ieee-usa e-Books and the ieee-usa innovation institute present

INNOVATION CONVERSATIONS —

a special ieee-usa edition of

Book 1

The Innovation Process
Energizing values-centered innovation from start to finish

By William C. Miller

INNOVATION CONVERSATIONS A Series of Three Books on Values-Centered Innovation
Book 1 The Innovation Process Energizing values-centered innovation from start to finish Book 2* Innovation Styles® Stimulating innovative thinking throughout the entire innovation process Book 3* The Climate and Culture for Innovation Fostering values-centered innovation in the everyday workplace
*To be released in 2008

Acknowledgements I wish to thank my wife Debra for hours of conversation, as well as her editing, which significantly raised the clarity of my thought, insight and writing. My appreciation also goes to Alain Rostain for twelve years of productive collaboration, and Jatin Desai for helping to bring values-centered innovation into the world. Finally, I am grateful to Georgia Stelluto, my editor at IEEE-USA, for helping propel this book into being. Published and Hosted by IEEE-USA. Copyright © 2007 by William C. Miller. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. Edited by Georgia C. Stelluto, IEEE-USA Publishing Manager Cover design and layout by Josie Thompson, Thompson Design IEEE-USA eBooks presents this special edition of William C. Miller’s book in collaboration with the IEEE-USA Innovation Institute and IEEE-USA’s Employment and Career Services Committee. It is made possible by a special dues assessment of IEEE members residing in the United States. Copying this material in any form is not permitted without prior written approval from the IEEE-USA Publishing Manager; write to g.stelluto@ieee.org. Creative JourneyTM and Values-Centered InnovationTM are trademarks of the Global Creativity Corporation. Innovation Styles® is a registered trademark of the Global Creativity Corporation.

INNOVATION CONVERSATIONS
Book 1 The Innovation Process Energizing values-centered innovation from start to finish
Introduction — The Art and Discipline of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PART I — Starting Your Innovation Conversations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Chapter 1 — What Is Innovation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Chapter 2 — Innovation and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Chapter 3 — Models of the Innovation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Chapter 4 — The Creative JourneyTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Chapter 5 — Your Creative Journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 PART II — Expanding Your Innovation Conversations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Chapter 6 — Taking on a Challenge Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Chapter 7 — Focusing Together on What It Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Chapter 8 — Finding Innovative Solutions Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Chapter 9 — Completing the Journey Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Chapter 10 — Being a SPIRITED Leader of Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Epilogue — Making a Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

William manages to do the nearly impossible — taking topics as ethereal as spirituality and elusive as creativity, and transforming them into practical tools for revitalizing organizations.
— Jim Kouzes, Chairman of Tom Peters Learning Systems Co-author of The Leadership Challenge

5

T he Innovation Process

Introduction p

The Art and Discipline of Innovation

erhaps the most significant epic journey of modern times is not found in literature, but in the real-time voyage of man into space — walking on the moon, seeing the earth against the backdrop of the universe, and bringing that extraordinary shift of perspective back to the planet . Edgar Mitchell, a member of the 1971 Apollo XIV crew, is one of those rare people who had the privilege of walking on the moon’s surface . He once related his adventure to me, including how his experience in space led to his returning to Earth as a very different person . The idea of going to the moon was virtually an irresistible challenge. I characterize the space flight — of getting off the planet — as being an event as significant as when the first sea creatures crawled out onto land. Preparation for the Apollo flight involved many skills, plus all the academic work. All that knowledge and skill had to be practiced to a point where it was automatic. To deal with unexpected events, however, is when our judgment would come into play. The problem that posed the most potential for creativity was before we went down to the lunar surface. The automatic abort system had failed in such a way that if we tried to descend to the surface, it would automatically take us back into orbit. This was less than two hours before we were supposed to start down to the surface. We finally came up with a way to reprogram the computer, with just a few seconds to spare, only minutes before the engines were to be ignited. This powerful experience of seeing Earth and our whole solar system against the background of the cosmos had a very profound effect — an overwhelming sense of being connected to all things. I recognized that our scientific description of the way the universe is put together was at best incomplete and perhaps in some ways inaccurate. The universe is more of a living organism than a set of discrete things. What came out of that experience was an enormous sense of responsibility that goes with the power of creativity. We each have to accept, along with our creative potential, the responsibility that goes with it… to become proactive rather than just reactive. And that means letting go of fear. Automatically that brings this deeper sense of love and responsibility for one’s self, surroundings, environment and planet.

6

T he Innovation Process

He summed up his transformation, and that of many fellow space travelers, by saying, “We went to the moon as technicians . We returned as humanitarians .” Man’s journey to the moon and back was not only an extraordinary achievement of technical and engineering innovation, but an indescribable hallmark in the history of mankind . For the first time, we, as humanity, saw ourselves floating in space . It was, and still is, a transformative experience that illumines our continuing quest for innovation and progress . The question is: Do we undertake that quest for innovation as technicians or as humanitarians? In one way, the history of mankind can be told as the epic story of man’s innovations in art, religion, science, business, technology and culture . Yet today, as the pace of innovation spirals in the context of the global economy, we can more readily see that innovation can have both positive and negative consequences . On one hand, we have rid the world of smallpox and are on the brink of eliminating polio . On the other hand, the major causes of death today are lifestyle-related (such as cancer and heart disease), not viral or natural; and we often use our healthcare innovations, such as pharmaceuticals, to temporarily relieve physical maladies, so we can continue our unhealthy lifestyle habits with less discomfort . As time progresses and we evolve as a community of species on this Spaceship Earth (as Buckminster Fuller called it), we see that we are co-creating the course of our planetary and cultural evolution through our innovations . So the questions of the day have expanded from “What can we innovate?” and “How can we be more innovative?” to include “Why are we innovating?” and “How can we focus our innovative thinking on more positive, useful purposes?” The call is not just for more innovation, but for innovation that contributes to the well-being of all stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, society and the environment — innovation with a social conscience, innovation driven by our higher human values . The Art and Discipline of Innovation Innovation is both an art and a discipline . As an art, it’s a human endeavor that can be driven by values as we work collaboratively to create what is most meaningful to us . As a discipline, it has processes and principles that are actually quite simple, and can be learned and practiced . The field of innovation has the Total Quality movement to thank for establishing two important principles: 1. Innovation is an important part of every job. 2. Every person has the capacity to contribute to innovation. When Edward Deming and Joseph Juran sparked the Total Quality Management movement in Japan in the 1950s, they taught the discipline of quality improvement: techniques to identify quality issues, find and implement solutions, and follow through with continuous improvement . The Japanese culture supplied the all-important social structure to implement those techniques by training everyday workers — those who were closest to the work processes that needed improvement — in the art of conducting

R&D scientists. just after I left my position as head of Innovation Management at SRI International (formerly Stanford Research Institute). It has worked cross-culturally in more than a dozen countries around the world. or customer service . In this book about the process of values-centered innovation. the name of the innovation model you’ll learn about is the Creative JourneyTM . both alone and in a team. by the 1980s. I have applied this model with professionals in a wide range of scientific. When you combine your own knowledge and skills with the perspectives and tools offered here. with people as diverse as corporate executives. The second is that TQM spread the responsibility for quality so that “innovating improved work processes” became everyone’s job. I have employed it whenever a situation called for an innovative solution in marketing. Innovation can be seen as a journey that starts with setting a purpose or goal. and make a positive difference in the lives of your colleagues. technical.7 Introduc tion “Quality Circles . the world was beating on the Japanese doors to learn how to manage quality as well as they were . It’s something we can all participate in. And just as well. This book will be a simple one without being simplistic . The Journey of Innovation To borrow a phrase. finance. it was no longer just the quality engineer’s job . So is knowledge . IT. Two principles have emerged from this movement essential to the field of innovation . engineering and R&D organizations . — William Miller October 2007 . Its aim is to provide a way to understand the process of innovation itself. The first is that TQM demonstrated that everyone has the capacity to generate and implement innovative ideas. sales. knowledge management. operations. All along the way. given the right understanding and framework . And when we are innovating skillfully.”But it is powerful enough to build and launch a spacecraft . and how people of any job can apply it to the challenges and opportunities they find in their day-to-day work . your customers. while practicing strong values. the art and discipline of innovation “is not rocket science . Innovation means much more than just coming up with creative ideas. So are values . That’s the discipline . innovative thinking is required . but in marketing and sales. we will naturally contribute to others’ well being . those ideas have to be put to work to create a benefit . and started my own consultancy. and ends up with innovative achievement and new learning . It’s a model that I developed in 1987. business models. and school bus drivers . if given the right tools . For the past 20 years. I have great trust that it will boost your ability to innovate. the Global Creativity Corporation . and the course of our future . human resources. manufacturing. That’s the art . These principles apply not only to working on innovations in new products and work processes. strategic planning.” As we all know. organization design. and leadership practices .

focus on it. finance. It takes people working together to develop a goal.8 T he Innovation Process Part I Starting Your Innovation Conversations i nnovation is rarely. involving people from R&D. So. and implement it . whether the scope of your innovative work is small or large. sales. an innovation project could be large in scope. generate an innovative solution. rich conversations. with an open mind Respect differences Avoid criticism of others Honor confidentiality In short. production. contribute to innovation? To gain the most from any conversation. . departments and divisions — wherever and whenever people in your organization need to come together and innovate . if ever. when we often come from so many functions and specialties? The goal of this book is to provide a common framework for having the conversations that will enable innovation to flourish between you and those you work with. customer service. But what should that conversation be about? And how do we speak the same language. engineering. at any level. marketing. That will go a long way towards energizing the innovation process from start to finish . At other times. as well as between groups. focus on conversing rather than converting . Sometimes. that’s as simple as working with one or two colleagues during a normal daily routine . Part I of this book on the innovation process is to establish the basis for innovation conversations. here are some guidelines I have found helpful: • • • • • • • Speak sincerely and authentically Care enough to hear fully from everyone Encourage each person to express their own unique viewpoints Listen patiently. IT and human resources . on questions such as: • • • • • What is innovation? What provides the meaning and motivation for innovation? What is meant by an innovation process? What innovation process can we follow no matter what job we have? What can people in any job. a solitary effort . to have uplifting. aligning and attuning your work together requires the art of good conversation .

1982) An idea. he ran a dorm-room business selling random-access memory (RAM) chips and disk drives for IBM PCs with revenues of $80. and fully paid for before assembly — quite a nice financial model . By eliminating the middle-man. his price was less than half of IBM’s for a comparable computer . and began assembling and selling IBM PC clones under the name PC Limited . etc. Leading for Innovation and Organizing for Results. alter. Every other computer manufacturer made its best estimate of how customers wanted their computers to be configured. ideas and intelligence. new method. in his words. and a tricky one . each computer was built to the customer’s own specifications. (Peter Drucker. in Hesselbein. rather than using retail outlets . 1983 and1995) Change that creates a new dimension of performance. something newly introduced. Take for example this variety of definitions developed over the years: • Introducing new commodities or qualitatively better versions of existing ones. Today. Capitalism. and direct-to-consumer sales became the core of his business model. Defining innovation What exactly is innovation? It’s an obvious question to ask. He sold directly to customers. Dell Inc. When Michael started Dell Computers.9 T he Innovation Process Chapter 1 What is Innovation? W hen Michael Dell was a 19-year-old college student at the University of Texas. new methods of production and distribution. much to his father’s chagrin. leaders in the company were actively encouraged to deal directly with each other. With Dell. a revolution occurred in the industry . but a cultural norm as well . (Schumpeter. practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. He left school. custom. “the shelf-life of lettuce. (Webster’s New World Dictionary. device. 2002) • • • . he also established a unique manufacturing system — one in which the inventory of parts should have. or new sources of production for existing commodities. Socialism and Democracy. is the world’s largest PC manufacturer. change in the way of doing things. Would you say that the Dell’s direct-to-consumer business model was an innovation? Your answer depends on how you view and define innovation . and avoid the kind of politics and turf wars so common in corporate life . Second College Edition. finding new markets. To facilitate the open sharing of information.” Dell Direct became not only the theme of the business model. Not only did Michael cut out the need for an inventory of fully-built machines. (Rogers. or introducing new forms of economic organization. Diffusion of Innovations. Frances. and sold its inventory through retail stores .000 per month . And the business model needed less overhead . renew. It’s tricky because of the word exactly . 1942) The act or process of innovating.

Innovation is putting those ideas to work and creating a benefit . (Daniel Montano. This broadened view allows us to fully engage all employees in our creativity/innovation program and to tap into the creativity that is in us all.2 The domains and aims of innovation Many people think of innovation only in terms of producing new products or technologies sold to make money — jobs that only a few of us might actually be working on . day-to-day . 2005) The intersection of invention and insight. but created. (John Kao. Knowledge innovations relate to how we create and manage knowledge so that an organization’s intellectual capital increases . Democratizing Innovation.10 T he Innovation Process • • • • The capability of continuously realizing a desired future state. as John Emmerling — innovation consultant and former ad-agency creative director — once said: Innovation is creativity with a job to do. Author Meg Wheatley4 described this domain of innovation: Innovation arises from ongoing circles of exchange.S . In other words. (U . we also include better ways of doing our jobs and new tools that make us more productive. so are two more equally important domains: knowledge and leadership . where information is not just accumulated or stored. (Eric von Hippel. put it this way: Creativity is thinking of new and appropriate ideas. Innovation Strategies of the World’s Most Innovative Companies. We do not limit our view of processes and products to those that are related to goods sold to consumers. Senior VP for R&D at 3M. leading to the creation of economic value. creativity is the concept and innovation is the process. . original ideas . National Innovation Initiative. But that’s not all to the innovation scene .1 Or. the Clorox R&D group3 included process innovation as equally important: We define innovation as the implementation of creative ideas to produce new or improved processes or products. Knowledge is generated anew from connections that weren’t there before. 2005) The staging of value and/or the conservation of value. whereas innovation is the successful implementation of those ideas within an organization. A starting point is to first make a clear distinction between creativity and innovation: Creativity is coming up with new. While new products and new processes are two very distinct domains where innovation can occur in an organization. 2005) Anything new that is actually used (enters the market place) .whether major or minor. Instead. let’s bring it down to simple terms we can all use. The Innovation Manifesto. For example. 2006) With this multiplicity of definitions. Wayne Coyne.

when a new product is being launched. Innovative approaches to performance appraisal can actually inspire and encourage risk-taking and innovation. and each domain has its own specific aim . advertising and media MID-LINE Re-engineering. and a new business model to make it all work together successfully . marketing. employee relations. corporate culture. The aim of leadership innovation is to focus and inspire the organizational leadership and workforce . process and productivity improvement. design. Chart 1 — Domains and Aims of Innovation5 TOP-LINE DOMAINS: (includes innovations in…) New products and services. and manages its human resources . TQM. all four domains of innovation could be involved . rather than squelch it (as we’ll explore in more detail later in this book) . Knowledge and Leadership (where Top-Line and Mid-Line refer to the intended impact on the balance sheet of the business) . . communication channels. inspired leaders and work force AIMS: Greater revenues and growth Greater productivity. sales. Michael Dell’s business model was an innovation that focused everyone on what and how to deliver their products and services . Chart 1 names these four domains as Top-Line.11 Chapter 1 Innovations can also transpire in how the leadership of an organization develops new business models. kaizen. organization design Greater focus. distribution channels KNOWLEDGE Knowledge creation and management. fosters a culture. talent recruitment and retention LEADERSHIP Business models and strategy. designs the organization. supply-chain management. Mid-Line. strategic partnerships. brand experiences. Organizations focus on four innovation domains. reduced time and costs Greater intellectual capital An important point to note is that in many roll-outs of a major innovation. Six-sigma. new processes may be put into place. patents. For example. new knowledge of customer segmentation may be created. market segmentation.

Focusing only on breakthrough change can lead to exhaustion. 1992 Every innovation introduces change — in what is being done. innovation can produce two distinct degrees of change: revolutionary-breakthrough change or evolutionary-incremental change. or sharing best practices across the organization. and everyone can participate in innovation — in at least one of these four domains . providing better training of employees. finding cheaper sources of materials. And focusing only on incremental change can lead to extinction. as shown in Chart 2 . both degrees of innovation are important for sustainable innovation . we need to foster both breakthrough and incremental change . more reliable warranty coverage and repair. — William B . or improving employee relations . you might be improving productivity or quality. speedier consumer service and complaint handling. and impact Invention is the creation of a new device or process… Innovation is the introduction of change via something new. or even why it is being done . Rouse. establishing more efficient techniques of manufacture. change. The point is that innovation is part of everyone’s job — including yours. Strategies for Innovation. distribution and sales. attention-getting advertising. as we don’t take the time to integrate the change . If you’re not producing the next new product or service. Chart 2 — Sustainable Innovation7 To manage innovation over the sustainable long term. Innovation. finding new markets and consumer needs. how it is being done. Classically. Over time. as we don’t do what it takes to keep up with the times .12 T he Innovation Process Robert Reich6 underscored this diverse set of domains and aims for innovation when he spoke about entrepreneurs: They innovate by creating better products at less cost. .

however. the impact of this innovation is extremely low. Microsoft Windows. an educational psychologist and professor at the University of Washington . Similarly. they typically assume that it means a change that will have high impact (the upper-right quadrant). He designed it to overcome the inefficiency and typist fatigue that was common with the standard QWERTY keyboard layout (which had been designed in 1860 for the first commercially successful typewriter) . high impact (lower right quadrant) is a story I heard while consulting with Ford Motor Company in 1994 . they usually assume that it means a change that will have a low impact (lower left quadrant) . In fact. the engineers could very well consider it a major breakthrough in providing fuel efficiently and effectively . A very important distinction — not often made — is that the amount of change introduced by an innovation is not necessarily the same as the overall impact of that innovation . and is included with major operating systems such as Mac OS X. But from the perspective of actually selling an automobile. It has seen an increase in popularity in recent years among computer programmers who do a great amount of typing. the salesperson might consider EFI to be an incremental improvement in the overall performance and perceived value of a car . given the dominant preference market for the QWERTY keyboard . For example. that is not always the case . when most people think about incremental change. it ultimately had the impact of contributing $500.13 Chapter 1 Sometimes it’s hard to tell whether an innovation has produced a breakthrough or incremental change. this assumption is not always the case . However. and Linux . situations can arise in all four of the quadrants in Chart 3 .000 to the company’s pre-tax profits . August Dvorak. Again. An example of high change. Still. . it can all depend on one’s job perspective . when electronic fuel injection (EFI) replaced carburetors in automobile engines. low impact (upper left quadrant) is the Simplified Keyboard. patented in 1936 by Dr . An example of low change. Chart 3 — Degrees of Change with Innovations8 High CHANGE High Change Low Impact Low Change Low Impact Low IMPACT High Change High Impact Low Change High Impact High Low When most people think about breakthrough change. A worker had come up with an idea that saved the seemingly insignificant amount of only $ .10 (10 cents) on the cost of manufacturing a vehicle .

you don’t have to measure the innovative contribution you make by the amount of change you instigate . it’s an innovation for you. Bartlett pointed out in an HBR article (“Innovation Processes in Multinational Corporations. what it all comes down to in our real. While these philosophical questions can be interesting to debate. The perceived newness of the idea for the individual determines his or her reaction to it. It just has to be a new concept that gets implemented and creates some benefit for someone.10 Another question often asked is whether an innovation has to be totally new — never before seen by the eyes of man — or can it just be the “first time” within an organization . Nor do you have to shoot for the big breakthrough to realize a big impact . somewhere . whether it is used or not: (Innovation is…) the idea.14 T he Innovation Process So. So long as it’s new for you and your organization. it is an innovation. or that is regarded as novel independent of its adoption or non-adoption.” or some other earthshattering idea brought to life . If the idea seems new to the individual. If something new is produced and no one is affected by it. is it really an innovation? This question is a bit like the old philosophical inquiry: If a tree fell in a forest and no one heard it fall. most others in the field of innovation (as we’ve sampled in the quotes that began this chapter) would say that innovation occurs when there is some tangible impact: (Innovation is…) a process which proceeds from the conceptualization of a new idea to a solution of the problem and then to the actual utilization of a new item of economic or social value. or material artifact that has been invented. Sumantra Ghoshal and Christopher A . Everett Rogers11. 1987) that some people would say that innovation occurs. practice. is it an innovation? Twenty years ago. That’s what it takes for you to say that you’ve been innovative . had this to say: It matters little whether the idea is “objectively” new as measured by the lapse of time since its first use or discovery.9 On the other hand. to which everyone can contribute . a pioneer and expert in identifying the patterns of product innovations as they diffuse through society. How do you know when you’ve been innovative? Here’s an interesting question to ponder: If an intended innovation fails to achieve its aim and doesn’t get utilized. day-to-day work life is that an innovation does not have to be some invention “never thought of in the history of mankind. The innovation cycle contains differing degrees of change as well as differing degrees of impact. did the tree make any sound? Here the question is. .” Harvard Business Review.

and see what you can learn from each other .15 Chapter 1 Having an innovation conversation Before we move on. which have you participated in? • Top-line / revenue producing innovation • Mid-line / process improvement innovation • Knowledge innovation • Leadership and management innovation 3. To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. What is your own definition of innovation as it relates to your work? 2. consider the following questions . let’s focus on you for a moment . Looking over the four domains of innovation. 1. Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. How involved have you been with incremental or breakthrough change? How does this relate to the level of impact that you produced as a result? .

