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Program of course
1. Topology of airplanes – Top level
Names and location of airplanes parts/structure Barrels / Typical section names Airbus fuselages Development –Design and Stress Certification Sustaining What is basically our work at GT?: Report smallest Reserve Factor (RF) Applied loads – ‘Know your structure by knowing your loads’ Allowed loads RF = Allowed load/ Applied load Types of failure modes with explanations, pictures and references (handbooks, authority requirements, Issy etc.) Skin – geometry, loads, relevant failure modes, material, stress state Frames – geometry, loads, relevant failure modes, material, stress state Stringers – geometry, loads, relevant failure modes, material, stress state
Engineering life cycle
NOTE:This is a rough setup of the course. More chapters will be added and content can be modified!
Detailed description of fuselage engineering process
Topology of airplanes – Top level
Names and location of airplanes parts/structure:
There are many aspects of design of aircraft structure. Generally, the main components of an aircraft are : Fuselage Empennage Wings The next figure shows a detailed structural design of a commercial aircraft.
Topology of airplanes – Top level
Structural Design of commercial aircraft
5 .Topology of airplanes – Top level Typical section name Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Movements of an airplane Yawing: Rotating around its vertical axis (Z.axis) Rolling: Rotating around its longitudinal axis (X-axis) Pitching: Rotating around its transverse axis (Y-axis) Date: 04-02-2009 p. 6 .
the empennage consists of the entire tail assembly.Empennage Structurally. the up-and-down motion of the aircraft's nose. The fixed parts are the vertical and horizontal stabilizer The elevator is a movable airfoil that controls changes in pitch. 7 . The rudder is a movable airfoil that is used to turn the aircraft in combination with the ailerons Date: 04-02-2009 p. Its main purpose is to give stability to the aircraft.
8 . Typical arrangement of the transport tail Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Wings Date: 04-02-2009 p. 9 .
10 . It conventionally takes form of: Spars Ribs Covering skin Stringers Date: 04-02-2009 p.
weapons. increase buckling resistance). Provide anchorage points for landing gear. Flanges . Stringers Further increase skin buckling resistance. 11 . Take some of the bending load Ribs Maintain aerodynamic shape. etc. Spars Webs .resist compressive loads caused by wing bending.e. Skin Resist shear torsion loads ( box shapes of combined skin/web) React axial bending loads Date: 04-02-2009 p.resist shear loads and stabilise skin (i.
bulkheads. Date: 04-02-2009 p. frames. stringers and longerons . 12 .Barrels / Typical section names Airbus fuselages The fuselage is a stiffened shell commonly referred to as semimonocoque construction The different sections of an aircraft fuselage are : Forward section Mid section Aft section Afterbody In order to support the skin. it’s necessary to provide stiffening members.
13 .Typical section names Airbus fuselages Date: 04-02-2009 p.
So. instead. they are built C for frame as shells that are later assembled.Fuselage structures: shells Fuselages are too big to be built in one piece. (“cadre”) P for stringer Date: 09-02-2005 p. 14 .
Longerons . 15 .Bulkheads External skin Date: 04-02-2009 p. The fuselage as a beam contains: Longitudinal elements : .Stringers Transverse elements : .Frames .
To achieve the maximum possible safety margin .Engineering life cycle Development-Design The modern aeronautical engineering of aircraft design has been an evolutionary process accelerated in recent times from the demanding requirements for safety and the pressures of competitive economics in structural design.To achieve a reasonable lifetime of the aircraft structure Date: 04-02-2009 p. The primary objective of the structural designer is : . 16 .
Development testing of a transport airplane Date: 04-02-2009 p. 17 .
Engineering life cycle Phases of airframe structural design: Specification of function and design criteria Determination of basic external applied loads Calculation of internal element loads Determination of allowable element strengths and margins of safety Experimental demonstration or substantiation test programs Date: 04-02-2009 p. 18 .
