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https://www.scribd.com/doc/92106030/BeamVibration
12/02/2015
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Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam
The bending vibrations of a beam are described by the following equation:
4 2
4 2
0
y y
EI A
x t
ρ
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂
(1)
, , , E I A ρ are respectively the Young Modulus, second moment of area of the cross
section, density and cross section area of the beam. L is the length of the beam. The
solution of Eq. (1) can be written as a standing wave
1
( , ) ( ) ( ) y x t w x u t = , separating the
spatial and temporal component. This leads to the following characteristic equation that
relates the circular frequency ω to the wavenumber k :
2 4
EI
k
A
ω
ρ
= (2)
The spatial part can be written as:
1 2 3 4
( ) sin( ) cos( ) sinh( ) cosh( ) w x C kx C kx C kx C kx = + + + (3)
For a FreeFree Beam the boundary conditions are (vanishing of force and moment):
(0) 0
(0) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
w
w
w L
w L
′′ = ¦
¦
′′′ =
¦
´
′′ =
¦
¦
′′′ =
¹
to get
2 4
1 3
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
0
0
sin( ) cos( ) sinh( ) cosh( ) 0
cos( ) sin( ) cosh( ) sinh( ) 0
C C
C C
C kL C kL C kL C kL
C kL C kL C kL C kL
− + = ¦
¦
− + =
¦
´
− − + + =
¦
¦
− + + + =
¹
1
A standing wave or stationary wave is a wave ‘frozen’ in the space and vibrating in time. It result by the
sum of two identical waves travelling in opposite directions:
0 0 0
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) sin( ) sin( ) 2 sin( ) cos( ) ( ) ( ) y x t y x t y x t Y t kx Y t kx Y kx t w x u t ω ω ω
+ −
= + = − + + = =
x
y
L
Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta
2
Using the first two equations the 3
rd
and 4
th
can be arranged in matrix form:
1
2
sinh( ) sin( ) cosh( ) cos( ) 0
cosh( ) cos( ) sin( ) sinh( ) 0
C kL kL kL kL
C kL kL kL kL
− − ( ( (
=
( ( (
− +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(4)
For a non trivial solution the determinant of the matrix has to vanish to get:
cosh( ) cos( ) 1 kL kL = (5)
The transcendental Eq. (5) has infinite solutions, it can be solved numerically, the first
five values are reported here:
Mode order n
n
k L
0 0
1 4.7300
2 7.8532
3 10.9956
4 14.1371
5 17.2787
Putting these values back in Eq. (5) gives the modeshapes corresponding to the natural
frequencies
n
ω that can be calculated from the characteristic Eq. (2). The mode shapes are
given by the following:
sin( ) sinh( )
( ) [sinh( ) sin( )] [cosh( ) cos( )]
cosh( ) cos( )
n n
n n n n n
n n
k L k L
w x k x k x k x k x
k L k L
−
= + + +
−
(6)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
Figure 1. First 5 mode shapes for a freefree beam
Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta
3
The velocity of the bending waves in the beam, also called phase velocity, is given by
4
B
EI
c
k A
ω
ω
ρ
= = . It shows that the velocity depend on the frequency. A generic wave
travelling in the beam can be described in terms of several harmonics as given by the
Fourier analysis, components at higher frequency travel faster creating then a continuous
distortion, for this reason they are called dispersive waves.
0
0
Frequency ω
P
h
a
s
e
s
p
e
e
d
c
B
Figure 2. Phase speed of bending waves
It is interesting to notice that for a ClampedClamped beam, the boundary conditions are:
(vanishing of displacement and slope):
(0) 0
(0) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
w
w
w L
w L
= ¦
¦
′ =
¦
´
=
¦
¦
′ =
¹
to get
2 4
1 3
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
0
0
sin( ) cos( ) sinh( ) cosh( ) 0
cos( ) sin( ) cosh( ) sinh( ) 0
C C
C C
C kL C kL C kL C kL
C kL C kL C kL C kL
+ = ¦
¦
+ =
¦
´
+ + + =
¦
¦
− + + =
¹
Using the first two equations the 3
rd
and 4
th
can be arranged in matrix form:
1
2
sinh( ) sin( ) cosh( ) cos( ) 0
cosh( ) cos( ) sin( ) sinh( ) 0
C kL kL kL kL
C kL kL kL kL
− − ( ( (
=
( ( (
− +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
That is the same as before, then the resonance frequencies are the same as in the case of a
freefree beam except that in this case we do not have the two rigid body modes
(translation and rotation at 0 ω = ) since it is not allowed by the boundary conditions.
Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta
4
Chladni
2
patterns
It is possible in a laboratory experiment to visualize the nodes of a vibrating beam (nodal
lines in this case since the beam has a real width) by sprinkling sand on it: the sand is
thrown off the moving regions and piles up at the nodes. The beam is excited with a
shaker at exactly his natural frequencies. In this case (low modal coupling) is reasonable
to assume that at resonance the deformation shape is mainly given by the mode shape
corresponding to the resonant frequency excited. The results for a freefree beam can be
seen in the following video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkmgMkDKAyU
The freefree conditions were simulated suspending the beam with springs introducing an
extra natural frequency, reasonably lower than the first resonance in bending vibration.
Nevertheless the suspension system gave some troubles in visualising the two nodes at
the first resonance. Other mode shapes can be seen quite clearly and the resonance
frequencies values are not too far from the theoretical results. The data of the beam are:
L = 1.275 m A = h x b = 0.01 x 0.075 m
3
12
bh
I =
7800 ρ = Kg m
3 11
2.1 10 E = × Nm
1
0.3 υ =
2
Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni was a German physicist. Chladni's technique, first published in 1787 in
his book, “Discoveries in the Theory of Sound", consisted of drawing a bow over a piece of metal whose
surface was lightly covered with sand. The plate was bowed until it reached resonance and the sand formed
a pattern showing the nodal regions.
Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta
5
2
n
n
f
ω
π
= Theoretical [Hz] Experimental [Hz]
n=1 32.80 32.25
n=2 90.44 88.50
n=3 177.30 173.50
n=4 293.08 287.50
n=5 437.82 430.00
Table 1. First five natural frequencies in bending vibration
Since the beam in this case is a real piece of steel, there are also longitudinal, in plane and
torsional vibrations. In this experiment the shaker was exciting the beam vertically at one
corner so that it is possible to see also torsional modes. The values for the torsional
vibration can be calculated considering the torsional vibration for a beam of nocircular
cross section.
The variation of angular orientation ( , ) x t ϑ for the cross section of the beam is described
by the following torsional vibration equation:
2 2
2 2
0
P
G
t J x
ϑ γ ϑ
ρ
∂ ∂
− =
∂ ∂
(7)
ϑ
Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta
6
( ) E/2 1 G υ = + is the shear modulus, υ the Poisson ratio, γ is a torsional constant that
for a rectangular cross section is
4
3
4
1
0.21 1
3 12
h h
bh
b b
γ
 
− −

\ ¹
(
(
¸ ¸
≃ .
2 2
( )
12
P
bh
J b h = + is the
polar moment of area of the cross section. The solution of Eq. (7) can be written as a
standing wave:
( , ) ( ) ( ) x t x u t ϑ θ = (8)
The spatial part can be written as:
1 2
( ) sin( ) cos( )
T T
x A k x A k x θ = + (9)
With
T
T
k
c
ω
= and
T
P
G
c
J
γ
ρ
= is the phase velocity, in this case is constant with
frequency and the waves are not dispersive. For a FreeFree Beam the boundary
conditions are: (vanishing of the moment):
(0) 0
( ) 0 L
θ
θ
′ = ¦
´
′ =
¹
to get
1
,
0
sin( ) 0
T n
T
A
n
k
k L L
π
= ¦
→ =
´
=
¹
With the values of the torsional wavenumber
, T n
k we get the mode shapes:
,
( ) cos( )
n T n
x k L θ = (10)
And the natural frequencies are given by
, T n T
n
c
L
π
ω = (11)
With the data of the experimental beam we get the first torsional mode is at
,1
319.24
2
T
T
c
f
L
= = Hz, not too far from the experimental result of 315 Hz.
2787 Putting these values back in Eq.7300 7. (5) gives the modeshapes corresponding to the natural frequencies ωn that can be calculated from the characteristic Eq. (5) has infinite solutions.8532 10. First 5 mode shapes for a freefree beam 2 . The mode shapes are given by the following: wn ( x) = [sinh(kn x) + sin(kn x)] + sin(kn L) − sinh(kn L) [cosh(kn x) + cos(kn x)] cosh(kn L) − cos(kn L) st (6) 1 mode 2 nd rd th mode 3 mode 4 mode 5th mode Figure 1.9956 14.1371 17. (2).Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta Using the first two equations the 3rd and 4th can be arranged in matrix form: sinh(kL) − sin(kL) cosh(kL) − cos(kL) C1 0 cosh(kL) − cos(kL) sin(kL) + sinh(kL) C = 0 2 For a non trivial solution the determinant of the matrix has to vanish to get: cosh(kL) cos(kL) = 1 The transcendental Eq. the first five values are reported here: Mode order n kn L (4) (5) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 4. it can be solved numerically.