Second. and achieving 100 percent of their potential depends on the quality of relationships that they foster . he was responsible for all corporate research and advanced development. There you have it — a remarkable finding that Frank also repeatedly observed as Executive VP at Philips: the difference between successful teams and extraordinary teams. motivation and commitment to succeed . Frank saw that Team members found in themselves the qualities of spirit and truth… They were people who had no reason to wear a particular mask. He said they were authentic. However.” After I left SRI. 75 percent of their potential . was the presence of two sincerely-practiced values: caring and authenticity . But extraordinary success demands more.S . One day. Intellectual Property Owners Association for his RISC architecture work . the study found that teams that failed differed from those that succeeded in degrees of talent. every single hour of the day. And that’s where the values of caring plus authenticity come into play . At both companies.” and “intrapreneurs . Frank became one of my favorite consulting clients . or know something they didn’t know . and those that achieved extraordinary success . motivation and commitment will naturally find a way to achieve.16 T he Innovation Process Chapter 2 Innovation and Values I n my days as head of Innovation Management at SRI International (formerly Stanford Research Institute). Instead. First. I saw time and again that values provided the energy behind “product champions. one of the high-tech luminaries of the past 20 years . I was convinced that values were an important driver of corporate innovation . Frank found that Those teams that stood out had leaders and managers who treated their customers as they themselves wanted to be treated. and later as Executive VP and Chief Technical Officer of Philips Electronics. As you might expect. in the ultimate high-tech world. let’s say. two other factors clearly stood out . When he spoke. Frank made sense of this discovery by saying that a team of people with high levels of talent. and he once received the “Inventor of the Year” award from the U . and didn’t have to pretend to be something that they weren’t. I listened . there was no difference in these factors between the successful and extraordinarily successful teams . because they were always what they were. As Director of HP Laboratories. my understanding of the role of values grew to new heights upon meeting Frank Carrubba. but also truly cared for those customers . Frank shared with me the results of a study he sponsored at HP Labs about the difference between product-development teams that failed. Ever since. I’ve enjoyed passing along what I learned from him about the relationship between innovation and the values held by individuals and teams . He said those teams not only perceived that they had customers (a techie breakthrough in itself at the time). . those that succeeded.

Having personal values as the driver of innovation raises the level of personal investment. from start to finish . Research by Barry Posner and W . it has processes and principles that can be learned and practiced .9/7 . In our daily lives. As an art.9/7 . Values play a critical role in both . and sometimes we have to work hard to actualize that idea. When innovation is values-centered at all levels — individual.3/7 . H . values are what motivate us to complete the full process. say and do . And since innovation is more than just dreaming up a creative idea. values are part-and-parcel of any discussion about innovation .e . Schmidt has shown that clarity about our personal values is more important to our job commitment than clarity about our company’s values . As a discipline. when there are so many other important things to cover about the innovation process?” In the Introduction.17 Chapter 2 The role of values in the art and discipline of innovation At this point you might be asking. of importance) to us in what we think. How well they were aware of their own personal values 3 . How committed they were to their work Chart 4 shows a surprising result: the increase in commitment came only from an increase in self-knowledge about personal values. it’s a collaborative human endeavor . Personal values have long been under-appreciated as a driver of innovation .. In their research.0 Low High CLARITY OF PERSONAL VALUES .0 High 4 . values are feelings and convictions regarding what is of strong worth (i . people were asked to rate three things: 1 . I spoke about the art and discipline of innovation . not from more understanding of company values! Chart 4 — Values and Commitment12 CLARITY OF COMPANY VALUES Low 4 . team and organization — we are conscious of creating what is truly important to us and beneficial to others . How well they understood their company’s values 2 .0 6 . dedication and commitment it takes to innovate .1/7 . The word value comes from the Latin verb valere.0 6 . People who are aware of their own values will naturally strive to find a way to express them through their work . Values shape what is meaningful and motivating for us . “Why make such a big deal about values. So to me. which means to be worth and to be strong .

bold or exciting results with your innovative work. and sometimes it’s with our whole community or country. to empower people with more complex and self-affirming jobs . While this list could go on and on. On one hand.18 T he Innovation Process Of course. consultant and author of Liberating the Corporate Soul: Building a Visionary Organization: Research shows that when the values of employees are in alignment with the values of the organization (the leaders of the organization). values are the key . Whether we focus our innovation impacts on our own sphere of life — work colleagues. power and demands of these jobs. They help teams to work collaboratively toward goals based on common priorities . Through these discussions. And they help organizations foster a positive culture . in white collar jobs as well as manufacturing. Organizations that don’t have this alignment tend to be more inward looking. customers. According to former World Bank Values Coordinator Richard Barrett. The Hewlett Packard Corporation once conducted an internal study to discover the best practices of their highest-performing managers . On the other hand. these managers fostered the linkage between personal and organizational values . leading to an epidemic of work-life imbalance . They then posted these group values as “guiding principles” for all decisions and actions . we have fostered a new breed of workaholics who choose to work rather than spend time with their families. One finding was that their best 200 managers consistently worked with their people to define a set of group values that everyone was committed to . it is an important reminder that what we do daily in our work has an impact on the people and environment around us. we have the accelerating effects of global warming . or more . with the allure. friends and family — or a larger picture of society. Sometimes that impact is with just a few colleagues at work. we have an electronic global network . They help individuals to tap into their greatest sources of energy and inspiration as they more fully invest themselves in what they are doing . for better or for worse . we have innovated with job design and job enrichment. Who benefits from innovation? It’s not hard to see the positive and the negative impact that the human propensity for innovation has had on our quality of life . On the other hand. It seems like every organization today has a set of values it wants its employees to embrace and practice . the ideal is an alignment between company values and personal values . On one hand. bureaucratic and stressful to work in. what we . the organization is more successful and more focused on customer satisfaction and community service. Whether you and your team or organization are trying to achieve realistic. practical. sometimes it’s with our many customers. They may be financially successful. but find it difficult to hire and keep self-actualized individuals and talented people. These values are part of the mission-vision-values that align and attune employees to a common direction and are intended to guide decisions at all levels and provide cohesion . The alignment between organization values and personal values often comes when people come together in teams .

However. we’ve focused on the domains and aims of innovation from the point of view of the organization that is producing them . we became friends. we made a decision that we would continue to serve this niche. Floy Aguenza is its President. profitability and social impact are fundamentally intertwined. An example of this dual choice for supporting “fellow villagers” while growing a successful enterprise comes from the Planters Development Bank in the Philippines . both are possible at the same time . and the actions of people 10. This bank has been set up by the shareholders and they expect a good return. it had no choice but to cater to the small businessmen of the area. Originally. We became a part of their lives. helping their business as financial advisors and even more than that.19 Chapter 2 do today co-authors the story of the future . when values are the driver of innovation. an important part of our credit process is finding out about the character and lifestyle of the principal. but as Floy stated: Somewhere along the way.000 miles away can have a huge impact on us . We worked closely with them. From then on. In our case. The bank was innovative in the way it attracted new customers and developed relationships with them. even the environment? Where do they fit in to the picture? Are our innovation activities fueled only by self-serving motives? Or are they energized by our wish to contribute to the well-being of others? Can we afford to do both? More than most people expect. We want to lend to companies and businesses which are anchored on the right values. giving them the proper guidance. They invested in our bank because they saw our developmental impact and how we are . They even developed a unique approach and philosophy to growing the bank financially . But what about the people outside the organization — such as customers. Marshall McLuhan coined the term Global Village to communicate that we’re all neighbors. During the times when it was starting out as a small bank in a provincial town. and their businesses started to flourish. and its role in society. This must be balanced with all of the other concerns of the organization. suppliers. and it touched our hearts in a special way. We are the only development bank that is partly owned by multi-laterals such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). no matter how big we would become. this bank found a new calling. This point of view raises some provocative questions for every person and organization: Thus far. and the story she shared with me demonstrates what can happen when people in an organization integrate their values with the art and discipline of innovation . shareholders. deliberately including their customers’ values in their credit approval process: When talking to new customers. the bank’s Chair wanted the bank to join the top tier of big banks in that country. And vice-versa . We go to their place of business to observe how they run their business and treat their employees. society. We saw the impact our bank was making within this small community. equally clear to us is that it is not profit at all costs.

Businesses must live by the right values. society as a whole. If we all do something. And what has actually been their growth? In terms of ROE. The impact that we have made to the lives of the many small businessmen we have dealt with has inspired us to continue to deal with this sector. Learning and innovating go together just like inhaling and exhaling: • • Inhaling = learning: acquiring. In the form of information and knowledge.” In quick review. It’s all a question of values . the key value of caring is part of social awareness and the value of authenticity is part of relationship management . we can all gain. and the environment — even as our own organization thrives . not just strive to be number one while sacrificing all else. converting knowledge to wisdom Exhaling = innovating: generating. Daniel Goleman’s model of EI and management effectiveness13 emphasizes the importance of self-awareness. learning stimulates innovation . What is Floy’s message to the rest of us about the role of business in society? Businesses have a role to play in nation building and in building the character of the people. we also strengthen our emotional intelligence (EI) — our ability to perceive. use. we can now revisit and expand our original definition of innovation to include learning and values . and relationship management . self-management. . In Frank Carrubba’s story at the beginning of this chapter. deciding upon. shareholders. It’s clear that we can target our innovative efforts to contribute to the well-being of others — customers. we have resisted converting our license to such. creating and sharing new knowledge. So what? When we put our values into practice. . What is Values-Centered InnovationTM? A discussion about innovation would not be complete without acknowledging the link between innovation and learning .20 T he Innovation Process serving as a catalyst for economic growth by our work with the small and medium enterprises (SMEs). . Planters Bank is the seventh most profitable private domestic bank in the country. Integrating all that we’ve covered thus far. we could say that learning provides new levels of Know-what? Innovation produces new levels of Now what? And values pose the question. One way to experience the relationship between learning and innovating is to tune into our own breathing rhythms . “Why are we breathing in the first place?” — and providing the meaning and motivation for this “breathing process . understand and manage our emotions . implementing and celebrating innovative responses to opportunities and challenges Values play the key role of asking. Although we are larger than half of the commercial banks. And in return. social awareness. suppliers and employees. We can conclude that . innovation gives birth to new learning and knowledge .

knowledge and leadership/management practices to contribute to the well-being of stakeholders (customers. and focusing the leadership in alignment with personal. suppliers. team and organizational values Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. society. How are those personal values reflected in what and how you innovate? 3. reducing time and costs. consider the following questions . and see what you can all learn from each other . Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. Consider: 1. How aligned are your personal values with your organization’s values? How does this impact how and why you innovate? 4. how does it change your definition of innovation from Chapter 1? . inspiring the work force. processes.21 Chapter 2 VALUES-CENTERED INNOVATIONTM IS: • • • • • • • the application of learning and knowledge to develop and implement breakthrough and incremental improvements in products/services. employees. When you add the dimension of values. increasing intellectual capital. What personal values do you hold as most important in your own work? 2. shareholders and the environment) while generating new revenues.

It means a degree of dedication. or more important for the long-range exploration of space.22 T he Innovation Process Chapter 3 The Process of Innovation o n May 25. It means we cannot afford undue work stoppages. One tool NASA used was what has become known as a first generation model of the product or technology innovation process. or a high turnover of key personnel. wasteful interagency rivalries. before this decade is out. Let if be clear that I am asking the Congress and the country to accept a firm commitment to a new course of action — a course which will last for many years and carry very heavy costs. It was used as a management tool to systematize and control work with contractors and suppliers on space projects . when Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong stepped off the Apollo Lunar Module’s ladder and onto the Moon’s surface .”10 I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal. But what did it actually take to achieve this monumental task? President Kennedy was quite clear in his May 25. U . inflated costs of material or talent. just 43 days after cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union became the first human in space. President John F . of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. NASA took up the charge to foster a degree of dedication. material and facilities.S . unless we are prepared to do the work and bear the burdens to make it successful. There is no sense in agreeing or desiring that the United States take an affirmative position in outer space. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind. 1969. which in many ways may hold the key to our future on earth. Kennedy spoke to a joint session of Congress to paint a vision and request the funds for the United States to “take a clearly leading role in space achievement. organization and discipline which have not always characterized our research and development efforts. The commitment from Congress and the nation came. for all of us must work to put him there. as shown in Chart 5 . it will be an entire nation. and the possibility of their diversion from other important activities where they are already thinly spread. If we make this judgment affirmatively. and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. and Kennedy’s vision was achieved on July 20. organization and discipline that had not existed before . 1961 speech about what he foresaw: In a very real sense. it will not be one man going to the moon. The NASA model showed development in sequential phases. called a phase-review-process. 1961. It adopted new ways of managing and developing all the innovations it would take to land men on the moon and bring them back safely . . This decision demands a major national commitment of scientific and technical manpower.

I wanted to review innovation process models across every domain of innovation: revenue producing innovation. models of the innovation process for new products and technologies have been expanded. technology-push or science-push model . the so-called godfather of the study of innovation.23 Chapter 3 Chart 5 — Phase-Review-Process Model14 concept phase phase 0 definition phase 1 Management Go-no-Go implementation phase 2 Management Go-no-Go Manufacturing phase 3 Management Go-no-Go This phase-review model drew from the 1930s pioneering of Joseph Schumpeter. who believed that the process begins with inventions and ends up with innovations that make money — a view that became the basis for a linear. I don’t intend to give an exhaustive — and exhausting — review of all the models. In my study of innovation processes at SRI and afterwards. By the 1960s. modified and morphed into perhaps an overabundance of possibilities to choose from . no matter what the innovative challenge was . insights about market-pull or demand-pull innovation — driven by consumer demand rather then scientific discovery — produced a different form of this linear model as shown in Chart 6 . which could make your eyes glaze over . knowledge innovation and leadership innovation . . process innovation. I didn’t want to limit myself to product innovations . Chart 6 — Technology Push/Demand Pull Model15 Technology Push Basic Science Technological Manufacturing Marketing Sales Demand Pull Market Needs Development Manufacturing Sales Since then. In this chapter. I’ll walk you through a brief sampling of the research which led me to initially develop and later confirm a model of the innovation process that could be used across all four domains. evolved. Instead.

such as quality control and improvement. uncertain. and faster time-to-market . well-behaved linear process badly misspecify the nature and direction of the causal factors at work.24 T he Innovation Process Innovation process models for top-line innovation By the 1970s and early ‘80s. Innovation is also difficult to measure and demands close coordination of adequate technical knowledge and excellent market judgment to satisfy economic. and subject to changes of many sorts. technological and other types of constraints — all simultaneously. in which the roles of various functions are described and woven into an overall process . . Innovation is complex. somewhat disorderly. such as this one from Coopers in Chart 7 .17 Ulrich offered a modified stage-gate model. revenue producing innovations had morphed from the phase review model into stage-gate models. Chart 7 — Stage-Gate-Process Model16 But these models faced criticism because of their apparent linearity: Models that depict innovation as a smooth. models that mapped the process for top-line. Such models (shown in Chart 8) brought closer attention to the process innovations needed to support product/technology innovations. responsive cycle times.

One such model by Trott.25 Chapter 3 Chart 8 — Ulrich Normative Process18 The most recent network models aim at showing the complexity and uncertainty involved in the innovation process . . and business planning as the three most influential functions involved with innovation . research and technology. identifies marketing. shown in Chart 9.

such as this model in Chart 10 of the technology innovation process developed by Vargonen . Chart 10 — Technology Model20 .26 T he Innovation Process Chart 9 — Network Model19 As researchers continue to integrate the best of models. they give more detail to the complexity by mapping all the variables.

and made popular through Edward Deming .27 Chapter 3 There have been many other innovation process models for new product and technology development . as shown in Chart 11 . and mapping a repeated cycle of continuous improvement. The first was invented by W . purchasing and quality employed a formal protocol to improve the manufacturing process and reduce costs . Chart 11 — Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Model21 The second was Value Analysis. If you want to study them further. Shewhart in 1939. developed by Larry Miles at GE during World War II. Innovation process models for mid-line innovation These two historically-important process improvement processes were an inspiration for the later Total Quality processes . That protocol had eight basic steps as shown in Chart 12 . engineering. Their Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) process was very useful in solving quality issues. Chart 12 — Values Analysis Model22 Step 1: Information Phase — analyze data Step 2: Function Analysis Phase — identify and cost functions Step 3: Creative Phase — brainstorm ideas Step 4: Evaluation Phase — rank then develop ideas Step 5: Development Phase — quantify benefits and plan actions Step 6: Presentation — make oral report and prepare written reports Step 7: Implement changes Step 8: Monitor changes .A . whereby cross-functional teams from design. the internet provides a wealth of resources .

