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Johnson Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 3, No.4 (1976),407-424.
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Gabor! and V. I. Gravettian." AclaA A cSciHung 8 (1957) 3-117. and Neolithic occupations are present. A date of 11. Statistical tests substantiated this observation and. Gabori. an area extending from Zagreb to Belgrade. the Paleolithic levels are well preserved. and has been most intensively sampled.000 B. I). Djuro Basler.Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site in Northern Bosnia. "Etudes archeologiques et stratigraphiques dans les stations de loess paleolithiques de Hongrie.' Because of similarities of location and characteristics of the site to the loess sites of Hungary. if anything. Inspection ofh orizon tal plots of artifact distribution within the main excavation-block suggested the existence of a concentration of artifacts which is interpreted as the former location of a habitation structure. Introduction The existence of Paleolithic sites in northern Bosnia (Yugoslavia) is a relatively recent discovery. Until then. Since the start of the survey. Stratified in loess-like deposits.. was known of Paleolithic habitats along the plains and hillsides of the Sava River Valley. M. Traces of M ousterian. Johnson The University of Kansas at Lawrence This is a study of late Gravettian technology and the spatial distribution of an artifact assemblage from Kadar. what is more. "Kadar. The Gravettian level appears extensive. has been tentatively proposed. Little. 2.C. "Saznanja i Problemi u Paleolitu Bosne i Hercegovine. which are found on terraces and hilltops along the Danube Valley and the edge of Lake Balaton. This level was occupied during mild climatic conditions of a terminal Pleistocene interstadial when a birch forest dominated the landscape. These open-air sites have yielded industries ranging from the Mousterian to the late Upper Paleolithic." A rchPregled 7 (1965) 9-10. I Kadar is the only camp-site known to be associated with a late Gravettian phase. more than 50 sites have been located along the southern flank of the Sava Valley and along its main tributaries. 3. (2) the processes of blank selection which tended to produce a large component (cutting-processing tools) and a small component (hunting tools).' Kadar is assumed to be part of a Central European cultural tradition which extended throughout the Pannonian Basin (FIG." Ljubljana ArcltVestnik 13-14(1962-63) 37-44. Odzak. which forms the southern section of the Pannonian Basin. Gornji Svilaj. sediments of aeolian origin which accumulated during the WUrm Glacial. silt-sized. indicate a differential distribution of artifact categories within and without the structure. a result of extensive surveys conducted by Djuro Basler under the sponsorship of the state Museum of Sarajevo between 1960 and 1975. the Bosna and Ukrina Rivers. The Paleolithic levels are found stratified within beds of yellowish. . Yugoslavia Anta Montet-White Alfred E. an open site in northern Bosnia. (3) the technomorphological characteristics of the most common blade tools in order to assess elements of variability within the assemblage . Djuro Basler. Paleolithic research in Yugoslavia had focused on the caves of Slovenia and Croatia and the large shelters of Montenegro. The analysis of the lithic industry was focused on specific points: ( 1) the technological and morphological characteristics of the cores and blanks in order to define the Gravettian technology in a part of Central Europe. Yugoslavia.
GS-42683). sponsored by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. Djuro Basler. The 1974 excavation project. Brano Belie. (1) We hoped to obtain data for a reconstruction of the environment at the time of the Paleolithic occupation and to provide a more specific dating of the occupation level. by a field party from the University of Kansas and the state Museum of Bosnia-Herzegovina in Sarajevo. Shading indicates hills and mountainous area. Director of the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest. BP = Budapest. by W. The cooperation of Dr. Map showing the location of Kadar in relation to other Gravettian sites of the Pannonian Basin. A dirt road leaving Permission to study comparative collections was kindly granted by F. 3 km. Director of the Museum. from Odzak on the southern bank of the Sava at about an equal distance between Zagreb and Beograd. B =Beograd. . the environmental study had to rely on geological observations and on the results of pollen analysis. The study of the lithic industry was prepared by Monter-White and the analysis of spatial distributions was by Johnson." The Site Kadar is on top of a bluff overlooking a meander of the Sava River. 4. Angelli. Two University of Kansas graduate students participated in the project: Lawrence Bradley for the eight-week period and Dorothy Ann Hirsh for the first three weeks. Co-Director. principal investigator. Curator of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Museum of Natural History in Vienna. In the absence of preserved faunal material. in turn. V = Vienna. Professor at the University of Kansas. joined the party during the first half of the field season and conducted the testing of Localities II and III in the Fall of 1974. could be interpreted as activity areas. Basler's assistant. The staff of the project included Anta Montet-White. for the Willendorf collection. Curator of the Doboj archaeological Museum. and that of all members of the Museum staff is gratefully acknowledged. and Alfred E. Johnson. The other principal aims were (2) to collect a sample of artifacts sufficiently large to begin a typological study of the Late Eastern Gravettian in the Pannonian Basin. The site is 22 km.408 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet-White and Johnson Figure I. served as foreman. was conducted during an eight-week period from June 5 to August 8. Fulep. The locality is part of the village of Gornji Svilaj in the Odzak district at the extreme north of the state of Bosnia-Herzegovina. west of the confluence of the Bosna. The excavation project had the following objectives. Seljka Bjelcie. Curator of Paleolithic Archaeology at the Museum in Sarajevo. 1974. for the Sagvar and Arka Collection. Dating is based on comparisons with Hungarian sites. Jovo Ljiljak. (3) to record and analyze the spatial distribution of artifacts within the site in an effort to recognize patterns which.
