
L
A
C B
EI EI
Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs
3qL/2
7qL/2
qx
2

3qLx/2
qx
2
/EI
3qLx/2EI
D
2L x
qL 2q
A
C
B
t
C/B

BC
B
u

BC
C
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

235

Now, the deflection and rotation at point D can be obtained from the first and second curvature area
equations as shown below.

1
st
curvature area equation:
= = A u u u
( ) ( )
3 2 2 3
D
qL 1 3qLx 1 qx 3qLx qx
x x
3EI 2 2EI 3 EI 4EI 3EI
| | | |
| |
u = + =
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .

2 3 3
D
3qLx qx qL

4EI 3EI 3EI
u =
2
nd
curvature area equation:
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( )
3 2
D
qL 1 3qLx x 1 qx x
v x x x
3EI 2 2EI 3 3 EI 4
| | | |
| | | | | |
= +
| | | | |
\ . \ . \ .
\ . \ .

3 3 4
D
qL x qLx qx
v
3EI 4EI 12EI
= +

To obtain the location of point D or the distance x e (0, L), we simply set
D
0 u = and then solve
the corresponding equation to obtain x = 0.8431L. The maximum deflection at point D can now be
obtained as

3 3 4
D
qL (0.8431L) qL(0.8431L) q(0.8431L)
v =
3EI 4EI 12EI
+
4
0.1733qL
=
EI
Downward

Example 4.3 Consider a statically determinate beam subjected to external applied load as shown
below. The Young's modulus E is assumed to be constant throughout and the moment of inertia of
the cross section for segments AB and BD is given by 2I and I, respectively. Determine the relative
rotation at hinge B and the deflection at point D.

Solution: From boundary conditions, the deflections and rotation at point A and the deflection at
point C vanish, i.e.
A A C
v v 0 = u = = . Since all kinematical quantities are known at point A, the
deflection and rotation at point just to the left of hinge B can readily be determined by applying
curvature area equations to a segment AB. Upon enforcing the continuity of the deflection at the
hinge B, a segment BC now contains only two kinematical unknowns (i.e. both end rotations) and
they can be solved from the two curvature area equations. It is important to emphasize that the
A
C
B
t
D/A

u
D/A

A
u

D
u

D
v

D
2L
2qL
2q
L
A
C
B
2EI
EI EI D
2L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

236
rotation is discontinuous at the hinge B or, equivalently, the rotation at a point just to the left and a
point just to the right of the hinge B are not necessary identical. The jump in the rotation at the
hinge is generally termed the relative hinge rotation. Once the rotation at point C is determined
from the segment BC, a segment CD is then considered to compute the deflection and rotation at
point D.
Let us start with the construction of sub-curvature diagrams for the entire beam. First, three
support reactions (two at the fixed support and one at the roller support) are determined from static
equilibrium. Next, the beam is divided into three segments AB, BC and CD with points A and C
being chosen as the fixed point for the segment AB and the segments BC and CD, respectively. The
final sub-curvature diagrams are shown below.

Segment AB:
AB AB
A A
v 0 = u = there remain only two unknowns
AB
B
v and
AB
B
u first and second
curvature area equations are sufficient to solve for these two unknowns

1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u
( ) ( )
2 2 3
AB
B
1 qL 1 2qL qL
0 2L 2L
2 EI 3 EI 3EI
| | | |
u = + =
| |
\ . \ .

2L
2qL
2q
L
A
C
B 2EI
EI EI D
2L
Sub-BMDs
Sub-CDs
2qL
2

3qL
3qL
4qL
2

2qL
2

qL
2
/EI
2qL
2
/EI
2qL
2
/EI
2qL
2

A
C
B
D
t
B/A
=
AB
B
v
u
B/A
=
AB
B
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

237

3
AB
B
qL

3EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( )
2 2 4
AB
B
1 qL 4L 1 2qL 6L 2qL
v 2L 2L
2 EI 3 3 EI 4 3EI
| | | |
| | | |
= + =
| | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

4
AB
B
2qL
v
3EI
= Downward
From continuity of the deflection at point B, we then obtain
BC AB 4
B B
v v 2qL /3EI = = + . Next, we move
to the segment BC.

Segment BC:
BC 4
B
v 2qL /3EI = and
BC
C
v 0 = there remain only two unknowns
BC
B
u and
BC
C
u
first and second curvature area equations are applied to solve for these two unknowns as shown
below

2
nd
curvature area equation:
BC BC BC
C/B C B B BC M/EI,BC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( )
4 2 4
BC
B
2qL 1 2qL 2L 4qL
0 (2L) 2L
3EI 2 EI 3 3EI
| | | |
| |
+ u = =
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .

3
BC
B
qL

EI
u = CCW
1
st
curvature area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B M/EI,BC
= = A u u u
( )
3 2 3
BC
C
qL 1 2qL 2qL
2L
EI 2 EI EI
| |
u = =
|
\ .

3
BC
C
qL

EI
u = CW

The relative hinge rotation at point B, denoted by
B
, now becomes

3 3 3
BC AB
B B B
qL qL 4qL

EI 3EI 3EI
| |
= u u = =
|
\ .
CCW

From continuity of the rotation at point C, we have
CD BC 3
C C
qL /EI u = u = CW. Finally, we move to
the segment CD to compute the displacement and rotation at point D.

Segment CD:
CD
C
v 0 = and
CD 3
C
qL /EI u = there remain only two unknowns
CD
D
u and
CD
D
v two
curvature area equations are sufficient to obtain these two unknowns as follows
A
C
B
D
t
C/B

u
C/B

BC
B
v

BC
B
u

BC
C
u

AB
B
u

B

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

238

1
st
curvature area equation:
CD CD
D/C D C M/EI,CD
= = A u u u
( )
3 2 3
CD
D
qL 1 2qL qL
L
EI 2 EI EI
| | | |
u = =
| |
\ . \ .

3
CD
D
2qL

EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
CD CD CD
B/A D C C CD M/EI,CD D
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( )
3 2 4
CD
D
qL 1 2qL 2L 2qL
v (L) L
EI 2 EI 3 3EI
| | | |
| |
= =
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .

4
CD
D
5qL
v
3EI
= Downward

Example 4.4: Given a statically determinate frame subjected to a concentrated force P as shown
below. The Young's modulus E and the moment of inertia of the cross section I are assumed to be
constant throughout the structure. Determine the displacement and rotation at point E.

Solution: First, let us define local coordinate systems for following three segments AC, BD, and
DE as shown in the figure below. Since the given structure is a rigid frame, for any proper segment
chosen, there are three independent equations available in the analysis for the displacement and
rotation (i.e. two curvature area equations and one length constraint equation).

A
C
B
D
t
D/C

CD
C
u

CD
D
u

D/C

L
A
X
B
E
Y
L L
L
C
D
P
A
B
E
C
D
x
x
x,y
y
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

239
To obtain the displacement and rotation at point E, following strategy can be employed. From
boundary conditions at point A and C (i.e.
AC AC AC
A A C
u v = v 0 = = ), there are only three kinematical
unknowns left for the segment AC (i.e.
AC AC AC
A C C
, u , u u ) and, as a result, this segment must be
considered first to solve for those three unknowns. Next, either the segment AB or the segment BC
can be considered to compute the displacement and rotation at point B since the displacement and
rotation at point A and point C are completely known and these two segments contain exactly three
kinematical unknowns. Once the displacement and rotation at point B are determined, the segment
BD can then be considered to compute the displacement and rotation at point D. Finally, the
displacement and rotation at point E can be obtained from the segment DE.
Let us start with the construction of sub-curvature diagrams for the entire frame. First, three
support reactions (two at the pinned support and one at the roller support) are determined from
static equilibrium of the entire frame. Next, the frame is divided into four segments AB, BC, BD
and DE with points B and D being chosen as fixed points for segments AB, BC and BD and a
segment DE, respectively. It is emphasized that the sign convention of the sub-curvature diagrams
must strictly follow the local coordinate system defined above. The final sub-curvature diagrams are
given below.

Segment AC:
AC AC AC
A A C
u v v 0 = = = there remain only three unknowns
AC
A
u ,
AC
C
u and
AC
C
u two
curvature area equations and one length constraint equation are sufficient to obtain these three
unknowns as shown below.

A
B
E
C
D
2P/3 P/3
0
P
Sub-BMDs
4PL/3
PL/3
PL
PL
A
B
E
C
D
Sub-CDs
4PL/3EI
PL/3EI
PL/EI
PL/EI
A
B
E
C
D
x
y
t
C/A

u
C/A

AC
A
u

AC
C
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

240
2
nd
curvature area equation:
AC AC AC
C/A C A A AC M/EI,AC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( ) ( )
3
AC
A
1 4PL 2L 1 PL 2L 7PL
3L 2L L L
2 3EI 3 2 3EI 3 3EI
| | | | | | | |
u = + + =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

2
AC
A
7PL

9EI
u = CW
1
st
curvature area equation:
AC AC
C/A C A M/EI,AC
= = A u u u
( ) ( )
2 2
AC
C
7PL 1 4PL 1 PL 3PL
2L L
9EI 2 3EI 2 3EI 2EI
| |
| | | |
u = + =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

2
AC
C
13PL

18EI
u = CCW
Length constraint equation:
AC AC
C A
u u =

AC
C
u 0 =

Segment AB:
AB AB
A A
u v 0 = = ,
AB 2
A
7PL /9EI u = there remain only three unknowns
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v and
AB
B
u two curvature area equations and one length constraint equation are sufficient to obtain
these three unknowns as follows.

1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u
( )
2 2
AB
B
7PL 1 4PL 4PL
2L
9EI 2 3EI 3EI
| |
| |
u = =
| |
\ .
\ .

2
AB
B
5PL

9EI
u = CCW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( )
2 3
AB
B
7PL 1 4PL 2L 8PL
v 2L 2L
9EI 2 3EI 3 9EI
| |
| | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

3
AB
B
2PL
v
3EI
= Downward
Length constraint equation:
AB AB
B A
u u =

AB
B
u 0 =

Segment DB: continuity of displacement and rotation at point B
DB AB 3
B B
u v 2PL /3EI = = ,
DB AB
B B
v u 0 = = ,
DB AB 2
B B
5PL /9EI u = u = now there remain only three unknowns
DB
D
u ,
DB
D
v and
DB
D
u
two curvature area equations and one length constraint equation are sufficient to obtain these
three unknowns as follows.
A
B
E
C
D
x
y
t
B/A

u
B/A

AB
A
u

AB
B
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

241

1
st
curvature area equation:
DB DB
B/D B D M/EI,DB
= = A u u u
( )
2 2
DB
D
5PL PL PL
L
9EI EI EI
| |
u = =
|
\ .

2
DB
D
14PL

9EI
u = CCW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
DB DB DB
D/B D B B DB M/EI,DB D
t = v (v L ) = A x u
( ) ( )
2 3
DB
D
5PL PL L PL
v L L
9EI EI 2 2EI
| |
| | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

3
DB
D
19PL
v
18EI
= Leftward
Length constraint equation:
DB DB
D B
u u =

3
DB
D
2PL
u
3EI
= Downward

Segment ED: continuity of displacement and rotation at point D
ED DB 3
D D
u v 19PL /18EI = = ,
ED DB 3
D D
v u 2PL /3EI = = ,
ED DB 2
D D
14PL /9EI u = u = now there remain only three unknowns
ED
E
u ,
ED
E
v
and
ED
E
u two curvature area equations and one length constraint equation are sufficient to solve
for these three unknowns.

