THE FIRST PART Of Law and Nature
Distinction I

(1) As lawyers use to call that impossible which is so difficult that, by the rules of law, it cannot be afforded but by the 125, indulgeu('€' of the prince and exercise of his prerogative,' so divines are accustomed to caIl that sin which for the most part is so, ;md'which naturally occasions and accompanies sin. Of such condition .is this self-homicide, which to be sin everybody hath 50 su(,ked. and digested, and incorporated into the body of his 1260 faith and religion, that now they prescribe against any opposer; andalldiscourse in this point is upon the degrees of this sin, and how Iar il exceeds all other, so that none brings the metal now to the test, nor touch, but only to the balance. Therefore, although wh~tsoever is in our appetite good or bad was first in our 126$ understanding true or false, and therefore, if we might proceed orderly, ~;!'nfirst disquisition should be employed upon the first source:ana origin, which is whether this opinion be true or false; yet. fi.nding ourselves under the iniquity and burden of this Cus,tomand prescription, we must obey the necessity, and 1270 preposterously examine: first, why this fact should be so resolutely condemned, and why there should be this precipitation in Our judgment to pronounce this, above all other sins, irremissible: arid rhen, having removed that which was nearest us, and de]iven~d ourselves from the tyranny of this prejudice, our Ill;' Judgment may be brought nearer to a straightness, and our . .. .
IPal'aeotus, 12&1



cap. 28. AI originally; corrected by Dorine




charity awakened and entendered to apprehend that this act may be free, not only from those enormous degrees of sin, but from all. (2) They who pronounce this sin to be so necessarily damn1280 able are of one of these three persuasions. Either they misaffirm that this act always proceeds from desperation, and so they load it with all those comminations with which (from Scriptures, fathers, histories) that commonplace abounds; or else thev entertain that dangerous opinion that there is in this life a~ 1285 irnpenitibleness and impossibility of returning to God, and that apparent to us (for else it could not justify our uncharitable censure); or else they build upon this foundation, that this act, being presumed to be sin, and all sin unpardonable without repentance, this is therefore unpardonable, because 1290 the very sin doth preclude all ordinary ways of repentance. (3) To those of the first sect, if I might be as vainly subtle as they are uncharitably severe, I should answer that all desperation is not sinful. For in the Devil it is not sin, nor doth he demerit by it, because he is not commanded to hope. Nor, in a 1295 man which undertook an austere and disciplinary taming of his body by fasts or corrections, were it sinful to despair that God would take from him stimulum earn is. Nor, in a priest employed to convert infidels, were it sinful to despair that God would give him the power of miracles. If, therefore, to quench 1300 and extinguish this stimulum earn is, a man should kill himself, the effect and fruit of this desperation were evil, and yet the root itself not necessarily so. No detestation nor dehortation against this sin of desperation (when it is a sin) can be too earnest. But yet since it may be 1305 without infidelitv," it cannot be greater than that. And though Aquinas there calls it sin truly, yet he says he doth so because it occasions many sins. And if it be, as others affirm, poena


peccat~', it is then inuoluntarium.i whb the nature of sin. Certainly, 1310






which will hardly consist though many devout men have justly imputed to it the cause and effect of sin, yet, as in the P,enitential Canons greater penance is inflicted upon one Whliiik.ills his wife than one who kills his mother (and the reason added, not that the fault is greater, but that otherwise more w{)'uld commit it)," so is the sin of desperation so earnestly aggravated, because, springing from sloth and pusillanimity, our nature is more slippery and inclinable to such a descent than top-resumptions, which yet without doubt do more wound and. violate the majesty of God than desperation doth. But, howsoever, that none may justly say that all which kill themselves have done it out of a despair of God's mercywhichi'S the only sinful despair-we shall in a more proper place, when we come to consider the examples exhibited in Scripm.[leS and other histories, find many who, at that act, have been SQ far from despair that they have esteemed it a great degree- of God's mercy to have been admitted to such a glorifying otHis name, and have proceeded therein as religiously as in a sacrifice, and as one says elegantly of Job, venae in glQriosa prouerbia.» and of whom we may properly say that which Moses said when they punished upon one another their idolatry, Conseerastis manus vestras Domino:" When I come to consider their words who are of the second opinion, and which allow an impenitibleness in this life (of which C{llvin is a strong authorizer, if not an author, who says that aotual impenitence is not the sin intimated in Matthew 12~30 and 31, but it is a willing resisting of the Holy Ghost, into which whosoever falls, tenendum est, saith he, we must hold that he never riseth again), because these hard and misinter-

'Pl!rerius in fxodum.

cap. II. disp. 4.

<canon 17'. .
1319 1321
1323· 1!l2i

'Bosquierus. MOl1omachia. concio 2. =Exodus 32:29.


;IJ omit

omit At M


2a2ae, q. 20, a. 2.

rha; act] the act M tfeneire] veil ire M in] emit Q Ma7lomachia] omit Q

1306 calls] call AI n.220Ed.]2QAI




i. lib. and for a bridle to you. Neither do I perceive that. though another be more probable.1I solomit M rra£el] trauayle . and that directly that opinion is to be 1365 followed quae [auet animae. Morales institutiones. to do no more and to speak no more those things whereof you repent.1Ildem. that they place this impenitibleness only in the knowledge of God (or that I understand them not). being unable to succor one before.' And though it be safer to think a thing to be sin than not. some] omit AI must] must no! AI hand or foot] Ioot or hand . cap. that therefore such an irnpenitibleness must of necessity be concluded to have 1350 been in this person. we must follow any probable opinion. n. 3. For I see not why we should be loather to allow that God hath made some impeccable than impenitible. and because I presume them to speak proportionally and analogally to their other doctrine.17 but tD presume impenitence because you were not by. not diligeruissimi. azoara 19. Calvin apt to lJrget repentance. she yields that mad and possessed men shall be bound till th~ may receive extreme unction. being brethren. which ever in doubtful cases teach an inclination to the safer side. I·Ibidem. IVJbjd. n. dubium 8.'" if she be content that both the penitent and confessor be but diligentes. that the fact precludes all entrance to repentance.e works immediately. 21. she will deliver him from 1185 excommunication after he is dead. be severer than the parent? !'lot to pray for them which die without faith is a precept SO oblliQu'S to every religion that even Mahomet hath inhibited it.91 n. by reason of this act. n. 7. 16. dubiurn 2. I·Sayre. Thesaurus casuum conscientiae." if.is an usurpation.i. to one fallen lately into madness. and gives greatest hope of being reduced and rectified.I. fle poenitentia."? if she be content to extend H80 and interpret this point of death of every danger by sea or navel:" if she will interpret any mortal sin in a man provoked by sudden passion and proceeding from indeliberation to be no worse ner of greater malignity than the act of a child. tom. and 1~5 ITeam ir. For though they pronounce severely upon the fact.\01 T}eild~) yeild M llian) then then M 7j2'M 48 49 . (4) But the third sort is the tamest of all the three. ul~. yet it is only upon one reason. 1355 Wherein I wonder why they should refuse to apply their opinions to the milder rules of the casuists. I. n. yet that rule serves for your own information.~1 IS72 l!81 1388 IS. l'Oubium 7.? yea. rathee than she will be frustrate of her desire to dispense her treasure.4 1370 repemanc. I. 2. cap. De poenitentia." why should we abhor our mether's example and. and not to be and from that history collects that such pain in articulo mortis is naturally 'Idem. lib.v if. if he have but attri[ion~ which is but a fear of hell and no taste of God's glory (and such attrition shall be presumed to be in him if nothing appear evidently to the corurarv). 1346 1363 1367 pars 8Zambranus. dubiurn I. Praetudiuni I. "Idem. 1375 by the 'Same reason as to a child. 2. n. and to believe of good effect. n. than either believe them literally or believe that they have 1345 clearly expressed their own meanings.12 if. 2. 2. n. De 9~ptismo. if they had their purpose and this were granted to them. though it appear he were in mortal sin. 2. saith Clement.3-4 pretable words fall from them when they are perplexed and intricated with that heavy question of sin against the Holy 1340 Ghost. Since the church is so indulgent and liberal to her children that at the point of death she will afford her treaSureloC baptism to one which hath been mad from his birth. De unclione. "Alcoranum. They use to interpret that rule of taking the safer side that. 2. not for another's 1360 condemnation. This is true repentance." And the example of the good thief informs us that 7Azorius. lastly.. I rather incline to afford them this construction. I. though all doctors hold that baptism of a child not yet thoroughly born in the hand or foot to be ineffectual. 9. in things necessary (necessitate finis.. duhium 3. as repentance is to salvation). which they exemplify thus: that. n. 39. she absolve 1390 same whether they will or no. yet all doctors counsel to baptize in that case.

