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如何找对应句子

现在很多考生都知道做阅读题要到原文中间去找对应的句子。可是究竟该如何找,怎样找?很多
朋友还是在凭感觉。我说过看得懂文章做不对题目的最主要原因就在于考生没有形成自己的解题思
维,而是在凭感觉,凭读完短文后的印象在解题!为了培养出真正属于自己,能被自己驾御自如的
解题思维,我把自己的一些经验在这里提出来,大家共勉:
首先是根据出题顺序和行文顺序的一致性原则回到原文的大致位置,一般能定位到具体段落 ,如
第 N 段。然后再根据题干关键词和(或)选项中的关键词找出在文中的对应句子,比如第 N 段第 N
句。这里的关键词定位具体来说有 3 种情况:
1,只要根据题干关键词或信息就可以在原文找到对应句子;
2,只要根据每个选项的关键词或信息在原文中找到与之一一对应的句子;
3,既要根据题干关键词或者信息定位,又要根据每个选项信息才能找到对应句子。
以上三种情况要注意区分对待,详细的在考研狂人的内部资料里的真题详解中有列举。
什么是“关键词”呢?这个概念是为了便于大家找到对应句子而创设的,是前人所创,我对它的
理解就是“关键词就是题干或者选项中的某个词或词组,它具有和原文中某个词或词组意思一致、
相近或相反的特征,是可以帮助你回到原文找到命题人隐藏答案的词或词组。”。(起的是一个向导
的作用,所以我觉得应该叫“向导词”更合适些!)这个关键词的寻找非常有价值,是你能否找对
答案的关键所在!(这里的关键词包括:大写字母、表数字的词,表示时间、地点、人物的词等,有
些题干和选项中的关键词只能在原文中找到该关键词的同义词或者反义词)。
下面以 2004 年 TEXT 1 为例具体介绍找对应句子的方法:
  Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on
the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site's "personal search agent". It's an
interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them
when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual
property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. "I struck
gold," says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for
a company.
    With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be timeconsuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although
a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example,
may work against you: "Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility." says one expert.
   For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept — what you think you want to do — then
broaden it. "None of these programs do that," says another expert. "There's no career counseling implicit in
all of this." Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a
particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. "I would not
rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me," says the author of a
job-searching guide.
    Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSite's agent sends out
messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs —
those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will have to
visit the site again to find them — and they do. "On the day after we send our messages, we see a sharp
increase in our traffic," says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for CareerSite.
   Even those who aren't hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them to keep a
close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves

when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed, Redmon maintains his agent at CareerBuilder.
"You always keep your eyes open," he says. Working with a personal search agent means having another
set of eyes looking out for you.
41. How did Redmon find his job?(题干+选项)
  [A] By searching openings in a job database.
  [B] By posting a matching position in a database.
  [C] By using a special service of a database.
  [D] By E-mailing his resume to a database.
42. Which of the following can be a disadvantage of search agents?(题干)
  [A] Lack of counseling.
  [B] Limited number of visits.
  [C] Lower efficiency.
  [D] Fewer successful matches.
45. Which of the following is true according to the text?(选项)
  [A] Personal search agents are indispensable to job-hunters.
  [B] Some sites keep E-mailing job seekers to trace their demands.
  [C] Personal search agents are also helpful to those already employed.
  [D] Some agents stop sending information to people once they are employed.
找对应句子方法之一:既要根据题干关键词或者信息定位,又要根据每个选项信息才能找到对应
句子。
41,“Redmon 是怎么找到工作的”。
(1) 行文顺序定位法则
本题是文章后的第一题,所以应该在文章靠前的段落寻找对应句子。可以大胆的定位在前一二段。
(2) 关键词定位法则
此题同时需要“题干和选项”的关键词定位。
题干的关键词是“find job”,与之对应的可以在第一段句首找到它的同义词“Hunting for a job”。
这样以来我们就知道应该在 “Hunting for a job”的前后找对应句子了。
再看各选项的对应句子,选项 A 的关键词是“ job database” ,根据它可以对应的句子是 He
searched it(指代 job database) with no success……由此可知 Redmon 并没有通过 a job database 取得
成功(找到工作),所以错在“相互矛盾”;选项 B 的关键词是“ posting a matching position” ,对
应的句子是 when a matching position is posted in the database,可知 matching position 是被“别人”寄
到资料库来的,不是 Redmon ,所以 B 错在“张冠李戴”了;选项 D 的关键词是“ E-mailing his
resume”对应的句子是:who(Redmon) E-mailed his resume to the employer ……,可知 Redmon 把
简历寄给了雇主,不是资料库( a database),所以 D 也错在“张冠李戴”;那么选项 C 为什么就
是正确的呢?
我们先来分析一下第一段句子间的关系:第一段共 6 句话,其中第三句是解释第二句的 "personal
search agent"。第二句提到他被这个网址上的“个人搜索代理”所吸引 .第三句是解释说明 "personal
search agent"的特征的。文章中对应的说明 Redmon 找到工作的句子是第五句 Three weeks later, he got
his first notification of an opening。那他又是怎么找到工作的呢?在这里就是一个很明显的例子。我们
把这些“插入语句”(第三句,也可以把第四句)删掉不看,整个句群就变成了: He searched it
with no success but was attracted by the site's "personal search agent". Three weeks later, he got his first
notification of an opening.这样答案就非常明了了:他是通过"personal search agent"找到工作的,而选
项 C 用 a special service of a database 替代了原文中的"personal search agent",所以是正确答案!
找对应句子方法之二:只要根据题干关键词或信息就可以在原文找到对应句子;