1
st
curvature area equation:
ED ED
D/E D E M/EI,ED
= = A u u u
( )
2 2
ED
E
14PL 1 PL PL
L
9EI 2 EI 2EI
| |
u = =
|
\ .

2
DB
D
37PL

18EI
u = CCW
A B
E
C
D
x
y
t
E/D

u
D/E

ED
E
u

ED
D
u

A B
E
C
D
y
x
t
D/B

u
B/D

DB
D
u

DB
B
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

242
2
nd
curvature area equation:
ED ED ED
E/D E D D ED M/EI,ED E
t = v (v L ) = A x u
( )
3 2 3
ED
E
2PL 14PL 1 PL 2L PL
v (L) L
3EI 9EI 2 EI 3 3EI
| |
| | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

3
ED
E
23PL
v
9EI
= Downward
Length constraint equation:
ED ED
E D
u u =

3
ED
E
19PL
u
18EI
= Leftward

Example 4.5 Given a statically determinate frame subjected to external loads as shown below. The
Youngs modulus E and moment of inertia of the cross section I are constant throughout the
structure. Determine the displacements and rotations at points B and C.

Solution First, let us define the local coordinate systems for following two segments AB and CBD
as shown in the figure below.

From boundary conditions at points A and D, we obtain
AB AB BD
A A D
u v = v 0 = = . It is evident for this
particular structure that there is no straight segment that contains only three kinematical unknowns.
For the segment AB, {
AB
A
u ,
AB
A
v } are known and {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } are unknown; for the
segment BD, {
BD
D
v } is known and {
BD
B
u ,
BD
B
v ,
BD
B
u ,
BD
D
u ,
BD
D
u } are unknown; and, for the segment
L 2L
2L
P
2PL
A
X
B
Y
C
D
A
B C
D
x
x
y
y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

243
CB, {
CB
C
u ,
CB
C
v ,
CB
C
u ,
CB
B
u ,
CB
B
v ,
CB
B
u } are unknown. Following strategy can be employed to solve all
those unknowns. The displacement
AB
B
u is obtained from the length constraint equation of the
segment AB. Next, the displacement
BD
B
v is obtained from the continuity of the displacement at
point B (i.e.
BD
B
v =
AB
B
u ). Then, {
BD
B
u ,
BD
D
u } can be determined from the curvature area equations of
the segment BD. Now, by returning to the segment AB, the rotation
AB
B
u is obtained from the
continuity of the rotation at point B (i.e.
AB
B
u =
BD
B
u ) and {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
v } can be obtained from the
curvature area equations. Next, by returning to the segment BD, the displacement
BD
B
u is obtained
from the continuity of the displacement (i.e.
BD
B
u =
AB
B
v ) and
BD
D
u can then be computed from the
length constraint equation. Now, the displacement and rotation at points A, B and D are completely
known. Finally, the displacement and rotation at point C can readily be obtained from the segment
CB.
Let us start with the construction of sub-curvature diagrams for the entire frame. First, three
support reactions (two at the pinned support and one at the roller support) are determined from
static equilibrium of the entire structure. Next, the frame is divided into three segments AB, BD and
CB with point B being chosen as a fixed point for all segments. Again, the sign convention of the
sub-curvature diagrams strictly follows the local coordinate system defined above. The final sub-
curvature diagrams are shown below.

Segment AB:
AB
A
u 0 = and, from the length constraint equation, we have

AB AB
B A
u u =
AB
B
u 0 =

Continuity of displacement at point B:
BD
B
v =
AB
B
u = 0

Segment BD:
BD BD
B D
v v 0 = = and, from two curvature area equations, we obtain

2
nd
curvature area equation:
BD BD BD
D/B D B B BD M/EI,BD D
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( )
3
BD
B
1 4PL 4L 16PL
2L 2L
2 EI 3 3EI
| | | |
u = =
| |
\ . \ .

2
BD
B
8PL

3EI
u = CW
P 2PL
A
B C
D
2P
2P
P
2PL
2PL
4PL
A
B
C
D
2PL/EI
2PL/EI
4PL/EI
Sub-BMDs Sub-CDs
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

244

1
st
curvature area equation:
BD BD
D/B D B M/EI,BD
= = A u u u
( )
2 2
BD
D
8PL 1 4PL 4PL
2L
3EI 2 EI EI
| |
| |
u = =
| |
\ .
\ .

2
BD
D
4PL

3EI
u = CCW
Continuity of rotation at point B:
AB
B
u =
BD
B
u =
2
8PL
3EI

Segment BD:
AB
A
v 0 = ,
AB
B
u =
2
8PL
3EI
and, from two curvature area equations, we obtain

1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u
( )
2 2
AB
A
8PL 1 2PL 2PL
2L
3EI 2 EI EI
| |
u = =
|
\ .

2
AB
A
14PL

3EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( )
2 3
AB
B
14PL 1 2PL 2L 4PL
v 2L 2L
3EI 2 EI 3 3EI
| |
| | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

3
AB
B
8PL
v
EI
= Rightward
Continuity of displacement at point B:
BD
B
u =
AB
B
v =
2
8PL
EI

Segment BD:
BD
B
u =
2
8PL
EI
and, from the length constraint equation, we have

BD BD
D B
u u =
2
BD
D
8PL
u
EI
= Rightward
A
B
C
D
t
D/B

u
D/B

BD
B
u

BD
D
u

A
B
C
D
t
B/A

u
B/A

AB
B
u

AB
A
u

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

245
Continuity of displacement and rotation at point B:
2
CB BD
B B
8PL
u u
EI
= = ,
CB BD
B B
v v 0 = = and
2
CB BD
B B
8PL
3EI
u = u =
Segment CB:
2
CB
B
8PL
u
EI
= ,
2
CB
B
8PL
3EI
u = and, from two curvature area equations, we obtain

1
st
curvature area equation:
CB CB
B/C B C M/EI,CB
= = A u u u
( )
2 2
CB
C
8PL 2PL 2PL
L
3EI EI EI
| |
u = =
|
\ .

2
CB
C
14PL

3EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
CB CB CB
B/C B C C CB M/EI,CB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( ) ( )
2 3
CB
C
14PL 2PL L PL
0 v L L
3EI EI 2 EI
| |
| | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

3
CB
C
11PL
v
3EI
= Upward
Length constraint equation:
CB CB
C B
u u =

2
CB
C
8PL
u
EI
= Rightward

Example 4.6 Consider a statically determinate frame subjected to a concentrated load P as shown in
the figure below. The Young's modulus E is assumed to be constant throughout and the moment of
inertia of a segment AB and a segment BC are I and 2I, respectively. Determine the unknown
displacements and rotations at points A, B, and C. Given that o = | = 45
o
.

A
B C
D
t
B/C

u
B/C

CB
C
u
CB
B
u

L L
|
P
A
X
B
Y
C
o
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

246
Solution First, let us define the local coordinate systems for segments AB and BC as shown below.

Let us start with the construction of sub-curvature diagrams of the entire frame. Three support
reactions (two at the pinned support and one at the roller support) are determined from static
equilibrium. Next, the frame is divided into two straight segments AB and BC with point B being
chosen as a fixed point for both segments. The final sub-curvature diagrams referring to above local
coordinate systems are shown below.

According to the inclined orientation of the segment AB and the direction of the constraint at the
roller support, the unknown displacements and rotations at points A, B and C cannot be obtained
independently from each segment but requiring consideration of both segments simultaneously as
follow.

Segment AB: By applying two curvature area equations and one length constraint equation, it leads
to following three linear equations

1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u

( )
2
AB AB
B A
1 2PL PL
2L
2 EI EI
| |
u u = =
|
|
\ .
(e4.6.1)
A
B C
y
x
y
x
P
A
B C
2PL
Sub-BMDs
3P
2 2P
2P
2PL
A
B C
2PL/EI
2PL/2EI
Sub-CDs
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

247

2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u

( )
3
AB AB AB
B A A
1 2PL 2L 2PL
v v 2L 2L
2 EI 3 3EI
| | | |
u = =
| |
| |
\ . \ .
(e4.6.2)
Length constraint equation:
AB AB
A B
u u = (e4.6.3)

Segment BC: By applying two curvature area equations and one length constraint equation, it leads
to following three linear equations

1
st
curvature area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B M/EI,BC
= = A u u u
( )
2
BC BC
C B
1 2PL 2PL
2L
2 EI EI
| |
u u = =
|
|
\ .
(e4.6.4)
2
nd
curvature area equation:
BC BC BC
C/B C B B BC M/EI,BC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( )
3
BC BC BC
C B B
1 2PL 2L 2PL
v v L L
2 2EI 3 6EI
| |
| |
u = =
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
(e4.6.5)
Length constraint equation:
BC BC
B C
u u = (e4.6.6)

Continuity of displacement and rotation at point B:

AB AB
BC B B
B
u v
u
2 2
= + (e4.6.7)

AB AB
BC B B
B
u v
v
2 2
= + (e4.6.8)
t
B/A

u
B/A

AB
A
u

AB
B
u

A
B
C
t
C/B

u
C/B

BC
B
u

BC
C
u

A
B
C
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

248
BC AB
B B
u = u (e4.6.9)

Boundary conditions at point A:

AB
A
u 0 = (e4.6.10)

AB
A
v 0 = (e4.6.11)

Boundary conditions at point C: the displacement in the direction of the constraint provided by the
roller support must vanish, i.e.

BC BC
C C
v u
0
2 2
= (e4.6.12)

Note that a set of ten linear equations (e4.6.1)-(e4.6.9) and (e4.6.12) along with the two boundary
conditions (e4.6.10) and (e4.6.11) is sufficient to solve for ten unknowns {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u ,
BC
B
u ,
BC
B
v ,
BC
B
u ,
BC
C
u ,
BC
C
v ,
BC
C
u }. To solve this set of equations, the continuity equations (e4.6.7)-(e4.6.9)
are first expressed, by using equations (e4.6.1)-(e4.6.6) and (e4.6.12), in terms of kinematical
quantities at points A and C (i.e. {
AB
A
u ,
BC
C
u ,
BC
C
u }) as

( )
2
AB BC
A C
2PL
4+2 2
4EI
u u = (e4.6.13)
3
BC AB
C A
PL
u L =
3EI
(e4.6.14)
( )
3
BC AB
C A
2PL
u 2L = 1+4 2
6EI
(e4.6.15)

A system of three linear equations (e4.6.13)-(e4.6.15) can readily be solved simultaneously to
obtain

BC 3
C
u (4+ 2)PL / 6EI = ,
AB 2
A
(6+ 2)PL / 6EI u = ,
BC 2
C
5 2PL / 12EI u =

The other unknowns can then be determined using equations (e4.6.1)-(e4.6.6) and (e4.6.12); results
are given by

AB
B
u 0 = ,
AB 3
B
v = (1+2 2)PL / 3EI ,
AB BC 2
B B
2PL / 6EI u = u = ,
BC 3
B
u (4+ 2)PL / 6EI = ,
BC 3
B
v (4+ 2)PL / 6EI =

Thus, the unknown displacements and rotations at points A, B, and C, referring to the global
coordinate system, are given by

A A
U =V =0 ,
2
A
(6+ 2)PL / 6EI = CCW

3
B
U (4+ 2)PL / 6EI = Rightward,
3
B
V (4+ 2)PL / 6EI = Upward,
2
B
2PL / 6EI = CCW

3
C
U (4+ 2)PL / 6EI = Rightward,
3
C
V (4+ 2)PL / 6EI = Upward,
2
C
5 2PL / 12EI = CW

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

249
4.5 Treatment of Axial Deformation

Development presented above is based primarily upon the inextensibility assumption where the
axial deformation is completely neglected. This implies that the projected length of any deformed
segment onto its undeformed axis must be the same as the original length. In this section, we
remove such restriction by taking the axial deformation into account. It is worth noting that the
static equilibrium is still enforced in the undeformed configuration; i.e. there is no interaction
between axial and bending. As a result, the first and second curvature area equations established
above are still valid while the length constraint equation must be modified to incorporate the axial
deformation.