than His eternal decree for the government of the whole world. 81. "Lib. 2. our case is capable enough. . (5) Of all those definitions of sin which the first rhapsoder.21 21]2.t? and so to die in his debt rather than to carry his acquittance. lex aeterna being put as a member and part of the definition. Yea. and is the easiest conveyance and carriage and vent for their conceptions. which is their tribunal. dist. ad Amandum Epistola "ODist. lib. Cierici.25 which is no other.] external! Q AI vast and large] large & vast AI exquisite] excellent AI 50 5] . without sin.26 We must therefore seek another definition of sin.P Of such a repentance as this. (6) Of all these three laws. Through this definition therefore. '"Stromata. which I think ismot so well delivered in those words of Aquinas. q. though God dealt plainly by Nathan-"The child shall surely dic"-David resisted God's decree by prayer and penance. 2.l. best bears their descant. lSThomas. "22 This they stick to. and which. l. which are exquisite and violent distinctions. both think and speak and do. or is done by the torture and vexation of school limbecks. q. of nature. a. as well the summists as casuists do most insist upon that which he brings from St. 5. against thisbecause it is not always revealed-a man may. because this definition.i. Peter Lombard. can. 272a2ae. of reason.[ f1Ouiata] fundament" AI an] act Q 1]2 AI "II Samuel 12: H. lib.s accuseth J accuses AI concu pitumi ronc u pientii AI conceptions] acceptions . HJO I4J5 1410 1440 11"5 14S0 I. though Lombard have not. concupitum contra aeternam legem Dei. And of one who died before he 1400 had repented. hath presented out of ancient learning. 1405 1415 1418 1-123 1425 n. if it be one. This definition is that 1415 sin is "dictum. 2. in matters of fact. so if any will of necessity proceed to judgment in our case. commonly. because it is often conditioned and accompanied with limitations and exceptions. And certainly. Augustine. therefore. I. factum.i. 64. Sayre and all the rest retain24). [auent animae. for this eternal law is ratio gubemativa Dei. Duo sunt.1'. those reasons which are most benign. this definition cannot be thought to be appliabJe to sin only. 2a2ae. aut legis aeternae. they never go further. Yea. ration is. legibus euertebaturv? for as informers vexed them with continual dela1425 tions upon penal laws. that to distinguish anc If" separate them is a chymic work. 2fThesauru. lcgibusi lcgibus AI 1428 14"7 1457 eternal Ed. we will trace this act of self-homicide. as I said. For here. 35A. and of God every precept which is permanent and binds always is so cornposed and demented and complexioned. Augustine.4-5 ever sinning and ever asking pardon. I COil. legibus. ought to have the best acceptation and entertainment. good Paulinus would charitably interpret his haste. Peccatum (1St actus deuians ab ordine debiti finis. we may resist it with prayers against it. by which they have made all our 1420 actions perplexed and litigious in foro interiori.5-6 But for this use. 2~Panegyricus Traiano. can. cap. as. as I may resist a disease of which God hath decreed I shall die. a. so doth this an of sinning entangle wretched consciences in manifold and desperate anxieties. since it limits it to the eternal law of God (which word. contra regulam naturae. that he chose rather to go to God debitor quam liber. it cannot admit that vast and large acceptation which it could not escape in the description of St. q. 2. and see whether it offend any of those three sorts of law. and that is providence. where that father serves their turns. Omnis defect us debiti actus habet rationem peccatir! as in his other. that civitas [undata legibus. but must in this place be necessarily intended of lex diuina. Z'lLib. though He seem to reveal His will. 91. the delinquent is so much favored that a layman shall sooner be believed which acquits him. For tha casuum conscientiae. As. by which torture they have brought men's consciences to the same reasons of complaint which Pliny attributes to Rome till Trajans time. 3. than 1405 a clerk which accuseth-? (though in other cases there be much disproportion between the value of these two testimorues!'}. and either it doth only seem tc be done. and applying rules of divinity to particular cases.

i. Many Ithings which we call sin. but in violating or omitting acommandment.507 Iarther] f urder M 7Jl Me 73] '3'1 Q: (M corrected by Donne) Omilll.rting from Egypt. l.f90 in an): sen5€' which might justify their vociferations upon sins against nature. yet Soto evicts that Cajetan's reasons. cap. as it is related into the Canons. Omnes. q.I' (7) This term "the law of nature" is so variously and unconstantly delivered. being 1480 also banished. 73. human of custom. when fathers came to be of an unprofitable and useless age. 7.32 which is also 1)0. a son shall redeem himself from banishment by killing his father. Whr:reu~lll.an. evident by Cajetan. as I confess I read it a hundred times before I understand it once. But first. lib. memb. Yet I never found it 1.my] har= harmony M ~. All is obedience or disobedience. and God. to save my life." Yet though these three be almost all one (because one thing may be commanded diverse ways and by diverse authorities. of which sort. but only in tbis respect it aggravates it. I will only mollify and prepare their crude and undigested opinions and prejudice. a statute.29 And the honor due to parents is so 1475 strictly of all these laws. cap. 31Aelian. I. with this antidote: that many things which are of natural and human and divine law may be broken. but St. and the people thereby abstain from making him bishop. have been done by the commandment of God: by Abraham. '9. rnernb. cap. that by that he might be 1515 defamed. divine consists of nature. (han with truth or with fame.I. our countryman Sayre confesseth that this selfhomieide' is.2. 3. So that this evil is not in the nature [5OD of the thing. lib.i'.112 n. as none of the Second Table more. and so evil. though it be true. I. ibid. accuse myself upon the rack." And we read of another state (and laws of civil commonwealths may not easily be pronounced to be against nature) where.3~ "Thesau·"us casuum conscientiae. 9.33 n. 1461 addeth] adds M 1463 because] yet because Q 1465 do] omit M 1470-71 incuicatings] inculcating 1487 a hundred] abundant M 1489--90 the " .i.35 1. for DOt. nor in the nature of the whole harmony of the world. and Jerome betray themselves by l:1nurged confessions. by a law of Venice (though Bodin say it were better the town were sunk than ever there should be any example or precedent therein). and of another where all persons of above seventy years were dis1485 patched." And though Cajetan extend no ful-·ther herein than that I may not belie myself. that in such a sin we are inexcus149' able by any pretence of ignorance.6-7 part of God's law which binds always bound before it was written. q. by Cajetan. and that is the 1460 law of nature. lib. or can conclude it to signify that 28Dist. ' which] omit M 1190 t'll~ir] these iH 1492 that] rhe M 1493 :ttrmI than the M 1500 h<lrmo. De tegendo secretum. q. which may be contracted 1470 from the often iteration and specious.f M 52 53 . dividing all law into divine and human. Ambrose procured certain prostitute women to come into his chamber. and the Israelites in meirdepa. yet in a just war a parricide is not guilty. forbid any accusation of my~elf. with as much force. and reason. yea. For the transgressing of the law of nature in any act doth not seem to me to increase the heinousness of that act (as rhough nature were more obligatory than divine law). it is necessary that we weigh the obligation of every one of these laws which are in the definition. n. where he affirms that I may not. I. Anselm. 4. And therefore Isidore.7 which rheauthor should at that time mean. onl. 2. but sophisticate incukatings of law and nature. to conceal a secret delivered unto you is one. since by the light of nature we might discern it. I. and so it is but dictamen rectae rationis.d therefore in no law of nature. 'ODe republica. "De tegendo secretum. as the common law. And yet we find that of their fame many holy men have been very negligent. 4. the sons must beat them to death with clubs. 1465 and a decree of an arbitrary court may bind me to do the same thing). "So to. I." So much easier may I depart 1510 with life.y Augustine. 29Soto. a. addeth. not so intrinsically ill as to lie. "Super 2aZa.