42,“search agents 的不足之处”。
(1)行文顺序定位法则
这是第二题,第一题对应的句子在第一段了,那么第二题就应该从第二段开始找了。
(2) 关键词定位法则
此题只需要题干关键词就能找到对应句子了。
题干的关键词是“ disadvantage” ,原文与之对应的句子是: career experts see drawbacks 。题干中的
disadvantage 替换了原文中的 drawbacks。具有“同义词”特征。既然“career experts see drawbacks”,
问题出现了,答案应该就在附近!文章接着在第二段的末句写了“one expert”的观点,第三段的首
句又补充了“one expert”的观点,但都没有明确指出“不足”。接着又写到“another expert”的观点:
There's no career counseling implicit in all of this. 这就是在回答前面的题干对应句的问题。同样我们把
干扰内容删掉后就变成 But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks.
"None of these programs do that," says another expert. "There's no career counseling implicit in all of
this."这样的话,答案就一目了然了!同样从后面的转折词引导的句子 Instead, the best strategy 中的
best 和前面的转折词 Instead 可以看出它前面的句子说的应该就是“不足之处”,从而论证出上述推
理的正确。)
{当然你也可以问其他选项为什么错了。问题对应的内容是从第二段开始的,首先说了 career-related
sites 的不足之处 time-consuming and inefficient,所以选项[C] Lower efficiency 就不是“search agents”
的不足之处了,“张冠李戴”;,其中 BD 选项在文章里没有谈及,属于“无中生有”!
最通俗的解答方法是:第二段中间提到了 career experts see drawbacks,就是说搜索代理并不如人意,
但后面并没有具体说什么不足,直到第三段的开始才说,但是第三段第一句和第二段最后一句的意
思差不多,阅读时可以略看,第三段的第二句才谈到了要点: There's no career counseling implicit in
all of this.所以选项[A] Lack of counseling 是正确答案。}
找对应句子方法之三:只要根据每个选项的关键词或信息在原文中找到与之一一对应的句子;
45,“根据原文哪个选项是正确的?”
(1)行文顺序定位法则
最后一题一般都对应文章最后的一两段文字。(实际解答过程中可以得知 44 题已经对应到了第四
段,那么这一题应该就是在第五段找答案了。要注意的是文章最后这种事实细节题,有时需要从全
文的角度找对应句子。如果真的需要从全文范围来找句子的话,用主旨题的解答方法还有效些!)
(2)关键词定位法则
此题只需要选项关键词就能找到对应句子了。
通过对原文的理解,选项 A、B 是明显的“无中生有”。选项 C 关键词是“those already employed”,
与第五段的首句中的“who aren't hunting for jobs” 是同义词组,所以选项 C 对应的句子就是这一句:
Even those who aren't hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. 其 中 发 生 了 字 词 替 换 ,
helpful= worthwhile。所以是正确的。选项 D 的关键词是“information”,由此可知对应句子是 Some
use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation
to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise. ,原文第二句说“有些人利用搜索代理密切观察对于本
行业的需求或搜集有关加薪的信息以备增薪谈判时胸有成竹”,可见搜索代理还是和在职的人员有
联系的,而选项 D 的意思与之相矛盾了;所以错。从严格的角度说,到底搜索代理有没有发信息给
在职的原文并没有明确指出,所以也可以说 D 错在了“无中生有”。
需要补充一句的就是:题干和选项中的关键词并不是唯一的,只要你能根据某个词或者词组从原
文中找到对应句子,找对对应句子,那么该词或词组就是关键词!千万不要被关键词的“关键”二
字所困惑,其实叫“向导词”更合理些!
免费考研网 www.freekaoyan.com