Figure 3.21: Schematic of straight segment AB undergoing deformation and its strain diagram

To modify the length constraint equation (4.8), we recall the differential relation between
the internal axial force F = F(x) and the longitudinal component of the displacement u = u(x):

du
F = EA
dx
(4.17)

where E = E(x) is the Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity and A = A(x) is the cross sectional
area. Remark that the axial force F is considered to be positive if it is tension otherwise it is
negative. By integrating the equation (4.17) from x = 0 to x = L
o
and then using the end conditions
u(0) =
AB
A
u and u(L
o
) =
AB
B
u , we obtain
S
S
o

AB
A
u
B
A
B
A
L
o

x
y
AB
A
v
AB
A

AB
B
u
AB
B
v
AB
B

F
/
E
A

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

250
o
L
AB AB
B A
0
F
u = u dx
EA
+
}
(4.18)

It is important to emphasize that the expression (4.18) is valid as long as the longitudinal
component of the displacement u is continuous at any point within the segment AB. This relation is
generally known as the axial strain area equation; the name follows from the fact that F/EA
represents the axial strain at any cross section of the segment and its graphical interpretation of the
integral term appearing in (4.18), i.e.

o
L
F/EA,AB
0
F
dx = A
EA
}
(4.19)

The strain area equation (4.18) then states that the relative displacement in the longitudinal direction
between the two end points of the segment is equal to the area of the axial strain diagram over that
segment, i.e.

B/A F/EA,AB
u A = (4.20)

where
AB AB
B/A B A
u u u = denotes the relative end longitudinal displacement. This equation
constitutes the generalization of the length constraint equation (4.8) by taking the axial deformation
into account; if the segment is axially rigid, equation (4.20) simply reduces to (4.8) sinceF/AE 0 .
Now, the two displacement components and the rotation at both ends of a segment AB due
to the bending and shear deformations are governed by the following three equations:

AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u (4.21)
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v + L ) = A x u (4.22a)
AB AB AB
A/B A B B AB M/EI,AB A
t = v (v L ) = A x u (4.22b)
B/A F/EA,AB
u A = (4.23)

Note that the first two equations are, in fact, identical to (4.14) and (4.15) and that all useful
remarks stated above still apply to above three equations. Certain example problems are presented
further below to demonstrate applications of (4.21)-(4.23) and to investigate the influence of the
axial deformation on the displacement and rotation.

Example 4.7 Consider a statically determinate frame subjected to concentrated forces P and Q as
shown below. Young's modulus, the cross sectional area and the moment of inertia of the cross
section are assumed to be constant throughout the structure and denoted by E, A and I, respectively.
Determine the displacement and rotation at points B and C.

3L
P
L
A
C
B
Q
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

251
Solution First, let us define the local coordinate systems for two segments AB and BC as shown
below.

Since the structure is statically determinate, the axial force diagram and the bending moment
diagram can readily be obtained from static equilibrium. The strain diagram F/EA and the curvature
diagram M/EI are plotted for each segment as indicated in the figure below.

From boundary conditions (at the fixed support), the displacement and rotation at point A are fully
prescribed, i.e.
AB AB AB
A A A
u v = 0 = u = . The displacement and rotation at other points can readily be
obtained as follow.

Segment AB: since the displacement and rotation at point A are already known, i.e.
AB AB AB
A A A
u v = 0 = u = , the displacement and rotation at point B can be determined from the two
curvature area equations and the strain area equation (see also the elastic curve):

A
C
B
y
x
y
x
A
C
B QL/EI P/EA
Q/EA
QL/EI
3PL/EI
A
C
B
t
B/A

u
B/A

u
B/A

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

252
1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u
( ) ( )
( )
2
AB
B
3 3P+2Q L
1 3PL QL
0 3L 3L
2 EI EI 2EI
| | | |
u = + =
| |
\ . \ .

( )
2
AB
B
3 3P+2Q L

2EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
( )( ) ( )
AB
B
1 3PL QL 3L
v 0 3L 2L 3L
2 EI EI 2
| | | | | |
= +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
( )
3
18P 9Q L
2EI
+
=

( )
3
AB
B
18P 9Q L
v
2EI
+
= Downward
Axial strain area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A F/EA,AB
u = u u = A
( )
AB
B
Q 3QL
u 0 3L
EA EA
| |
= =
|
\ .

AB
B
3QL
u
EA
= Rightward

Continuity of displacement and rotation at point B:

BC AB
B B
3QL
v u
EA
= =
( )
3
BC AB
B B
18P 9Q L
u v
2EI
+
= =
( )
2
BC AB
B B
3 3P+2Q L

2EI
u = u =

Segment BC: since the displacement and rotation at point B are already known from the continuity
at point B, i.e.
BC
B
v 3QL/EA = , ( )
BC 3
B
u 18P 9Q L /2EI = + , and ( )
BC 2
B
3 3P+2Q L /2EI u = , the
displacement and rotation at point C can be determined from the two curvature area equations and

1
st
curvature area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B M/EI,BC
= = A u u u

( )
( )
2
2
BC
C
3 3P+2Q L
1 QL QL
L
2EI 2 EI 2EI
| |
u + = =
|
\ .

( )
2
BC
C
9P+7Q L

2EI
u = CW
2
nd
curvature area equation:
BC BC BC
C/B C B B BC M/EI,BC C
t = v (v L ) = A x + u
BC
B
u

BC
C
u

A
C
B
t
C/B

u
B/A

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

253

( )
( )
3
3
BC
C
3 3P+2Q L
3QL 1 QL 2L QL
v L
EA 2EI 2 EI 3 3EI
| | | |
+ + = =
| |
\ . \ .

( )
3
BC
C
27P+20Q L
3QL
v
EA 6EI
= Rightward

Axial strain area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B F/EA,BC
u = u u = A

( )
( )
3
BC
C
18P 9Q L
P PL
u L
2EI EA EA
+
| |
+ = =
|
\ .

( )
3
BC
C
9 2P Q L
PL
u
EA 2EI
+
= Downward

Example 4.8 Consider a statically determinate frame subjected to a concentrated force P at point C
as shown below. The Young's modulus, the cross sectional area and the moment of inertia of the
cross section are assumed to be constant throughout the structure and denoted by E, A and I,
respectively. Determine the displacements and rotations at points A, B, C, and D due to the axial
deformation.

Solution First, let us define the local coordinate systems for three segments AB, BC, and CD as
shown below.

P
L
A
C B
D
L
x
x, y
y
x, y
A
C
B
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

254
Since the structure is statically determinate, the axial force diagram and the bending moment
diagram can readily be obtained from static equilibrium. For this particular case, the M/EI vanishes
identically for all segments and the F/EA vanishes for the segments AB and BC while F/EA for the
segment CD is non-zero and given below.

From boundary conditions, the horizontal and vertical displacement at the point A and the vertical
displacement at the point D are fully prevented, i.e.
AB AB
A A
u v = 0 = and
CD
D
u 0 = . The displacement and
rotation at other points can be obtained as follow.

Segment AB: Only two kinematical quantities are already known, i.e.
AB AB
A A
u v = 0 = . Some of the
remaining unknown quantities can be determined and the rest of the unknowns are related as shown

1
st
curvature area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A M/EI,AB
= = A u u u

AB AB
B A
= 0 u u (e4.8.1)

2
nd
curvature area equation:
AB AB AB
B/A B A A AB M/EI,AB B
t = v (v L ) = A x + u

AB AB
B A
v L 0 u = (e4.8.2)

Axial strain area equation:
AB AB
B/A B A F/EA,AB
u = u u = A

AB
B
u 0 0 =
AB
B
u 0 =
A
C B
D
P
P
0
0
P/EA
A
C
B
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

255
Continuity of displacement and rotation at point B:

BC AB
B B
u v = (e4.8.3)
BC AB
B B
v u 0 = =
BC AB
B B
u = u (e4.8.4)

Segment CD: Only one kinematic quantity is already known, i.e.
CD
D
u 0 = . Some of the remaining
unknown quantities can be determined and the rest of the unknowns are related as shown:

1
st
curvature area equation:
CD CD
D/C D C M/EI,CD
= = A u u u

CD CD
D C
= 0 u u (e4.8.5)
2
nd
curvature area equation:
CD CD CD
D/C D C C M/EI,CD D
t = v (v L) = A x + u

CD CD CD
D C C
v v L 0 u = (e4.8.6)
Axial strain area equation:
CD CD
D/C D C F/EA,CD
u = u u = A
( )
CD
C
P PL
0 u L
EA EA
| |
= =
|
\ .

CD
C
PL
u
EA
= Downward

Continuity of displacement and rotation at point C:

BC CD
C C
u v = (e4.8.7)
BC CD
C C
PL
v u
EA
= =
BC CD
C C
u = u (e4.8.8)

Segment BC: Two kinematic quantities are already known, i.e.
BC
B
v 0 = and
BC
C
v PL/EA = . Some of
the remaining unknown quantities can be determined and the rest of the unknowns are related as
shown:

2
nd
curvature area equation:
BC BC BC
C/B C B B M/EI,BC C
t = v (v L) = A x + u

BC
B
PL
0 L 0
EA
u =
BC
B
P
EA
u = CW
1
st
curvature area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B M/EI,BC
= = A u u u

BC
C
P
= 0
EA
u +
BC
C
P
EA
u = CW
Axial strain area equation:
BC BC
C/B C B F/EA,BC
u = u u = A

BC BC
C B
u u 0 = (e4.8.9)

From
BC
B
P/EA u = and the continuity condition (e4.8.4), we then have

AB
B
P

EA
u = CW

From
AB
B
P/EA u = ,
AB
A
v = 0 and equations (e4.8.1) and (e4.8.2), we obtain
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

256
AB
A
P

EA
u = CW ,
AB
B
PL
v
EA
= Rightward

From
AB
B
v PL/EA = , the continuity condition (e4.8.3) and the relation (e4.8.9), we get

BC
B
PL
u
EA
= Rightward ,
BC
C
PL
u
EA
= Rightward

From
BC
C
u PL/EA = ,
BC
C
P/EA u = , and the continuity conditions (e4.8.7) and (e4.8.8), we get

CD
C
PL
v
EA
= Rightward ,
CD
C
P

EA
u = CW

Finally, we return to the relations (e4.8.5) and (e4.8.6) and then obtain

CD
D
v 0 = ,
CD
D
P

EA
u = CW

It is worth noting that the displacement and rotation of this particular structure are due only to the
axial deformation. The curvature area method developed previously without consideration of the
axial deformation predicts no displacement and rotation due to the vertical concentrated load P
acting to the point C.

1. Use the method of curvature (moment) area to determine the displacement and rotation at points
indicated in the figure below. In the calculations, only bending deformation is considered and
Young's modulus and moment of inertia of the cross section are assumed to be constant
throughout the structures and denoted by E and I, respectively.