sensitive and rational. On the other side. "Thomas. every vice. He may use it as He will. and an indisposition proceeding from the dissolution of the harmony of original justice. Contra Faustum." if they will mean anything and speak to be understood. q. q. which is that light which God hath afforded us of his eternal law. "nature" is often taken so widely and so extensively. a. as it is a vice. which Aquinas calls a languor and faintness in our nature." and vice is but habit which.i.39 n. and contract it only to the law of nature in the less world. as he saith in another place. is then sin. 8. sociableness. 82. a. a." But because."? is by him said to be in us quasi naturale. 13. Aquinas pronounceth that the indination of our sensitive nature is against 1555 the Jaw of reason. in us a double law of nature. yet I think this is not that law of nature which these abhorrers of self-homicide complain to be violated by that act. then. 5. let us leave the considerdtion of the law of nature as it is providence and God's decree for His government of the great world. being produced to act. because that is the nature of every thing which He works in it. and all actual sin issuing from thence. so natural that it is propagated with our nature. lib. 1565 (9) And therefore. who can command a murder. tom. therefore." by denying to it lawful refreshings 1560 and fomentations.37 Hereupon.ola2ae. f1Thomas. 105. 1545 (8) But to make our approaches nearer. 104. 6 ad 1m. Summa casullm conscientiae. a. as it is only in man. 3. Augustine says.]7m QM 3m]IIH »t» libero arbitrio. There is. they must intend the law of rational nature. 100. the parent of all sin. lib. ibid. and not by way of generation-into that creature all infirmities of our flesh would I. "Thomas. For so they might as well accuse all discipline and austerity and affectation of martyrdom. the whole frame and government of the world being His. is against nature. all sin is natural. before it come to be sin. 3. therefore. q. [lib. For. la2ae. but not original sin. He can do nothing against nature. cap. and in him directed 1570 upon piety. by the languor and faintness of our nature. a. 26." so as. we lazily rest there. and for the most part go no further in our journeys. St. but that it may be sometimes agreeable to nature. out of this ordinary indisposition.v we may safely infer that nothing which we call sin is so against nature. 15. religion. in generation." and 1550 the first doth naturally lead and conduce to the other. "laQae.36 because. 121a. as. which naturally and lawfully is inclined uPQn bonum dclectabile. 2. .] cap. "Augustine. ourselves. and which is usually called recta ratio. a.7 This intrinsic and natural evil. 3] I. and upon that other true rule. 2 con. 3. although it be possible to sin and transgress against this sensitive nature. la. 4. q.] 81 Q M 1m Ed. I ad 3m. Now this law of nature. 4 ad 2m. and such (for.ts Now. Yea. though it be not caused by the principles of nature. and opposeth against the law of the spirit. 5. And this is that which the Apostle calls the law () the flesh. which is hereditary original sin. '16Romans 7:23. 13 Q 82 Ed. though He can do a miracle. a. "Carbo . q. as it reacheth 1520 1525 1530 1535 1540 "Thomas.7-9 be derived. q. will hardly be found. cap. cannot command an evil or a sin. 1528 1531 1536 1537 1539 n. ad 1m.i.41 n. whatsoever is wrought by a superior agent upon a patient who is naturally subject to that agent is natural.40 n. 81. pars I.51 1569 the] omit AI itjyetM 54 55 . For God. as all sin is very truly said to be against nature-yea. 71." and is. q.42 widely] wildly AI a] omit Q saith] says IH that] that though (~ would now] now would AI lib. 4. il3a. if God would now miraculously frame a man as He did the first woman-of another's flesh and bone. by "law of nature. which are as contrary to the law or sensitive nature. 2a2ae." So that original sin is traduced by nature only.I.

cap. God hath written in aur hearts such a law of nature as. as it concerns only rea1575 son. Praefatio. it appears by the Spanish relations that in only Hispaniola they sacrificed yearly 20. 1574 1575 1587 1590 1595 l. lib. n. "Commentarius ad leges regias.v J\nd so. takes the law of nature.9-10 to the preservation both of species and individuals. as a Iumre blessing.0 Iorediscoursing. 5. this sin and a very few more seem to be directly bent and opposed. However] Howsoeuer AI acceptation] accept ion AI Q adds ex 10. especially civilest. against which law. and an emplaster or medicine made 1610 from thence and applied to a particular use and necessity. nations) is also law of nature. do bind only ad oeniale. 6. "Manuale. that He will write His laws in their hearts. lib.l LuCidus.v And therefore. we are saved in the (om-ing of Christ. practiced and accepted in most. which like a deluge overflowed the whole world. ii. 5. cap. 23.52 delivers] deliuer AI And . which Artemidorus exemplifies in these two: deum colere. both natura]: and divine. whatever is ius gentium (that is.5'S a] of a At saith] sayes M to]omitM epis('opis Iepist. "Oe.. which he exemplifies in unnatural lusts and in *Epislo{a muftis episcopis.v (10) However. which will appear 1600 evidently out of jeremy's words." since also. that many laws.ODe somnlOnun signijicatione. delivered from utter drowning but yet not from storms and leaks and dangerous weatherbeatings) immolation of men was so ordinary that almost every nation.56. Bellum Callicum.i.v and in their wars they presaged also after the same Iashion.56 And so every act which concurs not exactly with ourreligion shall be sin against nature. corrected by Donne 1600 1605 1621 n. De arademiis. this self-homicide is no more against the law of nature than any other sin.i. which are contra naturalem usum hominis. n. and only Canaan was a little ark swimming upon it. not disputing at this time whether it be against reason always or no (for reason and virtue differ no otherwise than a 'Close box of drugs. "la2ae. 5JCaesar. mulieribus uinci. pars I. So that the Christian law and the law ~f nature (for that is the law written in hearts) must be all one. I. when he says. "Middendorpius. but many poisons. where God promiseth.v' And for our times.' inventori· bus rerum. 2 con. which the nature of the disease and the art of the administrer make wholesome). and that to do against it is to do against nature. therefore. but that that 1605 may stand true which Navarre saith. this form in man is reason. and in Lhe boxare not only aromatic simples. had received it. what sin can be exempt from that charge that it is a sin against 1595 nature. q..l The Druids of France made their divinations from sacrifices of men. which could not well be discerned but by this light and t62.. there are lively prints of it in beasts). Praelatio ad Osorii historiam. is ius gentium. And this is as much as I determined for this first distinction. Distinction II 0) There is a lower and narrower acceptation of this law of nature. "Matalius Metel lus. since every sin is against reason? And in this acceptation 1590 "Moraks instituttones. n. For Azorius says that there are sins peculiarly against nature. is with most authors confounded and made the same with ius gentium. lib. that the nature of every thing is the form by which it is constituted. against nature is not so enormous.w How then shall we accuse idolatry or immolation of men to 1580 be sins against nature? For (not to speak of the first. So Azoriusr'" and so Sylvius delivers that the law of nature. 6. "Polidorus Vergilius. a.IO-ii. nor in any of the acceptations which 1615 we touched before. and so to commit against reason is to sin against nature. 8. Bormo. D. . cap. 51 Q Ed. lib.] 50 Q AI 56 57 .000 children. 1585 though not barbarous.s? which is the Christian law. Sin.:emiAlh] 31:33. gentium] omit AI presaged] prayed AI origmally. 51. since this is received.l. by that.

it was at that time received /665 as a custom throughout all Greece to wear short hair. a virgin. a. lib. as in most other sins it doth. this sin against nature is so much abhorred. 1629 n. it is his shame?"6 Not that this was against that law of nature' to which all men were bound. 5A ntiq uitates.s In the Scriptures. De barbis sacerdotum. 'Judges 19:24. Azorius. of the law of nature doth in no acceptation aggravate the sin. as I said. II:I~. II con. 4. Paul. will any man say that the offer which he made them to extinguish their furious lust. 'Pieri us. both as they are generally vices and as they are against the natural order of the act of generarion. till foreign corruptidI1 had envenomed them. (2) And though J680 this self-homicide 'De re miliiari. 2. and many others make an example of sin against particular law of nature. not because the being against nature makes it so abominable.. cap. so inward to us. And that custom 1670 which St. solum non operemini hoc contra naturam. says Calvin.' which now are tame and tractable enough. But that natural law is so general that it extends to beasts more than to us.] 20 Q AI 'Romans 1:26. was a less sin than to have given way to their violence. nordissemble it. pars I.irics and epigrammatists of those times reprehended for deliG'(fcy a:nd effeminateness. as our adversaries use. Paul called "natural" in Greece was not long natural thert. when they made their canons for priests" shavings. 5. 4. lib. 1640 and of no other kind of injury). because they cannot compare degrees of obligation and distinctions of duties and offices. he complains that they went about to kill him to enjoy his wife. "intensi. as we can. 1660 For in' most places. Paul once 1655 appeals to the law of nature: when arguing about the covering of heads of men or women at public prayer.! But as I intimated 1630 once before. and the wife of his guest (which Josephus 1645 increases by calling her a Levite and his kinswoman). q. For 1685 we know that some things are natural to the species." and "Doth not nature teach you that if a man have long hah". but useth it as the l'i'ea'rest and most familiar and easy way to lead them to a knowledge of decency and a departing from scandalous singularity in' those public meetings. y·et it is only upon this reason.ii. cap. lib." So that St. gloriously. shavings and cuttings and pullings are by the sat. St. 1635 For in that example of the Levite in the Book of Judges (if those wicked men did seek him for that abominable use. since it strays and 1650 departs from the way. did it because they would have their priests differ ~fOm the priests of the Greek church. were ever called. to expose to them his own daughter. this sin of misusing the sex is called "against nature" by St. Neither doth the Scripture call any other sin than disorderly lust by that name. St. l. '2a2ae. and this also lege naturae.' And of the former example. argues not from the weight and Ui75 heirrousness of the fault. and that the latter may correct 'I Cor.3 Vulgar] Vulgate AI 26 Ed. And the Romans. or less against nature because that which they sought was contra naturalem usum? Is not every voluntary pollution. for it was not always so. in genere peccati.I. " ~oV.egetius says that from November to March the seas are shut up and intractabile lege naturae. and other things to the particular person. I. "Judge in 'Morales institutiones." and once (in the Vulgar edition) in the Old Testarnent. 1658 1665 1667 1668 1674 his] a Q wear] were AT Vegetius] Vigetius M inlraclabile] intractable Q mentioning] mentioning of M 58 59 . but because the knowledge thereof is so domestic. that self-preservation is of natural law. so near. mentioning the law of nature. that our conscience cannot slumber in it. 154. Paul. he says. cap." But because.! this. therefore.fur the bishops of Rome. Paul calls it "natural. also." and when himself relates to the people the history of his injury in the next chapter. 39.I-2 yours:elves. Aquinas says that there are 1625 some kinds of lusts which are sins against nature. which Josephus says was only for his wife.ii. as much against the law of nature as this was. though the host which had harbored him dissuade the men thus. and defeats the end of that faculty in us which is generation? The violating.