阅读的最高境界
“精读 你必须掌 握的,略 读无关紧 要的,不 管莫名其 妙的”
一 到 底该怎 样阅读?
(1) 完全没有必要试图去弄懂文章的每一个词,一方面时间不允许,另一方面就算把文章全部
翻译成中文也未必就选得对答案。更何况短文后那五道题的答案一般也就对应 5-10 句话,所以真正












(2) 尽量跟着作者的思路走,不要局限于单词和句子层面,要能够顺着思路,把握文章脉络,
千万不要只见树木不见森林,只有使自己的视野保持一定的高度,才不至于被命题人牵着鼻子走,
才能清楚的找到命题人的思路,挖掘他们设置的陷阱。说简单点就是抓住文章中心,抓住段落中心。















3
( ) 遇到不懂的句子或句群怎么办?暂时跳过,不管它。也许这些句子本身就无关紧要,也许现
在不懂,但读完全文后或到做题目时就自然明白了。千万不要回过头去反复琢磨。
(4)最难也是最没有被以往辅导老师注意的一步:文章的整体结构,段落之间的关系,句子与句
子之间的关系,句群内部的关系。比如并列结构、总分结构、倒装结构、递进关系、同位语结构,而往
往这些都是命题人最喜欢的命题处和藏答案处。比如:2006-37 题的“对应句子”就是总分结构,


1

如何有 效提高阅 读速度:






文章的首末段一般就是文章的中心,这里的每句话要争取完全弄懂。弄懂中心了,后面的内容也就
好理解。再就是每段话的中心句,一般在段首或者段尾,也要争取完全弄懂。这些中心是文章的骨架,
掌握好这些内容,其他的内容都是围绕中心展开的,就可以略看,这时遇到不很懂的地方也要学会













2







阅读时要一整句话一整句话的理解,在没有出现句号等表示一句话已经完整的符号前,不要停下阅
读而去理解句子的意思。因为一句完整的句子才能正确表达原文的意思,你如果只看几个词组或者
句 子 中 的 部 分 成 分 就 去 理 解 原 文 很 容 易 断 章 取 义 , 造 成 错 误 的 理 解 。
同 时 要 注 意 分 号 , 破 折 号 , 它 们 常 常 是 命 题 的 好 地 方 。
3






考研阅读中最常见的考查点就是转折词。往往问题的答案就在转折词后面的句子里,所以在阅读时
一 定 要 注 意 “ 出 现 转 折 词 ” 的 地 方 , 并 做 好 标 记 。
4













考研阅读一般是议论题材,论点一般在原文首段就以精练的语言表达出来了的,字数少,要精读,
是必须把握的,而论据是分散在原文各段,多呈事实细节性描叙出现在原文,这些内容可以略看。
5






阅读时可能有些句子或者词组你仔细看了也不是很明白具体的意思,这时候你千万别把再花时间反
复推敲了。可以暂且放一边,不去管它了,也许这些句子并不重要,也许在不需要具体理解它的意











6









把说明和论证同一问题的句子列为一个句群,并把它们用记号(括号)圈点起来,一并理解。这样
有助于排除命题干扰,同时也可减少阅读的量。
以上内容看起来很复杂,刚开始做起来也肯定费神、费时,没关系,干什么事都需要一个过程,熟
练后就提高了阅读速度,这样一来,你不仅节省了时间,提高了效率,而且会提高阅读答题的命中
率 ! 下 面 就 以 2004 年 的 第 一 篇 文 章 来 示 范 一 下 :
2004 Text 1
   Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database
on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site's "personal search agent".It's an
interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them
when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual
property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. "I struck
gold," says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for
a
company.
With
thousands
of
career-related
sites
on
the
Internet,
finding
promising
openings
can
be time  
consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although
a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example,
may work against you: "Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility." says one expert.
   For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept — what you think you want to do — then
broaden it. "None of these programs do that," says another expert. "There's no career counseling implicit in
all of this." Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a
particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. "I would not
rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me," says the author of a
job-searching
guide.
Some
sites
design
their
agents
to
tempt
job
hunters
to
return.
When
CareerSite's
agent
sends
out
  
messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs —
those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will have to
visit the site again to find them — and they do. "On the day after we send our messages, we see a sharp
increase in our traffic," says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for CareerSite.
Even those who aren't hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them to keep a
close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves
when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed, Redmon maintains his agent at CareerBuilder.
"You always keep your eyes open," he says. Working with a personal search agent means having another
set
of
eyes
looking
out
for
you.
41.
How
did
Redmon
find
his
job?
[A]
By
searching
openings
in
a
job
database.
 
 
[B]
By
posting
a
matching
position
in
a
database.
 
 
[C]
By
using
a
special
service
of
a
database.
 
 
[D]
By
E-mailing
his
resume
to
a
database.
 
 
42.
Which
of
the
following
can
be
a
disadvantage
of
search
agents?
[A]
Lack
of
counseling.
 
 
[B]
Limited
number
of
visits.
 
 

[C]
Lower
efficiency.
 
 
[D]
Fewer
successful
matches.
 
 
43. The expression "tip service" (line 3, paragraph 3) most probably means ________.
[A]
advisory
 
 
[B]
compensation
 
 
[C]
interaction
 
 
[D]
reminder
 
 
44. Why does CareerSite's agent offer each job hunter only three job options?
[A]
To
focus
on
better
job
matches.
 
 
[B]
To
attract
more
returning
visits.
 
 
[C]
To
reserve
space
for
more
messages.
 
 
[D]
To
increase
the
rate
of
success.
 
 
45.
Which
of
the
following
is
true
according
to
the
text?
[A]
Personal
search
agents
are
indispensable
to
job-hunters.
 
 
[B]
Some
sites
keep
E-mailing
job
seekers
to
trace
their
demands.
   
    [C] Personal search agents are also helpful to those already employed.
    [D] Some agents stop sending information to people once they are employed.
下面,我们就来一段一段的读这篇文章吧。在开始读之前,有个问题要先说明一下。阅读题的短文
无论什么题材都有自己的中心,文章中心一般在首段。同样每一段也有自己的中心,有自己的中心
句,往往理解一段文字的大意,只要找到该中心句并仔细阅读和理解就可以啦。中心句一般在段首 ,
也有在段尾的。抓住中心,包括文章的中心和段落的中心,对正确理解全文和解答问题非常重要!
第一段共六句话,中 心 句 在第二句“ He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site's
"personal search agent””这里有一个句群 ,由第二、三、四、五句组成,即: He searched it ……of an
opening。其中第三、四、五句和第二句说的是同一个问题"personal search agent”,而且是补充和说明的。
这样的句群只要掌握其主要句子的意思就可以啦,阅读时其他的补充说明的句子可以不看,这样整
个这一段就变成了:Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder,
a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site's "personal
search agent"."I struck gold," says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position
as in-house counsel for a company.这样以来,整个这段文字的理解也简洁明了了许多,更神奇的是把
画线部分的句子连起来理解的话,后面的 41 题的问题很容易就可以得出正确答案了。(详细下回谈





第二段中有个转 折 词 “ But” , 前部分讲了搜索代理的优点“ reduce the need for repeated visits to
the databases” ,但是紧接着“ But”…… career experts see drawbacks. 在理解上,作者强调的是 But 后
面的部分。接着,作者用两个专家的话“ says one expert” , “ says another expert” 解释补充了
drawbacks。(这里的第二段和第三段在逻辑上应该是一个整体,不应该分开成两段的。)同样这里
也有个句群: But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. ……says
one expert.……says another expert. "There's no career counseling implicit in all of this.。把这里当做一个
句 群 理 解 话 , 42
题 的 答 案 就 迎 刃 而 解 了 。
第三段的第三句又是一个转折词“Instead”,这里的转折是为了和前面的 drawbacks 相呼应的。这
句话里有个标点符号“ 分号”, 从分号的意义来看,其前后部分的意思应该是一致的,故可知 the
best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database 和
when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again 意思相近,有了这样的认识后,