as workmen removed 3-5 em. the sounding may have been located at the edge of a concentration. The dissected terrain surrounding the site is comprised of hilltops. It is within these deposits that traces of prehistoric occupations are found. Material recovered from all excavation units in Locality I included chipped stone artifacts. In most units. Kadar is on one of the highest hills in the area. gulleys and valleys which form a mosaic of microenvironmental zones with a wide range of natural resources. test-pits along the expected limits of the site. photographs were taken and all artifacts were measured in place to the nearest centimeter. Basler notes that recent erosion and cultivation at other localities have partly or entirely destroyed the archaeological levels. and Xl. and (3) to look for other concentrations along the hilltop. plowing. the limits remain undetermined. The first goal was accomplished by opening a series of small 2 m. about 100 m. 3). A few scattered Mousterian artifacts were encountered at a depth of 80-90 ern. yielded sherds and lithic debris attributed to the Neolithic. balks were left between each unit to maintain stratigraphic control. x 2 m. a few tree roots. and XIV yielded no more than a few chips thereby marking the outer limits of the concentration to the north and south. consisting of Units I. Locality III is farther to the west. the archaeological level was encountered just below the plowzone.w and 15 m. have reached into the Pleistocene deposits. 1976 409 The 1974 Excavations Most of the work during the 1974 field season was concentrated in the area of artifact concentration already recognized as a result of earlier testing by Basler. sandstone abraders. for example. lumps of ochre and a few badly decomposed bone fragments (FIG. however. At the beginning of the field season. to the west of Locality I. of dirt. x 2 m. to the west. at the edge of the bluff. Locality I extends 30 m. it offered a favorable location to groups of hunter-gatherers. One 2 m. Units XII and XIII contained abundant debris. were opened in Units III and VI to expose the natural stratigraphy of the Pleistocene deposits. the excavation plan was: (I) to determine the limits of the large concentration recognized by Basler (Locality I). IV. To the east of the excavation area. According to the tests conducted to-date.. Fine sediments accumulated along the slopes and hill tops during the Wurrn. Profiles of excavation walls were drawn and photographed. IX. The area of excavation was large enough to observe concentrations of artifacts while maintaining stratigraphic control. A long vertical column was taken to provide a better definition of the stratigraphic units. 3. When a strip was completed. x 4 m. The archaeological level occurs at depths of 50-60 cm. m. pieces of limestone. Such was not the case at Kadar where natural or man-made disturbances were at a minimum. chips included. designated Locality IV. however. has not been tested. however. on the bluff slope. Within each unit. bluff slopes. in Unit VI. They were then removed and placed in numbered bags. overlooking the Sava Valley and the adjoining hills. x 2 m. X. at a depth of 40-45 em.. The main excavation block. Geology and Stratigraphy The sands and gravel of a Pliocene terrace form the substratum of the Kadar bluff and that of other hills along the Sava River Valley. excavations were stopped when sterile soil was reached below the Gravettian level. Vol. Excavation units were 4 x 4 m. Basler's previous excavations uncovered another 25 percent. No trace of an earlier occupation was found at this locality. BeW:. crosses the village of Svilaj and passes by the site before turning west toward the town of Bosanski Brod. Test-pits VIII. A horizontal series of samples scattered at regular intervals was intended to test possible differences within and around the area of artifact concentration. (2) to complete a large block excavation to obtain a maximum amount of information concerning the nature of the concentration. The area. II. contains a concentration of tools and debitage also attributed to the Gravettian. excavation proceeded in horizontal strips I m. Testing other areas of the site was completed in the fall of 1974 and spring of 1975 by Basler with the assistance of B. The scattered artifacts recovered in Unit III clearly establish the eastern border of the locality. 2). In a 2 m. Two series of soil samples were taken. surface collections indicate the presence of another cluster of artifacts. attributed to the Gravettian. but there was insufficient time to expand the excavations of the Mousterian level. These hills were formed as fluvial erosion dissected the Pliocene terrace during the Pleistocene (FIG. . did not affect the archaeological levels. Locality V. sounding indicated the presence of a thin archaeological level. N-S. x 2 m. VI. test-pits indicate the approximate placement and probable limits of the concentration. and the site extends at least 2-4 m. Two deeper trenches. leaving all artifacts in place. s. farther to the west. washing down artifacts and silts along the slopes. represents a surface area of 100 sq. about 23 percent of the concentration extent.Journal of Field Archaeologyf Odzak toward the north. V. Locality II. Two 2 m. that is to say. test-pit.