Creating concepts 4 . using a variety of decision making tools . Analyze. Enlarging individual knowledge 2 . According to Gary McLean. through a commitment to continuous improvement: • At the Plan stage. Sharing tacit knowledge 3 . Processes. author of Organization Development Principles. Nonaka conceived of a model for knowledge creation that incorporated both tacit knowledge (resident in individuals and groups as personal experience or intuitive knowing) and explicit knowledge (formulated. • . decisions are made about what might be done to improve the organization and its processes. those plans are carried out in a pilot or trial implementation . where the end result can be knowledge innovations in any field of human endeavor — impactful to the degree that the concepts are employed and then integrated into day-to-day experience: 1 . Chart 13 — Knowledge Creation Model23 IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE GROUP KNOWLEDGE Personal experience Integrated experience (socialization) EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE Personal concepts Combined concepts The resulting knowledge creation process has five key steps.28 T he Innovation Process This model was the precursor to the Measure. Justifying concepts 5 . Improve process that is the basis of the Six Sigma improvement process — though Six Sigma adds a Control step . the action research model that is deeply embedded in the practice of Organization Development has a similarity to the Deming/Shewhart PDCA model. At the Do stage. Networking knowledge Innovation process models for leadership innovation The domain of leadership innovation also has identifiable processes associated with it for us to consider . Innovation process models for knowledge innovation Another domain of innovation is knowledge . Performance in 2005. captured concepts). as shown in Chart 13 .

For example. is implemented . Chart 14 — Organization Development Model24 Environment Organization or Suborganization Individual Team Process Global Entry Start-up Assessment and Feedback Action Planning Organization-wide Community and National Implementation Evaluation Adoption Separation We’re almost finished with this review of innovation process models — just one last step to take: a quick review of creative problem-solving models that is an important part of the innovation scene . At the Act stage. the process. consider the classic Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) model invented by Alex Osborn. as shown in Chart 14 . Creative problem-solving processes There’s a fine line between models of innovation and those of creative problem-solving . in fact. result in the changes desired . and researched by academician Sidney Parnes . he offered a modification of the PDCA model that he called the organization development process (ODP) model . executive vice-president at the huge BBDO advertising agency. Their model has six steps as shown in Chart 15 . if successful. Each of the eight components or phases interacts with the other phases. But because of the critique that models like this appear too linear and don’t portray overlapping stages. measurements are taken to determine whether the pilot implementation did.29 Chapter 3 • • At the Check stage. .

. Idea Finding 5 . Development (work out the bugs and scale up) 6 . Problem Finding 4 . Acceptance Finding Description Discuss the situation and set a goal the group is committed to Search for all the facts that could be related to the situation and objective Focus on a clear definition of the real problem that needs a creative solution Brainstorm a set of options that might solve the problem and achieve the goal Assess which ideas have the most potential and select the best solution Consider what it will take for the idea to be accepted and implemented. For example. Recognition (technical feasibility and potential market demand) 2 . Solution Finding 6 .30 T he Innovation Process Chart 15 — Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) Model25 Step 1 . Solution (solution through invention. in Chart 16. solution through adoption) 5 . Marquis26 described a six-step innovation process: 1 . in 1988. Idea Formulation (fusion into design concept and evaluation) 3 . experimentation and calculation. Utilization and Diffusion (implementation and use) A comparison of his model and CPS. Objective Finding 2 . shows the overlap of concepts . readily available information) 4 . Problem-Solving (search. and develop a plan to take action Showing the parallels between the CPS model and models of the product innovation process is not difficult . Donald G . Fact Finding 3 .

During my years at SRI in the 1980s. how would you describe them? 3. Looking back on your past projects: 1. I’ll present that model in the next chapter. Did the model. along with three key insights about what was missing in all the models I had previously reviewed . or models. If more than one. I discovered then. Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. or models. academic models and scientific models of the innovation process . model of the innovation process that people could use across every domain of innovation. I reviewed various corporate models. consider the following questions . conceptual territory shared by the innovation models from different domains of innovation exists — revenue producing innovation. what was that? . Seeing that common territory led me to formulate a simple. overlaps like this were no longer new to me .31 Chapter 3 Chart 16 — Comparison of Marquis and Osborn-Parnes Models27 Marquis Recognition Osborn-Parnes Objective Finding Fact Finding Idea Formulation Problem-Solving Solution Development Utilization and Diffusion Problem Finding Idea Finding Solution Finding Acceptance Finding By 1987. in helping you achieve your goals? 4. but not simplistic. process innovation. did they have a common set of stages or tasks? If so. and have reconfirmed over and over since then. knowledge innovation and leadership innovation — as well as the CPS model . How effective was the model. and see what you can all learn from each other . seem to miss anything that you felt was important? If so. Have you used one or more specific innovation process models to guide your innovative efforts? 2. no matter what function they were in . that a common. Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter.

Based on this background. Over the first two days of the innovation search. we asked a few key specialists to deliver stimulating talks on those subjects to spur our idea generation . not just pinsetters . we selected specific focus areas. A computer system that analyzes a bowler’s performance and recommends ways to improve technique. and have something totally new to sell .32 T he Innovation Process Chapter 4 The Creative JourneyTM any years ago. market lagged. software engineering. and scoring was optional . The VP of Engineering thought he saw a solution: reinvent the pinsetter with up-to-date technologies. We also invited a wide variety of other specialists. How that project unfolded filled in a lot of the missing pieces I had seen in the innovation process models I had studied up to that point . and Brunswick had sold a huge number of those pinsetters . The first thing we did was to look closely at the goal the VP had laid out: was the task at hand really to reinvent the pinsetter.” my partner in running this project and I even bowled at a Saturday night Rock ‘n Bowl center in San Francisco. where every lane had monitors with rock videos. such as an expert from the luxury cruise industry. who knew about the entertainment experiences that people were looking for . etc. We began to select the kinds of people who could come together in a multi-day. Then. and other technologies . we generated hundreds of ideas and clustered them in a variety of ways . depending on what mistakes were being made M . We ended up involving specialists in robotics. while the U . Brunswick sales were way down . They had been selling the same mechanical pinsetter for more than 25 years . a VP of Engineering from the Brunswick Corporation’s Bowling Division — one of the two leading makers of bowling equipment — called on me at SRI for help with a challenge he faced . a big bowling craze developed in Japan. At one point. including topics such as new scoring systems and technologybased feedback-coaching systems . all those pinsetters went onto the used market . But when the bowling boom there went bust. the music was loud. We collected research on market trends in related industries and technology trends that might impact our search . To “experience the marketplace for this kind of entertainment. crossfunctional innovation search — an idea-generation session that would focus on the entire experience of bowling. and how he did on different pin combinations.S . here are a few of the ideas that were voiced: • pinsetter that sets whatever pins a bowler wants set for practice A purposes • • A “smart card” that “remembers” who a bowler is. As a sampling. digital detection equipment. his averages. or was it something else? We realized his real goal was to rejuvenate the entire bowling industry — to bring people back to bowling through a totally new experience of what it meant to play that sport .

which led the way to being able to reset a previous pin combination when pins were inadvertently knocked down after a first ball was bowled . Even then. the latest generation of pinsetter. and so on. Today. One key to the renewal of Brunswick’s bowling business was the new GS pinsetter. as the ball travels down the bowling lane Put bumpers into the side gullies so that the bowling ball always bounces to hit pins — important for people new to bowling (including kids and adults) Changing the normal scoring system by allowing a person to “bet” one’s pins on the odds of an opponent picking up on a particular spare. the GS-X. the final decision wouldn’t come until after prototypes were tested in their labs and in actual facilities .33 Chapter 4 • • Feedback on speed. The side-gulley idea (for people new to bowling) has turned into their Pinball Wizard bumper bowling system . depending on what mistakes were being made Feedback on speed. accuracy. as the ball travels down the bowling lane Putting bumpers in the side gullies • • It took a couple of months to complete the feasibility studies and return to Brunswick to help make a final decision about what to take to the Board as priorities for development funding . so they could determine if they needed to speed up or slow down their ball delivery to hit the pins better . As the Engineering VP later told me. accuracy. such as: • • A pinsetter that sets whatever pins a bowler wants set for practice purposes A computer system that analyzes a bowler’s performance and recommends ways to improve technique. etc. Finally. with more than 10.000 installed worldwide . Certain ideas made it. through Brunswick’s products known as Cosmic Bowling® Light and Sound Systems and Lightworx® Division Lighting System. Even the San Francisco ‘Rock n’ Bowl’ concepts we discussed during the innovation search have now become major hits in the bowling industry. one of the early hits was putting in a ball-speed indicator — using a radar gun (like highway police use) — which gave bowlers feedback. . it came time to narrow down the ideas and select the most promising ones for technical and market feasibility studies . is the #1 selling new pinsetter in the world. (changing scoring methods) • Then. and so on. they began to install and do final testing of new products in company-owned bowling centers within a few hundred miles of their headquarters .

those stages corresponded well with the product innovation models I had been studying . It wasn’t that I needed my own process model — but I had seen the potential for a robust yet simple model that could apply to projects in any domain of innovation.34 T he Innovation Process The beginning of a new model This Brunswick project occurred when I was just beginning to formulate my version of the innovation process . add to. They scaled up and commercialized the new products — and continued to refine. development and prototyping necessary to make a final decision of what to implement . interactive innovation models. As shown in Chart 17. 2 . my initial “map” of the innovation process for that bowling project contained five steps. They set a purpose and direction (goal) . in keeping with the more concurrent. 3 . those stages played themselves out non-linearly. and produce new generations of those product lines . 4 . They gathered and analyzed data. What could I invent that might contribute to the field of innovation? Looking back. 5 . overlap often occurred in accomplishing the tasks of each stage . and prioritized the issues that needed creative ideas . with some very fuzzy boundaries between them. They did the feasibility studies. indicating overlapping and simultaneous stages: 1 . and my professional curiosity got the best of me . They generated a wide array of potential ideas and concepts . . Chart 17 — Comparison of Miller Observations with Other Innovation Process Models28 Miller Set the Goal Analyze Issues Generate Ideas Develop and Decide Implement Solution Development Feasibility Study 1st — 2nd screens Decision to develop Development Validation Commercialization NASA (Moon Vision) Various Stage-Gate Tech Push / Market Pull Idea/Concept Ulrich Mission Statement Concept Development System Design Detail Design Testing/Refining Production Ramp Up Marquis Recognition Idea Formulation Problem-Solving Solution Concept Implementation Manufacturing Development Even though I saw the Brunswick project as unfolding in stages.

often great periods of uncertainty existed. • Engage the subdued/tamed demon as an ally to get you across the impassable river . • The instructions are clear: Withdraw to gather strength — identify with a power (the Divine) so its energies merge in you. and implementing it . but who was from a field that had little relation to the topic at hand . So. Yet. She helped me see the link between this heroic journey plot and the innovation process . or taming the demon . Then. A breakthrough in my understanding of the innovation process occurred after I read The Way to Shambhala by Edwin Bernbaum . Innovators had to face many risks along the way. In the same way. making a decision. . each with specific tasks to accomplish. something important seemed to be missing in this way of conceptualizing the innovation process . as shown in Chart 18 . of what you’ve gained to assist you on the next stage of your journey . I had observed that during the course of developing an innovation. in 1987. guarded by a demon . Lorna Catford and I co-taught a course called Creativity in Business at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business . take an account. invoking the need for courage and determination . then call forth the demon to see exactly what you have to deal with . That person could bring an entirely new perspective to stimulate our innovative thinking . eliciting ideas. I expanded my quest to understand the innovation process to a totally different field — cultural mythology .35 Chapter 4 But the more I thought about it. Finding what was missing Many times when I conducted Innovation Searches with clients. I would bring in a person who was great at generating ideas. or where the final innovative solution was going to come from . performing analysis. I realized that virtually all cultures have stories about heroic journeys — from the Tibetans’ search for Shambhala to the mythical journey of Odysseus — and typically they have the following plot: • You’re on a quest. befriending. • Do battle until you are victorious in defeating. From there. with gratitude. On the other side. even discouragement — not knowing what to do next. I kept searching… The innovation process models I had come across clearly focused on the mental side of innovation: setting a goal. I could perceive four basic stages that describe that process. and you come to an impassable river (or some other obstacle).

at least in part through new technologies . The long-term growth and viability of the bowling industry was in question. Every innovation process has risks that must be faced . what would happen to their careers if everything went digital? Many times during the course of the project. determined to rejuvenate interest in it . Every innovation process calls for the confidence to meet risks head-on . There was a lot at stake in whether or not Brunswick met that goal . His staff and their colleagues in marketing were dedicated to the larger picture of the entertainment value and sport of bowling. and the growth of Brunswick’s bowling business was tied to that . the success of their new products has not only rejuvenated the industry and increased revenues. 2 . but also brought a great deal of satisfaction to the company’s employees and bowling center owners . Furthermore.36 T he Innovation Process Chart 18 — Comparison of Heroic Journey with the Innovation Process29 The Journey You begin your quest and come to an impassable river and demon You take on an inner empowerment and then call forth the demon You engage in battle and defeat/tame the demon You cross the impassable river and take account of your gains Tasks in the Innovation Process You set a goal and begin to meet risks and barriers You stop to gain confidence and then face the truth of what’s real You generate options and develop/decide on a solution You implement your solution and celebrate your results Stages of the Innovation Process The Challenge The Focus The Creative Solution The Completion I gained three powerful insights from this comparison. The Engineering VP was putting his career on the line to come up with something viable . And while his engineering staff was great with mechanical devices. I went back to my experience with Brunswick to see how these characteristics might have played out . The VP was genuinely open and confident with the prospect of bringing in totally new technologies with which Brunswick had no prior experience . personal risks were tied up in this project as well . 3 . as we talked. and based on my own experience with innovation I felt confident in concluding: 1 . And it has provided more fun to bowlers who wanted a new level of entertainment to go with their sport . Every innovation process includes the need to take account of the gains — new learning as well as tangible achievements . . we had to confirm and reaffirm a sense of confidence that this goal could actually be achieved — that the industry could be rejuvenated. Needless to say.

The Challenge — deciding what you want to accomplish and acknowledging the risks along your path 2 .37 Chapter 4 The Creative JourneyTM model of the innovation process I assembled my insights into a four-stage model with eight inherently overlapping and sometimes simultaneous tasks. The Creative Journey is a roadmap of the innovation process that enables anyone to practice the art and discipline of innovation with greater awareness and skill. Chart 19 — Creative JourneyTM Model30 Thus. The Completion — implementing your solution and celebrating what you accomplished and learned along the way . The Creative Solutions — generating ideas and then developing and deciding on the best solution 4 . what I began to call the Creative Journey model was born . through four distinct stages: 1 . so that you don’t ultimately miss any important tasks along the way . The Focus — tapping into your source of confidence and prioritizing issues you need to resolve 3 . The arrows in the middle portray the true non-linear nature of this model — it’s more of a “map” to know where you are and where you’ve been. as shown in Chart 19 .

depicted in Chart 21. A third task. 4 . and I named that antidote tapping into character. celebrate results. 3 . fear. was only infrequently mentioned in other models. I saw how none of the models highlighted anything about the character. 2 . I was fast appreciating the importance of empowerment and faith when facing the impassable river and demon. and then only as monitoring or evaluating results Also noteworthy to me was seeing that each stage and task in the Creative Journey might have multiple sub-tasks to complete. Those teams often started with great confidence and enthusiasm. the task of implementation for a new product could include the sub-tasks for engineering. you can see: 1 . Looking at Chart 20. Two tasks were never highlighted in the other models: assess risks and tap into character. but as they began to face the risks. the three tasks mentioned in #3 and #4 above — all related to the three insights I had from Bernbaum’s book — kept drawing my attention. they often felt frustration. marketing and distribution — and each of those functions might need its own Creative Journey to determine how to accomplish its responsibilities during that implementation task of the larger innovation process . I recalled tales that many innovation teams had told me about their emotional ups and downs during projects . If they jumped from there straight to generating ideas for meeting their goal. The four stages can be found in all the main innovation process models I studied from the four domains (though most of the stage-gate product development models were very light on where the original concepts came from) . I began to see a basic confidence curve. involving a variety of tools and techniques . then their ideas lacked boldness. uncertainties and obstacles of their projects. IT. However. It quickly showed me the antidote for the feelings of fear and frustration. values and sense of meaning that is required to drive the innovation process forward . and I began to delve more deeply into their significance for the innovation process . for the majority of innovation project teams . I then compared it with the models I had studied from various domains . . overwhelm and a loss of confidence . status quo kinds of ideas . Five of the eight tasks in the Creative Journey were mental tasks highlighted in most or all of the other models . and their parallels in the innovation process . manufacturing. but the art was missing . For example.38 T he Innovation Process Upon completing the development of the Creative Journey model. They were replete with discipline. Confidence and energy in the innovation process Looking again at Chart 20. originality and stretch — they were safe.

Quantify benefits Action Assessment & feedback Share tacit knowledge Fact finding Problem finding Creative Solutions Generate ideas Decide on a solution Development Feasibility study 1st – 2nd screens Decision to develop Detail design Testing/ refining ProblemSolving Create Planning Idea finding concepts Solution Justify concepts Solution finding Completion Implement solution Implementation Manufacturing DevelProduction Development ramp up opment Validation Commercialization Act Plan actions Make reports Assign Implemenclear tation responsibility Base rewards on results Evaluation Adoption Network Accepthe tance knowledge finding Celebrate results Monitor .39 Chapter 4 Chart 20 — Comparison of Creative JourneyTM with Other Innovation Process Models31 Creative Journey (Miller) NASA StageGate Tech push / Market pull Ulrich Marquis Deming/ Value Shewhard Analysis PDCA Juran tQM Establish specific goals McLean od Start up Nonaka knowledge creation Enlarge individual knowledge OsbornParnes CPS Objective finding Challenge (Moon Set the Vision) goal Assess risks Focus Tap into character Analyze issues Concept Mission statement Recognition Idea/ Concept Concept development System design Idea formulation Plan Do Check Analyze Establish data plans Identify / cost functions Brainstorm ideas Rank/ develop ideas.

And their sense of character spoke volumes: If we really believe in the importance of this goal. our confidence expands and our minds expand . and come out stronger and more innovative for it . To assess how well the goal was achieved 2 . with very little dip at all . To identify the new knowledge that is the “boon” to carry forth to the future 3 . and that it could become an anticipated part of their process . While most teams identify with this pattern. Over time. and if we are going to walk our talk with our values. I named that task celebrating results to emphasize that this task had a threefold purpose: 1 . we’ve seen how their sense of purpose. To renew energy for taking on the next challenge . If we stay in frustration and fear. This new awareness allowed their character to come forth.40 T he Innovation Process Chart 21 — Confidence Curve32 I knew from my years of experience that when we tap into our source of strength and courage. Together. I’ve shown this diagram to innovation teams around the world. they recognized that an immersion into a state of fear and uncertainty wasn’t all bad. increasing their confidence that they could move through the dark times of anxiety and uncertainty. Jumping to the last task of the Creative Journey. some teams have found the initial uncertainty to be energizing. and most of them have had an immediate Aha! moment and spoken about their experience of the confidence plunge. Reflecting on this diagram. our creative minds shrink and we come up with only the meekest. most ordinary ideas . then we’re not going to let these risks stop us. values and determination made them almost instantly ready to take on the risks .

Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. How did they impact your effectiveness in generating and implementing an innovative solution? 4. and see what you can all learn from each other . Repeated experiences of ending projects without this renewal of energy often led to burnout . How do you currently complete your innovative projects? . Looking back on innovative projects you’ve worked on: 1. As my clients so often taught me. a true sense of completion was needed before people were mentally and emotionally ready to take on the next challenge . consider the following questions .41 Chapter 4 This task signified much more than post mortem sessions during or after a project . and the innovative challenges they faced . With these insights and the Creative Journey in hand. What have been the energetic or emotional ups and downs that you — and your teammates — experienced during those projects? 2. I felt ready to see how it fit with the wide variety of clients I had. Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. How did you deal with them when they occurred? 3.

In ten years.42 T he Innovation Process Chapter 5 Your Creative JourneyTM o ver the years. Every job presents such opportunities . and the governor’s office and bureaucrats said. we had lost 200 housing units per year in a square-mile area. adrenaline rushes. excitement for new ideas. frustration over impediments to implementation. What were the risks? What was at stake? • • • We needed to do something about housing in our community. that this is our community. said. there would be no community left. We have a sense that what we do. makes a difference.33 Like any of us with a difficult challenge. self-doubt. As Martin Luther King Jr.” What was it about you — your values. They were an early pioneer in what has become known as the “sweat equity” approach to building housing for people who can’t afford down payments . because this is going to be a visible symbol. fear of failing. from clerical worker to executive. Our church was a congregation of poor people. Here’s what I asked. with God’s help. We know finite disappointment but we know infinite hope. Soon. For example. I interviewed her about what she had gone through in the early days of trying to actualize this innovative approach to low-income housing . a visible statement that the church cares. • . one of the many things I’ve discovered when using the Creative Journey is that every person. and the joy of celebration . “It’s not possible. I once met a woman named Mary Nelson who was President of Bethel New Life in West Side Chicago in the United States — an organization dedicated to helping rejuvenate housing in run-down communities . We’ve got to do it. and then finding ways to meet them . Mary had to deal with the emotional downs and ups of the entire process — times of uncertainty and anxiety. your experience. and a brief summary of her replies: What was your initial goal? • We wanted to create a low-income housing alternative to the welfare system. your character — that gave you the confidence that you could somehow do it? • People said. has personal stories about taking on challenges that they’ve never faced before.

they’ve always had a story (or ten!) to tell in answer to this simple series of questions . We can do it. • Time and again over the years. A building is so visible. and a “can do” attitude What were some of the options you considered. So when it comes to the drug pusher down the street. It doesn’t matter what position they held in the organization. we did this building. labor. People found out they were listened to and had skills they didn’t know about. We had meetings to hash out issues like “who gets what apartment” and used these as occasions to practice communication skills that would help people continue to manage “their” property in the future. or how long they’ve worked . • • What were the results. they say. it was a great leadership development tool. and what did you learn during the process? • It not only made affordable housing available to people who didn’t have any cash.” What did you do to implement those solutions? • We mortgaged the buildings five times — it gave the bankers comfort that we would do everything in our power to ensure the project wouldn’t go belly-up. then why can’t we get rid of the drug pusher.43 Chapter 5 What were the most important issues that would require some creative ideas to resolve? • • • Financing housing was a big issue So was getting people involved We also needed the right skills. . Asking contractors to donate funds.” in which people gained ownership by helping to build. and/or materials. What were the options you chose? • • Mortgaging the church to gain capital. even if they didn’t think they had leadership or building skills. Mortgaging the church to gain capital. Wow. Doing “sweat equity. when I’ve asked people to think of a challenge or opportunity they faced at work that needed an innovative solution. It was a positive accomplishment that bolsters everyone’s self-image and “can do” spirit. even if you didn’t use them? • • • • Having the government sponsor the housing. We enlisted people who wanted to be homeowners rather than tenants. Doing “sweat equity. Everyone has a story .

your character — gave you confidence you could somehow do it? 4 . now it’s your turn… Think back to a challenge you’ve faced at work for which you didn’t have a ready solution. What were the most important issues that would require some creative ideas to resolve? 5 . and you didn’t quite know where you were going to find it . What were the ideas/options you chose? 7 . You might wish to ask your work colleagues this series of questions and have an “innovation story-telling” session . so you can engage in an innovation process together . What did you do to implement those solutions? 8 . consider the following eight questions: 1 . and what did you learn during the process? These are. They are your guide to the major tasks for innovation. and the key to having innovation conversations with your colleagues in any job or department. This challenge might be one of the situations you thought of back in Chapter 1. What was your initial goal? 2 .44 T he Innovation Process What’s Your Story? One of the easiest ways to understand how the Creative Journey works is to apply it to a real-life example of your own . What were some of the creative ideas/options you considered. So. What were the results. What about you — your values. regarding any of the four domains of innovation: • • • • Top-line / revenue producing innovation Mid-line / process improvement innovation Knowledge innovation Leadership innovation What story can you tell? To relive your quest to find a solution. What were the risks? What was at stake? 3 . even if you didn’t use them? 6 . Reaffirm for yourselves how everyone has an innovation tale and everyone has the opportunity to contribute to innovation! . your experience. the basic questions for the Creative Journey . of course.

screen product concepts. gauge market risks Conduct market research and analysis Generate. decide on ideas for media. doing innovative work. you can begin to apply the Creative Journey as part of the art and discipline of being innovative. you are probably engaged in some way or another in an innovation process aimed at meeting some tangible work challenge or opportunity . Implement and monitor viability of solution. you are going through a micro version of the character-building. assess customer engagement New Product Development Identify market opportunities and competitive threats Quality Improvement Become aware of quality problems FOCUS Determine priority Conduct rootneeds for targeted cause analysis or customer/market other analyses segments Generate. provide quality assurance. Recognizing that. consider the typical work of strategic planning. And every time you embark on this Journey. or a customer service representative trying to resolve a customer complaint. . new product development. whether we are a manager turning around an ailing company. no matter what process you are engaged in or what your job description is . implement & assess product introduction in test markets. marketing. decide on ways to stream-line. define. Note the parallels to the four stages of the Creative Journey model of the innovation process . etc . test prototypes. organizational competency Marketing Set target goals for product/ service. messages and channels Communicate key messages to prospects. or quality improvement . and improve CREATIVE SOLUTIONS COMPLETION The point is simple: no matter what job you have. our innovative endeavors share a common process . Chart 22 documents how we might normally describe those work processes . Chart 22 — Comparing the Creative JourneyTM Model to Other Work Processes34 INNOVATION PROCESS CHALLENGE Strategic Planning Identify strategic imperatives and assess vulnerabilities Develop scenarios of market/society/ etc . roll out full product launch Generate. re-engineer. For example. determine market/technical feasibility Plan. without even realizing it . integrate into one overall strategy Implement strategy for business growth. transformative journey that is spoken of in all of the world’s epic literature . That is. optimize.45 Chapter 5 Innovation in every day work processes Quite often. we might be engaged in an innovation process. continue to refine. drivers Generate strategies across all scenarios.

46 T he Innovation Process Your personal purpose The next four chapters are dedicated to helping you develop the discipline as well as the art of innovation as you go through the Creative Journey . Using Chart 23. you can state your personal purpose in six different ways . but start from the top and work down (I’ve given a sample answer to each question to help you get started on your own answers) . there’s a personal exercise that will help you master the art of innovation to bolster each task you undertake . There may be some overlap in your answers. There is an exercise I have used consistently with corporate clients for the past 15 years. and stories to inspire . and how that fits into our innovative work . which has helped people at all levels in the organization gain a clearer understanding of their purpose in life . it helps to periodically step back and get a perspective on what we want to do with our lives. cramming your life with trivia. Author Brian Swimme35 said: Precisely because you are aware of the limits of life. . You can’t waste away in a meaningless job. obstacles to side-step. For that. Let’s start with what moves you: what contribution you want to make with your life. to guide you through life and work . Your personal purpose gives a coherence and depth to your values. but we don’t take the time to reflect on what is most meaningful for us to do with our life. how and why we innovate . What’s the alternative? It’s to navigate your life with a clear sense of personal values as your compass . The triangle symbolizes how the questions become more and more foundational to your life purpose as you move from #1 to #6 . we innovate based on limiting beliefs and then are surprised by our own unwanted creations . and how we can express that through our work . Many of us engage in innovative work because our jobs require it. They’re filled with questions to ask. techniques to use. hearts and souls into what. The supreme insistence of life is that you enter the adventure of creating yourself. and what motivates you to make a difference . What’s essential to the Creative Journey is that we put our minds. this is the only time you have to show yourself. But before going there. At worst. you are compelled to bring forth what is within you.

What milestones do I wish to achieve? I want to be part of growing this business by 25 percent each year over the next five years. What can I contribute to people’s lives? I also have to spend my time trying to figure out how we’ll survive within this industry. 4. What type of experiences do I wish to have? I want to work with people of different cultures from all seven continents. He beautifully captured the importance of finding and expressing a sense of purpose through our work: We had a discussion about values and beliefs in our staff meeting to really articulate what the personal purpose of each of us was — what each of us was doing to grow.47 Chapter 5 Chart 23 — Personal Purpose Exercise36 1. What type of person do I wish to become? I want to become an example of a person who is loving. Now examine the thread of continuity — the purpose — that runs through your answers and gives them unity . and my determination to do things right… to help groups perform at their best. That’s the basis of your real-time. Along these lines. As time goes on. and see which statement(s) you find most enduring across all of them . 6. 5. I had a conversation with Fred Schwettman. my purpose turns more and more spiritual. my analytical abilities. What gifts and talents do I want to express? I want to use my natural enthusiasm. What possessions or social status do I wish to acquire? I want a comfortable retirement and a home in the Caribbean. What difference do I wish to make to others? I want to provide my children and the people who work with me the best opportunity to fulfill their career aspirations. 3. not-just-nice-sounding personal purpose . when the time comes to check out. Notice how your values are intertwined with and illumined by your sense of purpose . you better feel really good about what you accomplished — and making a little profit here and there is probably not going to cut it. trustworthy and truthful. when he was head of Hewlett-Packard’s Circuit Technology Division . But overall. . this environment is tremendously competitive. 2. Honestly examine all your key intentions and activities at work.

and see what you can all learn from each other: 1. Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. Your purpose and values are what can make you a champion of innovation whenever and wherever you choose . Looking over your story using the eight questions • • What stands out as most unique. How do the processes you currently use at work parallel an innovation process? . Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work.48 T he Innovation Process Chapter 5 Your sense of personal purpose provides the meaning that will guide you in your innovative work . It strengthens and unifies your values into a powerful energy that spurs you on and keeps you on track . memorable — even remarkable — about how it unfolded? What have you learned from this? 3. How would you state your overall personal purpose? 2. consider the following questions .

You’ve seen how you and your colleagues have stories to tell about being innovative . knowledge and skills to assist you in taking and leading each stage and task in the Creative Journey . you’ll be more capable than ever to proactively initiate the innovative future you want to be part of . or managing a twoyear project . You might generate a wide array of ideas and options before forming them into concepts and selecting the most promising ones to develop and decide on . . For example. You’ve reviewed a number of innovation process models and learned about the stages and tasks of the Creative Journey . Your conversations about the innovation process will now center around eight core questions: In the next four chapters. starting with the Challenge Stage . As an art. The Creative Journey provides a robust process you can apply in any job. Now is the time to begin developing more knowledge and skills in each stage of the Creative Journey . You will find that many. You might gather lots of facts and analyze lots of issues before identifying the top priority ones . As a discipline. You might try out a number of approaches to implementation before converging on the one that will work best . you might come up with many different statements of your purpose or goal before converging on one that seems just right . you will learn how to engage in innovation conversations as you work on collective challenges .49 T he Innovation Process Part II Expanding Your Innovation Conversations u p to this point in the book. you will grow in the art and discipline of innovation. you will gain insights. of the tasks have a kind of divergingconverging cycle . if not all. you’ve come to a deeper understanding of the context of What is innovation? and the role of values to drive it . At the end. with any challenge — whether you are conducting a two-hour meeting.

you don’t miss an important task . a solitary effort . this model is flexible. or taking them out of sequence. with questions and examples that can stimulate your work together on a collective challenge . Therefore. not linear. I will speak in terms of your working in a team or group setting. If you do jump ahead in the sequence. in the organic unfolding of your Journey . innovation is rarely. the stages and tasks often overlap .50 T het Innovation Process Par II These chapters will discuss the stages and tasks one by one. . make sure you go back and continue where you were so that in the end. You might end up jumping from one task to another and back again. As a final reminder before diving in to the art and discipline of each stage and task. But remember. if ever. since a book unfolds in a linear fashion . although you can use everything in these chapters when you work alone.

when mutual funds were becoming quite popular . the brokers made no money . or not. He decided to establish a brokerage firm with a new basis and the following business model: • Serve customers who know what they want to invest in • Do not offer advice or recommendations. that meant having many different account statements. and the business. The business model. What was the potential conflict of interest? On one hand. Schwab saw another aspect of this situation as well: the firms assumed that clients themselves did not know enough about what and when to buy and sell — that they needed the analysts’ recommendations . thereby reduce overhead costs and allow for discounted prices • Be strict in upholding the values of transparency. and Charles Schwab & Co . honesty and integrity • Avoid at all costs even the appearance of conflicts of interest Schwab’s “discount brokerage” firm was an innovation that revolutionized the financial industry . Charles Schwab had another breakthrough idea: offer a service whereby customers could buy and sell shares in a variety of mutual funds through Schwab & Co . A person had to go to the specific mutual fund company to buy shares in their mutual funds. grew quickly . so how would Schwab make money on this service? By having the mutual fund companies. just transact orders as customers • Pay brokers/traders on salary only. . potential conflict of interest in their work situation . to do so . Their job was to advise their clients on buying and selling stocks. But this meant that the customers would not have to pay Schwab an extra transaction fee. Charles Schwab saw an ethical opportunity and a business opportunity . which made it hard to manage a portfolio . One of the tests of the company’s values occurred in the mid-1980s. the brokers were supposed to represent their clients’ best interests. on the other hand. if their clients’ best interests were not to buy or sell investment instruments. pay Schwab for each transaction . bonds and other investments using recommendations supplied by in-house analysts. not the investors. The temptation could be to induce clients to buy and sell. whether it was really in their best interest. From all of this reflection. Charles Schwab noticed that the stock brokers in Wall Street brokerage firms faced an inherent. at the same cost as if they had transacted directly with the mutual fund companies . was a hit in the marketplace.51 T he Innovation Process Chapter 6 Taking on a Challenge Together i n the 1970s. and the brokers were paid commissions on the transactions their clients made as a result . no commissions • Do not employ stock/bond analysts (not needed)..

Schwab would not agree to this scheme. however. or if there was an obvious way to meet it . test our skills. even at the expense of not signing up a big mutual fund company to participate in their new service. stimulating and sometimes risky . They summon our courage and focus our energy . wanted to create a special class of shares with a higher management fee charged to the investors.52 T he Innovation Process Many fund companies saw this service as reasonable: it would broaden their market exposure and they could absorb the cost under that rationale . So. and explore the unknown . be bold. or opportunities we want to actualize . A challenge is defined by a purpose or goal plus the meaningful risks involved . It is a time to call upon all our experiences. The Challenge Stage of the Creative JourneyTM Challenges are simply situations we want to change. Others. They eventually named this service OneSource. thus recouping the fees they paid to Schwab . A challenge is a call to greatness. a goal would not be a challenge if there weren’t something important at stake. . After all. problems we want to solve. when customers realized they were paying a higher management fee. Schwab and his executives held firm to their values of high ethics. and it revolutionized the mutual fund market . transparency and integrity . Challenges are provocative. it would appear to them to be a hidden cost — and accuse Schwab of being unethical . believing that under this scenario.

more sales and more profits. or you may want to use both . Or people might feel discouraged by the last time they tried to innovate and weren’t 100% successful .53 Chapter 6 Charles Schwab saw an opportunity to take the ethical high ground and start a new industry at the same time . and is. I was asking them to focus on what they could give — what they could provide — rather than what they wanted to get . There may be times when it isn’t easy to get started in defining your purpose or goal . Or they might be thinking narrowly about what kind of goal to aim for . one person said: How to make more money. It helps you create a picture of how the world will be a little different once you have succeeded in your Creative Journey . stunned by the question and the task . where no one seems to care about what is going on . Focus on the value of service: How can we best serve others as well as ourselves? For example One time I was working with computer software salespeople in New York City — a rather aggressive group . It also showed the power and value of giving as well as receiving. while goal can imply a destination to arrive at . it opened up so much more creativity and energy than the first statement . I asked them to state a goal we could Journey on together . How to provide customized solutions to individual customers at a mutually beneficial price . For them to define their goal as how to serve. But purpose can imply a direction to head in. He embraced that challenge . they prosper . one that was bigger than his business . He also felt a higher mission. That’s easy. Eventually they came up with. whether it is a large task or a small one . A statement of purpose or goal is powerful . yet without pre-determining the solution for achieving it . As he has told his managers time and again. . Depending on your situation you may want to use one word or the other. TASK 1: Establish the purpose or goal The first task of your Creative Journey is to identify: What is our purpose or goal? Why does this question include both of the concepts purpose and goal? In one way. encourage everyone to think about how your project has the potential to really make a difference in other people’s lives . focusing on the reciprocal nature of sustainable business growth and value-exchange . the company’s own success will grow naturally . Under these conditions. It defines what is unique about what you want to accomplish. Great start… and could you restate that in terms of a customer benefit? The group paused. You may encounter an atmosphere of apathy. when people can trust in and plan for their future and their children’s future. That mission was. It should be clear enough to provide you with a direction to follow. they mean the same thing: your intention — what you wish to accomplish overall . to inspire every person in the country to believe in and invest in their own future . rather than what to get. He assures them that by committing to that mission. I replied.

bring back those competing ideas later on. Then. the Creative Journey is a flexible. OK for now statement of your purpose to get you going on your Journey . move on to the next task (assessing your risks) with the intention of coming back to refine your goal statement later . realize that you are taking on the responsibility for actually changing things . sometimes it might be hard to pin down and craft a statement of your purpose or goal . Here are a few you can use to broaden the discussion. some secondary questions often come in handy . or if it is so broad you don’t have the power or influence to actually achieve it . If you find your group getting bogged down. How can each of us fulfill our own purpose while working on this specific challenge together? At times. One technique: The Right Scope for the Goal As you start on your Creative Journey. agree to a simple. one at a higher level of abstraction. So. In that case. Remember. as the first creative options for meeting the goal . you may find that members of your group have competing statements.54 T he Innovation Process Asking questions to define the purpose or goal The starting point question is simple: What is our purpose or goal? To make sure you have defined your goal in terms that are the most meaningful and motivating to everyone. Also. for which the competing statements might all be potential solutions . look for a broader statement. and it’s difficult to come to a consensus on the purpose or goal . You can always return to this task and clarify your purpose as your perspective gets clearer . How big of a change do you want to take on? What fits with your level of empowerment to influence or make a change? A purpose or goal becomes frustrating if it is defined in terms that are too narrow to really accomplish what people are aiming for. one technique you can use to make sure the scope of your goal is just right — not too narrow and not too broad — is shown in Chart 24 . overlapping process . and bring out the values and meaning that will energize everyone in pursuing the goal: WHAT IS OUR PURPOSE OR GOAL? • What values are important in defining the goal? • What would make this an exciting adventure? • Who do I most want to serve? • What would make any hardship worthwhile? Including the perspectives of each person’s personal purpose (from the last chapter) will also stimulate a great deal of discussion about your shared purpose or goal . Then. .

ask Why do we want to do this? and restate your initial goal in broader terms: To create a work environment where employees are content and loyal to the company . you could ask: Key Question: What is our purpose or goal? Formulate an initial goal statement: To ensure positive morale in our new work environment after a difficult reorganization To broaden your goal statement. A case in point As an example. Begin with any first definition of your goal from anyone . “What is a barrier to that?” to make your goal more and more narrow . (Is this too hard to imagine?) You’re part of a team with representatives from all over the organization. yet small and manageable enough to empower your group to achieve it . What is a key barrier to achieving our original goal statement? Write that answer below the original statement . How do you begin tackling this challenge? Your first meeting may be devoted solely to defining your challenge .55 Chapter 6 Chart 24 — Right Scope for the Goal37 Write the initial statement of your goal in the middle of an inverted cone . imagine that your company has gone through downsizing and a reorganization to enable it to respond faster to changes in customer needs and market demands . That can lead to a goal statement that is broader in scope . That can lead to a goal statement that is narrower in scope . Broadest statement of the goal WhY? Broader statement of the goal WhY? Initial statement of the goal Barrier? Narrower statement of the goal Barrier? Narrowest statement of the goal Once you’ve taken this step. In the other direction. For example. with the goal of figuring out how to improve morale . Ask. review the different statements . Choose the scope that best matches your power to implement an innovative solution and your willingness to make a difference . work with expanding or narrowing the scope until everyone agrees it is both big enough to be meaningful. ask. Why do we want this? Write the answer above your first statement . You can keep asking. As a group. You can keep asking Why? questions to make your goal more and more broad .

