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Second Edition

WALTER D. PILKEY

A Wiley-lnterscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York / Chichester / Weinheim / Brisbane / Singapore / Toronto

1/76—dc20 96-27514 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 . Walter D. Copyright © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons. NY 10158-0012. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data: Pilkey. Includes index. Inc. 2. paper) 1. Structural analysis (Engineering) I. ISBN 0-471-53849-3 (cloth : alk.6. TA417. 605 Third Avenue. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department. Published simultaneously in Canada. cm.P43 1997 624. Stress concentration. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Peterson's stress concentration factors / Walter D.This text is printed on acid-free paper.—2nd ed. New York.. All rights reserved. Title. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. p. Pilkey.

To Mother A Pillar of Stability .

INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS .

1 2.1 2.1 2.3.5 2.5 2.6.6 2.14 2.1 2.30 2.7.6 2.35 2.5 2.6.36 2.1 2.9 2.1 2.45 2.31 2.2 2.1 81 103 116 126 89 94 110 108 112 2.2 Load Case Tension Page Number of Chart 82 88 82 91 109 117 117 118 119 2.4 2.7.1 2.8 2.29 2.3.28 2.3.23 2.CHAPTER 2 Form of Stress Raiser Shape of Stress Raiser U-Shaped Hyperbolic Elliptical Flat bottom Single notch in semi-infinite thin element Bending (in-plane) Bending (out-of-plane) Hyperbolic V-shaped Flat bottom Elliptical Bending (out-of-plane) Multiple notches in semi-infinite thin element Tension Bending (in-plane) Opposite notches in infinite thin element Bending (out-of-plane) Shear Tension Hyperbolic Hyperbolic Hyperbolic Hyperbolic U-Shaped Flat bottom Single notch in finite width thin element Bending (in-plane) U-Shaped V-Shaped Various shaped notches in impact test Semi-Elliptical Semicircular Section and Equation Number Chart Number 2.7.3.6.32 113 .1 2.36 2.7 2.6.38 2.1 2.3.7.1 2.11 2.9.6.6.6 2.3.8 2.37 2.7.3.

16 2.39 2.53 2.6.53 2.24 2.7.3 2.17 97 .2 2.6 2.1 2.3.4.7 2.15 2.13 Flat bottom Bending (out-of-plane) Tension Arbitrary shaped Semicircular 2.6.25 2.33 2.8 Opposite multiple notches in finite width thin element Uniaxial tension Depressions in opposite sides of a thin element Spherical Cylindrical groove 2.26 2.27 2.5 2.6.2 2.3.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Tension Shape of Stress Raiser Semicircular Section and Equation Number 2.5 2.6 2.6.3.14 2. (2.32 2.2 2.12 2.7.3.1) U-Shaped Opposite single notches in finite width thin element Semicircular V-Shaped Flat bottom Bending (in-plane) Semicircular U-Shaped 2.4 2.10 2.3.7 2.38 2.3.3 2.3 2.7 Multiple notches on one side of finite width thin element Bending (in-plane) Bending (out-of-plane) Tension Semi-Elliptical Semicircular 2.3 Eq.8 Chart Number Page Number of Chart 94 95 96 113 119 84 85 86 134 83 87 90 104 105 106 107 134 114 120 92 93 2.

40 2.3 2.4 2.2 Depression in the surface of a semi-infinite body Tension Bending Torsion Groove in infinite medium Tension Circumferential groove in shaft of circular cross section U-Shaped Hyperbolic Hyperbolic Hyperbolic 2.6.4.21 2.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Uniaxial tension Shape of Stress Raiser Hemispherical Hyperboloid Section and Equation Number Chart Number Page Number of Chart 2.8.5.1 2.49 2.44 2.22 2.9.48 2.51 2.8.52 99 100 101 134 102 115 122 123 124 134 115 125 115 128 129 130 131 134 132 133 Flat bottom Bending U-Shaped 2.7 2.34 2.3 2.2 2.8.47 2.53 2.1 2.5 .50 2.18 2.19 2.7 2.53 2.2 2.4.9.46 98 121 127 2.9.3 V-Shaped Flat bottom 2.34 2.9.42 2.53 2.5.41 2.6.34 2.5.1 2.43 2.2 Flat bottom Tension and bending Torsion Flat bottom U-Shaped 2.20 2.