4).. Yu. Alexander Gigov.25 Dat. A shallow deposit of greyish. thick. The reticulate patterns observed at the bottom of the sequence (Zone 5) were associated with a full glacial episode.nottl . Figure 2.. thick. Map of the 1974 excavations at Locality I. ) ---Duro 8aller. Interrupted lines outline Basler's 1965-66excavations. . Zone 4 is 4050 em. 1974 AEJ I . 26N/38E .'nt em. They occurred underneath the Mousterian level at Visoko-Brdo. thick. The same stratigraphic sequence was recorded in all excavation units. Zone 2.t. long wedges filled with a fine greyish sediment. Small iron and manganese concretions are found in small quantities within Zone 3 which is about 20 cm. powdery sediments referred to as "dust. Rare at the top. in some places.t965-1966 excavation. Zone 5.:':~~:k:ft~::·· Kadar.natlon ISWcornor . The deposition of the yellow loam is attributed to aeolian action and the greyish intrusions to post-depositional dehydration. Zone 1.t. Yellowish-brown clay with oblique wedges forming. "Palinoloska Analiza i Paleolitekog Nalazista Visoko Brdo Kod Ljupljanice. Irregular bands of manganese concretions are found within this zone..kt dt". 5. Plowzone. it is as follows (FIG. o . Zone 3. one of the earliest sites recorded to-date in Northern Bosnia.Gridcarntr dt". 2 ! S ! 4 I COfttour inttrvof..." Zone 2 is 10-15 cm. Yellowish crumbly loam with intrusions of grey material. horizontal reticulate patterns. therefore that the reticulate patterns were formed during the early Wurm..m p. Compact yellow clay with networks of 10-20 ern.410 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet." Bull MusllistNatBelgrade 28 (1973) 91-102.' It is likely. These formations are consistently found below any level bearing traces of human occupation. Zone 4.White and Johnson -1 ~. Severna Bosna. large manganese and iron concretions become more abundant at the bottom of Zone 4. o • IIlTIM Frutt tr.
. As a consequence. Sedges (Carex}. B 3 4 c 5 The greyish dust which caps the yellow silts (Zone 2) is tentatively attributed to the Tardi-Glacial. lichens and fungi. beech (Fagus). Also present and in decreasing order of frequency were Hornbeam (Carpinus). in Zone 2. In each case. 1976 411 38 N I- ___ 1 1 3rE I I 2 Figure 3. and 14. Sample 9 was taken at a depth of 40 cm. pine (Pinus). Pollen Analysis A series of 10 samples was taken from the north wall of Excavation-Unit VI. 3. starting below the plowzone. Sample 14. moss (Sagine//a). M. So far. Gigov! had previously noted that in the Pleistocene "silts" of northern Bosnia. Gramineae. 2) loam and clay attributed to the Wurm. Attributed to a late Upper Paleolithic phase (Late Gravettian) and is extensively distributed. and hydrophitic grass constitute the herbaceous strata of the pollen spectrum. at intervals of 5 em. they clearly indicate the presence of a Mousterian assemblage. alder (Alnus). North wall profile of excavation-unit VI indicating the placement of archaeological horizons Band C within the geological sequence (geological zones are numbered I through 5). confirming the existence of a Mousterian Horizon at the site. below the ground surface at the top of the yellow silt and Sample 10 was taken immediately underneath. attempts to locate concentrations of Mousterian artifacts have not been successful. wet grounds or swamps were probably extensive for at least part of the year. B) Gravettian levels. Vertes. 7. I)Terrace deposits attributed to the Pliocene terrace. (in note 5). A majority of the plants represented in the pollen spectrum are adapted to a temperate-cool and humid 8. Gigov. Samples 9 and 10. Similar deposits were recorded at open-air sites and at cave sites in Northern Hungary. Three archaeological horizons were identified during the course of the 1974excavations and survey. Analysis of the pollen samples was done by Alexander Gigov. the presence of pollen in Horizon C tends to corroborate the scanty archaeological evidence. Cyperaceae. Mousterian level «Horizon C). It lies not on the hilltop but on a lower terrace cut into the bluff slope. and ash (Fraxinus]. A post-Pleistocene component attributed to an early Neolithic phase. West-East section of the Kadar hill showing the location of the archaeological levels in relationship to the Sava River Valley. to 10 ern. Betula) found in an assemblage dominated by tundra grass.Journal of Field Archaeologyf 38N 31 E Vol. The formation of Zones 3 and 4 was apparently during stages of the Main and Late WUrm. No pollen was recovered from samples taken above. Horizon A was identified in one area at the western edge of the site. Excavations and test-pits have located at least three large concentrations of artifacts. Kretzoi and L. 10. One large side-scraper and a Levelois flake have been recovered. C) Mousterian artifacts. Arboreal pollen constitutes more than 50 percent of the pollen count. Horizon B. cit. willow (Salix).' Pollen grains were preserved in samples 9. Horizon C. Horizon A. A)Neolithic occupation. pollen grains are found only in archaeological levels. the existence of the horizon is corroborated by the pollen analysis. an open birch forest dominated the landscape. however." Zones 2 and 5 provide time brackets which give clues to the dating of the middle zones (3-4). pitchpine (Picea). between or below the archaeological levels. At the time of the Gravettian occupation. Found 40-45 em. mm. Rare arboreal pollen (Salix. yielded about 100 pollen grains." Acta GeolHung 9 (1965) 125-142. 