Then and only then. or a reaction to back off and not “rock the boat” — to play it safe and stick with what already exists rather than to risk trying something new . TASK 2: Assess the risks The second task of the Creative Journey is to assess the risks entailed . Then. ask What is a key barrier to achieving this? and restate your initial goal in more narrow terms: To ensure clear communication and high satisfaction among employees Choose a scope for your goal that your group is both motivated and empowered to achieve. An affirmation that often signals your team’s full commitment is the feeling that. and 5 means a great deal of enthusiasm . while encouraging the group to listen closely . the biggest risk you can take in a fast changing world is to avoid change yourself. and formulate your final goal statement: To ensure positive morale and high satisfaction among employees and management in our new work environment Checkpoint Every stage and task of the innovation process has a checkpoint to ensure that you’ve done it well . where 1 means little or no enthusiasm at all. The more important the goal. however. Ironically. on a 1-5 scale. What risks do we face? What’s at stake? Most often. I keep working on the goal statement until everyone is at a 4 or 5 . I poll the group . If any single person rates their enthusiasm at a 3 or lower. I often conduct a little test: I ask them to rate their enthusiasm for working on that goal. the more likely a fear of failure will arise. . Checkpoint: Commitment to achieving the goal • • Have we defined our challenge based on our personal values? Do we feel an inner motivation to stretch and serve others? After a group feels like they have consensus on how they would state their purpose or goal. once a commitment has been made to a goal. I ask that person to offer a more motivating version of the goal. am I assured that the group is ready to move on to the next task . the first thoughts that pop up in our minds are all the risks .56 T he Innovation Process To narrow your goal statement. We can make a difference! So here’s the first set of checkpoint questions to ask when you’re leading a group through a collective Creative Journey . What the Creative Journey requires from a purpose or goal statement is everyone’s intention and commitment to achieve it .

John Hunt faced as he and his team of men started up its steep slopes . and a Nepalese Sherpa guide. They had no maps to follow. it helps to name the uncertainty. 1953 was the culminating moment for Col . Hillary and Tenzing were two cheerful and courageous fellows doing what they liked doing. On that day. Imagine the uncertainty and risks that Col . In fact.38 . taking on a new challenge can feel like climbing a tall mountain. Edmund Hillary. a New Zealand beekeeper. As a simple example: When I’ve spoken at conferences. stay tuned to the risks they were taking. The point is that most of us actually like some level of uncertainty and suspense — and if the stakes are not high enough.57 Chapter 6 Many people believe there is a natural resistance to uncertainty and the chance of failure . Injury or death was always a possibility — other people before them had suffered those fates . Prior to 1953. When you’re facing a new challenge. where both teams were highly talented and the outcome might not be decided until the final minute . Tenzing Norgay. Hunt’s team . we lose interest . and then rely on their common purpose. is that it voluntarily tests the human spirit against the fiercest odds.028 feet . They didn’t even know exactly how far they had to go . as of most hard sports. Yet I’ve found it’s equally natural to prefer and even to seek those kinds of situations . Get them on the table. I’ve often asked audiences which they would prefer to attend — a sports match where one team was so superior that there was no suspense about who would win. the risks and the fears . so you can all see what they are . the vast majority of people choose the latter . people around the world thought that it was virtually impossible to climb to the peak of Mount Everest — Chomolungma as it was known locally — the highest place on earth at 29. they were considerate members of a team. For example For many people. the art and discipline of innovation can draw many lessons from mountain climbing . May 29. Neither went in for unnecessary bravado. and experience to carry them through to their goal — together . and couldn’t predict the weather . and did best. Invariably. and you have a chance to deal with them collectively . Hunt and his entire team of experienced climbers stayed focused on each other’s well-being . no one is alone with their anxieties. They embodied the spirit of the entire team: The real point of mountain climbing. innovative skills. Focus on the value of well-being: How might the well-being of our stakeholders and us be at risk? This way. They knew that the best way to get to the top was to pay close attention to their environment. stood on the top of the world for the first time . or a championship game.

When the risks are voiced in this way. especially in this information age. you might want to conduct a knowledge-gap analysis . . What risks do we face? But here are some other questions you can use to broaden the discussion and bring out the values and meaning that will clarify what you’re dealing with: WHAT RISKS DO WE FACE? • What might be at odds with our values? • What’s at stake in this situation — what could be the effects of either success or failure? • What do we fear might happen in this situation? • What biases might keep us from seeing the risks objectively? We may easily define the risks. For example. but to say we’re anxious or afraid is not often culturally acceptable . They surface as hidden agendas when people begin killing ideas and options right and left . then they become “grist for the mill”39 in prioritizing key issues and generating options for resolving them . if your goal is to differentiate your organization from others in your field. I’ve found that if these issues are not put on the table openly at this point. they say that the idea is no good. The choice of technique depends on your goal . What works best is to bring the fears and anxieties into the light. fill in the key knowledge that is pertinent to achieving your purpose or goal . given the stresses that the innovation process can bring on . Using the grid in Chart 25. or even if you succeed? Those consequences could be either positive or negative . The main question here is simple.58 T he Innovation Process Asking questions to assess the risks In this second task in the Challenge stage. it’s because a risk or fear has not been put out into the open in defining the challenge . They become the very stimulus for more innovative solutions. On the surface. and trust the innovation process to address them in a constructive way . think about what is at stake — what could be the consequences if you fail to meet the goal. In acknowledging that feelings of anxiety or fear are normal. underneath. the issue is what to do with those feelings: Do we let them stop us? Do we try to suppress them? Neither one of these options really works. including techniques for competitive analysis and vulnerability analysis . they come back later to haunt the entire innovation process . rather than the barriers to them! One technique: Knowledge-Differentiation Analysis Businesses and organizations use a great many tools and techniques to assess risk.

and what’s really at stake for your stakeholders .59 Chapter 6 Chart 25 — Knowledge-Gap Analysis40 Others know We know We don’t know 1 2 Others don’t know 3 4 Then. where you’re part of a team trying to figure out how to improve morale and satisfaction in your company . Your list might include: Key Question: What risks do we face? • A breakdown in communications between management and employees • A lack of work coordination due to changing jobs and moving managers around • Increasing feelings of job insecurity: “When is the next layoff? Will I lose my job?” • Interference with good productivity • Losing the best of our remaining talent pool. as they seek new jobs elsewhere . assess the knowledge according to Chart 26 . Chart 26 — Assessing the Knowledge41 Others know We know 1 This knowledge is needed “just to be in the game” 2 This knowledge is unique to our competitors Others don’t know 3 This knowledge is unique to us We don’t know 4 This knowledge could be a future source of differentiation You can use this analysis to determine what kind of knowledge-based risks you face: • What knowledge do we need to gain that others already know. or others. Imagine that you and your group bring to light all the risks related to your goal. so we can be in the game? • What knowledge do we have (in Box 3) to leverage for our advantage? • hat new knowledge might we. create (in Box 4) for future W differentiation? A case in point Come back to our hypothetical situation.

We know the risks — and we’ll keep going! So. and your clients face? 4. An indicator of this awareness is the assurance that. what kinds of risks do you.60 T he Innovation Process Chapter 6 Checkpoint The checkpoint for this task in the Creative Journey is that your team is fully aware of the risks involved and what’s at stake for failure or success . and see what you can all learn from each other . your company. two questions for your second checkpoint are: Checkpoint: Conscious risk-taking • • Are we aware of the potential risks and benefits? Are we conscious of any blocks to taking appropriate risk? Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. What are the most memorable challenges you have worked on? What made them memorable? 2. How does your personal purpose and your values shape the kinds of goals you most like to work on? 3. How does it feel to be facing those risks? . Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. 1. When it comes to your current projects. consider the following questions .

For the first six months. “Do you want me to lie to you?” I used words that had an emotional impact. or walking away from it. That was to convince the employees that we weren’t asking impossible things of them. then we are all going to win. the answer is a resounding Yes! He took the job with the assignment of turning the division around . More than once. “Once we get through this. He later told me the story of what happened: It was definitely a division in serious trouble. looked him in the eye. the “how-you’re going-to-get-there ”— all had to be credible. I had feelings of just wanting to go away and hide. And the second thing was to get the people to believe that there was a recovery possible here. and said. I met with a prospective customer. Dick knew he had to stand firm: The worst thing I could do was cave in. One day. But the process was not easy for Dick to go through: I was the one who had to say “No. The marketing and sales departments had been so successful with an innovative campaign they overwhelmed the company’s capacity to deliver on its contracts .” I was the one who had to say. one goal had to be to satisfy the customer. You’re not licked until you quit.” I knew I was taking a risk. I had asked for more than I could swallow. but there was no ambiguity. The salesman wanted an exception to their strategy. But over time I developed a certain sense of positiveness and perseverance. He accepted that. Clearly. deliver on that business. It was about to sink under the weight of failed commitments . We set up a prioritization of what customers we were going to satisfy within a time frame. I hung tough on not accepting business that we couldn’t deliver on. so he could get the sale . Everything had to be credible — the “road map. general manager of a communication system division of a major electronics corporation. I went home every night feeling sorry for myself. That was a test.61 T he Innovation Process Chapter 7 Focusing Together on What It Takes an you emphasize deeply held personal values and still run a successful business? c For Dick Eppel.” the vision. and I put myself out there. “Trust me. I knew the risk. and manage it on a schedule. even though there were threats of customers going someplace else. . with the goal that we were going to satisfy all customers. a salesman came to Dick with a potential new customer who wanted a delivery date that Dick knew they couldn’t meet .” I was the one who had to say. We would not take on any more business whatsoever that would jeopardize satisfying our current customers. It turned out that we could execute good business. a result of too much success in their marketing activities without enough forethought for how they were going to execute that successfully.

to gather the facts and perspectives to fully understand what you’re dealing with as you strive to achieve your purpose or goal . There was a sense of caring and concern for everybody coming out of this hole as a whole organization. or pretty close to breakeven. for one reason or another. positive visualization. The second thing was that the management team. I’ve always felt like I had good teams to work with. even though that was never expressed verbally. to have the confidence and courage that you and your teammates can be I bigger than the challenge. things were significantly improved. came together in a way that was very unique to me. The most important piece that we saved has represented about $13-20 million per year of cash-rich profits ever since.62 T he Innovation Process After two years. The Focus Stage of the Creative JourneyTM After the excitement of embracing a challenge comes the discipline of focusing yourself to prepare for the demands of your Journey . Every contract got delivered on — every contract. What did it take for Dick and his division to succeed? He named two things besides having the right strategy: One was a sense of positive perseverance: positive expectations. given all the risks involved • Outside. but in this one there was a bonding beyond friendship and camaraderie. I even say there was a genuine sense of love. We got the division to breakeven. That focus actually has two aspects: • nside. Turnover was down. That had a lot to do with the result.

he said: In the light of knowledge attained. the happy achievement seems almost a matter of course. and soon his management team began to feel it too . when he focused on two key issues — satisfying current customers and not taking on more work until things were turned around — he and his team could work to come out of their trouble together . But he tapped into his own character. in the rush to understand the issues right away. you’ll be going through the motions while people secretly don’t believe you can really be successful . or dispirited . and the team as a whole. This feeling of discomfort is exactly what Dick Eppel experienced . At times. regained some positiveness. which must be accepted as just a natural part of the process — it’s OK . Sometimes.42 . Yet that temptation to rush is the very sign of being uncomfortable with the feelings associated with the challenge. brings to the Journey . anxious. During this period. teams might want to skip past what they perceive to be the “soft stuff” of identifying the values and experiences that each person. For example Every innovation process has its “dark nights” of low confidence. there are two important tasks in this stage — what I call tapping into your character and analyzing and prioritizing the key issues. their alternations of confidence and exhaustion. What can you count on to pull you through tough times? As you look over your list of risks. So. But the years of anxious searching in the dark. If people’s hearts aren’t in it. He was putting himself.63 Chapter 7 Thus. After successfully describing a previously mysterious orbit behavior of the planet Mercury using his gravitational field equations. Even a genius like Albert Einstein had to go through those periods . as well as his company. and the final emergence into light — only those who have themselves experienced it can understand that I was beside myself with joy for days. Task 3: Tap into Character The third task of your Creative Journey is to recognize what qualities you possess that will give you the strength to meet your challenges . For that. The mood of your meetings could be pretty low . and it didn’t feel good . you might feel overwhelmed. on the line. with their intense longing. it seemed to be more than he could swallow . cultivate the value of inner peace and find your own answers to What is the source of my peace of mind and self-confidence? This sense of self-confidence enables you to be more flexible and open minded . you’ll likely end up with even more tension and wheel-spinning . you and others may need a sense of inner harmony and positive outlook . and is a sure indicator of the need for this type of inner focus . If you plunge ahead to analyze the problem or generate ideas without addressing this problem.

look inward. and if you have done it before you can do it again .64 T he Innovation Process Asking questions to tap into character At this point you need to stop. Remind yourself that you’ve been in tight places before and managed to beat the odds. It’s another to do that within a work team or group . write your answers to two questions on separate sheets of paper — one sheet for each team member: • What is it about this person that gives me. Here’s an exercise to unleash that strength. Use all this information to bolster confidence whenever tough times emerge . personally. have each person report to the whole group on the following: • What pleased me the most from what I read was… • What surprised me the most was… • The team can count on me to… Keep the list of what each person can be counted on for . Here are a few questions you can use to broaden the discussion and bring out the values and meaning that will build your confidence for pursuing the goal: WHAT GIVES US CONFIDENCE? • What strength and courage do our values give us? • How can we handle the pressures we may face? • What knowledge. and uplift the spirit of everyone on the team . skills and experience can we draw upon? • What is the opportunity for personal/professional growth? In your Creative Journey. For each person on your team. and your unique blend of talent and experience to get you through the tough times ahead . It also helps to take stock of the unique talents and experiences you all bring to it . and re-establish the inner peace and self confidence of everyone on your team . we might be tempted to try to seize control rather than rely on team synergy. build synergy. Distribute these papers for each person to read . . 1 . yet there can be a welcome strength in numbers . Afterwards. In the midst of work stresses. more confidence that the team can succeed? • What can I learn from this person? 2 . One technique: Relying on Each Other It’s one thing to rely on yourself and your own inner qualities to get you through a difficult situation . your personal purpose and values will give you the courage and determination you need to meet your challenge . You will have to call upon the moral strength you get from your values.

complete story about the most important issues to resolve? . with a positive attitude • We work well together. A sign of this intention is the affirmation. the task now is to spend some high quality meeting time identifying the strengths of each individual. your list might end up including: Key Question: What gives us confidence? • We believe in each other • Each person brings a different skill • We feel motivated and energized. the team as a whole. and that is up!” • Executives are actively offering their support • People in the organization are hungry for a feeling of “We can do it!” Checkpoint As we’ve seen. here are two questions you can ask: Checkpoint: Character and courage • Are we willing to stay true to our values? • Do we trust our inner courage and capabilities? TASK 4: Analyze and Prioritize the Issues The fourth task of your Creative Journey is to analyze and prioritize the key issues that will need creative and innovative solutions to achieve your goal . towards a single purpose • We recognize that “there is only one way to go. Welcome these diverse viewpoints and gather all the information you can to be sure that you identify the right issues . the checkpoint is a willingness and enthusiasm to move forward. Based on everyone’s input: What’s the true. and the company . Be sure you are dealing with the cause and not the symptoms . For example. focus on the value of truth . even amidst the risks and uncertainty . What are the priority issues that need resolving? The first thing your team has to do is get a clear definition of exactly what is involved in the purpose or goal you want to achieve . using the exercise given above. For this task. Given the risks your team previously identified. “We are confident and courageous!” To check this out with everyone on your team. Patiently listening to everyone’s thoughts on the matter can be illuminating.65 Chapter 7 A case in point Let’s go back to the case of ensuring positive morale and high satisfaction among employees and management in the new work environment. every task of your Creative Journey has a checkpoint to ensure that it’s been handled well . You may find that everyone has a different opinion of what the issues are . With your investigation. even if at times it’s confusing to get so many different points of view .