3.8 3.10 3.17 3.13 3.2 3.3 3.14 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4.7 3.3.1 3.11 3.4 3.1 Eq.5 3.3.3.5.1 3.5 3.3.1) 3.7 3.5.4.CHAPTER 3 Form of Stress Raiser Shape of Stress Raiser Single radius Tapered Shoulder fillets in thin element Bending Single radius Elliptical Tapered Torsion Tension Tapered Single radius Trapezoidal protuberance Bending Tension Bending Shoulder fillet in bar of circular cross section Torsion Single radius Single radius Single radius Single radius Compound radius Tension Torsion Shoulder fillet in bar of circular cross section with axial hole Single radius Single radius Section and Equation Number Chart Number 3.4 151 154 160 156 164 165 166 167 172 174 157 168 169 Shoulder fillets in thin element 3.3. (3.3 3.5.1 Load Case Tension Page Number of Chart 150 3.4.2 3.3.3.9 159 163 3.4 3.2 3.4.15 Internal pressure Stepped pressure vessel Stepped ring 3.16 3.12 3.3.3 3.6 158 .3 3.

6 Eqs.1 Eqs.68).6).5.5.4.5.CHAPTER 4 Form of Stress Raiser Shape of Stress Raiser Circular Section and Equation Number Chart Number Page Number of Chart Load Case Uniaxial tension 4.4.82 333 337 340 323 324 345 358 Rectangular Various shapes Equilateral triangular Elliptical Inclined Bending (out-of-plane) Circular Elliptical 4.41) and (4.5.6 4.6.6 4. (4.9 4.65 4.62a 333 340 346 4.65 4.60 319 351 331 4.5.5.70).69).50 319 4.8) 4.106) and (4. (4.88 4.75 4. (4. 104) 4.3 4.17) and (4.7.7.2 4.69 4.4 Eqs. and other shapes Circular 4.9 4. (4.12 Elliptical Hole in infinite thin element Elliptical hole with Inclusion Circular hole with opposite semicircular lobes Rectangular Equilateral triangular Inclined Internal pressure Circular.3.4.6 4.3 Eqs. (4.5 Eqs.1 Eqs.3 4.1 4.1 4.5.5.4 4. 18) 4.90 4.68) 4.2 Eqs.7.63 4.6. (4.57) and (4.71) 4. elliptical. (4. 107) 4. 4. (4.70 Biaxial stress (in-plane) 4.85 361 Shear Circular or Elliptical Rectangular 4.5.3 4.5.16.3.54 4.3.4.58) 4. (4. and (4. (4.55 4.97 364 366 374 Twist Circular .50 4.2 4.3.7).62 4.9.103) and (4. (4.5.

(4. 12) 4.2 Hole in finite width thin element 4. (4.2 Eqs.61 4.81 357 4.7. (4.1.110) 4.14) 4.3.1 4.113).71).3 Page Number of Chart 256 258 320 331 4.3 Eq.66 4.59 330 Internal pressure Bending (in-plane) Various shapes Circular 4.98).117).103) 4.73) 4.4. (4.3.3.5 4. and (4. 116). (4.99). (4.3 4. and (4.4. (4. (4. (4.99 375 376 . 4.7. pipe.80 355 356 Elliptical Ovaloids.3.4. (4. or bar Internal pressure Bending Circular Circular 4.3. 114).6.5 259 342 260 363 Hole in cylindrical shell.4 Eq.3 4.5.7 Eqs. (4.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Uniaxial tension Shape of Stress Raiser Circular Eccentrically located circular Elliptical Circular hole with opposite semicircular lobes Slot with semicircular or semielliptical end Section and Equation Number Chart Number 4.6.4.4.4 4.8 Eqs.108).52 4. (4. 4.6.5.101) 4.83 4.79) 4.1 4.1 4.102) 4. (4. (4.1 Eq.87 Torsion Circular 4.51 4.3.5 4. (4. (4.4. 109).5.6.1.6.79 4.118).3.2 359 257 321 4.6. and (4.9) 4.1 Eq.98 4. 100). 11 9) 4.16 4.4.16 4. square Bending (out-of-plane) Uniaxial tension Hole in semi-infinite thin element Circular Circular Elliptical Internal pressure Tension Various shapes Circular 4.1 Eq. (4.3.8 Eqs. and (4.2 Eqs.78) and (4.7.