3) Holocene terrace. "The Role of Vertebrate Fauna and Palaeolithic Industries of Hungary in Quaternary Stratigraphy and Chronology. juniper. op. Birch (Betula) is the most common species. ten preparations of 18 sq. The first two samples correspond to the top and bottom of the Gravettian level (Horizon B) and the third to the 6. the thin layer of dust is attributed to the Youngest Dryas. there. Archaeological Stratigraphy Figure 4. below Horizon B.
climate. II. In Central Europe. single-platformed. 0. a correlation with the Palank phase defined by Kretzoi and Vertes? would be likely. the proposed dating is confirmed. A Bolling date is acceptable in view of the stratigraphic context. "Mlajsi Paleolitik iz Ovce Jame. this being the case. Lazlo Vertes. "Ostaci fossilnog covjeka iz gornjeg pleistocena Sandalje kod Pule (Istra) (The Remains of the Upper Pleistocene Man from Sandalja near Pule." Paleontologia Jugoslavica.C. F. conical cores. . Osole. And. the Kadar Gravettian industry would be contemporaneous 9. prismatic core with two opposite platforms. 12. Jugoslavenska A kademija Znanosti i Umjetnosti 12 (1972) 3-37. "Ausgrabungen der Alsteinzeitlichen von Arka.White and Johnson B A c D t / E Figure 5. the open birch forest began to form during the Bolling interstadial. cit. 10. op. by the presence of the grey dust deposit above the Gravettian level which is associated with one of the Dryas." ActaA AcSciHung 14 (1963) 143-157.000 B. (in note 6) 141. in part. Late Gravettian blade-cores from the main excavation-block: A-C. prismatic core. Istra). The percentage of arboreal pollens is high enough to suggest a park-forest associated with an interstadial stage. F. Mirko Malez. is tentatively proposed. If the dating is correct.412 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site / M ontet." Ljubljana Arch Vestnik 13-14(1962-63) 129-153. prepared pebble used as a chopper. E. Kretzoi and Vertes.!" It would also correspond in time to the Gravettian of Slovenia II and Level B of SandaliaY A date of about 11. with the earlier component from Arka.
However. Hungary (Sagvar). Willendorf in der Wachau (Wien 1956-1959).). Twenty of the 35 cores had a single platform. Platform edges.00 Platform Width 29. a dense and regular siliceous material ranging in color from yellow to red and brown and. Felgenhauer. thickness. and XI. With a mean of 65 striking angles show little variation. Gabori. red. Gigov noted that the pollen spectrum is comparable to that of Visoko-Brdo. noted both on cores and blanks. edge grinding on 14 specimens. Core measurements (in mm. length.Journal of Field Archaeologyf Vol. As a consequence. 95 chunks and more than 2000 chips or unidentifiable fragments measuring less than 2 ern.00 Width 34. Aagsbach).00 Platform Thickness 22. The set of measurements taken on the cores (TABLE 1) are illustrated in Figure 6.11 29.00 47.00 7. Reduction and grinding were also noted on blank platforms (TABLE 2). F.30 8.00 Table 1. Red and yellow are predominant at other sites. Pebbles of that size are relatively common in the Bosna River bed today. B." ActaA AcSciHung9 (1958) 19-34. and are found together on 11 of the 35 cores.00 41. platform thickness. X. width. M. crest blades were rare and numerous blades had remnants of cortex. The only source of raw material was pebbles of radiolarite. whereas larger cores show more oblique angles. platform width. The Kadar occupants had a marked preference for brown pebbles. beds occur in the Carpathian mountains as well as in the northern Balkans. The Late Gravettian Industry The assemblage described here includes all the lithic material recovered from the main excavation block: Units IV. and Bulgaria. G.30 8. more rarely.00 Thickness 25. 3.98 10. Ridge reduction occurred on 15 specimens. prismatic cores and 8 multiplatformed or globular specimens. C. of these. 35 cores. 