19 .Airplane design. development and certification Design Specification Design Criteria Basic Loads Flight Test Data Airplane Design Laboratory Development Test Data Certification Test Program Approved type Certificate Date: 04-02-2009 p.
20 .Engineering life cycle The dotted arrows indicate feed-back where experimental data is utilized to modify the design as necessary The laboratory development test is an important feature of any new vehicle program: To develop design data on materials and shapes To substantiate any new theory or structural configuration The certification test program will demonstrate success without degenerating into more and expensive development work Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Finite Element Modeling (FEM) It is the most versatile tool in structural analysis NASTRAN is one of the earliest FEM programs developed by NASA in the mid-1960s to handle the analysis of missiles and aircraft structures NASTRAN is one of the most used program in the aeronautic field Date: 04-02-2009 p. 21 .Engineering life cycle Planning and structural weight A good design is the result of proper planning and scheduling Every aircraft engineer in a company is concerned about weight.
Engineering life cycle Entire airframe finite element model Date: 04-02-2009 p. 22 .
torsion and cabin pressure The fuselage skin carries the shear from the applied external transverse and torsional forces and cabin pressure The skin thickness required on a fuselage is thinner than on wing External pressure loads are much lower on the fuselage than on the wing Date: 04-02-2009 p. material. relevant failure modes.Detailed description of fuselage engineering process Skin – geometry. loads. 23 . shear. stress state: The largest single item of the fuselage structure is the skin and its stiffeners It is the most critical structure since it carries all of the primary loads due to fuselage bending.
Skin – most important load carrying part of the fuselage. Carries the cabin pressure load (Dp). aircraft mass) Work like membranes (plane stress) sx sy txy Date: 04-02-2009 p.g. 24 . Carried most of the bending loads (e.
Frames – geometry. material. 25 . stress state: It serves to maintain the shape of the fuselage and to reduce the column length of the stringers to prevent general instability of the structure Frames are generally of light construction Frame load are generally small and often tend to balance each other Fuselage frames are equivalent in function to wing rib The design of fuselage frames may be influenced by loads resulting from equipment mounted in the fuselage Date: 04-02-2009 p. relevant failure modes. loads.
shear. 26 . Frames – provide stability to the skin in circumferential direction Work like beams (carry axial. distribute the shear load Date: 04-02-2009 p. and bending loads) F F F F deformed shape skin alone can not carry shear load frames have bending stiffness.
27 .Typical frame designs (1) Normal frame with clip Stringer Frame inner flange Frame web Skin Frame outer flange Clip Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Typical frame designs (2) Integral frame (skin connection is integrated in frame profile) Frame inner flange Stringer Frame web Frame outer flange Skin Cleat Date: 04-02-2009 p. 28 .
29 Date: 04-02-2009 .Typical frame designs (3) Inner flange Frame Clip Stringer (z-shape) Continuous under frame Skin Outer flange Web Stringer (z-shape) Continuous under frame Skin Z-Frame + clip and skin Integral Z-frame and skin Z-Section can be replaced by C-section profiles p.
30 . material. stress state: Further increase skin buckling resistance. Stringers – geometry. relevant failure modes. loads. Provide stiffness in axial direction sy in the skin forces in stringers in axial direction Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Date: 04-02-2009 p. 31 .
Fuselage structures : Loads To understand a structure. 32 . This is applied loads! The applied loads lead to internal reaction loads. Date: 04-02-2009 p. you must: Understand the loads Make abstraction / find analogies (e. to give equilibrium.g. “fuselage looks like a beam”) Visualize the deformation: deformations lead to stresses stresses lead to reaction forces reaction forces lead to equilibrium Important term: Load case.
33 .Applied fuselage cabin pressure Dp Fuselage weight Applied fuselage bending moment Reactions in the fuselage Hoop stress Compression load Longitudinal tension stress Shear Mixture of: • Hoop stress • Shear Horizontal tail plane download • Longitudinal tension Compression load Wing upload and torsion moment Typical dominating load case for a fuselage structure: symmetric down bending + internal pressure Dp Typical dominating internal loads in fuselage skin Date: 04-02-2009 p.