a. I con. and scarce any reason is so constant.the pelican is an instance or an emblem. as Aquinas says. for though this seem to follow of the first. Doctrina 12.1 as] are AI all] omit M a. Dororheus. after he hath afforded them many other praises. 14 And so every sect will. and binds all always. from this is deduced by necessary consequence that God. I III Lii. Commentarius ad leges T~gUu. which magnanimity and justice he compares there with the subjects of the kings of Persia.. la2ae.. and transplant thyself in some enclosed ground. 94. cap. but it foreimagines a reason upon which it was founded. and urgently] urgently for] from AI ijj'anjorM I'lostram] nostrum Q 21. belonging only to us. though this be ill for conservation of our species in general. So Acacius illustrates it more clearly: It is natural. 5 AI AI rll imitedlv] illimitably M 60 61 . who in like cases are their own executioners. cap. the lower you go towards particulars. Historic Ciceronis. if He be." And therefore. for so a devout man interprets 1740 those wards "Faciamus hominem ad imaginem nostram": id est. by the law of nature itself. which is the exercise and ap1'120 plication thereof. lib.] 1 Q. Ed. that all the precepts of natural law result in these: fly evil. 5. may not be chan~.Lii. 21.9 n. so they cannot be abolished nor obscured. 1689 1690 1692 1702 1711 n. cap. I. so rectified reason.1O n.2 ~wor:shipped in this or this manner. that is. IOFabricius. "Genesis 2: 18. by exposing our1735 selves to unevitable destruction. q. that He must "Thomas. as redde depositum.'! And he whose conscience. And St. and after this. instructs us often 16 prefer public and necessary persons. by likely consequence. 13Thomas.2 the Iirst. "SylVius. Ambrose. that place "It is not good for the man to be alone"!' is meant there. the more you depart from the necessity of being bound to it. may also presume that the law ceases too. and retire to a solitude. but that. poenitenti condemnatione se mulctant. in which case a private man is emperor of himself.13 the] a M he] omit AI conservation] "Homilia 36 Operis imperfect Mutthueum. do according to reason. but that circumstances alter it. when Cicero consulted the oracle at Delphos. certainly. I. to know there is a God. things may-yea. No law is so primary and simple. which doth not so rigorously aad urgently and illimitedly bind. though our substance of nature. seek good.] a. must be worshipped.1 Ed. Anno 30. must-neglect themselves for others. ut immoriantur 1'l30 aculei sui uulnere." yet it is not always just And.16. . may and must. a 1715 little corruptly and adulterately. because if he were alone. of 1'125 whicfi: . 1690 1695 1700 1705 1710 17B.l'' Our safest assurance that we be not misled with the ambiguity of the word "natural law" and the perplexed variety thereof in authors. "do according to reason.!" As this natural instinct in beasts. says that when they find themselves guilty of having broken any of their king's laws.'> Tire like danger is in deducing consequences from this natural law of self-preservation. For some may need that counsel of Chrysostorn: depart from the high way. "Hexaemcron. conuersation . lib. but that our hearts shall ever not only retain. for it is hard for a tree which stands by the wayside to keep her fruit till it be ripe.. sui iuris. a. call their discipline "natural law" and enjoin a necessary obedience to it. he had this answer: "Follow your own nature. Ia2ae.7 Q M Anno 30] omit AI 94]95 M a. Praefatio. but acknowledge this law."!" And so. But.4 Q M 1723 1724 l7l!s 1140 n. God's purpose of multiplying mankind had been frustrate. 51. 8.P For these.] a. philosophying divinely in a contemplation of bees. yet it may be very fit for some particular man to abstain from all such conversation of marriage or men. 2. and deduction from thence. yet functio naturae. q..flh P'izJj'legiis iuris.2 Ed. assures him that the reason of self-preservation ceases in him. From these are deduced by consequence other precepts which are not necessary always. well-tempered and dispassioned. as they are indispensable by any authority. will be this. which is best understood of the foundations and p-rinciples and first grounds of natural law. Yet. and may dOcthat then which otherwise were against that law.

by reason of some particular event becomes either dishonest or hurtful. but contra uniuersalitatem iuris. and as those canons which boldly (and. interpret. not wound nor infirm a law-no more than I take from the virtue of light or dignity of the sun if. earthly things and heavenly 1'190 differ so. blasphemously) say non lice. a. which we gain so. to preserve my life when I am justly taken prisoner. a. Besides.is as much of the law of nature as preservation is25). whether true or 178' seeming. as some schoolmen say.il papae diminish not his fullness of power nor impeach his motus propriores (as they call them) nor his non obstante' iure divino. cap. And in these exempt and privileged cases. De canonum et legum consensu et dissensu. yet. in itself is profitable and honest. sine iusta causa or rebus sic stantibus.2 prince's nOn obstantes. but probably and possibly. that I may by it disobey a law. as a dispensation works not thus. is a self-preservation. is naturally conditioned with ellis. life. I. 10.ii. nor the descents and indulgences of princes which have consented to laws derogatory to themselves. I. if for reasons seeming good to me (as. but that that law becomes to me no law in that case where the reason ceases.2 1745 And therefore. 2lThomas. and dispense with his conscience. I will become a slave). For certainly. I. self-preservation. 24Heplaplus Ioannis Pici. as in oaths and VOWS. which isa faculty of doing that which I 1'195 WOUld. 7. have been able to prejudice the 18Windeck. what law soever is cast upon the conscience or liberty of 1780 man. For heaven. 12. 9. 3. of which the reason is mutable. 17'12 1776 1782 1791 lvius. though the body perish. which this author and the Canons affirm. the privilege is not contra ius un iuersale. because prerogative is incomprehensible and overflows and transcends all law. limit. that it is reditum uniuscuiusque rei adsuumprincipium. for he doth no more than any man might do of himself if he could judge as infallibly. 2a2ae.25 62 63 . 2a2ae. For here it holds well which Athenagoras says. I allow myself the relief of a shadow. I may do it without violating the law of nature. our best part is advanced. Because. I. so.l. . the necessity of dispensations proceeds from this: that a thing which. q." as their doctors teach. that it binds so long as the reason lives. the desire of martyrdom. as neither the watchfulness of parliaments. And. because thereby. q.18 ~OThomas. universally considered.ii.'? that he may dispense with that law. Sunt quidam."18 it may be as true. which we confess to be the foundation of general natural law.es] Beside M that it] that that itM (first that marked for deletion) reditum motusl Ed.. Praefatio. non obstantes] omit M (omission indicated by an ellipsis) motu IH Resip.b. "which is to declare when the reason of the law ceases.24 Now since this law of self-preservation is accomplished in attaining that which conduces to our ends and is good rousrfor liberty. yet. 20 so may any man be the bishop and magistrate to himself. q. 88. 1925. where it can appear that the reason which is the soul and form of the law is ceased.] 1.~ M aJ of M &. If I propose to myself in 1m 1750 1755 1760 1765 1770 b(k resurreclione. Let it be true that no man may at any time do anything against the law of nature. distinguish the law of God. 89. 25Sy any)aM as)aM where) omit M which is) which M proceeds) proceed M universalitatem)universalitem Q of) of our M of) of of our M (first of marked for deletion) D(:) omit Q Proem. lib. is no other thing than a natural affection and appetition of good. cap. lib. cap. if it be true that it belongs to the bishop of Rome "to declare.21so in the law. ~2Acacius. because they are understood ever to whisper some just reservation.i? It doth only succor a person. to escape the scorching thereof.) 1794 1'798 T«dilwQM omit' M violatingj violating eap. De priuilegus. neither of which can fall within the reach or under the commandment of any law. out of our election. Commentarius ad leges regias. 1750 1751 1754 1757 1759 1764 1769 1770 n. iscertaintv good. as verisimile et uerumit» and this is the best description of felicity that I have found.