43

tip service= reminder ! ! !
题 的 解 答 就 相 对 容 易 多 了 ,
第四段的中心 句 就是首句“Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return” ,稍微理解
一下后面的几句话,不难发现这后面几句都是说明补充这个中心句的,也就是一个句群 。理解了句
群的中心句,句群的意思也基本上就理解了。理解了句群的意思,至于其他句子具体是什么意思,
根本就无所谓。反正整个句群就是在说中心句的内容“一些网络是如何让代理诱惑寻职者成为回头
客 的 ” , 有 了 这 样 的 认 识 , 44 题 的 答 案 你 还 会 选 错 吗 ?
第五段和第四段一样,中 心 句 很好找,就是第一句“ Even those who aren't hunting for jobs may
find search agents worthwhile.” 同样稍微理解一下,就可以知道后面几句都是围绕这个中心句来补充
说明的。也就是一个句群 。同样也只要理解句群的中心句就可以啦。句群的那几个句子都在传递着中
心句所表达信息:“即使非求职的人士也会发现搜索代理值得一览”。这样的话,45 题你还会选错


这样一篇文章还不用动脑去考虑如何解答,问题的答案就一个个往外直冒了!通过上面的阅读过
程简介,相信你对“精读你必 须掌握的 ,略读无 关紧要的 ,不管莫 名其妙的 ”有了更深认识和
体会!同时做对这篇文章的五个问题,需要理解的也就 5 个句群,真正需要精读的也就 5 句话!(就
是我用不同颜色标记的那些句子,其中每种颜色的句子对应一个问题的答案)。这就是我的反陷阱法
之反陷阱阅读。反陷阱法 解题技巧(详见我博客内具体内容 )正是在此基础上发展和完善的!为便于
大 家 更 好 的 理 解 和 掌 握 此 阅 读 法 , 特 把 短 文 的 全 文 翻 译 一 并 贴 上 :





去年年末,甘特·雷德曼律师在找工作时偶然在网上发现职业资料库“职业建筑师”。他找来找去并没
有找到什么工作,但被这个网址上的“个人搜索代理”所吸引。它的特点是互动,允许访问者自定求职
要求诸如工作地点、职位和薪水,当资料库里出现与个人要求相匹配的工作岗位时它就会通过电子邮件
通知求职者。雷德曼选择关键词“法律”、“知识产权”和“华盛顿特区”。过了三个星期,雷德曼接到
第一份有职位空缺的通知。他说:“我掘到了金子。”他把个人简历用电子邮件寄给了雇主,接着就得到












  因特网上与求职相关的网址数以千计,寻找可能的职业空缺费时效率又低。有了搜索代理,就没那
么多必要反复访问资料库了。不过,虽然有一个搜索代理成功地为雷德曼找到了工作,就业专家却还是
认为搜索代理并不如人意。比如缩小你的要求条件就有可能对你不利。一位专家说:“你每回答一次问题










  寻找任何职业,你都要从一个狭窄的概念开始,即你想干什么工作,然后再加以扩展。有一位专家
说:“任何这些程序中都没有那种扩展功能。”“所有这一切都不包含职业咨询。”相反,最佳的策略是
把代理当作一种提示服务来及时跟踪某一资料库里的工作岗位信息。当你收到电子邮件时,你就把它当
作一种提醒再去查一查资料库。一位职业搜索指南的作者说:“我不会依赖代理在数据库增加的每一项
内 容 里 去 逐 一 寻 找 可 能 令 我 感 兴 趣 的 东 西 。 ”
  一些网络谋划让代理诱惑寻职者成为回头客。比如,当求职网代理向注册服务的用户发送信息时,
它只提供三个它认为最可能匹配的岗位。可能,在资料库里还有更多的匹配项;求职者于是只好再次访
问这个网址来寻找一求职者的确会一而再、再而三地来上网寻找。求职网销售副总裁塞思·皮茨说:“我们
发 送 这 些 信 息 的 当 天 访 问 量 就 急 剧 增 长 。 ”
  即使非求职的人士也会发现搜索代理值得一览。有些人利用搜索代理密切观察对于本行业的需求或
搜集有关加薪的信息以备增薪谈判时胸有成竹。雷德曼虽然已愉快就职,但他与“职业建筑师”网代理
的联系依旧保持着。他说:“你要永远睁大眼睛。”使用个人搜索代理等于多一双眼睛替你在观察。