Their assessment of the most important issues to address resulted in a set of eight priorities:43 1 . Develop a global partnership for development Each of these priorities was huge enough to become its own goal:44 The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world’s time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions — income poverty. Improve maternal health 6 . focused investments in economic and social infrastructure. We must start now. and more resources. hunger. shelter and security. As the new Secretary General. disease.66 T he Innovation Process For example In September 2000. Achieve universal primary education 3 .N . Millennium Declaration . Promote gender equality and empower women 4 . domestic and external. Ban Ki-moon stated in 2007:46 We will have time to reach the Millennium Development Goals — worldwide and in most. they committed their countries to a new global partnership aimed at reducing extreme poverty. education and environmental sustainability. Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty 2 . Combat HIV/AIDS. with specific targets to be met by 2015 . In doing so. malaria and other diseases 7 . An “umbrella” issue also needs innovative solutions: how to engage the political and social will needed to end “business as usual” and bring about change . Former Secretary General Kofi Annan said that the over-arching goal of reducing extreme poverty would require innovative solutions at many levels:45 Overcoming human poverty will require a quantum leap in scale and ambition: more nationally owned strategies and policies. individual countries — but only if we break with business as usual. stronger institutions. the largest gathering of world leaders in history adopted the U . Ensure environmental sustainability 8 . It’s this kind of prioritization that allows groups of people — large and small — to see what needs to be addressed and begin generating the innovative ways to get it done . wider participatory processes. They are also basic human rights — the rights of each person on the planet to health. education. Reduce child mortality 5 . or even all. lack of adequate shelter and exclusion — while promoting gender equality. . Success will require sustained action across the entire decade between now and the deadline.

what they believe the key issues to be . And that will focus you on what kind of solution is needed to achieve your goal . and human resources — and then add some customers and suppliers to the mix as well . operations. One that is particularly useful in many situations is stakeholder analysis. analyze and prioritize the most significant issues that need to be resolved . or a shipping or distribution delay caused by widespread cases of the flu. you might examine the challenge from the points of view of different stakeholders . engineering. and doing this kind of search of key causes. purchasing. A case in point As your team continues its work on improving morale and satisfaction in your organization. getting this kind of broad input. the main question is simple: What are the priority issues? Here are a few questions you can use to deepen the discussion and bring out the values and meaning that will energize you in pursuing the goal: WHAT ARE THE PRIORITY ISSUES? • What do stakeholders say are their key concerns? • What are the primary barriers to overcome? • What is the hidden truth about this situation? • What truth is the hardest to accept? One technique: Stakeholder Analysis You can draw on a great many tools and techniques for your analysis — such as root cause analysis. marketing. you could bring together a group from all departments . or a competitor’s product that just got announced .67 Chapter 7 Asking questions to analyze and prioritize key issues In this second task of the Focus stage. For example. manufacturing. in which you get input from as many people as possible who might contribute to and/or be affected by the solution you generate and implement . your focus will get sharper when you involve people with diverse backgrounds to help identify. from their perspective. Who knows. To better understand what might be causing the decline in sales. IT. and morphological analysis — depending on the nature of your goal . suppose you were in a sales department and your best product began to decline in sales. Include R&D. until you find out? Ultimately. you might uncover a quality control problem that has recently cropped up. force-field analysis. will help you understand what you’re really dealing with . Ask each one to state. finance. In doing so. what would you do? Develop a new sales promotion? Offer a higher bonus to salespeople to motivate them more? That might not get at the real source of the decline . For example: . As one of the many ways of analyzing.

When you’ve felt frustrated or discouraged during past work projects. Checkpoint The checkpoint for this task of the innovation process is to be sure that everyone is learning together to figure out what issues most need your attention . We can learn from all viewpoints! is evidence of your team heading in the right direction . consider the following questions . or experience — that helped you through it all? 2. do you rush through it. and see what you can all learn from each other . Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work.68 T he Innovation Process Chapter 7 Key Question: What are the priority issues? Stakeholders Employees Key Issues How to foster clear communications between employees and managers How to get the resources each team needs from the executives How to meet all of our customers’ needs with fewer people How to make the numbers and ensure the organization is productive Team leaders Customers Executives Although this level of digging into the facts may seem tedious to some members of your team. here are two questions you can ask: Checkpoint: Cooperative learning • • Have we sought input from people of different backgrounds? Have we analyzed the issues from a broad perspective? Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. they will be more likely to provide their active support later on . To check out how well you’re actually doing this. 1. or something in between? . meeting together to air different viewpoints will build trust and confidence that everyone’s key issues will be addressed . as a result. Affirming. When you’re faced with having to gather facts and get input to understand a problem or issue. With teams you’ve been on. people will feel that their input was respected. what has helped everyone to pull together during tough times? 3. what was it about yourself — your values. over-do it. character. By focusing well on this task.

the company’s commitment to values was laid down by its three founding brothers . the Indian Environmental Association gave an Award of Excellence to him in recognition of his pioneering service for environmental protection and preservation for more than five decades . has stated: The 21st century will see the rise of a new culture. From its inception. learn and grow together. and were having a productive time building on each other’s ideas . The rural community is the heart of India. We will work and contribute. and other such eco-friendly measures using alternative energy sources. using the following questions to stimulate their innovative thinking: • What can we imagine as our ideal. When I asked different groups to share their top ideas with the full group. .69 T he Innovation Process Chapter 8 Finding Innovative Solutions Together i ’m often asked. the ideas were creative. I conducted one session of Excel’s management conference on the theme of Building a World Class Plus Company through Innovation. long-term future? • What can we do to build on what we’ve done? • What can we combine to form a new way of working? • What can we do that is totally unique? They were all sincerely engaged in bringing forth ideas to take their company into an even brighter future. One of them. Excel’s 50-year mission statement ends with these words about its purpose for being in business: We have a responsibility towards the industry and community. I had the managers generate ideas in small groups for how they could achieve a new level of being a world-class company within the next two years. What do values have to do with creative brainstorming? What difference do they make? I directly experienced an answer to this question when I worked with the top 75 managers at Excel Industries in India . Company is family. Excel is an agricultural-chemical company that has pioneered work in rain farming.C . Schroff. and applying organic enzymes to make compost from municipal and industrial waste . harmony and sustainable development. minimizing the effect of chemical fertilizers. We will be friends and contributors to the well being of both the industrial and the rural community. In 2000. watershed management. In 1995. Schroff as Man of the Year for his work on sustainable development in arid rural areas . At one point during the session. one that is based on holistic principles. The Week magazine in India recognized Mr . This is our resolution and we resolve so. K . Creativity and Enhanced Competence . diverse and potent .

gained confidence that you can do it. and prioritized the key issues that you have to address . and so on . this tendency can harm the effectiveness of this stage of the Journey. When I asked them to report their top ideas based on the values questions. . and (2) developing the best options and deciding on your optimal. Now comes the time to generate. you’ve defined your purpose or goal. as good ideas can be killed before their potential is seen . develop and decide on what you’re actually going to do to achieve what you’ve set out to do . become aware of the risks. and the idea-generation became more animated . it was evident to all that there was more passion and commitment in their voices . This stage has two key tasks: (1) generating ideas that might meet your challenge. intensity and “buzz” level in the room began to rise noticeably.70 T he Innovation Process Then. Unfortunately. The ideas that were stimulated by the values-based questions became the centerpiece concepts around which the managers built their sincere commitment to the future of their company . I had them generate even more ideas based on the following values-based questions: • How can we fulfill the highest ideals of our values? • What would be a natural expression of our values? • How can we include the values of everyone? • What would challenge/stretch us to grow in our values? The energy. The Creative Solutions Stage of the Creative JourneyTM Up to this point in your Journey. It is tempting to do these two tasks simultaneously — coming up with one idea and evaluating it immediately. innovative solution . then. generating another idea and deciding whether it’s good or not.

articles. set of ideas to choose from. It gets you thinking differently about issues .71 Chapter 8 I’ve found it very helpful to view these two tasks as quite separate — likened to the process of setting out all the dishes for a huge buffet dinner. Each of us has our own special recipe for cooking up new ideas . But by keeping these two tasks separate in your minds. or even a book of jokes . And the outcome was a committed and confident management group. Your personal purpose and values. In the same way. knowing that they were coming up with the innovative solutions that would get them there . they found that their values did just that . Juxtaposing ideas that don’t logically belong together can open your mind up to a whole new world of possibilities . cartoons. you may see the need to go back and generate more ideas to round out a concept . energize. you will end up with a more comprehensive. Or you may like to collect stories to draw from. drinks and deserts . with a blank sheet of paper . Creativity and Enhanced Competence. as well as creative. After assessing the feasibility and promise of your first draft solution. Humor is a great way to spark new ideas . At Excel. and come back for more . you may jump back and forth between the tasks . you can make your most informed decision about what is best . can stimulate. Of course. guide and confirm your progress through this stage . side dishes. your first task is to lay out a wide variety of options. like main courses or desserts . You want to be sure that you have enough variety that everyone will have something they like . each person may find a special liking for a particular dish. they’ll select some of this and try some of that. as a very separate task. experiences as a team can occur at meetings where you dream up creative ideas to solve your challenge . And as you’re brainstorming. pictures. famous quotes. or plan time to start from scratch. and leave other dishes alone — perhaps not taking the very foods that others want to pile on their plate . as well as the team’s values. Then. main courses. Later. You may like to gather lots of information that can help spark new ideas — including reports. salads. . when people take their plates to the buffet. so that everyone’s tastes are represented . TASK 5: Generate ideas The fifth task of your Creative Journey is to generate as many new ideas as you possibly can: What creative ideas do we have? This task is where you want to bring your creative thinking alive . and perhaps prototyping and pilot testing some of the ideas. As you are in the midst of developing and deciding. when you generate your ideas. • Then. Your most stimulating. and then choosing what you want to eat from the buffet table: • You first prepare and lay out all kinds of appetizers. see what they like best. you may take a peek at your decision criteria to help you see where you need more ideas . And you wouldn’t think of leaving out a whole category. as they collaboratively worked to Build a World Class Plus Company through Innovation. without overlooking perhaps the most promising concepts . even humorous. you begin to evaluate and select what you want to try — your first draft solution .

Be aware of how often you interrupt the flow of ideas with idea-killers — those thoughts we tell ourselves or hear from others that bring up our fears of being seen as impractical or stupid . you need to be as original as you can . technology specialists. Be careful not to stop too soon. the better . • That’s already been tried. Asking questions to generate ideas The headline question for brainstorming your ideas is simple: What creative ideas do we have? Here are a few more detailed questions you can use to broaden your innovative thinking. The more ideas and alternatives you can develop. or full brainstorming sessions . What are creative ideas that make us smile? You may be surprised at how much energy and inspiration that question gives you to generate your ideas . place these reminders so everyone understands the spirit of idea-generation: • Stretch yourself to see the big picture • Write down your ideas right away • Be confident and take a risk — even half-baked ideas are OK • Try on new points of view • Don’t judge your ideas prematurely • Generate as many ideas as possible • Build on other’s ideas But if you find that your ability to generate more solutions is getting bogged down. For example. . to get some fresh perspectives and ideas . • That’s a crazy (or dumb) idea. in informal team meetings. On the wall of your meeting room. it helps to remind yourself of the value of playfulness . you might want to include customers. experts. • Top management will never go for it. or to judge the quality of the ideas before you have a chance to see their full potential . and bring out values that will spark a “buffet table” of ideas: WHAT CREATIVE IDEAS DO WE HAVE? • What ideas are inspired by our values? • What ideas could give an ideal solution? • What ideas could build upon what we’ve done previously? • What ideas could be radically new and revolutionary? • What ideas could combine different elements? When you are generating ideas. that will never work. workers.72 T he Innovation Process You can generate ideas on your own. Apply not only your mind. Including different kinds of people in your idea-generation is also good to try . How many times have you thought. or even kids. artists. but lighten up your spirit and ask. or had others say: • Oh.

What ideas could combine different elements? . What ideas could give an ideal solution? • In the left section write. (silence) No one I’ve met has gone through a brainstorming session without thinking of at least a few of these idea-killers. It starts by drawing a diagram like Chart 27 . Chart 27 — The Wheel Exercise47 Then: • In the middle. How can we make this idea more costeffective? One technique: The Wheel Exercise Many good techniques are available to help you generate ideas . but you can actually use this to your advantage! Imagine a diving board: when someone jumps on the end. write your most important values. Using both sides of your brain helps you come up with ideas that appeal to both your values and your mind . An easy-to-use technique is called the “Wheel” exercise . write your purpose or goal • In the outer ring. But you can use that to launch a creative idea that would solve that same objection.73 Chapter 8 • That idea is too far out there. As you plan your brainstorming session. What ideas could build upon what we’ve done previously? • n the right section write. depresses the board . an idea-killing statement like. the board first goes down before springing the person higher into the air . • ________. What ideas are inspired by our values? • In the top section write. be sure to include techniques that start with facts. as well as the question. by asking. By analogy. and those that start from scratch . What ideas could be radically new and I revolutionary? • In the bottom section write. That would be too costly.

And suppose you were focusing on the priority issue (from the previous task — Task 4) of how to foster clear communications between employees and managers . the tires have no air. and the wheel — the idea generation process — won’t have all the power it could have . Use your Wheel to guide and prompt you in generating your creative ideas . This creativity will often be characterized by humor. and managers can “shop” for ideas they want to implement Awards for “re-org and renewal” performance — getting things back up to speed Fifteen-minute videos for staff meetings Videotape interviews with customers about their needs. Your team’s creative ideas might include something like this: Key Question: What creative ideas do we have? Focus Issue: How to foster clear communications between employees and managers • • • • • A special event for everyone to interact in a positive and entertaining way Follow-up staff meetings with managers. And the wheel’s tire is your set of values . We seek creative ideas with open minds! Checkpoint: Creativity with diversity • • Do I have a wide array of creative ideas? Have I generated ideas from multiple points of view? . If your values are deflated. leaders and employees Inviting families to participate in a meeting on where the company is going Posters. sincerity. that give you a good ride on your Creative Journey .” where employees can have a booth to present their ideas for implementing new goals. banners to communicate new initiatives and positive messages “Idea fairs.74 T he Innovation Process The hub of your wheel is your purpose or goal . A case in point Consider again the case of your team working to achieve positive morale and high satisfaction among employees and management . The substance of the wheel is based on the strength of your creative ideas . Values provide the spirit. plaques. thoughtfulness and open-mindedness . from the Latin and Greek words for breath. play. An affirmation that signals this openness is. Be sure to use each of the five idea-stimulating questions . to inspire everyone to work together to fill those needs • • • Checkpoint The checkpoint for this task is quite simple: creativity that includes a diverse set of perspectives and ideas .

Reach out to those stakeholders who could be impacted by your solution. or if there is an obstacle to be overcome to make that idea work . Here are five other important things to keep in mind: 1. if necessary . so that short-term solutions take you along the path to the long-term ones . Be willing to modify your idea to make it more practical . They will provide you with the guidance you need to assess which options have the best chance to succeed .75 Chapter 8 TASK 6: Develop and decide on a solution The sixth task of your Creative Journey is to find the solution that will solve your challenge and take advantage of your opportunity: What is the best solution? When you’ve finished your round of idea-generation. you have a set of creative ideas . Use the same enthusiasm test you saw for the original purpose or goal statement . Be clear on your criteria. as well as your values . and who might play a role in implementing it . Put aside these tendencies so you can work together to find the best solution for everyone . If a solution makes logical sense but doesn’t inspire commitment. Then. How can we collaborate to decide on the best solution? That will help to gain everyone’s acceptance and support for your final decision . 4. as well as its potential to produce an innovative solution over the long haul . you might need to do some in-depth market and/or technical feasibility studies to test out the value of the top ideas . Sometimes we might have a favorite solution. 5. What to choose as your final solution is rarely obvious from the beginning . and test it further . you have to develop the ideas with some additional brainstorming . then seeing if anything is missing. 2. asking. Those now become your options for developing and making a decision about the right solution to achieve your purpose or goal . an important self-interest. Facts and intuition are both important inputs for making a final decision . Focus on the value of collaboration at every turn. Seek values-based commitment. Evaluate each idea for its short-term feasibility. Then. Let the best solution emerge. or a desire for a convenient solution . In those cases. It takes a process of first converging on the most promising ideas. Or we might just be stubborn . You may even have to develop a prototype or model of the idea. Look for low fruit and high fruit. that solution is not likely to fulfill your hopes for it . and ask them to give input to your decision-making process . Facts and data may have a pattern that your intuition can reveal . Refer back to your purpose or goal. With both. you’ll be playing with “a full deck of cards” in making your decision . connect the two. 3. Use intuition as well as facts. All along the way. don’t forget that it’s important to include other people in this task . you’ll get to the point of applying your criteria to make a final decision about the innovative solution you want to implement . Get them involved in developing your idea further. And your intuitive feel for the situation can guide you to search for more facts. Finally.

the group was seaworthy and ready to venture out onto the ocean of issues they faced . By the end of the morning.76 T he Innovation Process to ensure that the decision matches your team members’ values and personal purposes . For each scenario. 3M’s Industrial Tape Division set growth goals that their product portfolio and products pipeline were not likely to meet . For example A few years back. rather than a hindrance. Periodically. they generated new product ideas. The R&D people had booths where they presented their concepts. we took a break in the action to check out the boat . I said. and that it could be very risky to develop ideas based on any single set of assumptions about future conditions . an early partnership grew between R&D and Marketing to take a closer look. we discussed the double-binds they felt stressed by . but first. and they started to laugh at it all . How synergistically were they working together? And what else could they do? A few weeks after the managers had identified their most promising concepts. Then. we developed three qualitatively different scenarios for the future business environment that they and their competitors might all face . heard the concepts. So. we began to examine how they could make their diversity of perspectives an advantage. Here are a few more detailed questions you can use to enhance your conversation and make it lively and earnest: WHAT SOLUTION DO WE CHOOSE? • • • • What solution is called for by our values? What is a sustainable. answering that question can be quite involved . concepts and strategies . As they spoke. promising concepts for technology development . the pile of pressures began to seem more and more absurd. Asking questions to develop and decide on a solution The main question for this sixth task of the Creative Journey is simple: What solution do we choose? As we’ve discussed. Their R&D director called me to conduct a multi-day workshop with her managers to generate new. When something clicked. while marketing managers visited the booths. long-term solution? What are some quick wins? What solutions are we willing to persist for? • What are the hidden gems? . and test it in the marketplace . We had agreed ahead of time that their future business environment was hard to predict. in this session . develop the concept into a prototype. and made linkages between what they heard and their customers’ needs . Among other things. let’s check out the boat (their teamwork) . On the first morning. the R&D and Marketing organizations got together to sponsor an “idea fair” to help select which ones to develop and ultimately decide upon . There’s a sea of issues and opportunities to explore.