15 were subconical and 5 were prismatic (FIG. were carefully prepared. V. The Bosna River bed is the nearest source of radiolarites whose ultimate origin lies in the mountains of central Bosnia. Core preparation was limited to the removal of a flake at one of the pebbles' narrow extremities. The Mousterian level was formed under the severe cold and humid conditions of a full glacial stage. judging from the length of some of the trimming flakes. yellow and green were present in much smaller quantities. Length Mean Standard deviation Minimum Maximum 44." Pebbles selected for tool making at Kadar measured between 10 and 14 em. Smaller specimens tended to have somewhat wider angles. whereas larger ones are scarce. Relatively acute striking angles as well as evidence of platform preparation. Gabori and V. 1976 413 Figure 6. the correlation between striking angles and other metrical measurements was low and not statistically significant.00 38. The sample consists of 190 prepared tools. striking angle(s).00 56. In only a few cases did the preparation extend to the lateral surfaces of the original pebbles.10 20. Radiolarite is also used in varying quantities in Austria (Willendorf. E. A more specific date cannot be proposed in view of the limited information available on the Kadar Mousterian. Radiolarite is not an uncommon material in central and southeastern Europe. a circumstance related to the size of the raw material. on the other hand. D. in their maximum dimension. green or grey. Radiolarite pebbles are the pre- dominant raw material for tools found in all northern Bosnian paleolithic sites. This apparent choice of color may be nothing more than a coincidence.00 11. There were 7 double ended. .20 16. "Der Erste Palaolithische Hausgrundris in Ungarn. 800 blades and flakes. VI. Core measurements: A. angle formed by two opposite platforms. F. 0 13.60 8.00 79.50 9. 5).
52) 326 (.08 8. These characteristics are illustrated in Table 3.1 6. the relative frequencies of tip.28) 35 (. calculated as the probability of finding broken blades given the total number of blades.33) 237 (.16) 30 (. and Sagvar assemblages.9 thickness 6. long.34) 44 (. only one specimen was found to measure less than 3 cm. (2) high incidence of breakage among blades. However. and base-fragments remain almost constant and independent of the blank category.50) 88 (. further reduction would result in a considerable increase in the output of micro lithic blanks for which there was but limited use at Kadar. This represents a considerable reduction of the original pebbles and a rather high level of raw material utilization. and the Kadar chipping technique may be considered as representative of the Central European Gravettian tradition. length Mean St. a relatively small number of flakes was produced and little material was wasted. The large proportion of blade fragments may be due to the greater fragility of blades and perhaps also to a greater use of thinner blanks.9 14.414 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet. "Considerations sur la typologie et les techniques dans Quartdr 18 (1967) 25-55.52) 76 (.5 length 32. Most of the Kadar specimens have been rejuvenated a number of times.48) 159 Total 94(.01 9.White and Johnson Punctiform Flat Dorsal Platforms Platforms Reduction Grinding Blades Flakes TrimmingBlanks 49% 26% 12% 48% 44% 58% 62% 34% 50% 35% 11% 17% Table 2.31) 168 (.54) 74 (.9 Flakes width 27. Ie Paleolithique. Eraillure Flakes 16% 35% 26% Table 3. Bordes.17) 394 Flakes TrimmingFlakes 14 (. Because of the quality of the raw material and the economy of the chipping techniques. mid-. 14. Dimensions of complete blanks. platform reduction and grinding were found in the same proportion as in the Kadar sample.17) 101(.69) 218(. Blades Tips Mid-fragments Bases Total fragments Completespecimens TOTAL 57 (. there are significant differences in .1 suggests the use of indirect percussion.3 Blades width thickness 17. dey.48) 497 (. much larger in any case than the breakage rate of flakes and trimming flakes. Angles of rejuvenation remain constant within a few degrees.3 4.to medium-sized blades. Modes of platform preparation as observed on blanks (for quantities of blanks. 41. is extremely high. The general characteristics of the blank assemblage are: (1) high frequency of small.46) 162 23 (. On the other hand. F. The breakage rate of blades. (3) predominance of basal fragments among flakes and blades. narrow blades. see TABLE 3).42) 25 (." The Blank Assemblage The Kadar technology was oriented toward the production of small. (4) greater size of tip fragments.19) 166 (.83) 68 (. maintaining the platform at the same end of the core. Even when possible. At these sites. The punch and hammer technique appears to have been used commonly by Late Gravettian groups of Central Europe.7 2. Cores were discarded when the blanks produced were less than 30-35 mm. Arka.31) 715 Table 4. Cross-tabulation of blank categories and artifact condition.30) 83 (. There is considerable overlap between blades and flakes. 14 It may be noted that similar processes of platform preparation were observed for the Willendorf.3 4.