45 4.4.76 299.35 4.38. 300 325 352 4.310 371 309 312 309 310.37.34 4.14 4.4 4. 4.3.3.14 4.39 4. 4.3.40 4. 305.32. 4.33 4.3.12 Chart Number Page Number of Chart 4.3.3.57 301 360 362 370 326 4.372 313 314 373 4. (4.84 4. 306 304. 305.7.3.86 4.14 4.56 4.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Uniaxial tension Shape of Stress Raiser Circular Elliptical Elliptical holes with inclusions Section and Equation Number 4.41 4.4 Circular 4.7 4. 306.12 4.12 Row of holes in infinite thin element Biaxial stresses (in-plane) Bending (out-of-plane) Shear Uniaxial tension Row of holes in finite width thin element Uniaxial tension Double row of holes in infinite thin element Uniaxial tension Triangular pattern of holes in infinite thin element Biaxial stresses (in-plane) Shear Uniaxial tension Square pattern of holes in infinite thin element Biaxial stresses (in-plane) Shear Uniaxial tension Shear Diamond pattern of holes in infinite thin element Circular Circular Elliptical Circular Elliptical 4.7. 4. 4.36 302 303 Circular Circular Circular Circular Circular Circular Circular Circular 4.46) and (4.43 4.5 4.40. 311 4.3.42 304.5.47) 4.94 4.96 ' 371.93 4.4 4. 4.5 4.37.44 4.7.6. 4.4.95 4.13 Eqs.5 4.39.41.14 4.14 4.94.4.5 .38.7. 4.6.

9 4.5 4. 277.26) Reinforced hole in finite width thin element Internal pressure Hole in panel Uniaxial tension Circular 4.43).4.5 4.4 Circular 4.3.11 Eqs.3.5 4.3.5.11 Eqs.22. 275.7. 298 285 286 295 Two holes in infinite thin element Biaxial stresses (in-plane) Circular 4.3.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Internal pressure Shape of Stress Raiser Circular or elliptical Section and Equation Number Chart Number 4. 297. 4.3.21.18.29.8 4.4.7.6 Page Number of Chart 261 4.58 4.8 4.28 Shear Circular 4.4. 4.12 263 266 267 268 269 281 4.16.64 4.45) 4.17.64a Reinforced hole in semiinfinite thin element Uniaxial tension Circular 4.6 4.44).7.4. 286. 4.19 270.4 Hole in wall of thin spherical shell Biaxial stress (in-plane) Reinforced hole in infinite thin element Circular 4. 279 280 327 338 365 367 262 338 Elliptical Square Shear Elliptical Square Uniaxial tension Circular Square 4.14.89 4.26. (4. 4.3.42).31 282.13.7 4. 294.1 4. 284.91 4. and (4.10 4.11 4. 4.23. 293.7.10 4. (4. 4.25.3.9 4. (4. 276.2 4.3.3.45) 4. (4.44).5.4. and (4.20 4. 4.3.6 4.10 4. 283.25 4.24 4. 4. 4.7 Eq.30. 296. 4. 278. (4.3.92 368 . 4.27.15.

71 347 Cavity in infinite body 4.5.11 4.2 Chart Number Page Number of Chart 315 4.16 Table 4.72 348 Cavities in infinite panel and cylinder 4.2 4.3.79) 4.15 Table 4.11 Eqs.1 4.3.46 Ring of holes in circular thin element Internal pressure Circular 4.3.84) 4.5.16 Table 4.5.48 317 Circular 4.83) and (4.74 350 Row of cavities in infinite element .67 343 Pin joint with closely fitting pin Tension Circular 4.11 4. (4.73 349 Tension Elliptical cavity 4. (4.68 344 Pinned or riveted joint with multiple holes Tension Circular cavity of elliptical cross section Elliptical cavity of circular cross section Uniaxial tension or biaxial stresses Spherical cavity 4. (4.78).77).16 Table 4.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Radial in-plane stresses Shape of Stress Raiser Circular Section and Equation Number 4.5.8 4.5. and (4.49 318 Circular 4.47 316 Internal pressure Hole in circular thin element Internal pressure Circular pattern of holes in circular thin element Tension Circular 4.3.2 4.11 4.8 Eqs.5.

53 Crack in thin tension element Hydraulic pressure Tunnel Circular 4.4.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Uniaxial tension Shape of Stress Raiser Narrow crack Section and Equation Number Chart Number Page Number of Chart 322 4.64) 4. (4. and (4.63).77 4.62).2 Eqs.78 353 354 .5. (4. (4.13 Eqs.97) 4.

5) Short beam Bending 5.4 5.CHAPTER 5 Form of Stress Raiser Shape of Stress Raiser Semicircular end Sled runner Keyseat Torsion Combined bending and torsion Torsion Semicircular end Semicircular end Section and Equation Number Chart Number 5.2 5. (5.2.2.8 5.8) 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.7 Eqs.1 Load Case Bending Page Number of Chart 408 5.4 411 Splined shaft Bending 5.1 5.2 5.1 and 5.9 412 413 414 415 416 Gear tooth Bending Shoulder fillets 5.5 Tables 5.10 417 T-head .3 5. (5.7) and (5.4) 5.7 5.4 Eqs.3 409 410 5.6 5. (5.2.4 Eq.2.1 5.2.3) and (5.2 Press-fitted member Tension Bolt and nut Tension and bending Shoulder fillets 5.