Seek values-based commitment Two techniques: Collage Solution and Criteria Checkerboard You can use the Collage Solution tool to converge on the most promising ideas. Look for high fruit and low fruit 5 . as you consider these questions. many popular decision-making methodologies . Be sure to include the name of the person next to the idea . Each person automatically gets their favorite idea accepted into a first-draft. We’ll figure out inconsistencies and missing elements from there. Write down all of the ideas that people have selected to be a champion for . Let the best solution emerge 3 . Have each person take one Post-It Note and place it next to the one idea that he or she is willing to champion . then. Have them place one dot on each idea that they also rank as a priority . Chart 28 — Criteria Checkerboard48 Criteria 1 Option A Option B Option C Option D Criteria 2 Criteria 3 Criteria 4 Relative Merit of Idea . “collage” solution. then. Be clear on your criteria 2 . 2 . Write down all of the top ideas based on the number of sticky dot votes they received . you can discuss. For this technique. those ideas might need further development . This statement helps to keep everyone’s mind open to others’ ideas by postponing debate until the entire collage is assembled . you can start by declaring. One tool to consider when you want a more rigorous evaluation of ideas using your criteria is the Criteria Checkerboard in Chart 28 . keep the five guidelines in mind: 1 . Display the alternative ideas around the room . Being a champion means he or she will take responsibility for seeing that this idea is implemented . Is there anything missing to give us a full solution? Are there inconsistencies or conflicts among the ideas? Are any ideas incomplete and need more work? There are. 3 . Give each person eight sticky dots . The simple steps for this technique are: 1 . 5 .77 Chapter 8 And remember. After that. 4 . Use intuition as well as facts 4 .

When your team has to start developing and deciding on ideas. Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. or low-medium-high) for each criteria • Use the resulting checkerboard to see the relative merits of the options A case in point Coming back to our hypothetical situation… If your team was working to achieve positive morale and high satisfaction. consider the following questions . Is it a solution that represents values and choices you all stand for? A sign of this commitment is the affirmation. the questions for this checkpoint are: Checkpoint: Collaboration on decisions • Have we shared power and sought consensus? • Are our decisions aligned with our values? Having an innovation conversation To help you clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. and specifically focusing on the priority issue of how to foster clear communications between employees and managers. what can get in the way. and what helps you get to a great solution? . and see what you can all learn from each other . then a first-draft solution might include: Key Question: What solution do we choose? Focus Issue: How to foster clear communication between employees and managers • Inviting families to participate in a meeting on where the company is going • Follow-up staff meetings with managers. What best stimulates your creative thinking? What gets your creative juices flowing? 2. What has been your best experience of generating ideas while working in a team? What made that team creative? 3.78 T he Innovation Process Chapter 8 • List each alternative on one axis of a matrix • List each criteria on the other axis • Rate each alternative on a specified scale (such as 1–10. 1. We decide together based on our values! Thus. employees • “Idea fair” to present new ideas to management • Awards for “re-org and renewal” performance — getting things back up to speed • Videotape interviews with customers about their needs Checkpoint The important checkpoint for this task in the Creative Journey is to make sure you have involved your stakeholders and considered what’s in their best interest . leaders.

at best. they produced more than 1. and then assigns a concept to some manager or another.000 ideas . crime and resource depletion . passionate issues: hunger. let’s publish this list internally and invite managers to step forward to claim a concept they feel committed to. personal values . We knew the story behind this success — the personal values investment alongside the business investment . the first day seemed very creative — 300 or so ideas — but there was no flash of brilliance. compelling and emotionally real . they anchored their creative energy in something personal. So instead. And we’re not in business to be mediocre. Surprisingly to some people. That creative energy sparked innovative business ideas. But we know our product managers have a lot on their plate. and I drove home puzzled . We ranked the concepts according to the potential size of the new business . the first concept to achieve a significant profit and market share was only number eight on the Top 10 list . based on deep. The opportunity of protecting precious art during shipment from museum to museum was made into a profitable new business by a manager whose own values made him passionate about preserving art . Two months later. and have them tell us what they would remove from their plate to make room for the new. As the participants brainstormed ways that Nomex might contribute to solving their deep concerns. I followed the progress of development and implementation over the following two years . we presented our findings on technical and market feasibility to approximately a dozen top executives in the division . if that manager has a mediocre commitment to the concept. After hearing our presentation. . After reflecting on why there had been no spark to the idea-generation. I returned the next morning and asked the participants to share one thing in the world situation that genuinely concerned them . When I conducted an “Innovation Search” for the DuPont corporation to develop new business concepts for a material called Nomex. Ultimately. and eventual success. it will become. What was the lesson thus far? I saw that while generating their ideas. And so they did . If this executive team decides which to go after. form groups with people you resonated with. drugs. a mediocre venture. Now that you’ve heard each other’s concerns. their creative energy rose exponentially . an executive wisely said: There are some very promising business concepts here. Then I said. Instantly.79 T he Innovation Process Chapter 9 Completing the Journey Together t he practical power of values-centered innovation never fails to amaze me . the room became alive as they shared their sincere concerns for real-life. They then organized those ideas into the top 50 key concepts. of which 10 were assessed for technical and market feasibility .

it gave an innovative new business the best chance of success . Once the innovation process has completed its cycle. The DuPont executives were looking for this kind of integrity when they published the list of new business opportunities and waited to see who stepped forward to claim a concept they were committed to . you must act on the ideas and innovative solutions you’ve decided upon . and for your team to be successful. even if they are not what we expected and/or wanted . The purpose of celebrating results is to give a full sense of completion . . When what we promise is what we deliver — when we’re committed to practicing a unity of our thoughts. words and actions — then we build trust and implementation occurs more smoothly . but they quickly get disinterested when the time comes to act . Just because a great idea has been conceived doesn’t mean the work is done . and what you have learned that can make a difference to you and others in the future . we then need a point of completion where we experience our results. aligned with their personal purpose and values. This completion experience starts by assessing not only the tangible achievements. but also what has been learned during the process: What new knowledge have we gained that will make a difference the next time around? You renew your energy for the next challenge by talking about what you did or didn’t achieve. Here is where good project planning comes in . resource allocations and other aspects of implementation . But planning alone is not enough .80 T he Innovation Process The Completion Stage of the Creative JourneyTM Some people really enjoy meetings where they can generate ideas. Action takes the value of determination. Any realistic plan of action depends on keeping agreements — for due dates. They knew that when their managers made commitments based on what they believed was important to them.

If your idea is unusual. Make sure your plan includes both tangible and intangible resources. How can we best implement our solution? For many people. A commitment to quality is most needed at this point . the discipline of commitment and keeping your agreements frees you to make your plan come true . word and action . it may be difficult for others to understand it .81 Chapter 9 TASK 7: Implement the solution The seventh task of your Creative Journey is to implement your solution . money. properly resourced. it may be threatening to the status quo . has the best chance to succeed . In the same way. but it helps to identify what you need up front so you don’t find yourself halfway through your plan having to make unacceptable compromises . Throughout implementation. So to get your great idea off the ground. hard look at whether it accommodates your need for high quality implementation . time. If you believe in it. you might find it difficult to get people to listen to you . you can be sure that a well-thought out plan. How can we implement this solution in a high quality way? Before you finalize your plan. Take the time to develop a detailed plan. If your idea calls for sweeping changes. If you are unusual. uplift and encourage everyone in how they stay true to their values and practice that kind of integrity . dancers must commit themselves to learn the skills that allow them to express movements that most of us can’t even imagine ourselves doing . and make agreements only when you’re sure that everyone is ready to walk their talk — to practice a unity of thought. Then. such as. Overall. then your solution deserves to be implemented in the best way possible . Remind everyone that the true nature of commitment is to free you rather than restrict you . Asking questions to implement your solution Here are a few questions to supplement the basic question. don’t let your dream die by making too many compromises along the way . keep asking yourself and others. equipment. people and information . making their idea work in the real world is the toughest part of the Creative Journey . Since you are going to have to persevere through thick and thin. schedule and budget for your implementation . For example. How can we best implement our solution? You can use these to broaden the discussion and bring out the meaning and motivation that will carry you throughout implementation: HOW CAN WE BEST IMPLEMENT OUR SOLUTION? • What plan of action is aligned with our values? • What is the wisdom in others’ objections? • What do we need to let go of to succeed? • What is the right timing for action? • Where will we need to be firm or flexible? . and how to involve others in its successful implementation . You may not get all the resources you want. take a long. you’ll need to plan how to do it. Although you are going to need to be flexible. link your plan with your personal purpose and values.

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One technique: Mid-Course Correction There are a great number of methods for project management, useful even for very small projects . Then, there are the complex tools for much larger-scale projects, such as up-scaling prototypes into full production . In both cases, you will probably need to make mid-course corrections to adapt to changing circumstances you didn’t anticipate . By analogy, during any plane flight, the piloting and navigation systems are constantly interacting, whether done automatically, or by the pilot . Perhaps for as much as 95 percent of the flight, the plane can be at least slightly off course due to variations of winds, pressure areas, and other factors . A plane must constantly make mid-course corrections, yet the sum of all these corrections results in a successful landing at the planned destination . To do the same with your implementation plan, you also need piloting and navigation systems . Before you begin implementation, consider the following: • • • Identify what circumstances you might not be able to control that might affect your plan — workloads of key people, etc . Identify how to monitor and keep up-to-date about those conditions Identify the key milestones for your plan, and how each might be affected by those circumstances

Then, as you progress through your plan: • • Periodically meet to track progress and get updates about any uncontrollable circumstances Use these meetings to proactively generate creative mid-course corrections as needed — adjusting your plans and resources accordingly

A case in point Let’s return to your hypothetical team that aims to achieve positive morale and high satisfaction . Your next task is to plan how to meet both short-term and long-term achievements: Key Question: How will we best implement our solution? Focus Issue: How to foster clear communications between employees and managers

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Component of the plan 1. Invite families to participate in a meeting on where the company is going

First phase milestones Develop the agenda for the meeting . Make sure to include activities to engage all family members . Plan to get input and buy-in from spouses about what the future holds . Get executives prepared to be candid and down-to-earth . Get buy-in from top management . Send out notice to all employees inviting their ideas . Set up the idea fair site . Develop ways to document the managers’ interests . Invite managers .

Second phase milestones Hold the meeting . Document what was discussed and concluded . Send out the results to all families . Include commitment to follow up .

2. Conduct an “idea fair” for employees to present ideas to managers

Conduct fair . Collect results from managers . Report to top management . Get any needed approvals and resources .

Checkpoint As we’ve seen throughout, every task of the innovation process has a checkpoint to ensure that it’s been well done . This seventh task calls for unity of thought, word and action to ensure a high quality implementation . The evidence for this readiness and commitment is a sincere statement: We keep our commitments. Checkpoint: Congruence of thought, word and action • • Have we met time, performance and budget agreements? Were we unified in what we thought, said and did?

TASK 8: Celebrate the results The eighth task of your Creative Journey is to take the time out to assess, recognize and celebrate your success . What achievement and learning have we gained? How are we better off because of our efforts? You might think that every innovation project naturally ends with some kind of evaluation . But that’s not true — many times they end and people go on to the next project wondering, How did we really do? What did we get out of that experience? How well did we really meet the goal? When evaluation sessions are held, they can be quite cold and analytical — sometimes they’re even referred to as post mortems (“after the death”) for a project — not exactly an inspiring way to think about them . This kind of feedback might be mentally satisfying, but without an emotional sense of completion that relates back to our purpose and values, we keep taking on new challenges without ever filling up our energy tanks . We get more and more run down until we burn out and feel, I’ve put everything I have into this work and feel like I’ve gotten nothing back.

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T he Innovation Process

Thus, this eighth task includes not only your assessment of results, but a celebration of your results . Let’s first examine an innovative approach to assessing results . With the innovation process, the results to evaluate are twofold: What did we actually achieve — did we meet our purpose or goal? and What new knowledge and learning did we gain that we can transfer and use going forward? Why, you may ask, should we assess learning as well as achievement? First, in knowledge intensive work, new knowledge is what fuels new innovation (recall from Chapter 1 that learning is like inhaling, while innovating is like exhaling) . When we gather what we learn from one Journey and apply it to the next challenge, we continue to grow . Second, by assessing new knowledge gained as well as achievement, you give individuals and teams who set aggressive goals the chance to succeed on two possible fronts . 3M demonstrated this approach in one of their ads: 3M has made a lot of mistakes. We’re very proud of them. The ad goes on to say, Everyone who is alive and moving makes mistakes. The trick is to learn from your mistakes and move on. [If venture risks are reasonable], we tend to be willing to make an investment and learn. Still, it takes more than assessment to provide a sense of real completion to an innovation process . It takes celebration . By celebration, I don’t mean big hurrahs and pats on the back, although those are just fine . Something my clients have taught me over the years is that the deepest sense of completion comes with the opportunity to express gratitude — to say, “Thank you.” Giving thanks reconnects us to everyone else who contributed to the achievement and the learning . Celebration provides the moment to gain a deep sense of satisfaction and express sincere feelings of gratitude . It also allows the opportunity to acknowledge any emotions, even sadness at the ending of a special experience shared with colleagues . To move on, we must leave things behind . A celebration marks our passage . It applauds what we have learned and accomplished in the past, and puts it to rest . It frees us to move forward . So take time to look at all you have gained, and emphasize the value of appreciation: How can we appreciate and celebrate what we’ve achieved and learned? Share this with others; it will inspire others and yourself to move on to greater challenges with a renewed sense of purpose and energy . For example A company’s appraisal and reward process can make or break its efforts to ensure that innovation thrives . Frank Douglas, former head of R&D at Marion-Merrill-Dow and then Hoechst-Marion-Roussel, is a living example of how to do this . He once sponsored a major research effort to develop a certain drug, and as the research progressed it looked like a potential blockbuster . But a lab technician noticed something suspicious in their research, and a supervisor followed up . They found that the compound was depositing cholesterol in the liver, which could lead to extensive liver damage . The project was canceled and the research

but what for me is a significant success. He then repeated to them his three priorities for any research project . The team ought to be congratulated. I’m going to celebrate what others would consider a failure. And if that wasn’t possible with the project. Asking questions to celebrate results In this last task in the Completion stage. and bring forth the values and meaning that will help you complete your innovation process: WHAT HAVE WE ACHIEVED AND LEARNED? • What results are consistent with our values? • How can we share the credit with those who deserve it? • What important new knowledge have we gained? • How can we celebrate and move on? • What do we feel most grateful for? . think about how you appraise and celebrate the results from your Journey: The main question is: What have we achieved and learned? Here are a few more questions you can use to broaden your team discussion. they were very anxious that management would see them as failures . I’m really very happy that the environment we have here is one where a technician can make an observation. rather than ignore it. his second priority was to meet the unmet medical need . As Frank later told me.85 Chapter 9 team was crestfallen . He appraised his research team and rewarded them for both their science achievement and new learning they could transfer to other projects . because nobody knew that this type of compound would stimulate specific cells to ingest cholesterol. and a supervisor can pursue that observation and come out with an answer. That. Frank acted as a true sponsor of innovation . It has saved the company a lot of money by discovering this now. he at least wanted to advance science . If he couldn’t do both. So. He went on to tell his team: Your work on this compound is in the third category. I bet you anything that somebody will figure out how to use this compound to do other things without the side effects of getting trapped in the liver. then people don’t worry about failing. and you create an atmosphere in which they are more likely to make breakthroughs. First of all. is the key to encouraging people to set stretch goals and take the risks required for innovation . It advances science. Frank made a point of publicly recognizing them for their contribution and concluded by saying: I think when you do that in this environment. He addressed the team by saying. I have found. this is a significant contribution to science. His top priority was to develop compounds that addressed unmet medical needs while also advancing science . and has also prevented potential side effects to patients.

bonuses Impact — having an impact by achieving meaningful goals. with brand managers from the U . A case in point In this last episode of your team working towards positive morale and high satisfaction among employees and management. The other half of the group was composed of outer-directed people who were motivated more by extrinsic rewards. but still needed some intrinsic satisfaction . hours. such as autonomy.86 T he Innovation Process One technique: SATISFIERS I once conducted research at the Pillsbury Co . Any approach to rewards and satisfactions has to take this difference into account . financial rewards. private recognition. such as promotions. about half the group were inner-directed people who were most motivated by intrinsic rewards. but needed a maintenance level of extrinsic rewards . peers. Foods Division. and personal and professional growth . flexibility in job assignments A Advancement — promotions T I F I E Training and development — gaining greater expertise. . personal growth Intrinsic — doing what you most enjoy Financial — salary increases. asking them to rank the following rewards (SATISFIERS) for innovativeness: S Self-determination — autonomy. nice surroundings. and public recognition . Others represent extrinsic satisfactions which involve someone else to help provide the sense of satisfaction. In the Pillsbury research. equipment S Social — being able to work with the people you most want to work with R Recognition — public or private recognition by bosses. or subordinates S Security — confidence in a specific job assignment or overall employment Some of these represent intrinsic satisfactions that are experienced independent of others’ notice or involvement. the final task is to assess your achievement and learning and celebrate those results . serving customers Environment — good working conditions.S ..

new learning has been gained.87 Chapter 9 Key Question: What have we achieved and learned? Focus Issue: How to foster clear communications between employees and managers Achievement Employees and managers are openly communicating Productivity is going up New Learning • How to respect each other. and better environment for working Checkpoint The final checkpoint for the Creative Journey is to ensure that results are known. and the energy is up — everybody is ready to move on . An affirmation that signals this readiness is. no matter what their position • How including people leads to greater commitment to work • How to engage employees’ families to support change • How and when to include the broader stakeholder base in strategic planning • How to foster a climate for new ideas and more synergy between managers and employees Satisfactions Greater sense of selfinitiative and bigger impact on the future More chances for advancement and bonuses More feelings of security and social connection (within the company and with the community) Families are showing cooperation with what their family members are having to do at work Managers are implementing a wide range of employee ideas More intrinsic motivation to pursue new ways of doing things. We are grateful for our success! And there is a single question to ask to verify this sense of completion: Checkpoint: Celebration of achievement plus learning • Have we assessed and gained satisfaction from both what we’ve achieved AND what we’ve learned? .