C.5cm. . end-scrapers. unmodified blades. 30 % A 20 End-scrapers and marginally retouched blades were the P lost common tool types recovered within the main excavation block.scm." Significant differences in blank size separate the three categories of end-scrapers. In summary. Statistically significant differences are noticeable between unmodified blades and two sets of blade tools. 9). When the lateral edges are parallel. two components can be found within the tool assemblage. that is. end-scrapers on polar coordinates is Figure 7. scalar retouch extended over 4-5 mm. or burins among the smallest blanks is very small. while the blanks produced were. the mode of marginally retouched blades is between 20 and 25 mm. These figures were constructed by computing the mean value of each coordinate distance within each of the three samples. 4. Several series of tests were used to validate and quantify this observation. Retouched edge angles varied between 35 and 45 forming a bevelled edge more abrupt than that of the unmodified blanks. The Larger Blade-tool Component 30% B 20 4. The distribution of end and marginal retouch is illustrated in Table 6. whereas converging marginal retouch is more often found on smaller specimens. 16. An analysis of thickness measurements gave identical results. Histograms of width: B. Davis. whereas that of end-scrapers is between 25 and 30 mm. Kansas 1973) 60-66. A. wide. that the Kadar backedblades were part of the small blade component. total blade assemblage. 10 4. Figure 10 illustrates the "average" tool for each category. Montet-White. Discriminant 15. Blank Selection With the exception of 10 specimens. all prepared tools were made on blades. Polar coordinates were recorded for all the end-scrapers recovered at the site within and without the main excavation block. whereas a majority of larger blades are made into scraping and cutting tools. On the other hand. 3. Dorsal reduction and grinding are more common for blades. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology (New York 1973) 442-456. The unmodified blades could have been used as cutting tools as well. as was the case for simple end-scrapers. Smaller blades are either unmodified or made into projectile tips. The probability of finding marginally-retouched blades. the mode is between 10 and 14 mm. whether or not an end-scraper was present at the tip. scrapers.. but they constitute a typologically distinct category. The method for measuring described in A. Axes describing the width and shape of 0 0 . retouched blades. The existence of two sets of tools results from blank selection and not from blank production.Journal of Field Archaeologyf Vol. The deep.1976 415 width and in platform measurements. The lithic technology was geared to the manufacture of a small number of large processing tools and an abundance of small projectile tips and knives. marginal retouch tends to be associated with the widest blanks. Histograms of width are presented in Figure 7. Each tool element could occur on separate blanks. in addition. The fact that blades of specific sizes were selected to prepare different categories of tools became apparent during the preliminary examination of the material. the retouch tends to concentrate toward one of the extremities. For unmodified blades. or several elements could be combined on a single blank to produce a "multiple" tool (FIG. they suffice to illustrate the kind of blank selection which operated within the Kadar tool industry. Le Malpas Rockshelter: A Study of Late Paleolithic Technology in its Environmental Setting (Lawrence. Parallel. hunting tools. A more detailed study of the three categories of endscrapers was undertaken. D. and the majority of the sample is less than 20 mm. indicating. a homogeneous assemblage.5 em. the marginally-retouched blades and the end-scrapers. function analysis is described in J. Blank selection is even more clearly illustrated in Table 5 and Figure 8 where the sample is divided into 7 classes of width and the relative frequency of the major tool categories for each class of width is displayed in graphic form. These specimens constitute a tool kit of scraping/cutting implements. To test the validity of these differences.. when taken as a whole. a discriminant function analysis" was performed on series of polar coordinate measurements. The same kind of retouch was used to modify the lateral edges.
Even though medium angles are most frequent.07 . Bar graphs illustrating the distribution of artifact categories within classes of width. 7:35-39 mm. The distribution of edge angles is complex and not easily interpreted. Two measures are used to describe the scraper edges: edge angle and an index of convexity calculated as: convexity index = arc height 1/2 chord The index values vary from 0.02 .02 . there is a .~ Figure 8.13 .01 E Burins F Notched and Shouldered Bladelets ..20 B C Marginally Retouched Blades Scrapers . 2:IO-14mm.01 . A Unmodified Blades . Results of the clustering performed by the discriminant function analysis are illustrated in Figure 11.27 .04 .91 .22 .01 . the morphology of scraper edges is independent of the presence or absence of lateral modification and independent also of the blank shape produced by these lateral modifications.09 . Blank measurements were sufficient to classify 80 percent of the sample into their proper group.Q2 .04 .30 .416 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet.02 .57 .01 .ot . 6:30-34 mm.0 characterizes a semi-circular scraper. At the same time.30 Cl asses of Width Notched Unmodified Blades Marginally Retouched Blades Scrapers Truncations Burins and Shouldered Bladclcts 7 & 5 4 3 -.89 .37 . 5:25-29mm. That is.A f- ~ .White and Johnson Table 5.07 .30 . Artifact categories. Classes of Width I: 5-9mm. An index value of 1.83 .2 for flat or rectangular edges to 1. and rounded fronts are few. and compares the Kadar series to samples from other late Gravettian sites. flat are rare.05 . 3:15-19 mm. the discriminant function analysis indicated that scraper front morphology and edge angle remain constant among the three categories of endscrapers. 4:20-24 mm. Figure 12 illustrates the distribution of edge angles and convexity indices for the Kadar samples.33 .03 .20 D Truncations .3 for ogival end-scrapers. the blank contributed most to the discrimination among the three groups of end-scrapers as shown in Figure lO.17 . • 2 1 •• B • C 0 E -F .20 .30 . Convex scraper fronts are the most common.