A generic wave ρA travelling in the beam can be described in terms of several harmonics as given by the Fourier analysis. the boundary conditions are: (vanishing of displacement and slope): w(0) = 0 w′(0) = 0 w( L) = 0 w′( L) = 0 C2 + C4 = 0 C1 + C3 = 0 to get C1 sin(kL) + C2 cos(kL) + C3 sinh(kL) + C4 cosh(kL) = 0 C1 cos(kL) − C2 sin(kL) + C3 cosh(kL) + C4 sinh(kL) = 0 Using the first two equations the 3rd and 4th can be arranged in matrix form: sinh(kL) − sin(kL) cosh(kL) − cos(kL) C1 0 cosh(kL) − cos(kL) sin(kL) + sinh(kL) C = 0 2 That is the same as before.Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta The velocity of the bending waves in the beam. 3 . also called phase velocity. It shows that the velocity depend on the frequency. Phase speed of bending waves It is interesting to notice that for a ClampedClamped beam. is given by cB = ω k = 4 EI ω . then the resonance frequencies are the same as in the case of a freefree beam except that in this case we do not have the two rigid body modes (translation and rotation at ω = 0 ) since it is not allowed by the boundary conditions. components at higher frequency travel faster creating then a continuous distortion. for this reason they are called dispersive waves. Phase speed cB 0 0 Frequency ω Figure 2.
consisted of drawing a bow over a piece of metal whose surface was lightly covered with sand.Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta Chladni2 patterns It is possible in a laboratory experiment to visualize the nodes of a vibrating beam (nodal lines in this case since the beam has a real width) by sprinkling sand on it: the sand is thrown off the moving regions and piles up at the nodes. “Discoveries in the Theory of Sound". The plate was bowed until it reached resonance and the sand formed a pattern showing the nodal regions. Nevertheless the suspension system gave some troubles in visualising the two nodes at the first resonance.275 m A = h x b = 0. In this case (low modal coupling) is reasonable to assume that at resonance the deformation shape is mainly given by the mode shape corresponding to the resonant frequency excited. 2 4 .youtube.01 x 0. The beam is excited with a shaker at exactly his natural frequencies. reasonably lower than the first resonance in bending vibration.3 Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni was a German physicist. The data of the beam are: L = 1.com/watch?v=XkmgMkDKAyU The freefree conditions were simulated suspending the beam with springs introducing an extra natural frequency.075 m E = 2. Chladni's technique. Other mode shapes can be seen quite clearly and the resonance frequencies values are not too far from the theoretical results. The results for a freefree beam can be seen in the following video: http://www. first published in 1787 in his book.1× 1011 Nm1 I= bh3 12 ρ = 7800 Kg m3 υ = 0.
In this experiment the shaker was exciting the beam vertically at one corner so that it is possible to see also torsional modes. t ) for the cross section of the beam is described by the following torsional vibration equation: ∂ 2ϑ Gγ ∂ 2ϑ − =0 ∂t 2 ρ J P ∂x 2 (7) 5 .44 177. in plane and torsional vibrations.25 88. The values for the torsional vibration can be calculated considering the torsional vibration for a beam of nocircular cross section.30 293.50 287.80 90.50 173.50 430. ϑ The variation of angular orientation ϑ ( x.82 32.Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta fn = ωn 2π Theoretical [Hz] Experimental [Hz] n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 32. First five natural frequencies in bending vibration Since the beam in this case is a real piece of steel.08 437. there are also longitudinal.00 Table 1.
n = to get L sin(kT L) = 0 With the values of the torsional wavenumber kT .24 Hz. γ is a torsional constant that 1 bh h h4 .n we get the mode shapes: θ n ( x) = cos(kT . not too far from the experimental result of 315 Hz. (7) can be written as a standing wave: ϑ ( x.1 = cT = 319. The solution of Eq.Vibrations of a FreeFree Beam by Mauro Caresta G = E/2 (1 + υ ) is the shear modulus.21 1 − 4 12 b 12b 3 polar moment of area of the cross section. t ) = θ ( x)u (t ) The spatial part can be written as: (8) θ ( x) = A1 sin(kT x) + A2 cos(kT x) With kT = (9) ω cT and cT = Gγ ρ JP is the phase velocity. conditions are: (vanishing of the moment): θ ′(0) = 0 θ ′( L) = 0 A1 = 0 nπ → kT .n = (11) With the data of the experimental beam we get the first torsional mode is at fT . υ the Poisson ratio.n L) And the natural frequencies are given by nπ cT L (10) ωT . J P = (b 2 + h 2 ) is the for a rectangular cross section is γ ≃ bh3 − 0. in this case is constant with For a FreeFree Beam the boundary frequency and the waves are not dispersive. 2L 6 .
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