as Demosthenes did. it could not be so general. true or seeming.3 How subtly and curiously Atilius Regulus destroyed himself. either of cunning and subtle devices or of forcible and violent actions. love. by stopping and recluding it. who served Nero. scorning all foreign and acces1145 SOl)' ofk'lps to die. ease. a man of pleasure. would not leave beating till he could see and salute it. being contrary to our sensitive nature. when he came to the torture of examination. being of such integrity that he would never have lied to save his life. and if that which I affect by death be truly a greater good. I blush to see how naked of followers all virtues are in respect of this fortitude. Comas. which is an affection of good.2-3 this self-homicide a greater good. upon all occasions. lied to lose it. that men are propense to them. violated? (3) Another reason. when he saw that seventy-two years. as though he were angelus sepultus. falsely pleading that the CarthaIV5 ginian:s had given him poison. when now the lives of all the three hundred were in him.ii. and that a mole is animal sepultum= so man. against a post. that in all ages. who had been a captain of thieves.0 '"0 death. which is rectified reason. to show that he could suffer any other heat scalded himself to . is this. which had written a thousand things which no 1155 man dose understood. '"De subtilitate. as though it had been a new victory to kill them over again.ii. rectified reason). 18S~ 1&40 who) we Q says that] says it. and that within few days he should die though he stayed at Rome. in the office of master of his pleasures. nor the corrupt and malignant disease of being a severe critic. fear. labors to be 1810 discharged of his earthly sepulchre. whom a Greek tyrant would have forced. because. with poison carried in a pen. so present and immediate a step was it to him. Aristarchus. died with peison which he always carried in a ring. and yet. made his own breath the instrument of his death. Herennius the Sicilian could endure to beat out his own brains. if this sin were against particular law of nature-as they must hold which aggravate it by that circum1815 stance-and that so it wrought to the destruction of our species any otherwise than intemperate lust. I per1800 ceive not wherein I transgress the general law of nature. And as Cardan says that metal is planta sepulta. shame. in all places. 5. yet. and. it hath not the advantage of pleasure and delight to allure us withal.. his body.. and such like do. from full pleasure to such a death. Othpyades. he would be beholden to none for life nor death. Yet Codrus' forcing of his death exceeded this. could wear him out. starved himself then. fame. l. and that all histories 1825 afford not so many examples. Q it by that] by M 1851 1854 owed) ought M 5eventY'IWo]27 M which had] who had M 64 65 . Homer. is said to have hanged himself because he understood not the fishermen's riddle. or surfeit. which prevails much with me and 1805 delivers it from being against the law of nature. who only survived of three hundred champions appointed to end a quarrel between the Lacedaemonians and Ath~niatis.. which other 1820 sins have. for all that frequency. since. upon the first frown went 1830 home and cut his veins. though I mistake it. Hannibal. or incurring penal laws. stricter law of nature. 1807 18H lib. Petronius Arbiter. men of all conditions have affected it and inclined to do it. And when I frame to myself a martyrologe of all which have perished by their own means for religion. for the safeguard of life as for destroying. whu. they are against nature (that is.l. because in that base disguise he was likely to perish without fame. as though he had owed thanks to that brain which had given him this device of killing himself. killed himself. country. if he should be overtaken with extreme necessity. And though this may be said of all other sins. Democles. wherein is the other.

" And we may well collect that in Caesar's time. To cure himself of a quartan. lib. first having made a new law that it should be death to enter the council chamber armed. the] omit M to death] omit M Licinius] Lucinius 6 Ed. Portius Latro killed himself. continues yet in all the wives in the kingdom of Bengala 'in the Indies. or frowardness. as Tacitus calls it. animal- incolumis. but punished it presently by falling upon his sword. Poor Terence.29 and to which exercise and profusion of life. so reposed or so vain. 3. in the memory of man. before whom scarce any is preferred. 6.ii. which. 10. And Caesar adds that. because his satirical books were burnt by edict. and that we and our children were born to die.SI "Tholosanus. upon notice taken of their sanctity) are said to have studied ways how to die. recorded in Josephus.}aU persuasions moved men to this. cap. as Levites 19Z0 did amongst the Jews and the gymnosophists amongst them.ii. lib. eap. in France. enjoying many benefits and commodities from men of higher rank.'vi among] amongst AI Levites] the Levites M gymnosophists amongst] gymnosophists 8 Ed. n. 12Lib. and especially dlen when they were in best state of health. 3'Porphyrius. there died many by this devout violence.28 17.3 But the general hunger of such death is abundantly expressed in those swarms of the Roman gladiatory champions. 7. cap.>' And yet. sine morbo excessit. lib. 1870 And the poet Labienus. only w hide the deformity of a ringworm in his face.S<! -unger] houre Q profusion] profession . burned himself too.y Eleazar's oration. IOJdl!Ol.w B. not only such persons as do it in testimony of an entire dependency and of a gratitude. though the Roman condemnations at that time inflicted not so deep punishments.] 5 Q M AI n. not only men of great birth and place in the state. 3 Commentariorum [de] bello GtlUicQ. in some one month cost Europe 1900 30. ludaico. but hanged himself when he heard that Cicero would plead against him. we may see how st[. but were admitted by election. pretium [estinandiP You can scarce imagine any person so happy or miserable. and Catulus Luctarius sought new conclusions and. which devotion. 2. coveted to be admiued. Hippionas the poet rhymed Bubalus the painter to death with his iambics. drowned himself. interpreted that as a summons from the earth and hanged himself. nova sacramenta pereundiP and died by swallowing burning coals. as Quintilian calls them. 28Annales. to escape Cicero's judgment. or any occasion either of true loss. or of shamefastness. integer. Domitiari's minion. but that there is some example of it Yet no man to me seems to have made harder shift to die than Charondas.l. Caw's daughter. Macer bore well enough his being called into question for great faults. IIDe b~llo. De gladiatoribus. had. I have read 1915 somewhere. And so Cassius Licinius. always when the lord died. And Zeno. 12. by choking himself with a napkin. because he stumbled and hun his finger against the ground. who. as Lipsius collects. S)'ntagma. not only offended that law. but the Samanaei (which did not inherit religion and priesthood and wisdom.] antiq. cap. I. whom he calls devotos lJI0 and clientes32 (the later laws call them solduriosni. and Festus. celebrated his funeral with their' own. for one who died naturally. Q M among M 66 67 . till express laws forbade it. which.3 Portia. 8.000 men. ium. He only told them 1905 that the philosophers among the Indians did so. And there. For he says there were some. lib. 1897 1900 1903 1919 1920 n. 14. because he lost his one hundred and eight translated comedies. for which act Diogenes Laertius proclaims him to have been mira foelicitate vir. but neither born to serve. but also women. being 1875 then almost one hundred years old. l!!ILib.] 28 Q M animalium Ed. no ant was found that ever refused it. 1880 1885 1890 1895 De abstinentia 27Declamatio 1870 1881 1887 n. qui 1865 l. 14.

After that. And in our age. lib.. How pathetically Latinus Pacatus expresses the sweetness of dying when we will: Others. that another might? Is another's hand easier than thine own? Or a private death fouler 1935 than a public? Or is it more pain to fall upon thy sword. this solemnity of killing themselves at funerals wore out and vanished. Praejatio in his- 'Svlvius. For first. did ever sum up and 1925 abridge all their precepts into this one. and to oppress the wound with thy body. prevented uncertain death by certain. for the public benefit. and so receive death at once. or that a 1945 tyrant's hand should perform thy revenge. took their swords from the conquered ne quis incumberet dolan'. bend the knee. that they who would not accept Christian religion should incur bondage. and sacrificed so by that aspersion of blood.l. after the conquest. by some counterfeitings.. Commentarius ad leges re- expresseth M another AI thine] thine thine M . and the women scratched and defaced their cheeks. in show of this show. lest he should stain the sacred imperial robe with so impious blood. were content to forfeit their custom of dying. the Indians in infinite numbers escaped this by killing themselves. who had before murdered Gratian and was now 1940 suppressed by Theodosius. they only took some of the earth.. 2. saw but Metellus. stretch out the neck. disguised ever under earthly rewards and punishments-either because human na191() ture. 1955 and never ceased till the Spaniards. hast chased thine executioner and wouldst not allow him leisure for so honest a death. by their friends' graves they 1910 made graves for themselves. For who ever feared after there was no hope? Or who would therefore forbear to kill himself. saith he.ii. that it hath made us clearly to understand the state of the next life (which Moses and his followers. whose care was to die thus. the men wounded themselves. Distinction III (I) After this. "Heurnius. as nuns do when they renounce the world. who. De philosophiis cis. lives. he turns upon Gratian. and so. wondering why Maxirnus. 1930 "making a braver bargain with destiny. And after Christianity-which. "Let a pious death determine a good life. cap. cap.ii. had not enjoyed the common benefit of killing himself. when men by civility and mutual use one of another became more thrifty of themselves and sparing of their 196. 1928 1934 1937 1954 expresses] another'S] the knee this] omit barbari. the] thy knee . Plato. and the slaves 'scaped whipping by strangling.3-iii. 1960 1966 1975 so of] of so M diminutions] dim unit ions Q main advantage] many advantages Q 68 69 . by which language one may see how natural it was to those times 1950 to affect such dispatch. And after.3 these priests. and Aristotle. and to prove 1f6b that it is not so of particular law of nature but that it is often transgressed naturally. after a victory."35 such an estimation had they of this manner of dying.1 made them think that they also would kill themselves and foUow them with the same severity into the next lifeY And thus much seeming to me sufficient to defeat that argument which is drawn from self-preservation.' In. "Thou. reverend Gratian.6Panegyricus Theodosio. than to divide the torment. or thou be beholden to him for his own death. perchance to more than one blow?" And then. and says. was generally incapable of such mysteries. when the Spaniards extended that law which was made only against the cannibals. though they understood it. glas. thy M M Osorii.. and entered into them alive. "Malalius IOTia l. 2. Socrates. we will here end this second distinction. and wore it upon their heads. in show of it. besides the main advantage above all other philosophies. yet leisurely and by unsensible diminutions. 24. or because it was reserved to our blessed Savior to interpret and comment upon His own law-and that great successive trinity of human wisdom. after the first fall till the restitution and dignification thereof by Christ."36 And with like passion speaks another panegyric to Constantine.