I-L.Journal of Field Archaeologyf Vol. end-scrapers with retouched parallel. 3. . Scrapers and retouched blades from the main excavation-block: A-B. converging lateral edges. E-H. 1976 417 A B c o E F G H J em K L 5 Figure 9. endscrapers with retouched. lateral edges. retouched blades with lateral edges converging to a point. retouched blades. parallel-sided. C-D.
White and Johnson Lateral retouch Endretouch absent end-scrapers Total on 1 edge. variables contributing to the discrimination among the 3 categories of endscrapers. simple end-scraper. Top: 'average' specimens of A. . end-scrapers with converging lateral edges.418 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet. end-scraper with retouched parallel edges. Bottom: D and E. B. on 1 edge. Association of end and lateral retouch. edges are edges are edges are edges are parallel parallel converging converging 18 21 21 18 8 8 16 Table 6. absent Total 42 38 80 5 5 11 9 20 A B c E D Figure 10. C. on 2 edges. on 2 edges.
Truncated blades are wide and. Histograms of edge angles (left column) and convexity indices (right column) for three central European. o. 0 t:. ·4 . .. Edge angles are not correlated with any other metrical variables suggesting that the steepness of angle may be a result of wear rather than morphology. When modified. t:. . . Figure 12. Sagvar and Arka.S. . The other forms. . t:.N). as in the case of the burins.J oumal of Field Archaeologyf CLASSIFIED BY TYPES CLASSIFIED BY DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION IN Grou A (. convex fronts apparently used on a variety of substances resulting in various degrees of wear and adjustments of edge angle.I 2. In summary. 0 t:. 3. t:. 2 0 • 2 0 00 t:. This observation is partly substantiated at Kadar where abrupt angles are found on specimens whose front is marked by heavy crushing.0 0 0 . the blanks were probably used as cutting or scraping tools. t:. shouldered .. t:. broken near the retouched extremity. U 30% 20 10 great deal of variation within and between assemblages. t:. 0 0 .·.. Gravettian sites: Kadar.1 .·. With the exception of one complete specimen. all burins are broken near the tip (FIG.. 13 M... .·. The plot shows three distinct clusters corresponding to the three categories. asterisks indicate group means. .nts 1 0 5J 11 Total number of complete end-scrapers: Figure II.) Group B (~) Group C ( 0 25 10 Group Vol.. the Kadar end-scrapers are characterized by medium. The Microlithic Component Small backed points constitute the main element of the microlithic industry. . t:.. Plot of the first two cannonical variates resulting from a discriminant function analysis of the three categories of end-scrapers. The rarity of burins and truncated blades is the most conspicuous characteristic of the Kadar assemblage. 1976 419 c. . The few burins recovered at Kadar are wide and thick. scr!!per_-~J.. t:. •. . t:.
L. burins. 20. Krems point. "Essai d'adaptation des methodes statistiques au Paleolithique Superieur. marginally retouched blades and small backed points. The backed points are narrow. marginally retouched bladelet." BSPFL 50 (1953) 323-333. truncated bladelets.' l ./'/: r I L I M o em 5 N bladelets. bases. Henye at Bodrogkeresztur. truncated bladelets. B." ActaA AcSciHung 18 (1966) 3-14. 13). G-I.420 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet.White and Johnson Figure 13. (in note 13) 115-127. de Sonneville-Bordes and Perrot. shouldered specimens. 19. Tool counts are summarized in Table 8 which follows the typology defined by D. "The Paleolithic Site on Mt. cit. The abundance of small. A F I I I ~ t I J ~ I I G H K I I. . D. Burins and small tools from the main excavation-block: A. Vertes. Backing retouch is bi-directional which implies the use of hammer-andanvil or bi-polar techniques." The general characteristics of the industry are clearly apparent: abundance of scrapers. and mid-sections are indicated in Table 7. The main difference between the Kadar assemblage and the assemblages from Willendorf. 18. M-N. Perrot. fragments of backed points." Henye. Vertes. (in note 10). and bladelets with fine marginal retouch (Flechettes or Krems points) are represented by only a few specimens (FIG. C-F. de Sonneville-Bordes and J. together with a scarcity of burins and composite tools. J-L. Retouch angles vary between 70° and 85° in 45 percent of the cases. backed points and the presence of a few other forms are elements characteristic of late Gravettian assemblages in the area.!? or Arka-" is in 17. Felgenhauer. op. op. cit. Secondary modification of the tip.