What gives you the most satisfaction for having been a part of an innovative effort? . Use them to start an innovation conversation with your colleagues at work. 1. At the end of a project. as well as celebrate the tangible results you achieved? 3. What is an example of a successful project implementation you’ve been involved with? What made for that success? 2.88 T he Innovation Process Chapter 9 Having an innovation conversation To help clarify and integrate your insights from this chapter. and see what you can all learn from each other . what have you done to identify and share the new knowledge you’ve gained. consider the following questions .

when Janiece was senior vice president of Motorola’s technology assets. having started at Motorola as a third shift production-line worker in one of their plants . But that’s only one direction on a two-way street . . I found out that this followed the 80/20 rule that said we as workers could most likely handle 80% of the problems and that we only needed the engineers 20% of the time. and how you all. I started listening to and watching what the engineer was doing. and our work serves our growth . The other direction is to see our work as an arena for personal and professional growth . I thought. You can start now to use your innovative work as an opportunity to grow personally and professionally . during the night. to discuss how your work provides the chance to be innovative. I would be curious about why the lines were down. It can be as simple as posing and posting them on the board of your meeting room to guide your meeting agenda: What is our purpose or goal? What risks do we face? What gives us confidence? What are the priority issues? What creative ideas do we have? What solution do we choose? How can we best implement our solution? What have we achieved and learned?” Sometimes it helps to identify role models — people we admire and learn from — to give us a better idea for how to provide this kind of leadership . Janiece had worked her way up the corporate ladder over 20 years. Over the years. Janiece became one of my favorite clients. Take the lead. which I offer to you as a living testimony of the frame of mind. we develop ourselves at work to do better in our jobs . and I experienced close-up how she brought out the innovative best in every one of her staff . and one who stands out is Janiece Webb. “This isn’t right. no matter what position you are in. A practical way to foster such growth is to initiate innovation conversations with your colleagues . A few years ago. We might sit for eight or sometimes sixteen hours waiting for someone to un-stick an ejector.” so I started by getting the machines up. Janiece couldn’t sit still when an innovative challenge stared her in the face: I started at Motorola on the production line 30 years ago working the third shift. Later.89 T he Innovation Process Chapter 10 Being a SPIRITED Leader of Innovation t raditionally. and I started writing these things down. whom I first met in 1992. I’ve met many such people in my career. that can catapult a person to be the best possible leader in taking people through a Creative Journey . and values. You can also take the lead in asking the key questions that lead you through the Creative Journey . can bring out the innovative best in each other . Even at the beginning of her career while still in her teens. Here are some excerpts from that recorded interview. as a team. when she was vice president of the International Networks Division at Motorola . my wife and I interviewed her for a research program we were working on . Our growth serves our work.

I’ve run service businesses around the world. I feel it is my job to serve people. there are times when a command and control style is necessary in a crisis. with absolute deep respect for people — not hollow words. I encourage people to really believe in themselves and not let the system dictate who they are.90 T he Innovation Process I also challenged the others on my shift to out-produce the shift before us and began writing training programs. Janiece believed in the capacity of every person who worked with her to be innovative. In truth. but we just have to trust. since I had increased productivity a lot. but for me it must be needed. I don’t identify myself with my title. that I should be in the office. and I ask them to not let that get in the way. and that can be done within proper bounds.000 people working for me. I’ve run software. Sometimes I lead them and sometimes they lead me. I have always been a visionary and have always found the problems that nobody else wanted to solve but needed to be solved. Now that potentiality may manifest itself in a different way than we thought it would when we started our journey. It was really just by developing an “esprit de corps49” and by being willing to push the envelope. I’ve run engineering. and what that means to me is that yes. If you look at my entire career. Yes. you’ll see that I’ve been in marketing. I believe that a position of power is a position of serving the people around you. I am only powerful when my energy is connected with other people’s energy and we do things as a team. and I’ve run equipment businesses. I’ve run manufacturing. you do perform in a capitalistic model.5 billion. I believe in talent and I believe that you can create giants out of ordinary people when you act in balance and harmony with them. Janiece’s views about unlimited potential extended beyond the people she worked with. that’s a label that someone decided to put on me. but you do it with integrity. No one gets anywhere by themselves. I also encourage them to forget about the corporate hierarchy structure. to include the corporation as a whole: I believe that a corporation has a soul. . It really is unlimited and we are the ones who put limits on it. I have to be willing to let them do that too. and felt that her job was to bring that out: I believe in the pure potentiality of every single being. Sometimes this requires tough love. but really treating them with dignity. and it must be short-lived. You walk your talk. I’ve run businesses from $2 million to $3. I’ve had from zero people to 8 people to 8. So it was only a matter of time before management realized I shouldn’t be on the line.

as well as using their profits to help society. The role that business could play in benefiting the world could be huge. People have said that I am ethical to a fault. What new insights have you had about: • Your work — How does it offer you an opportunity to be innovative. Use the items in Chart 29 as an opportunity to self-assess your strengths. You can be competitive with compassion. I truly believe that people want to follow goodness and are looking for these kinds of examples. Two questions you can pose to yourself while going through the self-assessment are: 1. and identify areas that you want to strengthen to be more innovative in your work . you will lose your soul. the results could be unbelievable. but if you are competitive without compassion. What are areas that I want to strengthen in the next month? In the next year? . it could be a new recipe for attracting and keeping shareholders. It doesn’t mean they can’t be tough and it doesn’t mean they can’t strive for big goals. no matter what your position or work responsibility? • • Yourself — How do you now see your own capacity to be innovative? How can you express your personal purpose and values through your innovative work? Your colleagues — How can you hold innovation conversations that bring out the innovative best in each person? My own observations of people I’ve met over the years at all levels and positions can be summarized as a list of eight SPIRITED characteristics . I honestly believe that if a CEO came forward and was willing to genuinely show their spiritual side in making and selling good products. and I don’t mind having that title. What are my strengths when approaching an innovative challenge? 2. I am productive and I do reach for goals — I do perform monetarily because that is expected of me — but I don’t do it at the expense of doing things that are wrong.91 Chapter 1 0 A company that has soul has compassion. Being a SPIRITED leader of innovation Now is the time to step back and see what your journey through this book has meant to you . I also believe if people could see that corporations are investing the profits they are making back into the society without a self-serving interest.

holistically Show curiosity Discern objectively Share credit Appreciate the positive in others Value intrinsic motivations Affirm diverse viewpoints Celebrate completions Strengths Areas to Strengthen P = PURPOSEFUL I = INCISIVE R = REWARDING I = INVENTIVE • Generate many options • Switch easily between logic and imagination • Promote “Beginner’s Mind” • Play spontaneously • Envision what might be possible T = TRANSFORMING • Take persistent action • Energize self and others into action • Value and respect people • Act with integrity to keep agreements • Choose growth over fear E = EVALUATIVE • Make decisions based on values • Seek short- and long-term benefits • Look beyond “the numbers” • Seek consensus when possible • Anticipate consequences D = DAUNTLESS • Take courageous initiative • Comfortable with ambiguity • Take prudent risks • Act independently.92 T he Innovation Process Chart 29 — SPIRITED Self-AssessmentTM 50 Leaders of the art and discipline of values-centered innovation are: SPIRITED Qualities S = SELF-AWARE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open to new ways of doing things Actively develop own intuition Willing to feel emotions Seek insights about self and others Know own personal purpose and values See the big picture Commit wholeheartedly Like challenge and self-expression Link goals to personal values Promote highest benefit for everyone concerned Look for input from others Seek opposing points of view Assess situations systemically. if necessary • Maintain confidence in tough situations .

That. here are a few last words from Janiece — her wise advice to us all: It’s important for you to get in touch with your principles early and let them guide you. they will give you the strength of character you need for each task of the Creative Journey. Before moving on to some final questions for your innovation conversations. If your goal is to live your principles and make sure that you left life better than how you found it. in your own way. more innovative work . And as you support the SPIRITED qualities in your fellow colleagues as well — as they have the same potential — you will be doing even more to energize the innovation process from start to finish . as shown in Chart 30 . will enable you to do better. it is important for you to be yourself and integrate what you see in him or her that you like. . Chart 30 — SPIRITED Qualities and the Creative JourneyTM 51 Having an innovation conversation You can start now to use your work experience as the arena to strengthen each of these eight qualities in yourself . I add that while you may admire someone as your role model. in turn. then you will be able to ride through the ups and downs and accomplish many things.93 Chapter 1 0 As you develop these qualities of a SPIRITED leader of innovation.

94 T he Innovation Process Chapter 1 0 Now consider: 1. When have you taken the lead on your team to support your colleagues to be more innovative? 2. What’s a personal Creative Journey you could undertake to put those insights into practice? . What are the most important insights about yourself and your work that you have gained from this book? 4. What qualities did you rely on in yourself to do that? 3.

As I listened. As a model of the innovation process. I realized that the one assumption he had not listed was the mindset that the purpose of business is to maximize growth and shareholder return. bring innovations alive in the world . It’s hard to appreciate the impact of one raindrop until hundreds of thousands of drops start producing a flood . We don’t have the answers to that yet. If we keep encouraging aggressive. not just a technical one . But it is this awareness that we need to bring to our innovative work. isn’t that like bussing lemmings to a cliff so they jump off the cliff sooner?52 To the speaker’s credit. not processes. The keynote speaker was an eminent author and consultant on strategic innovation. throughout the global marketplace . We’re the ones who choose what to innovate and why . For example: we must shift from beating our competition any way we can to co-venturing with our competitors (as often happens now in the automobile industry) . Figuring all of this out is going to take a lot — a lot of good values and a lot of good innovation . uncertainties more engaging. As fellow passengers on Spaceship Earth. and on the last day he was detailing a number of assumptions that needed to be transformed for businesses to thrive in the 21st century . I’ve read in the Harvard Business Review that if the global economy is successful in raising the material standard of living of all of China and India to the average standard of living in Europe and North America. But I have faith in the goodness and intelligence of man to figure this out before it’s too late. . knowing that it could bankrupt the entire ecosystem and global economy at the same time. he paused and reflected a few moments. from your personal experiences as well. Near the end of the Q&A session. self-interested growth. it will take three planet Earths to provide the resources to sustain that system. An important moment of my own awareness of this larger picture came just after the turn of the millennium. And that’s a question of values . everything can have an impact . I first said. I am troubled by that possibility. We look for opportunities to exercise our innovative muscles . I rose and took the hand-microphone from a conference assistant . our innovations touch more and more lives of people around the world. when I was a speaker at a Human Resources conference in San Francisco . People. and solutions more innovative . Then I asked. we often don’t consider the collective impact we’re having . Challenges are more inviting.95 T he Innovation Process Epilogue Making a Difference i nnovation is a human enterprise. the Creative Journey taps into this human side of innovation . As you’ve seen throughout this book and. and then softly said. In the global age. we become more self-confident . even if we believe we’re only doing a small project for a small business in a small town . As we become more experienced and skilled in the art and discipline of innovation. Yet. we don’t innovate in isolation . no doubt.

every small effort to innovate will combine with the efforts of others. Rest assured that what you do makes a difference. sometimes well outside of your sight . .96 T he Innovation Process Epilo g ue I sincerely hope you can see in yourself a person who can play a part in values-centered innovation — no matter what job you have. As with raindrops. no matter how large or small your innovative projects might seem . when you practice the art and discipline of values-centered innovation. And that is your gift to us all.

. .97 T he Innovation Process Chart Guide Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart Chart 1 — Domains and Aims of Innovation . . . . . . 77 29 — SPIRITED Self-AssessmentTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 15 — Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) Model . . . . . . . . 13 4 — Values and Commitment . . . . 24 8 — Ulrich Normative Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6 — Technology Push/Demand Pull Model . . . . . . 28 14 — Organization Development Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 17 — Comparison of Miller Observations with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5 — Phase-Review-Process Model . . . . 27 13 — Knowledge Creation Model . . 11 2 — Sustainable Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 — Degrees of Change with Innovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Innovation Process 19 — Creative Journey Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 26 — Assessing the Knowledge . . 40 22 — Comparing the Creative Journey Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 28 — Criteria Checkerboard . . . 34 Other Innovation Process Models 18 — Comparison of Heroic Journey with the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Other Innovation Process Models 21 — Confidence Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 20 — Comparison of Creative Journey with . . . 59 27 — The Wheel Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 to Other Work Processes 23 — Personal Purpose Exercise . . . . . . 30 16 — Comparison of Marquis and Osborn-Parnes Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7 — Stage-Gate-Process Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 25 — Knowledge-Gap Analysis . . . . . 26 10 — Technology Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 24 — Right Scope for the Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 11 — Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Model . . . . . . . . . . . 27 12 — Values Analysis Model . . . . 25 9 — Network Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 30 — SPIRITED Qualities and the Creative Journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

National Academy Press (1986) Chart 8 — Ulrich Normative Process. Diffusion of Innovations.com/2/articles/landaward definitions . R . 2005 . Barry Posner: “Values Congruence and Differences between the Interplay of Personal and Organizational Value Systems . Kline and Gnathion Rosenberg. New York: Bantam Books.com/innovation_definition . The Resurgent Liberal . Duncan and J . p . Cooper/ E . 1994 Chart 1 — Domains and Aims of Innovation. Chicago (1990): American Marketing Association. WC Miller Robert Reich. Harlow. 2006 . P . Successful Industrial Innovations . Vintage Books.creativeadvantage . Kleinschmidt: New products — the key factors in success. Innovation Management and New Product Development . Meyers and D . Virpi Varjonen. R . D .fastcompany .G . 46 Steven J . G . Journal of Product Innovation Management 13 (1996): p . T . Chafin: Turning new product development into a continuous learning process. Innovations and Organizations. Holbeck. (1995): McGraw-Hill. Marquis. WC Miller Chart 3 — Degrees of Change with Innovations. 2007 http://www . J . 1973 S . (December 1993. Berrett-Koehler. Trott. Emotional Intelligence. The Free Press.html Margaret J . 92 Chart 6 — Technology Push/Demand Pull Model. 20 Chart 10 — Technology Model. WC Miller G .brecker . G . 3rd edition . England: Pearson Education Limited. Brecker Associates Inc: Pittsburgh PA .98 T he Innovation Process Endnotes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Attributions www . C . 1989 Chart 2 — Sustainable Innovation.”The Positive Sum Strategy.html Innovation Network webpage: http://www . 2006 . Leadership and the New Science. 1997 Chart 5 — Phase-Review-Process Model. p . 1968 Everett Rogers. Brecker Associates Inc: Pittsburgh PA . (1995) . “Management of Early Phases in Innovation Process”. p . Wheatley.com/quality .htm 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 .com/quality . Helsinki University of Technology. D .” Journal of Business Ethics . Virpi Varjonen. 2007 http://www . 15 Chart 9 — Network Model.com/resources/innovation/watson/110104 . 1983 Chart 4 — Values and Commitment. K . Hughes/ D . p . National Science Foundation.brecker . “An Overview of Innovation.thinksmart . New York et al .htm Chart 12 — Values Analysis Model. “Management of Early Phases in Innovation Process”. 18 Chart 7 — Stage-Gate-Process Model. D . Helsinki University of Technology. page 174) Goleman. Eppinger: Product Design and Development. p . Ulrich/ S .html www . 36 Chart 11 — Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Model. Zaltman.

WC Miller 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 . 1995 Chart 14 — Organization Development Model. WC Miller Today. WC MIller Horace Freeland Judson. the most well-known example of this approach is “Habitat for Humanity” Chart 22 — Comparing the Creative Journey Model to Other Work Processes. June 1999 “Grist for the mill” means using something that is of interest or value to form the basis of a story or analysis or to take something and use it to its advantage Chart 25 — Knowledge-Gap Analysis. WC Miller Chart 19 — Creative Journey Model. Gary N . 1980 www .un . The Search for Solutions. Ikujiro and Hirotaka Takeuchi. and Winston. Inc . WC Miller Chart 17 — Comparison of Miller Observations with Other Innovation Process Models. Organization Development Principles. N .org Chart 27 — The Wheel Exercise.org www . Press. The Knowledge-Creating Company . Source Book for Creative Problem-Solving. 2005 Chart 15 — Creative Problem-Solving (CPS) Model. 16. page 14. 1985. Rinehart.un . Berrett-Koehler.un . WC Miller Chart 18 — Comparison of Heroic Journey with the Innovation Process. McLean. Parnes. Marquis. Nonaka.99 Endnotes 23 Chart 13 — Knowledge Creation Model.org www . WC Miller Chart 26 — Assessing the Knowledge. WC Miller Chart 28 — The Criteria Checkboard.M: Bear & Company. New York: Oxford Univ . “The Anatomy of Successful Innovations”. Williamsville.un . p . Santa Fe. WC Miller Chart 20– Comparison of Creative Journey with Other Innovation Process Models.. WC Miller Brian Swimme . Processes. Holt. WC Miller Chart 24 — Right Scope for the Goal. Performance. WC Miller Chart 21 — Confidence Curve. Creative Problem-Solving Group. 1992 Donald G . Readings in the Management of Innovation. WC Miller Time magazine. 117 Chart 23 — Personal Purpose Exercise.. Sidney J .org www . Buffalo: Creative Foundation Press. 2003 . Ballinger 1988 Chart 16 — Comparison of Marquis and Osborn-Parnes Models. The Universe is a Green Dragon . NY 14221.

Lemmings can and do swim and may choose to cross a body of water in search of a new habitat . sometimes to exhaustion and death . They will stop until the urge to press on causes them to jump off the cliff and start swimming. On occasion.100 T he Innovation Process 49 From Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary . they will migrate in large groups when population density becomes too great . WC Miller Lemmings are small rodents usually found in or near the Artic . and particularly in the case of the Norway lemmings in Scandinavia.Esprit de corps: the common spirit existing in the members of a group and inspiring enthusiasm. (http://en . Driven by strong biological urges. and strong regard for the honour of the group Chart 29 — Chart 29 — SPIRITED Self-Assessment. devotion. WC Miller Chart 30 — SPIRITED Qualities and the Creative JourneyTM. Lemmings are also often pushed into the sea as more and more lemmings arrive at the shore . large migrating groups will reach a cliff overlooking the ocean .wikipedia .org/wiki/Lemming) 50 51 52 .

Motorola. DuPont. and interviewed on PBS radio and CNN-TV . Pillsbury. England. he has co-founded Innovation Styles Inc . His audio program Creativity: The Eight Masters Keys was the first audio-tape training program ever endorsed by Fortune magazine . Two of his four books — The Creative Edge (1987) and Flash of Brilliance (1999) — have been rated among the top 30 business books of the year in the USA by Executive Book Summaries . Ciba Geigy. in 2003 . China. Kraft Foods. William has been a Guest Faculty member at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Pizza Hut. Charles Schwab. .101 About the Author William C. Samsung. Holland. Nike. Most recently. Searle Pharmaceuticals. News & World Report. Compaq. As a co-founder of the Global Dharma Center. His clients over the past 20 years have included corporations such as: AT&T. Singapore.. (www . and the United States . Shell Canada. Chevron. The Art of Spiritual Leadership in Business. IBM. and he has consulted and delivered keynotes in countries such as: India. he has expanded his focus to include the emerging practice of spiritual-based leadership . he has been acclaimed by Leadership Excellence (www . His new audio program. and 3M .S. Japan.com) as among the top 30 leadership consultants worldwide . Northern Telecom. Canada. Taco Bell.com) which offers web-based resources to organizational leaders and consultants who wish to boost innovation in all facets of work . Hewlett Packard. Exxon Chemical. Marion Merrell Dow. Since 2003. France.eep . Czechoslovakia. William has also published over two dozen articles. William Miller has been an internationallyrecognized expert on values-centered corporate innovation — both as head of the Innovation Management program at SRI International (mid-1980s) and as president of the Global Creativity Corporation (since 1987) . been quoted in Fortune magazine and the U. Disney Institute. Levi Strauss. Silicon Graphics. was released by Sounds True Inc . Dow Elanco. Miller f or over 20 years. Eli Lilly. Procter & Gamble. Philips Electronics. Monsanto.innovationstyles .

NW. Suite 1202 • Washington.org .1828 L Street.ieeeusa.C. D. 20036 +1 202 785 0017 • www.

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