Exercises
A
C
B D
q
qL
L L 2L
P
PL
L L L L
A C
B D
E
P 2P
L 2L L
A
B C
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

257

PL
P
2L
L
L
L L
L
L
2L
A
B C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
D
C
P
q
L L
L
q
A
B
C
L L
L
q
L L
L
A
B
C D
P
A
B
C D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

258
2. Rework problem 1 by taking the axial deformation into account in the calculation of the
displacement and rotation.

3. Determine the magnitude of the force P to introduce a gap A
o
(measured in the direction of the
applied force) between the two ends of structures shown below. Assume that the Young's
modulus, the moment of inertia, and the cross sectional area are constant throughout the structure
and denoted by E, I, and A, respectively. Compare results between following two cases: the first
case considering only bending effect and the other considering both bending and axial effects.

4. Consider a statically determinate beam subjected to external applied load as shown below. The
beam consists of three segments; the segments AB and CD are made of the same material of
Youngs modulus E and the same moment of inertia I and the segment BC is assumed to be
rigid, i.e. EI . Determine the displacement and rotation at points A, B, C and D.

5. Consider the following simply supported beams subjected to end moments as shown below. For
each structure, develop the relation between the applied end moments and the end rotations in
the matrix form:

1 11 12 1
2 21 22 2
f f M
f f M
u (
=
` `
(
u
) )

where {M
1
, u
1
} are applied moment and rotation at the left end; {M
2
, u
2
} are applied moment
and rotation at the right end; and f
11
, f
12
, f
21
, f
22
are entries of the flexibility matrix. The bending
moment and the rotation are considered to be positive when they direct in a counterclockwise
direction.

L L
2L
P P
L L
2L
P
P
60
o
60
o

P P
L
60
o
60
o

P
P
L
L L
2L
A
B C
D
EI
L
M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Method of Curvature (Moment) Area

259

oEI
L/2
EI
L/2
EI
L/2
EI
L/2
EI
L/3
EI
L/3 L/3
EI
EI
L/2
EI
L/2
EI
L/2
EI
L/2
k
k
M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

oEI
L/3
EI
L/3 L/3
EI
M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

EI
L/3
EI
L/3
k
M
1
, u
1
M
2
, u
2

k
EI
L/3
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Method of Curvature (Moment) Area Jaroon Rungamornrat

260
6. Consider a beam of length L and moment of inertia I and made from an elastic material of
Youngs modulus E. This beam is placed on a rigid and frictionless floor as shown in the figure
below. Beside its uniform weight per length w, the beam is also subjected to end moment M.
Determine the length of a contact region between the beam and the floor, the displacement and
rotation at a point where the moment is applied, and the maximum moment M that reduces the
contact length to zero.

EI, w
L
M
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

261
CHAPTER 5

CONJUGATE STRUCTURE ANALOGY

As be apparent from the previous chapter, the method of curvature (moment) area experiences
difficulty when it is applied to rigid frames containing members that are neither aligned with nor
perpendicular to the global coordinate axes. This is due to that the curvature area and length
constraint equations are expressed in terms of transverse and longitudinal components of the
displacement and, as a result, the continuity of the displacement at nodes joining those members
cannot be enforced easily but involves the coordinate transformation. Moreover, the curvature area
equations derived previously are strictly for a straight segment containing no internal release (e.g.,
hinges); this restriction limits the choice of segments used in the analysis (i.e., only straight
segments containing no interior internal release can be chosen) and, for various cases, it renders the
calculation of quantities of interest inefficient.
To remove such limitations, the method of curvature area can be generalized to be capable
of to treat both a segment consisting of multiple, non-aligned sub-segments and a segment
containing the internal moment releases (i.e., hinges). In addition to their enhanced features, an
analogy can be established to interpret those equations in a simpler and more familiar fashion.
Specifically, the curvature area equations and the length constraint equation can simply be viewed
as static equilibrium equations of a fictitious structure, termed a conjugate structure, under a
specific set of loadings. This method has been recognized from such analogy as the method of
conjugate structure analogy. In following sections, we first present the conjugate analogy for a
horizontal, straight segment that can be applied to solve beams, then the analogy is generalized for a
straight segment of arbitrary orientation with a direct application to rigid frames, and finally, a
segment consisting of multiple straight sub-segments and containing hinges are treated. To clearly
demonstrate the technique and its capability, various examples involving both beams and rigid
frames are included.

5.1 Conjugate Structure Analogy for Horizontal Segment

Consider a horizontal, straight segment AB of length L
AB
and rigidity EI as shown schematically in
Figure 5.1. Recalling results from the previous chapter, the end rotations {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u }, the end
longitudinal displacements {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u }, and the end transverse displacements {
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } of the
segment are related through the first and second curvature area equations and the length constraint
equation:

AB AB
B A M/EI,AB
A 0 u u = (5.1)

AB AB AB
B A A AB M/EI,AB B
v v L A x 0 u = (5.2)

AB AB
B A
u u = 0 (5.3)

where A
M/EI,AB
denotes the area of curvature diagram (i.e., M/EI diagram) over the segment AB and
B
x is the distance, measured along the undeformed axis of the segment, from the end B to the
centroid of the curvature diagram.
To construct the analogy, let us consider the following thought process. Imagine that we
have a fictitious segment AB which has identical geometry to that of the real segment AB and is
subjected to the following set of fictitious loadings: (i) a force of value
AB
A
u acting at the end A in
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

262
the positive Z-direction and a force of value
AB
B
u acting at the end B in the negative Z-direction; (ii)
a moment of value
AB
A
u acting at the end A in the positive X-direction and a moment of value
AB
B
u
acting at the end B in the negative X-direction; (iii) a moment of value
AB
A
v acting at the end A in
the positive Y-direction and a moment of value
AB
B
v acting at the end B in the negative Y-direction;
and (iv) a force of value A
M/EI,AB
acting at the centroid of the curvature diagram in the positive Z-
direction. The corresponding free body diagram of this segment is shown in Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.1: Schematic of deformed and undeformed configurations of horizontal straight segment
AB and its curvature diagram

Figure 5.2: Schematic of conjugate structure of horizontal straight segment AB shown in Figure 5.1
AB
A
u B
A
B
A
X
Y
AB
B
u
AB
A
v
AB
B
v
AB
A

AB
B

L
AB

M/EI
B
x
A
x
AB
A
u
B A
X
Y
AB
B
u
AB
A
v
AB
B
v
AB
A

AB
B

L
AB

B
x
A
x
M/EI,AB
A
P
P
x
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

263
By considering static equilibrium of the fictitious segment AB shown in Figure 5.2, it requires that

Z
F = 0
AB AB
A M/EI,AB B
A = 0 u + u (5.4)

YB
M = 0
AB AB AB
A A AB M/EI,AB B B
v L A x v 0 + u + = (5.5)

XB
M = 0
AB AB
A B
u u = 0 (5.6)

It is important to emphasize that the sign convention of all quantities appearing in (5.4)-(5.6) follow
exactly that employed in the method of curvature area. For instance, the end longitudinal
displacement, the end transverse displacement and the end rotations are positive if they direct in the
positive coordinate directions.
By comparing a set of two curvature area equations and a length constraint equation (5.1)-
(5.3) of the real segment AB and a set of three equilibrium equations (5.4)-(5.6) of the fictitious
segment AB, we can deduce the following three correspondences:

The first curvature area equation of the real segment is identical to the equilibrium
equation of forces in the Z-direction of the fictitious segment.
The second

curvature area equation of the real segment is identical to the equilibrium
equation of moments in the Y-direction of the fictitious segment.
The length constraint equation of the real segment is identical to the equilibrium equation
of moments in the X-direction of the fictitious segment.

These three correspondences form the well-known conjugate structure analogy and the fictitious
segment subjected to a set of fictitious loadings is known as the conjugate structure. This conjugate
structure analogy provides a useful, convenient and systematic means to set up three equations
relating the longitudinal and transverse displacements and the rotation at both ends of the real
segment to the curvature diagram without geometric consideration (no need to sketch the elastic or
deformed curve of the structure). The key step of the analogy is to establish the correct conjugate
structure and the remaining task only involves setting static equilibrium equations of that conjugate
structure.
It is worth noting that a reference point used to form the moment equilibrium equation in the
Y-direction is not restricted to the end B. Other points (e.g. end A and any interior point of the
segment) can be chosen as the reference point and the resulting moment equilibrium equation is in
fact a linear combination of (5.4) and (5.5) or, equivalently, a linear combination of (5.1) and (5.2).
To demonstrate this argument, let us form the moment equilibrium equation in the Y-direction
about an arbitrary point P (see Figure 5.2). The resulting moment equilibrium equation, upon
certain manipulations, is given by

YP
M = 0
AB AB AB AB
A A P M/EI,AB AB B P B B AB P
v x A (L x x ) v (L x ) 0 + u + u =

( )
AB AB AB AB AB
A A AB M/EI,AB B B P AB A M/EI,AB B
v L A x v (x L ) A 0 + u + + u + u = (5.7)

This is obviously the linear combination of (5.4) and (5.5). As a consequence, the moment
equilibrium equation (5.5) can be replaced, without loss, by equation (5.7). The flexibility to choose
an arbitrary reference point to form the moment equilibrium equation is useful in various situations;
in general, a reference point is commonly chosen in such a way that it reduces the number of
unknowns as many as possible.
Another important issue is the treatment of terms associated with the curvature diagram. As
evident from (5.1) and (5.2), the curvature at any point within the segment appears in terms of its
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

264
area and its moment of area about the end B. To facilitate the calculation of such terms, it is
common to decompose the curvature diagram into several sub-curvature diagrams whose area and
centroid can readily be determined and the total area and its moment of area about a particular point
can then be obtained from superposition:

i
M/EI,AB M/EI,AB
i
A = A

(5.8)

i
M/EI,AB B M/EI,AB Bi
i
A x (A x ) =

(5.9)

where
i
M/EI,AB
A is the area of the i
th
sub-curvature diagram and
Bi
x is the corresponding distance
from the end B to the centroid of the i
th
sub-curvature diagram. In the conjugate structure,
i
M/EI,AB
A is
treated as a force acting at the centroid of the i
th
sub-curvature diagram in the positive Z-direction
and, thus, terms on the right hand side of (5.8) and (5.9) represent the sum of those forces in the
positive Z-direction and the sum of moments produced by those forces in the Y-direction about the
end B. As a consequence, the decomposition of the curvature diagram does not change the analogy
established above except a slight modification of the free body diagram of the conjugate structure to
incorporate equivalent series of forces
i
M/EI,AB
A instead of a single force A
M/EI,AB
(see Figure 5.3).

