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Math Booklet of Formulas

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GREEK ALPHABET Capital Small Name Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Chi Psi Omega cL dL L daL hL kL cc Weight mg cg dg g dag hg kg pond inch ounce

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centiliter deciliter liter dekaliter hectoliter kiloliter cubic centimeter SUBSETS OF REAL NUMBERS Natural Numbers = { ,2,3,4,...} 1 Whole Numbers Integers MASS / WEIGHT 1 kg = 2.2 lb 1 lb = 16 oz

= {0,1,2,3,4,...}

= {..., 3, 2, 1,0,1, 2,3, 4,...}


Rational

milligram centigram decigram gram dekagram hectogram kilogram lb oz

a = { | a and b are int egers} b with a 0 Irrational = { x | x in not rational }


PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS For all real numbers a, b and c we can write

a+b = b+a
The addition is commutative

ABBREVIATIONS Length In.

ab = ba
The multiplication is commutative

(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
The addition is associative

ft

foot RATES OF CONVERSION BETWEEN UNITS

(a b)c = a(b c)
The multiplication is associative

yd mile mm cm

yard LENGTH mi 1 mi = 5280 ft millimeter 1 mi = 1.609 km centimeter 1 mile = 1760 yd 1 in. = 2.54 cm 1 yd = 0.9144 m 1 yd = 3 ft

a(b + c) = ab + ac
Distributive property of multiplication over addition

dm m

decimeter meter

dam hm km Volume

decameter 1 m = 3.281 ft hectometer VOLUME / CAPACITY kilometer 1 mile squared = 640 acres 1 cubic foot = 7.481 gal

ORDER OF OPERATIONS First evaluate within the grouping symbols such as parentheses 1. Exponential expressions 2. Multiplication and division 3. Addition and subtraction

ABSOLUTE VALUE

pt gal mL

pint 1 gal = 3.785 L gallon 1 mL = 1cc milliliter

x for x 0 | x |= x for x < 0

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EXPANDING - FACTORING FORMULAS

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BINOMIAL THEOREM

( x + y ) = x + 2 xy + y
2 2

2 2

ARITHMETIC AND GEOMATRIC SEQUENCES The n th term of an arithmetic sequence with first term is given by

( x y ) = x 2 xy + y ( x + y ) 3 = x 3 + 3 x 2 y + 3 xy 2 + y 3 ( x y ) 3 = x 3 3 x 2 y + 3 xy 2 y 3 ( x y )( x + y ) = x 2 y 2
SLOPE OF A LINE The slope m of a line through the points

a1

and common difference d

( x + y ) n = x n + n C1 x n 1 y +
n

C 2 x n 2 y 2 + K+ n C r x n r y r

a n = a1 + (n 1)d
The sum

+K+ yn
Where n C r

Sn

of the first n terms of an

arithmetic sequence is given by

Sn =
first term by

n ( a1 + a n ) 2
x0 = 1

n! r!(n r )!

The n th term of a geometric sequence with

EXPONENTS AND RADICALS

( x1 , y1 )

and

( x2 , y2 ) is x1 x2

a1

and common ratio r is given

given by

m=

y 2 y1 x2 x1

a n = a1 r n 1
when The sum

x r =

1 1 = ( )r r x x

Sn

of the first n terms of a

geometric sequence is given by

The slope of a horizontal line is equal to zero. The slope of a vertical line is undefined.

Sn =
sequence with

a1 (1 r n ) (1 r)

The sum S of an infinite geometric

1 = xr r x x r x s = x r+s ( x r ) s = x rs

MIDPOINT AND DISTANCE FORMULAS The coordinates of the midpoint M of segment PQ where points P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 ,

| r |< 1 is given by a1 S= (1 r )

x xr ( )r = r y y xr = y r s s y ( xy) r = x r y r x y ( ) r = ( ) r y x x
n
1 n

y 2 ) are given by

M(

x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 , ) 2 2

The distance d(PQ) between points P and Q is given by d(PQ) =

EXPONENTAILS AND LOGARITHMS

y = log b ( x)

if and only if b

=x

=n x
= (m x ) n
n n

( x 2 x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2

QUADRATIC FORMULA The solutions to the quadratic equation

ax + bx + c = 0 ( a 0 ) are given
by

log b ( xy) = log b ( x) + log b ( y ) x log b ( ) = log b ( x) log b ( y ) y log b x r = r log b ( x)


b log b ( x ) = x log b (b x ) = x

xy = n x n y
n m

x
n

x = y

x y

If solutions.
2

b b 4ac 2a 2 b 4ac > 0 , then there are two real x=

log b (1) = 0 log b (b) = 1 log a ( x) log b ( x) = log a (b)

INEQUALITIES If If If If

If b 4ac = 0 , then there is one real solutions (or a repeated solution). If b 4ac < 0 , then there are two complex solutions.
2

a>b a>b a>b a>b

b > c then a > c , then a + c > b + c and c > 0 , then ac > bc and c < 0 , then ac < bc
and

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Math Booklet of Formulas

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ABSOLUTE VALUE INEQUALITIES

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RECTANGULAR EQUATIONS FOR CONIC SECTIONS Circle of center

| x | b If | x | b x b
If Function form

if and only if if and only if

b x b x b or

GROWTH AND DECAY EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS Assuming that P is positive

f ( x) = Pe kx
growth function.

is increasing if

k > 0,

( h, k ) and radius r

f ( x) = Pe kx is decreasing if k < 0 ,
LINEAR FUNCTION

f of the f ( x) = ax + b with a 0 is called

decay function.

( x h) 2 + ( y k ) 2 = r 2
Ellipse of center

a linear function because its graph is a line that has a slope equal to a and intercept of the line. Domain: Range:

( h, k )

b is the y

( ,+ )

COMPOUND INTEREST FORMULA If r is the rate of interest and the principal (the amount you begin with) P is compounded n times per year then after t years the total amount A is given by

( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 + =1 a2 b2
Parabola of vertex parallel to y axis

( ,+ )

r A(t ) = P (1 + ) nt n

( h, k )

- Axis

QUADRATIC FUNCTION Function

( x h) 2 = 4 p ( y k )
with

of the form

f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c

a 0 is

FRACTIONS AND RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Parabola of vertex parallel to x axis

( h, k )

- Axis

called a quadratic function. Its graph is a parabola that has a vertex. The coordinates given by

( h, k ) of the vertex are

a c a+c + = b b b a c a c = b b b a c ad + cb + = b d bd a c ac = b d bd a c a d ad = = b d b c bc ac a = bc b

( y k ) 2 = 4 p ( x h)
Hyperbola of center parallel to x axis

( h, k )

- Axis

h=

b 2a

and

k = f (h)

if a > 0 , the graph opens upward and the vertex is a minimum point. The range of f is given by the interval

( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 =1 a2 b2
Hyperbola of center parallel to y axis

[ k ,+ )

( h, k )

- Axis

if a < 0 , the graph opens downward and the vertex is a maximum point. The range of f is given by the interval Domain of given by Function

( , k ]

( y k ) 2 ( x h) 2 =1 a2 b2

( ,+ )

may also be written in vertex

form as follows

f ( x ) = a ( x h) 2 + k

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