YJ'enu'llian. cap. which word.6 God's] God AI register] regulate Q Clement's] Clemens Q Dam!lsusJ Darnasc. Q Hadrianus] omit AI Sumllw .4 To these were added external honors: annual celebrating their memories and entitling their deaths nataiitia= and that .2 ing man would sin after baptism. the most stoic and severe sect that ever cast bridle upon mankind)I say.] cap. was not undeserved by the general misuse of such devotion. pars 2. though Eunapius speak it profanely. and they upon whom the lot fell not mourned for that. And therefore. therefore. collSelmtlae] 'Hadrianus Iunius in Eunapii Vita. 4. Summa Ca5llum conscientiae. most Q. Cas COilS. AI. 'Stromata. 3. Clement. Baronius.. how quickly. as that ex opere operata it purged actual sin. 'lR. 2. as also. or famous sufferings. with most earnestness. or inclinable. from the beginning in Abel. and whilst the custom of that nation ever embrued in sacrifices of blood. 'Cyprian also takes the same way. without charity and in schism.iii. by martyrdom." and the proposing their salita capita to be worshipped.] all.masus et Platina.. though it merited not salvation. yet rather fine and delightful than solid and weighty. and insists upon application of prophecies of these two sorts: that they should be #5 despised in this world. and whilst the example of our blessed Savior. 1985 1994 2008 2012 lib.7 Q." And these reasons were not such as would have entered any in whom a natural inclination had not set open the gates before. and almost of all other nations devout and earnest even in the immolation of men. and. to sacrifice His life and profuse His blood. 2018 2029 2030 0. whilst the famous acts. and that they should be rewarded in the next. 10. and Jerome. De corona militis. as] is M almost Ed. Clement presumed them men inclined.. tom. Tertu llian's reasons are somewhat more sublime. 8. 'Li~r de exhortationc maTtyrii. for matters of this life. when he handles this point. cap. and such food and such fuel as would serve the taste and fervor of such an one as were not curious above nature." and then by continual increasing the dignity and merit of it. as: that God. to invite or to cherish their propenseness to martyrdom. and most of the ancients are' €ited to be). who chose that way for our redemption. naturally man snatched and embraced a new way of profusing his life.I-2 1985 glimmeringly and variously.9 Sll/n. and such. ad 2015 Fottunatum. 9Carbo. "Fevardent ius.I. shame. that the death of saints. 7. that a barbarous people immolated every year a principal philosopher to Xamolxis. 13. of the Jews for defense even of ceremonies (many thousands of them being slain only because they would not defend themselves upon the Sabbath). as: that death was not naturally evil. even in Clement's time. that the heathen endured greater pains for less reward.] 6 (L AI 70 71 ." and that.ea-rlyinstituting of the office of notaries to register their pas2OJO sions . [lib. even by natural reasons and by examples. as 2OfO baptism did original. that martyrdom was the beginning of another life. that martyrdom is in our own powerv=which be arguments better proportioned to nature than to divinity. know- I.iii. yet it diminished the intense- 1995 2000 2005 2010 SLib~r contra Gnosticos. MaTtyr%glum. and that. was now fresh in them and governed all their affections. by nature to this affection. which is said to be precious in God's sight. cannot be understood of the natural death common to all. and 11»5 establishing the benefit thereof upon them only which held the imegrit~ of faith and were in the unity of the church (of which persuasion Augustine.ava("Turn sanguinis. it was not hard for their doctors. lib. (L 7 f:d. _ righteousness was afflicted. scarce presents to them any other argument than natural men were capable of. an idol. ease. all most M philosopher] Philosoper Q presumed] pronounced M n. after Christianity had quenched those respects of fame. 1990 (2) For. l. provided him secunda solatia." And after the monopoly of appropriating martyrdom.

and communicate and extend these privileges. then Cyprian noted such with the ignominy of "libellatici.!" yea. even by contrary reasons.] I Q. 5. yea. For by such indulgence are Herod's infants martyrs. they were often contented to allow them the comfort of martyrdom without dying. or at least sanguinis. 4 ad . n. the Christians. for that they saw-did only as they saw others d@J. ne uilesceret sanctitas (which is.!" Lest the dignity of martvrdom should be aviled by such promiscuous admittance to it. so when their teachers found any coolness or remissness in them. 2a2a('. !ian says. lib. sed non innocens conscientia. u ncaterhi zed . ex Augustine. So Ignatius styles himself in his epistles "marryr". verba "Martvrium. a prophet in the name of a prophet shall have a proph15Sl"Tmode laps is. propositio 2. 2089 n. q. modestly refuse the name of martyrs. "Ad Scapulam. cap. which was but a returning to the Z090 natural sense of the word. a. they descended to admit more into their fellow ship. So not only the sickly and infirm succeeding ages. when he says persecution must not be redeemed.!" And by these they incited man's nature to it. 28. and says of them. s. dies after of sickness contracted by his own negligence. that no city escaped punishment which had shed Christian blood.O70 for running away is a buying of your peace for nothing. autem.v Andilhen Tertullian equally infarnes flying away and such merchandising. as a learned writer of our time says. "Morales mst itutioncs. for so Tertul. ?. 6. but even the purest times did cherish in men this desire of death. M quis Ed." but "saintship"). J9Ad Polvcarpem.] 7 Q M AI hoped Ed. lib. Dist. J3AphaTl~~mi Emmanuelis Sa. qui" De poeni- 12Augustini epistola ad Hieronvmurn." it ~amc the common opinion that death was requisite and necessary to make one a martyr.'! After this. 15D~14ga." because they had taken an acquittance of Liii. De natura ('I arigine ammae. 3. and a buying' of your peace for money is a running away.!" Contrariwise.!" And then we shall Iind that. if that negligence amounted not to mortal sin. and he which dies in his mother's womb if she be a martyr. I say. ?07'J though afflicted.] qUI Q AI QM 2a2ae]22r Q 2068 2070-71 2082 pat umtta Ed. culpa minor sacriiicatorum. which also might be a little corruptly warmed towards it by seeing them ever punished who afflicted them. though he died not for a matter of Christian faith. wounded] omit M contrary] contracting AI then) the M acquittance] acquaintance M 3 Ed. then. and the dear purchase. both which notwithstanding.14 warmed] warned AI recovers .IO tent. not here "holiness.2 the state. and to lay some scandal upon the cause which wrought such a desire 2080 in men. more than the rest. as they hoped. which understood not why they did it.l.] hope (L M ~. so is he which suffers for any virtue. 17Historiae. but uninstructed. being not deadly wounded. 2. he brought down the value thereof. pars 2. and an inclination to flight or composition with the state.'Im. I. 2043 2053-54 2059 2064 2065 n. that the 208' church abstains from easy canonizing.)'8 Q 72 73 . by change of circumstances had appearance of good. 5. 2077 2080 Tertulfian] Terrullian Q a buying] buying M limes] Lyme M uninstructed] misinstructed supervivers] superiors M at least] at y' least AI marrvrdom] Martvdome 6 Ed. sometimes by adding fuel. unbaptized-but that the charity of the supenli\lers imputed to them baptisma [luminis." "Thomas. so in Eusebius. in other times. for he says that as he which hOllors. For as fire is made more intense sometimes by sprinkling water. 124.2 ness of damnation.iii. recovers: and he which. being for Christian profession wounded deadly. J !)()('/}/." so is John Baptist. cap.. when the disease of headlong dying at once seemed both to wear out their numbers. 2045 2050 2055 2060 2065 JODe poenitentia. and profess thilt they have not deserved it except they may be killed. even against the nature of the word "martyr.» and so is he which.. ten/ia.