Figure 5.3: Schematic of conjugate structure according to decomposition of total curvature diagram
into three sub-curvature diagrams

It is important to emphasize that the conjugate structure analogy established here alter
neither the meaning nor nature of the original curvature area equations and the length constraint
equation. It only offers a simpler interpretation in terms of equilibrium equations of a conjugate
system and we believe that forming equilibrium equations requires less memorization and intuition
than attempting to write the curvature area equations directly. This argument will be more apparent
when we deal with more complex segments.
The conjugate structure analogy developed above for a horizontal straight segment has a
direct application to deflection and rotation analysis of beams. For each segment chosen (e.g. a
AB
A
u
B A
X
Y
AB
B
u
AB
A
v
AB
B
v
AB
A

AB
B

L
AB

B2
x
2
M/EI,AB
A
B3
x
B1
x
1
M/EI,AB
A
3
M/EI,AB
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

265
segment AB), it involves six kinematical quantities {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } while only
three equilibrium equations (i.e.,
Z
F = 0 ,
YB
M = 0 ,
XB
M = 0 ) can be set up on the corresponding
conjugate segment. However, for statically stable beams, there must exist a point within the beam
that the horizontal movement is prevented (e.g. point A in beams shown in Figure 5.4); therefore,
by using the length constraint equation along with the continuity of the longitudinal displacement at
the node between two segments, it can readily be shown that the longitudinal displacement vanishes
at every point within the beam. As a result, a set of kinematical quantities for the segment AB
simply reduces to {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } and, at the same time, only two equilibrium equations (i.e.,
Z
F = 0 ,
YB
M = 0 ) need be set up on the corresponding conjugate segment. Similar to the method of
curvature area, a particular segment (say a segment AB) that contains only two kinematical
unknowns from a set {
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
B
v } must be chosen first in the analysis since these
unknowns can be solved directly from the two equilibrium equations of its conjugate segment. Once
the transverse displacement and the rotation at certain points are calculated, subsequent segments
connecting to one of those points can be chosen and the same procedure is applied until the
quantities of interest are obtained.

Figure 5.4: Schematic of statically stable beams and point A where horizontal movement is fully
prevented

To demonstrate how the conjugate structure analogy works and, more importantly, to adjust
ourselves to be familiar with this new technique and ready for further generalization, let us consider
following two examples.

Example 5.1 Consider a cantilever beam of length 2L and subjected to a concentrated force 2P at
the mid span and a concentrated moment PL at the tip as shown below. Determine the tip deflection
and the tip rotation of the beam using the conjugate structure analogy. The flexural rigidity of
segments AB and BC are 2EI and EI, respectively.

Solution Since the beam is statically determinate, sub-bending moment diagrams can readily be
constructed using superposition technique shown in section 4.4.1 of chapter 4. The corresponding
sub-curvature diagram can simply be obtained by dividing the sub-bending moment diagrams by
flexural rigidity of each segment. Obtained results are given below.
A
A
A
A
B
L
C
2P
PL
L
2EI EI
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

266

Since the beam is fully fixed at a point A, the deflection and rotation at that point vanish (i.e.,
A A
v 0 u = = ). The tip deflection and the tip rotation can then be obtained by considering the segment
AC (there are only two unknowns on this segment, i.e.,
AC
C
u and
AC
C
v ). A conjugate structure of the
segment AC is given below

where areas of the sub-curvature diagrams A
1
, A
2
, A
3
are given by

2
1
1 PL PL
A = L
2 EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .
;
2
2
PL PL
A = L
2EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .
;
2
3
PL PL
A = L
EI EI
| |
=
|
\ .

and these three forces are applied to the conjugate segment at X = L/3, L/2 and 3L/2, respectively.
From equilibrium of this conjugate structure, we then obtain

Z
F = 0 :
AC AC
A 1 2 3 C
A A A = 0 u + + + u
A
B
L
C
2P
PL
L
Sub-BMD
Sub-curvature diagram
PL/EI
PL/EI
PL PL
2PL
PL/2EI
L/2 L/2 L/3
A
1

A
2

A
3

AC
A
u 0 = C
A
X
Y
AC
C
u 0 =
AC
A
v 0 =
AC
C
v
AC
A
0 =
AC
C

L/2
1
A
L L/3 L/6
2
A
3
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
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267

2 2 2
AC
C
PL PL PL
0 = 0
2EI 2EI EI
+ + u
2
AC
C
PL

EI
u = CCW

YC
M = 0 :
AC AC AC
A A 1 2 3 C
v (2L) A (5L/3) A (3L/2) A (L/2) v 0 + u + + + =

2 2 2
AC
C
PL 5L PL 3L PL L
0 0(2L) v 0
2EI 3 2EI 2 EI 2
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
+ + + + =
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ .

3
AC
C
5PL
v
12EI
= Upward

Example 5.2 Consider a prismatic beam of constant flexural rigidity EI and subjected to loads as
shown below. Determine the deflection and rotation at point C.

Solution All support reactions, sub-bending moment diagrams and sub-curvature diagrams for the
given structure are shown below.

From the boundary conditions at points A and B, the deflections at those two points vanish (i.e.,
A B
v v 0 = = ). Thus, a segment AB will be considered first since it is the only segment that contains
2L
qL
2q
L
A
C B
EI
EI
Sub-BMD
Sub-curvature
diagram
3qL/2
7qL/2
4qL
2

qL
2

3qL
2

4qL
2
/EI
qL
2
/EI
3qL
2
/EI
A
1

A
2

A
3

L/3 L/2
2L/3
2L
qL
2q
L
A
C B
EI
EI
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

268
two kinematical unknowns at its ends (i.e.,
AB
A
u and
AB
B
u ). A conjugate structure of this segment is
shown below

where the areas of the sub-curvature diagrams A
1
and A
2
are given by

2 3
1
1 3qL 3qL
A = (2L)
2 EI EI
| |
=
|
\ .
;
2 3
2
1 4qL 8qL
A = (2L)
3 EI 3EI
| |
=
|
\ .

and these two forces are applied to the conjugate segment AB at X = 4L/3 and 3L/2, respectively.
From equilibrium of this conjugate structure, we then obtain

YB
M = 0 :
AB
A 1 2
(2L) A (2L/3) A (L/2) 0 u + + =

3 3
AB
A
3qL 2L 8qL L
(2L) 0
EI 3 3EI 2
| | | |
| | | |
u + + =
| | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

3
AB
A
qL

3EI
u = CW

Z
F = 0 :
AB AB
A 1 2 B
A A = 0 u + + u

3 3 3
AB
B
qL 3qL 8qL
= 0
3EI EI 3EI
+ u
AB
B
0 u =

Now, the deflection and rotation at points A and B are completely known. To compute the
displacement and rotation at point C, we consider next a segment BC. The corresponding conjugate
segment is shown below.

B
X
Y
L/2 4L/3 L/6
AB
B
u 0 =
AB
B
v 0 =
AB
B

AC
A
u 0 = A
AB
A
v 0 =
AB
A

1
A
2
A
C
X
Y
L/3 2L/3
BC
C
u 0 =
BC
C
v
BC
C

BC
B
u 0 = B
BC
B
v
BC
B

3
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

269
where the area of the sub-curvature diagram A
3
is given by

2 3
3
1 qL qL
A = (L)
2 EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .

and the end displacement
BC
B
v and the end rotation
BC
B
u are known from the continuity of
displacement and rotation at point B, i.e.,
BC AB
B B
v v 0 = = and
BC AB
B B
0 u = u = . Enforcing equilibrium of

Z
F = 0 :
BC BC
B 3 C
+ A = 0 u u

3
BC
C
qL
0 = 0
2EI
u
3
BC
C
qL

2EI
u = CW

YC
M = 0 :
BC BC BC
B B 3 C
v (L) A (2L/3) v 0 + u + =

3
BC
C
qL 2L
0 0(L) v 0
2EI 3
| |
| |
+ + =
| |
\ .
\ .

4
BC
C
qL
v
3EI
= Downward

It is remarked that the segment AC can also be chosen to calculate the displacement and rotation at
point C; however, the segment BC was selected in this calculation since it involves less
computation.

Example 5.3 Consider a statically determinate beam of length 3L and subjected to external applied
load as shown below. The flexural rigidity of segments AB and BC are denoted by 2EI and EI,
respectively. Determine the deflection at point B, the relative hinge rotation, and the rotation at
point C.

Solution All support reactions, sub-bending moment diagrams and sub-curvature diagrams for the
given structure are shown below. From boundary conditions at points A and C, we
obtain
A C A
v v 0 = = u = . Therefore, a segment AB will be considered first since it is the only segment
that contains two kinematical unknowns at its ends (i.e.,
AB
B
v and
AB
B
u ). It is important to emphasize
that the segment AC is not allowed to be used in the analysis since the analogy developed above
still applies only to a straight segment containing no interior hinge; this restriction will be later
removed. A conjugate structure of the segment AB is shown below where areas of the sub-
curvature diagrams A
1
and A
2
are given by

2 3
1
1 4qL 8qL
A = (2L)
3 3EI 9EI
| |
=
|
\ .
;
2 3
2
1 2qL 2qL
A = (2L)
2 3EI 3EI
| |
=
|
\ .

and these two forces are applied to the conjugate segment AB at X = L/2 and 2L/3, respectively
2L
qL
2

q
A
C
B
3EI
EI
L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

270

From equilibrium of the conjugate structure, we then obtain

Z
F = 0 :
AB AB
A 1 2 B
A A = 0 u + + u

3 3
AB
B
8qL 2qL
0 = 0
9EI 3EI
+ u

3
AB
B
2qL
9EI
u = CW

YB
M = 0 :
AB AB AB
A A 1 2 B
v (2L) A (3L/2) A (4L/3) v 0 + u + + =

3 3
AB
B
8qL 3L 2qL 4L
0 0(2L) v 0
9EI 2 3EI 3
| | | |
| | | |
+ + + =
| | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

4
AB
B
4qL
v
9EI
= Downward
B
X
Y
4L/3 L/2
AB
B
u 0 =
AB
B
v
AB
B

AB
A
u 0 = A
AB
A
v 0 =
AB
A
0 =
1
A
2
A
L/6
2L
qL
2

2q
A
C
B
3EI
EI
L
3qL
qL
2qL
2

Sub-BMD
Sub-curvature diagram
4qL
2

2qL
2

A
2

qL
2

4qL
2
/3EI
2qL
2
/3EI
qL
2
/EI
A
1

A
3

L/2 L/3 4L/3
L/6
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

271
From continuity of the displacement at point B, we can deduce that
BC AB 4
B B
v v 4qL / 9EI = = .
However, the rotation
BC
B
u is in general not equal to
AB
B
u due to the presence of a hinge at point B.
To compute the rotation at point just to the right of a hinge and the rotation at point C, let us
consider a segment BC. This segment contains only two unknowns (i.e.,
BC
B
u and
BC
C
u ) and its
conjugate structure is shown below

where the area of the sub-curvature diagram A
3
is given by

2 3
3
1 qL qL
A = (L)
2 EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .

and this force is applied to the conjugate segment at X = 2L/3. Enforcing equilibrium of this
conjugate structure yields

YC
M = 0 :
BC BC BC
B B 3 C
v (L) A (L/3) v 0 + u + =

4 3
BC
B
4qL qL L
(L) 0 0
9EI 2EI 3
| |
| |
+ u + =
| |
\ .
\ .