34 . The Reserve Factor is defined as : Allowed Loads RF Applied Loads Date: 04-02-2009 p.Reserve Factor (RF) A measure of strength frequently used in Europe is the Reserve Factor (RF) with the allowed loads and applied loads expressed in the same units .
5. This low design factor is why aerospace parts and materials are subject to more stringent quality control The usually applied safety factor is 1. The field of aerospace engineering uses generally lower design factors because the costs associated with structural weight are high.0 and for landing gear structures it is 1. but for pressurized fuselage it is 2. 35 .25 Date: 04-02-2009 p.
At ultimate load (usually the limit load multiplied with the safety factor). no failure is allowed but permanent deformation is allowed. 36 . the structure may not fail neither have permanent deformation of the structure. Date: 04-02-2009 p. Before ultimate load. the aircraft structure is allowed to fail. Limit Loads are the maximum loads expected in service At limit load.
37 . A350) Date: 04-02-2009 p.Materials (i.e.
to Fokker. e.g. HSB 53211.).Explanation of Failure Mode Types Manual) (SAMOD User’s B : Failure due to excessive bearing stress BF : Initial buckling of skin panel at fatigue load cases (FAT. BL : Lateral Stability (Buckling) of frame BN : Tension Blunt Notch in GLARE skins BU : Buckling of structural part. see: SAMOD Theoretical Manual Date: 04-02-2009 p. Activated with SAMOD option sasel Ah: initial buckling of skin at limit load of flight load cases (Information only). Check for sufficient support from a free flange (20%-rule) Dn : Geometric check for middle flange stiffness according DIN4114 for different load types n FK : Compressive strength analysis acc.. 38 . skin or web CR : Crippling acc.
to HSB Manual WM : Allowable compressive forces for web modulations as described in PROPER Theoretical Manual Date: 04-02-2009 p. 39 . see: SAMOD Theoretical Manual DT : Damage tolerance GB : Global Buckling FC : Failure due to diagonal folds on the skin panel (forced crippling). to MBB-UT (Erdmann). see: SAMOD Theoretical Manual D3 : Compressive strength analysis of skin acc. to modified HSB method (Meier). see: SAMOD Theoretical Manual FT : Fatigue failure HS : Allowable stress values acc. D1 : Compressive strength analysis of skin acc.
40 . JE : Buckling according to Johnson/Euler.clip/shear web) RL : Riveting longitudinal (analysis of longitudinal joints) RS : Riveting skin (analysis of skin riveting on the frame) SH : Shear Date: 04-02-2009 p. see: SAMOD Theoretical Manual JM : Web buckling analysis LS : Lateral Stability analysis of cross-beams MT : Allowable stress values based on material values R : Rivet failure RC : Riveting circumferential (analysis of circumferential joints) RF : Riveting frame (analysis of frame riveting .
41 . UD : Allowable user-defined stress values Explanation of Location 1 (LOC1) WI : Windenburg. Geometric check for sufficient support from free flange 1-8 : Rivet row for reserve factors for riveted joints Date: 04-02-2009 p.
42 .Failure due to shear load Skin panel failure due to shear : Failure in the upper critical range differ from those in the lower critical range Excessive buckling concentrations occur in panel zones with large deformation caused by diagonal tension This causes a reduction of the skin panel load capacity Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Forced crippling of stringer Local failure of the compressively loaded stiffener elements (e.g. Date: 04-02-2009 p. 43 . stringers ) takes places caused by deformation in the diagonal tension field.
Stringer column buckling failure : The column buckling is due to compressive stress in the stiffener caused by the effect of diagonal tension in the skin Date: 04-02-2009 p. 44 .
45 .Crippling of stringer sections Crippling failure modes : Date: 04-02-2009 p.
Compressive strength of stiffened shells Instability modes : Date: 04-02-2009 p. 46 .
Date: 04-02-2009 p. 47 .
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