(5.10.26) 5.23) 5. (5.11 Eq.8 5.11 5.13 Eqs.17) (5.16 5.18 5.3 5.14 425 5.17 427 428 Bending 5.13 Lug joint Bending Curced bar Uniform bar Nonuniform: crane hook Tension or compression Helical spring Round or square wire Rectangular wire Torsional Round or rectangular wire 5.27) and (5.19 429 430 Crankshaft Tension and bending 5.21 431 432 U-shaped member Torsion 5.18) 5.12 5. (5.10.28) 5.8 Chart Number Page Number of Chart 422 424 423 424 5.10.12 5.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Tension Shape of Stress Raiser Square ended Round ended Section and Equation Number 5.9 Eq.14 5. (5.15 426 5.1 Eqs.11) 5. (5.2 Eq.22 433 Angle or box sections .13 5.20 5.

27 438 5.Form of Stress Raiser Load Case Rotating centrifugal inertial force Shape of Stress Raiser Central hole Noncentral hole Section and Equation Number Chart Number Page Number of Chart 434 435 5. (5.18 5.34) 5. (5. (5.28 440 439 Cylindrical pressure vessel .37) and (5. (5.29 5.25 436 5.17 Eqs.16 Eq.35) 5.26 437 5.39) 5.38) 5.19 Eq.15 5.24 Disk Diametrically opposite internal concentrated loads Ring Diametrically opposite external concentrated loads Internal pressure Thick cylinder Hole in cylinder wall Internal pressure Torispherical ends No hole in cylinder wall 5.23 5.15 5.16 Eq.

is intended to be used to assist in the design process. and achieving lighter and more efficient apparatus. "N the way t' fix it. said the Deacon. This can lead to conserving materials. Moreover there is considerable material on how to perform computer analyses of stress concentrations and how to design to reduce stress concentration. One of the objectives of application of stress concentration factors is to achieve better balanced designs1 of structures and machines. and nothing first. Stress Concentration for the past half century. with the computational formulation for design of systems with potential stress concentration problems. Balanced design is delightfully phrased in the poem. cost reduction. " 't 's mighty plain That the weakes' place mus' stan' the strain.PREFACE Rudolph Earl Peterson (1901-1982) has been Mr. Is only jest T' make that place uz strong the rest" After "one hundred years to the day" the shay failed "all at once. as well as most of the charts from the previous editions. "The Deacon's Masterpiece." . The present book contains some recently developed stress concentration factors. uz I maintain. Chapter 6. Stress concentration charts not retained are identified in the text so that interested readers can refer to the earlier editions. or the Wonderful One Hoss Shay" by Oliver Wendell Holmes (1858): "Fur". Much of the material from these books has been retained intact for the present edition. Example calculations on the use of the stress concentration charts have been included in this edition. Only after preparing this edition of this book has it become evident how much effort he put into his two previous books: Stress Concentration Design Factors (1953) and Stress Concentration Factors (1974). These were carefully crafted treatises.

The development of new experimental stress concentration curves has slowed to a trickle. Schramm was a principal contributor to Chapter 6 on computational analysis and design. experience indicates that with so much material. it is almost impossible to completely eliminate errors. An errata list will be set up that will be linked to the author's home page. Weize Kang. Chinese. Drs. A program to calculate stress concentration factors has been developed to accompany this book. Even though the manuscript has been checked and rechecked. who skillfully prepared the text and figures.mech. PILKEY . Wu and Kang were instrumental throughout in developing new material and. and Uwe Schramm. all of which were in the Chinese language. WALTER D. Many polynomial representations of the stress concentration factors were prepared by Debbie Pilkey. Several special figures were drawn by Charles Pilkey. Special thanks are due to Brett Matthews and Wei Wei Ding. Often structural analysis is performed computationally in which the use of stress concentration factors is avoided. and Russian stress concentration books. The address for the home page is: http://auto-safety. in securing new stress concentration charts from Japanese. Dr. in particular. Major contributions to this revised book were made by Huiyan Wu. since a high-stress region is simply part of the computer analysis.The universal availability of general purpose structural analysis computer software has revolutionized the field of stress concentrations. No longer are there numerous photoelastic stress concentration studies being performed. Graphical keys to the stress concentration charts are provided to assist the reader in locating a desired chart.edu If you find errors.virginia. respectively. Please see the author's home page for information on the availability of the computer program. please inform the author.

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