29 Such an intemperance "OAd Smyrnenses. let me enjoy those beasts. It is not lightness.. there M rruilu r (~ to be common] to be common marked for deletions to be common AI (firsl three words 2141 2147 11. And why did he this? Eusebius delivers his reason: that he might be the sooner delivered out of this wicked and sinfullife. and having allowable excuses of avoiding it? Q. 8. I Ed.] 4 6 . "Exodus 12:7. 15. presuming heaven to be at the next step. as at the burning of the temple at Jerusalem. to enrage the officers with this contumely when they asked her why. thought that. saith he. they would often stubbornly or stupidly wink. thus mihi utile mori est. [ruar bestiis. 2S[usebius. and so make that one step. but we must also take in a good freight. "We also are Christians'T" and that inexcusable forwardness ~ of Ger~anus. cast themselves into the fire." or diminished the dignity thereof. 9.l.] 14 (~M 10 QM II QM 74 75 .26 Which acts Eusebius glorifies with this praise. when sentence was pronounced against others. but an even. your charity will t#Q hurt me.w And so. lib. and. cap. reposed steadfastness which carries us thither.] 7 . it is not enough to cast away the burdenous superfluities which we have long carried about us. as though I thought not "the blood of martyrs to be the seed of the church. lib. though they had way to the Romans. 27HI. of which we are thus deprived. entice and corrupt the beasts to devour me and to be my sepulchre. 2 Ianuarii.iii. 6. and bloody persecutions. except you endeavor that I may be sacrificed now. whom I wish U~ much more cruel than they arc. nee ideo transnatant. so dejected and worn with confiscations and imprisonments.t? Alas! we may fall and drown at the last stroke. cap. But Cyprian was forced to find out an answer to this lamentation. 25De contem ptu mortis. and put me (0 begin my course again.28 How passionately Ignatius solicits the Roman Christians not to interrupt his death: I fear. 8.. I profess to all churches quod uoluntarius morior. And the professors thereof.27 11.uia f#1 tyrdom. lib. and if they will not attempt me. 2098 2112 2120 theirs] exuilur] 22S evero. as in the Passover from Egypt every door was sprinkled with blood.2 er's reward. i\!larl}. quia exuitur. 2095 uincturn Christi. fJ istoriae. !9Baronius. "JOS~phllS. Meirus and Josephus. 'I.23 And for them who. And what was Ignatius' reason for this. for to sail to heaven./ori(lc. lib. so he shall have a martyr's reward which honors l. when the Emperor Valens had forbidden the Christians one temple to which particular reasons of devotion invited them. offered themselves to mar- 2100 2105 2110 2115 . De bello ludaico. 9.26 11.2 he is fain to provide the glorious and satisfactory name of "professors. who dr~w the b~ast '" hi~ and e~1force~ it to tear his body.iii. being a man necessary to those churches. Q 8" 9 Ed. I will provoke and draw them by force. quia se spoliant. [nota] h. which he then found to be common to men on their deathbeds: We mourn because with all our strength we had vowed ourselves to martyrdom. and that to such may fruitfully be applied those words of the good Blessed Paulinus.. the Christian religion was dilated and oppressed." so heaven had no door from this world but by fires. that they did them mente digna philosophist" so that it seems 211f wisest men provoked this by their examples. crosses."~4 From such an inordinate desire. cap.". Epistoia 2. before they were called upon. Epistola ad Rom anos. proceeded the fury of some Christians who. blandiciis demulctete [eras. and after. our most blessed Savior proceeding in His merciful purpose of increasing His kingdom upon earth. 29lgnatius. by being prevented by natural death. 15 frl. God forbid any should be so malignant so to misinterpret me. lIHuloriae.28 I may] it may Q toJinM t listoriaes t l ict. I. yet permitting the heathen princes to continue theirs as yet. cap. athleta non tnncit statim.0 2120 urged the woman of Edissa. Yet it becomes any ingenuity to confess that those times were affected with a disease of this natural desire of such a death. standing by cried out.wiogi!lm. (00 obedient to nature..

"SUprd [p. as Nicephorus says. under Maximianus. that they might be thrown into the fire. and so extorted a martyrdom.] 21 Q M 12". St. jib. legion massacred at once. supra. and so satisfied 2175 with it. rap. Marlyr%gium. ex Tertul liano.]ll . 10. . almost strangled the Devil. fo. he bid them. 5. cap. so in this spiritual warfare. the greater the triumphant church was. that to vex and torture them more. 2.31 he wished M M multitudes] Multitude M 22 Ed. Gregory says. and when all these treadings down did but harrow our Savior's field.. 30Nicephorus.2-3 to have embraced Christian religion. the magistrate made laws to take from them the comfort of dying.t" he tried by his !'Spuulum '185 . and when the emperor sent othC'rs to execute them. I and my son should come too late to partake that benefit.1?Bodin. 2Ed. cap. in full persuasion of doing well. 4. Vincent ii.000 virgins. them. and so the whole 10. lib. assisted both with the example and prayers of the other). would naturally run to this. So they admit into the catalogue Herod's infants."32 And this natural disposition afforded Mahomet an argument against the Jews: It your religion be so good. for all that wished that he might have the happiness to be with them. s7Baronius." And as in other warfares. lib. "'Lib.l. tom. 3. And this assuredness. [Om.$6 Q. 66 Q. cap. but tho state. 12.r%gilim. which yet in the Roman martyrologe retords as many as most other days) there is no day which hath OQt five hundred martyrs. 2. the greater grew the militant. one thousand of those executioners joined to.666 by iterated decimation.000 were crucified. and the 11. 22. 'ISpeculum J9Marl).2 squalid and headlong.36 And BarQnius speaks of 10.iii. I have not examined). 4.000 crucified in Armenia.8'6 2191 22 J LIne.88. why do you not die?33 For our primitive church was so enamored of death. she dragged her son through the streets: I 2155 do it lest when you have slain all the other Christians. Zf90 11" _ _ Vincenut. 4. 2161 2166 2180 n. cap. the greater also are his armies.ipate] prat icipate Q 2206 their} omit AI 22(j7-. "'lfomlha op. "Is there any more Christians which desire to die?" And when a whole multitude by general 2170 voice discovered themselves.1. "Go hang and drown yourselves. 40QM wished] omit a] and so] omit AI spoke] spoke of AI than]. and prepare and better it for His harvest.000 under Hadrian or no. although he were answered 2160 that they died not only for resisting the Roman religion. men muster and reckon how many they bring into the field. . 4. And when 9. that men. 27 ill Euangcliu m. as "Nicephorus AI n. 8 (2 :\1 76 77 . as I say still. and increased their persecution by ceasing it. passing by after the execution of a whole legion of 6. for they gloried in their numbers. celebrated upon the two-and-twentieth of J une"? (whether divers from the 10.000 soldiers under Hadrian. a great number had their direct mark upon the glory of God and went to it awake) having.>' For that age was grown so hungry and ravenous of it. omit M " l~d. ]·Bodin. and 2165 children taught to vex and provoke executioners. for to us they are more in number than the sands. Daem onomanra. as in profane and secular wars. 76].v And of an ·entire.iii. ex Tertulliano. very many died out of a natural infirmity of despising this life. and ease the magistrate. 2185 21."38 And Baronius says that (excepting the first of January. II. because then more and more concur to his splendor and to participate his fortunes. the blood of the martyrs (for though. azoara 72.30 n. (3) And when the church increased abundantly under all these pressures (for.. their confidence of victory was in 2180 the multitudes of them which were lost. by apparition of an angel are said I." almost every one hath nine hundred or eight hundred. "A lcorallum.08' as Nicephorus] as a (a) Nicephorus n.s? And such a disorderly heat possessed that old wretched man which. "Let God number our martyrs. then then Q 2200 panir. the greater the triumphs of a conqueror are. made the proconsul in Afric proclaim. lib. that many were baptized only because they would be burnt.1l9 Supra] Supra. we spoke but novv.

lib. r '"Baronills. taught that 224' whosoe¥l. For. 102.] 15 Q AI ex] en M r may be marked for dclrt i(w) 78 79 . Of which. lib. and because they were resisted by 2235 Tertull ian. fled now .~otheir number of martyrs. to redeem time and overtake thew. was a martyr. lib. verbo "Mar- lyrium. and 'by their survivors be celebrated for martyrs.·l:l which doctrine the Gnostici also taught. against whom St. thought only to slacken their desire to it.v' And they who are by St.\Jar· tyriurn. e. 5. the-y constituted new occasions of martyrdom. much less by dying. ex Nicephoro. a man mighty both in his general abilities and in his particular and professed earnestness to magnify martyrdom.too before. cap. was not 2225 crucified. 'SHistori(le. 22. called Helchesae. perceiving that it was too hasty to condemn the act of martyrdom even for Christ. by whose example they did it. 10. whose errors were not about martyrdom. would do it themselves. to kill themselves DUll. too. "'iomu~ . they went about to devour) would entreat. Martvrologiurn. as the o~thodoxal Christians. hastened to it.3 two greatest instruments (when they are his).16 Ed. of whom St. who bore the cross. And against these he writ his Scorpiacum. 5. he offered not to impugn their exposing themselves to death in all cases. so we kept our heart at anchor safe. in which they pretended to exceed the others. Augustine writ. to punish a sin commif. annulling second marriages. they let loose the bridJ'ft of their own nature. but only said that it was madness to die for Christ. lib. enforce others to kill them. 15Pralcolus. to avert them from this inclination. we were not 2230 bound to testify our religion by any outward act. by teaching that in time of persecution. And because the other prescnbed against them. and erring in such points. ex Epiphanio. since He.2.Liii. 16. and because they accompanied this doctrine with many others foul and odious even to sense.and others called Circumcelliones and Circuitores (beCause" I think. seeing their arguments confuted. cap. Tertullian being then on their pan. 'I2Alphonsus Castrensis. who. 3). 2222 2225 2226 2237 Vincenrii. exposing] exposing of AI whoj rhat AI Hclchesae] Helchesar Q Scorpiacwn] Srorpriacum AI (second eonstituted] costiruted IH whm] . both because the contrary was rooted in nature.t" and thereupon m5 ~lphonsus Castrensis. the Euphemhae called themselves Martvrians. Liii. erroneously baptiziclitg'1:he dead. HBaronius. cap. verbo ". to frustrate and defeat that expectation. tried to 2220 remove that which had root only in their religion. and. 10m. Pt'llilia:n.4 (4) This way giving no advantage to heretics." ex Philastro. and apprehended any fMO occasion of dying as forwardly. as being yet of tenderer growth and more removable than natural impressions.omit M wheresoever] w heresoere Af Eupilemilae] Euphenitae Q l'L48 n. as their master. Augustine says. they found him (as he was wheresoever he came) a :2260 hot encourager of men to martyrdom.\r killed himself as a magistrate. ordaining women. 4. 10." It is complained in Eusebius that heretics. 80. but Simon. Augustine . Therefore. persuade. the magistrate and 2210 the learned. perchance because. the most pestilently cunning Basilides." And he raised up subtle 2215 heretics to infirm and darken the virtue and majesty of martyrdom.": OtheJ' heretics also. M artyrologium. Hacresis.v could soon boast of their number QJ martyrs.19 . foresuspecting that he should not easily remove that desire of dying which nature had bred and custom confirmed in them. but prevailed little. he procured their bodies to be burnt and their ashes scattered into rivers. These were of the Donatists." And from their numbers of martyrs." "Speculum cap.lf respect of martyrdom was ludus quotidianus. and were beforehand with them in number.pislOla 50. 10.Praleolt)S. So the Cataphrygae. O<.v Another heretic. suggesting to the magistrate that their forwardness Lo die grew only from their faith in the resurrection.D frustrated after all those provocations.