3
BC
B
11qL

18EI
u = CCW

Z
F = 0 :
BC BC
B 3 C
+ A = 0 u u

3 3
BC
C
11qL qL
= 0
18EI 2EI
u
3
BC
C
qL

9EI
u = CCW

The relative hinge rotation at point B, denoted by
B
, now becomes

3 3 3
BC AB
B B B
11qL 2qL 5qL

18EI 9EI 6EI
| |
= u u = =
|
\ .
CCW

5.2 Conjugate Structure Analogy for Horizontal Segment with
Hinges

In this section, we generalize the conjugate structure analogy to be capable of to treat a horizontal
straight segment containing interior hinges. This generalization will enhance the flexibility of
choosing the segments in the analysis and, for various situations, it significantly reduces the
C
X
Y
2L/3 L/3
BC
C
u 0 =
BC
C
v 0 =
BC
C

BC
B
u 0 = B
4
BC
B
4qL
v
9EI
=
BC
B

3
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

272
computational effort. For instance, it will allow the segment AC in Example 5.3 be chosen in the
analysis.
Consider a horizontal, straight segment AB containing an interior hinge at point C as shown
schematically in Figure 5.5. To construct an analogy for the segment AB, we first divide it into a
sub-segment AC and a sub-segment CB. Since both sub-segments contain a hinge only at their end,
analogy established in section 5.1 applies and the conjugate structures of these two sub-segments
are shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.5: Schematic of deformed and undeformed configurations of horizontal straight segment
AB containing hinge at point C and its curvature diagram

By applying the conjugate structure analogy to the segment AC, we then obtain following
three relations among the end displacements and end rotations

Z
F = 0
AC AC
A M/EI,AC C
A = 0 u + u (5.10)

YB
M = 0
AC AC AC AC
A A AB M/EI,AC C CB C CB C
v L A (x L ) L v 0 + u + + u = (5.11)

XB
M = 0
AC AC
A C
u u = 0 (5.12)

Note that the reference point used for taking moment is chosen to be point B (which is out of the
segment AC) for convenience in further development. Similarly, the conjugate structure analogy of
the segment CB yields

Z
F = 0
CB CB
C M/EI,CB B
A = 0 u + u (5.13)

YB
M = 0
CB CB CB
C C CB M/EI,CB B B
v L A x v 0 + u + = (5.14)

XB
M = 0
CB CB
C B
u u = 0 (5.15)

By invoking the continuity of the deflection at point C and denoting the relative hinge rotation at
this point by
C
Au , we obtain the following three relations:
AC
A
u
C
A
C
A
X
Y
CB
B
u
AC
A
v
CB
B
v
AC
A

AC
C

L
AC

M/EI
C
x
CB
C

C
A
AC CB
C C
u u =
AC CB
C C
v v =
CB
B

L
CB

B
x
B
B
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

273

Figure 5.6: Schematic of conjugate structures of segment AC, segment CB and isolated point C

CB AC
C C C
= u u Au (5.16)

CB AC
C C
v v = (5.17)

CB AC
C C
u u = (5.18)

To construct an analogy for the relations (5.16)-(5.18), let us imagine that a point C (which is a
point connecting a conjugate segment AC and a conjugate segment CB) is subjected to a
concentrated force of value
C
Au in the positive Z-direction. A free body diagram of this point is
shown in Figure 5.6. It is apparent that the relations (5.16), (5.17) and (5.18) are identical to
equilibrium equations
Z
F = 0 ,
YC
M = 0,
XC
M = 0 of the isolated point C, respectively.
The conjugate segment AC and the conjugate segment CB can then be combined into a
single conjugate segment AB at point C via the use of Newtons third law. The resulting conjugate
segment AB is shown in Figure 5.7. Without loss, we replace the superscript C of quantities {
AC
A
v ,
AC
A
u ,
AC
A
u } by the superscript B and quantities {
CB
B
v ,
CB
B
u ,
CB
B
u } by the superscript A to be consistent
with the name of the segment. By combining equations (5.10), (5.13) and (5.16), it yields an
equation identical to the equilibrium equation of forces in the Z-direction of the conjugate segment
AB, i.e.,

Z
F = 0
AB AB
A M/EI,AC M/EI,CB C B
A A = 0 u + + + Au u (5.19)
CB
C
B
C
Y
CB
B
u
CB
C
v
CB
B
v
CB
C

CB
B

L
CB

B
x
M/EI,CB
A
AC
A
u C
A
X
AC
C
u
AC
A
v
AC
C
v
AC
A

AC
C

L
AC

C
x
M/EI,AC
A
AC
C
u
AC
C
v
AC
C

CB
C
u
CB
C
v
CB
C

C
A
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

274

Figure 5.7: Schematic of conjugate structure of segment AB

Similarly, by combining equations (5.11), (5.14) and (5.17), it yields an equation identical to the
equilibrium equation of moments in the Y-direction about point B of the conjugate segment AB, i.e.

YB
M = 0
AB AB AB
A A AB M/EI,AC C CB M/EI,CB B C CB B
v L A (x L ) A x L v 0 + u + + + + Au = (5.20)

Finally, by combining equations (5.12), (5.15) and (5.18), it yields an equation identical to the
equilibrium equation of moments in the X-direction about point B of the conjugate segment AB, i.e.

XB
M = 0
AB AB
A B
u u = 0 (5.21)

Note that the explicit equations appearing in (5.19) and (5.20) can be considered as the first and
second curvature area equations for a horizontal, straight segment containing a hinge at point C
whereas the explicit equation appearing in (5.21) represents the length constraint equation. The
established correspondence indicates that an analogy between a set of curvature area equations and
length constraint equation and a set of equilibrium equations set up on the conjugate structure still
exists for a straight segment containing a hinge. The conjugate structure for this particular case is
constructed exactly in the same way as that for a segment containing no hinge except at the hinge
location where the unknown force equal to the relative hinge rotation is applied in the positive Z-
direction. It is worth noting that a reference point chosen to form the moment equilibrium equations
(5.20) and (5.21) is arbitrary; other points besides the point B can also be chosen to form a set of
equations equivalent to (5.19)-(5.21).
Although the analogy is established only for a segment containing only one hinge, it also
applies to a segment containing multiple hinges. The only slight modification that must be made is
to include unknown forces equal to relative hinge rotations at all locations in the conjugate structure
that coincide with the hinge locations. Finally, we remark that the correspondence or conjugate
structure analogy established here offers two attractive features: one associated with the
enhancement of flexibility to choose a segment containing hinges in the analysis and the other
corresponding to the simplicity of forming the first and second curvature area equations (e.g.
equations (5.19) and (5.20)), which can possibly be very complex for a segment containing multiple
hinges, by simply writing down equilibrium equations of the conjugate segment.

Example 5.4 Repeat the problem in Example 5.3
Solution In Example 5.3, the segments AB and BC were considered separately due to the limitation
of the analogy established in the section 5.1. Let us investigate this problem again by using the
enhanced feature of the analogy established in the section 5.2.
C
A
AB
A
u
C
A
AB
A
v
AB
A

M/EI,AC
A
B
AB
B
u
AB
B
v
AB
B

M/EI,CB
A
X
Y
L
CB

B
x
C
x
L
AC

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

275
Consider the entire beam as a single segment that contains a hinge at point B. A conjugate
structure of this segment is shown below. Clearly, this segment contains only two unknowns, i.e.,
AC
C
u and
B
Au , and they can be solved from two equilibrium equations of the conjugate structure as
follow:

YC
M = 0 :
AC AC AC
A A 1 2 3 B C
v (3L) A (5L/2) A (7L/3) A (L/3) (L) v 0 + u + + + + Au =

3 3 3
B
8qL 5L 2qL 7L qL L
0 0(3L) (L) 0 0
9EI 2 3EI 3 2EI 3
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
+ + + + + Au =
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ .
\ . \ . \ .

3
B
5qL

6EI
Au = CCW

Z
F = 0 :
AC AC
A 1 2 3 B C
A A A = 0 u + + + + Au u

3 3 3 3
AC
C
8qL 2qL qL 5qL
0 0
9EI 3EI 2EI 6EI
+ + u =
3
AC
C
qL

9EI
u = CCW

The deflection at point B can further be computed from either a conjugate segment AB or a
conjugate segment BC. It is obvious that if the relative hinge rotation at point B is of interest,
consideration of a single segment AC directly yields this unknown quantity.

Example 5.5 Consider a continuous beam subjected to external loads as shown below. Determine
the relative hinge rotation at point C.

Solution Since a given structure is statically determinate, all support reactions, sub-bending
moment diagrams and sub-curvature diagrams can readily be obtained from static equilibrium with
the results shown below.
B
Y
4L/3 L/2
AC
A
u 0 = A
AC
A
v 0 =
AC
A
0 =
1
A
2
A
C
X
2L/3 L/3
AC
C
u 0 =
AC
C
v 0 =
AC
C

B
A
3
A
L/6
L/2
qL
q
2L/3
A
C
B
2EI 2EI
L/3
EI
L/2
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

276

From boundary conditions at points A, B and C, we obtain
A B D
v v v 0 = = = . Therefore, a segment
AB will be considered first in the analysis since it contains only two unknowns (i.e.,
AB
A
u and
AB
B
u ).
A conjugate structure of this segment is shown below. Areas of the sub-curvature diagrams A
1
and
A
2
are given by

2 3
1
1 qL qL
A = (L)
2 3EI 6EI
| |
=
|
\ .
;
2 3
2
1 qL L qL
A =
2 2EI 2 8EI
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

where these two forces are applied to the conjugate structure at X = 2L/3 and 5L/6, respectively.

B
X
Y
L/6 L/6
AB
B
u 0 =
AB
B
v 0 =
AB
B

AB
A
u 0 = A
AB
A
v 0 =
AB
A

1
A
2
A
2L/3
L/2
2qL
3q
2L/3
A
C
B
2EI 2EI
L/3
EI
L/2
qL
Sub-curvature diagram
qL
2
/6EI
7qL/3
2qL/3
Sub-BMD
2qL
2
/3
qL
2

qL
2
/3
qL
2
/6
A
3

qL
2
/6EI
qL
2
/3EI
qL
2
/2EI
A
4

A
1

A
2

L/2 L/6 L/6 L/6 L/9 2L/9 L/3 L/3
D
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

277
Enforcing equilibrium of this conjugate structure yields

YB
M = 0 :
AB AB AB
A A 1 2 B
v (L) A (L/3) A (L/6) v 0 + u + + =

3 3
AB
A
qL L qL L
0 (L) 0 0
6EI 3 8EI 6
| | | |
| | | |
+ u + + =
| | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

3
AB
A
5qL

144EI
u = CW

Z
F = 0 :
AB AB
A 1 2 B
+ A + A = 0 u u

3 3 3
AB
B
5qL qL qL
+ = 0
144EI 6EI 8EI
u
3
AB
B
qL

144EI
u = CCW

With use of continuity of the rotation at point B (i.e.,
BD AB 3
B B
qL / 144EI u = u = ), the relative hinge
rotation at point C can now be computed from the segment BD since it contains only two unknowns
(i.e.,
C
Au and
BD
D
u ). The conjugate structure of the segment BD is shown below and areas of the
sub-curvature diagrams A
3
and A
4
are given by

2 3
3
1 qL L qL
A =
2 6EI 3 36EI
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .
;
2 3
4
2 qL 2L 2qL
A =
3 6EI 3 27EI
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .

where these two forces are applied to the conjugate structure at X = L/9 and 2L/3, respectively.

Enforcing equilibrium of this conjugate structure yields

YD
M = 0 :
BD BD BD
B B 3 4 C D
v (L) A (8L/9) A (L/3) (2L/3) v 0 + u + + + Au =

3 3 3
C
qL qL 8L 2qL L
0 (L) (2L/3) 0 0
144EI 36EI 9 27EI 3
| | | | | |
| | | |
+ + + + Au =
| | | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ . \ .

3
C
qL

96EI
Au = CW

Z
F = 0 :
BD BD
B 3 4 C D
+ A + A = 0 u + Au u

3 3 3 3
BD
D
qL qL 2qL qL
= 0
144EI 36EI 27EI 96EI
+ u
3
BD
D
37qL

864EI
u = CCW
D
X
Y
L/3 L/3
BD
D
u 0 =
BD
D
v 0 =
BD
D

BD
B
u 0 = B
BD
B
v 0 =
BD
B

3
A
4
A
L/9
C
C
A
2L/9
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

278
5.3 Conjugate Structure Analogy for Inclined Segment

The conjugate structure analogy developed in above two sections has a direct application to analysis
of deflection and rotation of beams. The end displacements appearing in the conjugate structure (or,
equivalently, in the curvature area equations and the length constraint equation) are in terms of the
longitudinal and transverse components or, equivalently, based on a local coordinate system of a
member. This therefore poses some difficulty when the analogy is applied to analyze rigid frames
that generally contain members with various orientations. More precisely, the difficulty is
associated with the enforcement of continuity of the displacement at the joint connecting two
segments of different orientation; such continuity relation may not be easily obtained via visual
inspection but required a law of coordinate transformation.
In this section, we generalize the conjugate structure analogy well-suited for treatment of a
straight segment of arbitrary orientation. The main task is to add another feature of the analogy by
changing a local reference coordinate system to a global reference coordinate system. Once all
displacement components are expressed based on a single global coordinate system, the continuity
at the inter-boundary of members can easily be handled.
Let us consider a straight segment AB of length L
AB
and oriented with an angle | to the
global X-axis as shown schematically in Figure 5.8 along with its curvature diagram (M/EI
diagram). The end displacements and rotations referring to the member local coordinate system and
the global coordinate system are denoted by {
AB
A
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } and {
AB
A
U ,
AB
A
V ,
AB
A
O ,
AB
B
U ,
AB
B
V ,
AB
B
O }, respectively.

Figure 5.8: Schematic of deformed and undeformed configurations of inclined straight segment AB
and its curvature diagram
AB
A
u
AB
B
u
AB
A
v
AB
B
v
AB AB
A A
O =
AB AB
B B
O =
B
x
A
x
B
A
B
A
L
AB

x
y
|
X
Y

M
/
E
I

AB
A
U
AB
B
U
AB
A
V
AB
B
V
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

279
Based on a local coordinate system, the conjugate structure analogy established in section 5.1 still
applies, i.e.,

z
F = 0
AB AB
B A M/EI,AB
A 0 u u = (1
st
curvature area equation) (5.22)

yB
M = 0
AB AB AB
B A A AB M/EI,AB B
v v L A x 0 u = (2
nd
curvature area equation) (5.23)

xB
M = 0
AB AB
B A
u u = 0 (Length constraint equation) (5.24)

From a law of coordinate transformation, the end displacements and end rotations {
AB
A
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } and {
AB
A
U ,
AB
A
V ,
AB
A
O ,
AB
B
U ,
AB
B
V ,
AB
B
O } are related by

AB AB
A A
O = u (5.25a)

AB AB AB
A A A
U u cos v sin = | | (5.25b)

AB AB AB
A A A
V v cos u sin = | + | (5.25c)

AB AB
B B
O = u (5.26a)

AB AB AB
B B B
U u cos v sin = | | (5.26b)

AB AB AB
B B B
V v cos u sin = | + | (5.26c)

Note that the end rotations based on the local and global coordinate systems are identical since both
the Z-axis and z-axis are coincident. By applying the coordinate transformation (5.25)-(5.26) to the
first and second curvature area equations and the length constraint equation, it leads to an equivalent
set of three equations

AB AB
B A M/EI,AB
A 0 O O = (5.27)

AB AB AB
B A A AB M/EI,AB B
U U L sin A x sin 0 + u | + | = (5.28)

AB AB AB
B A A AB M/EI,AB B
V V L cos A x cos 0 u | | = (5.29)

More precisely, equation (5.27) is simply obtained by applying (5.25a) and (5.26a) into the first
curvature area equation (5.22); equation (5.28) is obtained by first calculating the linear
combination (5.24)cos| (5.23)sin| and then applying (5.25b) and (5.26b); and equation (5.29)
is obtained by first calculating the linear combination (5.24)sin| + (5.23)cos| and then applying
(5.25c) and (5.26c). Equations (5.27)-(5.29) can be termed the first, second and third curvature area
equations for inextensible segment in global coordinate system, respectively. As is evident from
(5.27)-(5.29), the curvature area equations consisting of several terms and their form is more
complex than that appearing in (5.1)-(5.3).
To avoid memorization of (5.27)-(5.29), a conjugate structure analogy can also be
established in a similar fashion to the case of a horizontal straight segment. Based on a local
coordinate system, a conjugate segment for the segment AB can be obtained using the analogy
developed in section 5.1 and such conjugate segment is shown in Figure 5.9. It is worth noting that
all forces applied to this conjugate structure are in the Z-direction while moments are either in the x-
direction or the y-direction. To establish an equivalent conjugate structure based on the global
coordinate system, all local components of forces and moments applied to the conjugate structure
shown in Figure 5.9 are transformed to global components using the same law of transformation
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

280
(5.25)-(5.26) and such global conjugate structure is shown in Figure 5.10. In this global conjugate
structure,
AB
A
O represents a force acting at the end A in the positive Z-direction,
AB
B
O represents a
force acting at the end B in the negative Z-direction,
M/EI,AB
A represents a force acting at the
centroid of M/EI diagram in the positive Z-direction,
AB
A
U represents a moment acting at the end A
in the positive X-direction,
AB
A
V represents a moment acting at the end A in the positive Y-direction,
AB
B
U represents a moment acting at the end B in the negative X-direction, and
AB
B
V represents a
moment acting at the end B in the negative Y-direction. It is important to emphasize that forces and
moments acting at points A and B possess opposite directions. Clearly, forces and moments are
applied, in the positive coordinate directions, to the end of the segment located at the origin of the
local coordinate system and this end is termed the start point of the segment; in the contrary, forces
and moments are applied, in the negative coordinate directions, to the other end of the segment and,
later on, it is termed the end point of the segment.

Figure 5.9: Schematic of conjugate structure for inclined straight segment AB shown in Figure 5.8
based on local coordinate system

Figure 5.10: Schematic of conjugate structure for inclined straight segment AB shown in Figure 5.8
based on global coordinate system
AB
A
u
B
A
x
y
AB
B
u
AB
A
v
AB
B
v
AB
A

AB
B

L
AB

B
x
A
x
M/EI,AB
A
|
X
Y
AB
A
U
B
A
AB
B
U
AB
A
V
AB
B
V
AB
A
O
AB
B
O
L
AB

B
x
A
x
M/EI,AB
A
|
X
Y
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

281
Now, it is readily to construct the correspondences between a set of three curvature area
equations (5.27)-(5.29) and a set of equilibrium equations of the global conjugate structure shown in
Figure 5.10. From the direct correspondences (5.22)-(5.24) established in the local coordinate
system and the fact that the law of transformation (5.25) and (5.26) applies equally to the quantities
{
AB
A
u ,
AB
A
v ,
AB
A
u ,
AB
B
u ,
AB
B
v ,
AB
B
u } and quantities {
AB
A
U ,
AB
A
V ,
AB
A
O ,
AB
B
U ,
AB
B
V ,
AB
B
O } when they are
viewed as either the end displacements and rotations or a set of fictitious forces and moments, it can
be deduced that equations (5.27), (5.28) and (5.29) are in fact equilibrium of forces in the Z-
direction, equilibrium of moments in the X-direction, and equilibrium of moments in the Y-
direction, i.e.,

Z
F = 0
AB AB
B A M/EI,AB
A 0 O O = (5.30)

XB
M = 0
AB AB AB
B A A AB M/EI,AB B
U U L sin A x sin 0 + u | + | = (5.31)

YB
M = 0
AB AB AB
B A A AB M/EI,AB B
V V L cos A x cos 0 u | | = (5.32)

These correspondences can also be constructed directly by forming equilibrium equations
Z
F = 0 ,
XB
M = 0 and
YB
M = 0 of the conjugated structure shown in Figure 5.10. This obtained analogy
offers two advantageous features: (i) curvature area equations (5.27)-(5.29) can be formed in terms
of equilibrium equations of the conjugate structure and (ii) components of the end displacements
and rotations are based on the global coordinate system. The former feature helps to save the
memorization while the latter feature allows the continuity of the displacement and rotation at the
member inter-boundary be handled in a simple fashion.
While the above analogy is established based on the global coordinate system, need of a
local coordinate system for each segment is inherent in both the construction of the curvature
diagram (or, more directly, the bending moment diagram) and defining the start and end points of
the segment. It is clear that the local coordinate system for any segment can be uniquely defined
once the start point and end point of that segment are already chosen. To prevent any confusion, a
term segment AB is now used to mean a segment containing the start point and end point at A and
B, respectively. The local coordinate system can then automatically be generated as follow: the
origin is located at the start point A; the positive x-direction is chosen to point from A to B; the
positive z-direction is chosen to point outward; and the positive y-direction follows automatically
from the right hand rule.

Example 5.6 Use conjugate structure analogy established above to determine the displacement and
rotation at the free end C of a rigid frame under applied loads shown below. The flexural rigidity EI
is assumed to be constant throughout the structure.

L
P
A
C B EI
EI
2P
L
L
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

282
Solution Since a given structure is statically determinate, all support reactions, sub-bending
moment diagrams and sub-curvature diagrams for the segment AB and segment BC can readily be
obtained from static equilibrium and method of superposition with results shown below. It is
emphasized here again that the start point and end point of the two segments are already chosen and
clear from their name and, as a result, the corresponding local coordinate system for each segment is
also automatically defined.

Since the displacement and rotation are fully prescribed at the fixed support, the segment AB is
considered first in the analysis. This segment contains only three unknowns {
AB
B
U ,
AB
B
V ,
AB
B
O } and
its corresponding conjugate structure is shown below.

Areas of the sub-curvature diagrams A
1
and A
2
are given by

( )
2
1
1 3PL 3 2PL
A = 2L
2 EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .
;
( )
2
2
PL 2PL
A = 2L
EI EI
| |
=
|
\ .

where these two forces are applied to the conjugate structure as shown above. By considering
equilibrium of the conjugate structure AB, it leads to

Z
F = 0 :
AB AB
A 1 2 B
+ A + A = 0 O O
P
A
C B EI
EI
2P
2P
P
4PL PL
3PL
PL
PL/EI
3PL/EI
PL/EI
X
Y
L/3
1
A
2
A
L/3
AB
A
U 0 =
AB
A
V 0 =
AB
A
0 O =
AB
B
U
AB
B
V
AB
B
O
L/6
L/2
L/6
L/2
A
B
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

283

2 2
AB
B
3 2PL 2PL
0 0
2EI EI
O =
2
AB
B
5 2PL

2EI
O = CW

XB
M = 0 :
AB AB AB
A A 1 2 B
U (L) A (2L/3) A (L/2) U 0 O =

( )( )
2 2
AB
B
3 2PL 2L 2PL L
0 0 L U 0
2EI 3 EI 2
| | | |
| | | |
=
| |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

3
AB
B
3 2PL
U
2EI
= Rightward

YB
M = 0 :
AB AB AB
A A 1 2 B
V (L) A (2L/3) A (L/2) V 0 + O + + =

( )( )
2 2
AB
B
3 2PL 2L 2PL L
0 0 L V 0
2EI 3 EI 2
| | | |
| | | |
+ + + =
| |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

3
AB
B
3 2PL
V
2EI
= Downward

By enforcing continuity of the displacement and rotation at point B, we simply obtain the
displacement and rotation at the start point of the segment BC, i.e.,
BC AB 3
B B
U U 3 2PL /2EI = = ,
BC AB 3
B B
V V 3 2PL /2EI = = and
BC AB 2
B B
5 2PL /2EI O = O = . Now, the segment BC contains only three
unknowns and can therefore be used to compute the displacement and rotation at point C. The
conjugate structure of the segment BC is shown below and area of the sub-curvature diagram A
3
is
given by

( )
2
3
1 PL PL
A = L
2 EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .

By considering equilibrium of the conjugate structure BC, it leads to

Z
F = 0 :
BC BC
B 3 C
A = 0 O + O

2 2
BC
C
5 2PL PL
0
2EI 2EI
O =
2
BC
C
(5 2+1)PL

2EI
O = CW

XC
M = 0 :
BC BC
B C
U U 0 =

3
BC
C
3 2PL
U 0
2EI
=
3
BC
C
3 2PL
U
2EI
= Rightward

YC
M = 0 :
BC BC BC
B B 3 C
V (L) A (2L/3) V 0 + O + =
X
Y
3
A
L/3
BC
B
V
BC
B
U
BC
B
O
BC
C
V
BC
C
U
BC
C
O
2L/3
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

284
( )
3 2 2
BC
C
3 2PL 5 2PL PL 2L
L V 0
2EI 2EI 2EI 3
| | | |
| |
+ + =
| | |
|
\ .
\ . \ .

3
BC
C
(12 2+1)PL
V
3EI
= Downward

Example 5.7 Use conjugate structure analogy to determine the displacement and rotation at the
roller support and point C of a rigid frame due to applied loads shown below. The flexural rigidity
of columns and beam are given by 2EI and EI, respectively.

Solution Since a given frame is statically determinate, all support reactions, sub-bending moment
diagrams and sub-curvature diagrams for the segment AB, the segment BD and the segment DE
can be obtained from static equilibrium and method of superposition with results shown below.

L
P
A
C
B
2EI
2EI
3P
L
L
D
E
EI
3P
2P
P
A
C
B
2EI
2EI
3P
D
E
EI
P
4PL
PL
3PL
4PL/EI
PL/EI
3PL/2EI
A
C
B
D
E A
C
B
D
E
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

285
From boundary conditions at pinned and roller supports, we obtain
A A E
U V V 0 = = = . Due to the
limitation that a straight segment must be chosen in the analysis, there is no straight segment within
this particular structure that contains exactly three unknowns (i.e., the segment AB contains four
unknowns {
AB
A
O ,
AB
B
O ,
AB
B
U ,
AB
B
V }, the segment BD contains six unknowns {
BD
B
O ,
BD
B
U ,
BD
B
V ,
BD
D
O ,
BD
D
U ,
BD
D
V }, and the segment DE contains five unknowns {
DE
D
O ,
DE
D
U ,
DE
D
V ,
DE
E
O ,
DE
E
U }). To solve
for these unknowns, all three segments must be considered simultaneously. First, we construct
conjugate segments for the three segments AB, BD and DE as shown below.

The areas A
1
, A
2
and A
3
are given by

( )
2
1
1 3PL 3PL
A = L
2 2EI 4EI
| |
=
|
\ .
; ( )
2
2
1 PL PL
A = L
2 EI 2EI
| |
=
|
\ .
; ( )
2
3
1 4PL 4PL
A = 2L
2 EI EI
| |
=
|
\ .

Next, by considering equilibrium of moments in the Y-direction of the conjugate segment AB and
the conjugate segment DE, we then obtain

YA
M = 0 :
AB AB
A B
V V 0 =
AB AB
B A
V V 0 = =

YE
M = 0 :
DE DE
D E
V V 0 =
DE DE
D E
V V 0 = =

From continuity of the displacement at points B and D, we can readily obtain
BD AB
B B
V V 0 = = and
BD DE
D D
V V 0 = = . Now, the number of unknowns of the segment BD reduces from six to four and this
allows the end rotations {
BD
B
O ,
BD
D
O } be computed from equilibrium of moments in the Y-direction
and equilibrium of forces in the Z-direction as follow:

YD
M = 0 :
BD BD BD
B B 2 3 D
V (2L) A (5L/3) A (4L/3) V 0 + O + + =

X
Y
1
A
A
AB
A
V 0 =
AB
A
U 0 =
AB
A
O
AB
B
V
AB
B
U
AB
B
O
L/3
2
A
3
A
B
B D
D
E
BD
B
V
BD
B
U
BD
B
O
BD
D
V
BD
D
U
BD
D
O
DE
D
V
DE
D
U
DE
D
O
DE
E
V 0 =
DE
E
U
DE
E
O
L/3
2L/3
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

286

2 2
BD
B
PL 5L 4PL 4L
0 (2L) 0 0
2EI 3 EI 3
| | | |
| | | |
+ O + + =
| | | |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .

2
BD
B
9PL
4EI
O = CW

Z
F = 0 :
BD BD
B 2 3 D
A A = 0 O + + O

2 2 2
BD
D
9PL PL 4PL
0
4EI 2EI EI
+ O =
2
BD
D
5PL

4EI
O = CCW

From continuity of the rotation at point B, we simply obtain
AB BD 2
B B
9PL /4EI O = O = . Next, we move
to the conjugate segment AB. By considering equilibrium of forces in the Z-direction and
equilibrium of moments in the X-direction, it yields {
AB
A
O ,
AB
B
U }:

Z
F = 0 :
AB AB
A 1 B
A = 0 O + O

2 2
AB
A
3PL 9PL
0
4EI 4EI
| |
O + =
|
\ .

2
AB
A
3PL
EI
O = CW

XB
M = 0 :
AB AB AB
A A 1 B
U (L) A (L/3) U 0 O =

2 2
AB
B
3PL 3PL L
0 (L) U 0
EI 4EI 3
| | | |
| |
=
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .

3
AB
B
11PL
U
4EI
= Rightward

From continuity of the displacement in the horizontal direction at point B, we obtain
BD AB 3
B B
U U 11PL /4EI = = . Now, we return to the conjugate segment BD. The remaining unknown
BD
D
U
can readily be obtained from equilibrium of moments in the X-direction of this conjugate segment:

XB
M = 0 :
BD BD
B D
U U 0 =
3
BD BD
D B
11PL
U U
4EI
= = Rightward

To obtain the displacement and rotation at the roller support, we first enforce continuity of the
displacement and rotation at point D (i.e.,
DE BD 3
D D
U U 11PL /4EI = = and
DE BD 2
D D
5PL /4EI O = O = ) and
then consider equilibrium of forces in the Z-direction and equilibrium of moments in the X-
direction as shown below.

Z
F = 0 :
DE DE
D E
= 0 O O
2
DE DE
E D
5PL
4EI
O = O = CCW

XE
M = 0 :
DE DE DE
D D E
U (L) U 0 + O =

3 2
DE
E
11PL 5PL
(L) U 0
4EI 4EI
| |
+ =
|
\ .

3
DE
E
4PL
U
EI
= Rightward

The displacement and rotation at points A, B, D and E are now completely known. The
displacement and rotation at other points within the structure can therefore be obtained by
considering a straight segment containing one of these points as its end point.
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy

287
For example, the displacement and rotation of point C can be obtained by considering either a
segment BC or a segment CD. Here, we choose to consider a segment CD since it involves less
computational effort. The conjugate segment CD is shown below:

where A
4
is the area of curvature diagram over the segment CD which is equal to

( )
2
4
1 2PL PL
A = L
2 EI EI
| |
=
|
\ .

By considering equilibrium of the conjugate segment CD, we then obtain the displacement and
rotation at point C as follow:

Z
F = 0 :
CD CD
C 4 D
A = 0 O + O

2 2
CD
C
PL 5PL
0
EI 4EI
O + =
2
CD
C
PL

4EI
O = CCW

XD
M = 0 :
CD CD
C D
U U 0 =
3
CD CD
C D
11PL
U U
4EI
= = Rightward

YD
M = 0 :
CD CD CD
C C 4 D
V (L) A (2L/3) V 0 + O + =

2 2
CD
C
PL PL 2L
V (L) 0 0
4EI EI 3
| | | |
| |
+ + =
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .

2
CD
C
11PL
V
12EI
= Downward

5.4 Conjugate Structure Analogy for General Segment

In this section, we generalize the conjugate structure analogy established above for rigid frames to
enhance its capabilities to treat more general segments besides the straight segment. As apparent
from the Example 5.7, the restriction of the analogy to consider only straight segment poses some
difficulty in the analysis procedure. More precisely for this example, it is impossible to choose a
straight segment that contains only three kinematical unknowns at its end and this, therefore,
requires consideration of several conjugate segments simultaneously in order to solve for such
unknowns. Here, the analogy is extended for a segment that consists of multiple straight segments
whose axes may or may not be aligned and may contain interior hinges. This enhanced feature will
increase flexibility of the method to treat a broader class of conjugate segments. In particular, it may
increase the chance to find a starting segment that contains exactly three unknowns and this, as a
result, can avoid substantial calculations such as those required in the Example 5.7.
X
Y
L/3
4
A
C D
CD
C
V
CD
C
U
CD
C
O
BD
D
V
BD
D
U
BD
D
O
FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Conjugate Structure Analogy Jaroon Rungamornrat

288
Consider a non-straight segment P
1
P
4
that consists of three straight sub-segments P
1
P
2
, P
2
P
3

and P
3
P
4
and contains a hinge at point A
2
as shown in Figure 5.11. The orientation of the segments
P
1
P
2
, P
2
P
3
and P
3
P
4
with respect to the global coordinate system and their lengths are denoted by
angles {|
1
, |
2
, |
3
} and {L
12
, L
23
, L
34
}, respectively. Note that the orientation angle |
i
is positive if
the segment P
i
P
i+1
is oriented in the counter clockwise direction with respect to the X-direction;
otherwise it is negative. By following the same convention defined in section 5.3, points P
1
and P
4

of the non-straight segment P
1
P
4
are defined as its start point and end point, respectively. Similarly,
the start point and end point of the straight sub-segments P
1
P
2
, P
2
P
3
and P
3
P
4
are also implied
automatically from their name; for instance, the start point and end point of the sub-segment P
1
P
2

are P
1
and P
2
, respectively. It is worth noting again that the start point and end point of any segment
play a vital role in defining the sign convention of the curvature diagram and the direction of
fictitious forces and moments at the ends of the corresponding conjugate structure.

Figure 5.11: Schematic of a non-straight segment P
1
P
4
consisting of three straight segments P
1
P
2
,
P
2
P
3
and P
3
P
4
and containing hinge at point P
2

The curvature diagrams (or the M/EI-diagrams) for the entire segment P
1
P
4
are shown in
Figure 5.12. The areas of the curvature diagram over the sub-segments P
1
P
2
, P
2
P
3
and P
3
P
4
are
denoted by A
12
, A
23
and A
34
, respectively, and the distances from the start point and end point of
each segment to the centroid of curvature diagram are denoted by {
12
1
x ,
12
2
x }, {
23
2
x ,
23
3
x } and
{
34
3
x ,
34
4
x }, respectively.

Figure 5.12: Schematic of curvature diagram for non-straight segment shown in Figure 5.11
X
Y
P
1

P
3

P
4

L
12

L
23

L
34

|
1

|
2

|
3

P
2

P
1

P
2

P
3

P
4

12
1
x
12
2
x
23
2
x
23
3
x
34
3
x
34
4
x
A
12

A
23

A
34

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Jaroon Rungamornrat Conjugate Structure Analogy