Only ehe Jesuits boast of their huntingoutof martyrdom in the new worlds. Q fd. says he. 42. For. but against it. thus: Martyrum dignitatem nemo pro- I.] To. And thereupon. and mingled more alloys. quia alieni a 2275 Deo. J- [anus iniamet= (6) Thus. 8f)j we bar.. thae we may prodigere animas in hostili ferro. saith Carbo. and. began to take it into their care to provide against it. n. leaving true martyrs.. 2300 2S01 2505 pars 2. yet it is not of itself. since St. Thomas said that 2285 though martyrdom be a work of greatest perfection. 4. 7. before Christianity contracted them. cap. but amongst the Donatists. 3. by reason of our weakness and this world's encumbrances. cap. and we possess no more than such small matters as only serve to cut off our Ufe}2 So that if this desire of dying be not agreeable to the nature of man. foreseeing that if both sides did it equally. one would think that it were a disease in us.6 QAt Bonarscius] Bonarsicus Q tom . a sacrifice nor work of religion. 3. that no Christian. 10m. e. I. but as it is wrought by charity and expresses that. which we do lest the' rest of our life should be meritis sterile et gloria vacuum. for the fourth and last distinction of this first part.. one reason by which this self-homicide seems "Carbo. the spirit of contention many. 40. one council exhibits an express canon. tickled and inflamed mankind. was so overjoyed that he forgot his modesty.51 And another corrects the other heresy. lib. conscientiae] Sum. it may well be thought that from thence the authors of these later ages have somewhat remitted the intenseness of martyrdom.57 one] our Q Molucca] Moluua M upon] upon upon M first] omit M one] our Q Summa . and began so far 2270 to perplex the world.5-iv. Summa casuum conscientiae. "Clarus Bonarscius. Cas. amongst the heathen. that some councils.4-5 2265 Baronius says. cap. q. and other natural infirmities more. allay AI Epitome Schulringii] Schult ingius 2511 n. it is not sacramentum. lib. should go to false.iii. it is now taught that it is a mortal sin to provoke another to inflict martyrdom. canon 2. or rather more metal. lib. Cons. to cherish or further that desire of dying to whicn. 2. it would all be imputed to human respects. and not made it of so great value alone. a. but of fortitude.gain and contract with our profession upon that condition..I. which is but a moral virtue. "Navarre. Mnnuale.v' There2290 fore. of diminishing the reputation of martyrs. 3.iii. "Concilium "Concilium 2265 2271 2273 2283 n.56 So they seem tender and loath. when the true spirit of God drew many. I. hominum examina/" (5) So that the authority gained by their forwardness to equal the number of true martyrs was so great. honoris.um. which we purposed only for the consideration of this desire of martyrdom. as those earnest times did. Rapimus martyrium. yet it seems that it is not against VID the nature of a Jesuit. perchance you may here and there find one Empedocles which will burn himself. n. At. Carthagensis. at his execution in the Molucca. A mphitheatrum Schultingii. says he. says] sayth M did it] did AI one] our Q alloys] alia yes Q. spontanea irruptione. tom. our nature is too propense and inclined." and a martyr (though martyrdom purge '·Epitome 177. by addition of ZZf5 religious incitements. canon 33. 7 80 81 . cap. He which hath brought them all upon one scene says that Alphonsus Castro. and of their rage till they find it. Laodiciae. to 2280 expose themselves easily to death. which swallowed up all the other inducements which. p. II. 2. "De adoratione. for it is not. but opus privil'egiat..50 Distinction IV (1) There remains only. And so we end this distinction." Vasquez reprehends Cordubensis for saying that it is any worship of God. 124. H2a2ae. 1.56 Q n.1 much) is bound to cleanse himself by everyone of the degrees of penance" for.

a!l'Y. not only by suffering and connivancy. to manacle and disarm con234~ demned men. out of a foreassurance that else they would escape death by death? Sir Thomas More.] 2 QAt Q triumphes M 2849 25M 2555 2556 2358 St. neither in his estate nor memory. Amongst the Athenians. 'Digesta." The Civil Law. and that they w~ obeyed as the interpreters of God's will. and because the way to the Senate was per pontem.priests and magistrates did use to exhort men • afflicted with incurable diseases to kill themselves. lib. But let his friends inquire of the interpreters of the law. God himself knows. but by appointing it. that this report was occasioned by a custom in Rome by which men of that age were not admitted to suffrage. De servis.. punishes a keeper if his prisoner kill himself. Wherein I make account that I have sufficiently delivered and rescued this self-homicide from any such violating of the law as may aggravate the fact or make it heinous. Augustine. leges finales ~UtOPi4. escaped it ordinarily by killing themselves.iv. not urged by any sentence. being condemned to banishment. disputes in it in no severer fashion. and or the purpose of destiny. hath authorized it. limitedly. custom. and do as they shall direct.2 n. which is that both express literal laws and mute law. precipitated from a bridge. lib. but out of a lJ6Q cowar. they which for age were not permitted to come thither were called depontanin yet it is more certain that amongst the Ceans. says that in "J50 Utop.ia . breach] brack M connivancy] conveniency M nOI] omit AI suffrage] surffagc old] omit AI crowned] crown Q triurnphersj where] when M punishes] punisherh AI may] omit AI 37 Ed. lib. as triurnphers over human misery.:bing in jest mischievously interpretable.iv. which deprives himself of life. And this is all which I will say of the first member of that definition of sin which I undertook. and in which such enormous faults are not like to be admitted. lib. but also of imaginary commonwealths which cunning authors have ideated. IiI. doth unjustly kill himself? What purgatory and what burial by law belongs to him. nor more pe 'emptory. 2320 2325 2330 2335 2340 mD 'Fl ieroglvphica. and. 3. if means may be afforded them. often bv bloodlettings. 3 Bibliothccac.] 26 Q M 3 Ed.the. but that they who killed th. which they did crowned with garlands. 17. 3.dline. nor extreme shame. unprofitable old men poisoned themselves. a man of the most tender and delicate con~cience [hat the world saw since St. but modestly. condemned men were their own executioners by poison. lib. ·m·heavy misfortune. that their greatest malefactors.r And the Ethiopians loved death so well. 9.ss and weakness of a fearful mind. who is usually cited ~35jagainst this opinion. than thus: "What shall we say of him which kills his nearest and most dear friend. And do not we see it to be I. And it hath the countenance not only of many fluourishing and well-policed states. -Acl ianus. of which (if Pierius his conjecture be true.l the cusitQm of all nations now. 2318 2320 2332 2335 2336 2340 2341 23·12 n."6 You see nothing is delivered by him against it. 2. and amongst the Romans.> And Plato. And it is recorded of many places that all th~ sexagenarii were.' out of a prejudice that.:m:selves without giving an account of their reasons to them were cast out unburied.I. by the laws of wise states. 116' and perplexedly. 37.l to me to escape the breach of any law of nature. cap.3 3Diodorus Siculus. not likely to writ~. cap. where it appoints no punishment to the delinquent in this case.t.] omit At 2561 2862 2864 interpretable] interpreted incurable] miserable AI in Il] it At Which] who AI destiny] Deuinity AI belol'lgs] belong M Iriends] freind AI lim1wdly]limitably AI AI 82 83 . 2348 fiDe legib us. which is transgressing of the law of nature. '18. they will all do so.

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