Artifacts located above and below this band are probably a result of displacement resulting from various erosive processes.68 22.05 . Tool counts.1976 421 Unmodified 10 flat retouch 7 alternate inverse Points = 30 modified = 20 abrupt retouch 4 inverse direct Table 7. dimensional analysis of variance. cit. fine retouch 9 inverse 4 direct 5 3 4 2 Bases = 17 modified = 11 rounded direct 2 Unmodified 6 forming a point 6 inverse direct truncated direct 3 3 3 2 Segments modified = Unmodified 5 nibbling 10 direct inverse = 24 19 fine retouch direct 9 9 Table 8. and was manteled by 10 em.26 2. Toward the solution of this problem.21 4.21 5. resulting in the suggestion of distributional variations.52 1.11 . The Sagvar" industry is dominated by end-scrapers and small backed blades.Journal of Field Archaeology [Vol.11 2. reticulated clay.52 100. (in note 3) 10-14. Within the artifact-bearing zone. Gabori and Gabori. measured 40 cm. principal components analysis. KADAR I: MAIN CONCENTRATION Observed frequencies 1-2 3 5 7 9 18 28 34-37 57 61-64 65-66 74 75 21 1 8 9 4 1 3 4 5 7 42 13 2 4 5 46 Relative frequencies 11. The assemblages are otherwise closely comparable. Spatial Distribution of Lithic Artifacts An additional problem of the research design for the Kadar project was to identify patterns in the distribution of artifacts. 3. contouring.63 3. with few burins.84 1. The artifact-bearing zone at Kadar. aeolian deposit (Zone 2). believed to represent the actual living surface. Techniques applied include two-dimensional plotting.00 Tool categories Scrapers the scarcity of burins. Secondary modifications of backed points. 15 cm. The scarcity of burins at both sites remains difficult to explain.63 24.73 2.57 2.15 . approximately 70 percent of the artifacts were concentrated within a narrow band. in depth. a series of techniques of numerical analysis were applied to the data. 21.05 2.52 4. contained within a yellowish-brown. and discriminant function analysis. op. in thickness. of gray.10 6. Burins Shouldered Point Truncations Marginally Retouched Blades Notches Side-scrapers Bladelets 77 84 85 89 90 91 10 4 190 Pieces esquillees TOTALS .11 2.
.:UI'2j2:." Dimensional analysis of variance proceeds by comparing mean squares of difference between grid units of increasingly larger size until a grid unit size is reached which equals the maximum size of the artifact clusters. m.. (in note 16). Jr..>2 ea 2222~22i!22 222222212222222222222222222<'2 2222a'2:l222222222:'H!22i22222 'l~2i'.1U 1 S U&A UAA lSI 11 1 2222222n2222~2n2"~ . Inspection of the horizontal plots of artifact distribution suggested two patterns: (I) A heavy concentration approximately centered within the major block excavation (density within this locus averages 19._ S "I 1. IV.2.22 ~<' .AN:'I 6 ~~~~~~~~~~~~2~~i..'>22U22i!222222i!222 2222 222222222"22~2222Z22222222 2222a222? 111111 222?2222. trimming flakes. Kadar 1974.h 4I 1 1 2. 2222n2222i222222<'2:?22222220!2222?<:2Zl22 11111' AUUSSS 1111 111111111111111111 2?22.1 22 lUl 22222<?2222.n:2n22?~?22122?2?gl2?222?Z_2ZC'z(.2. ." AmAnt 38 (1973) 266-278.1..>2222272"2." Annliot 16 (1952) 299-316.22222222Z2222l2'22z:!22221222212 22222 22222222222222222222222222122222222 2l 2222222222 22ii!222Z2!2222'12222222222UZ 2 22222i22'2f1222n2:.22l.row~ or ~k'!'!"lCTS fR9 sa'JARES to. other from the center to the south. uus . To obtain a better visual impression of the density differential. cores.222222222 22222722 11 1 2~227.0 sq. 14). XI. Maximum clumping of artifacts was therefore demonstrated to occur within one-half of the original 16." Plains Anthropologist 15 (1970) 219-228.1222 2il22222nz:<.22222Z j 22222222222?222n?2n~ll22222~?l~222Z2?2"~U22~22l222222U22?2UZ222i'222i1222222222n2222tnU2222"U 222222222222 . squares and counting the frequency of occurrence of each artifact category within each 50 ern. one extending from near the center of the artifact concentration to the north and the 22.'2222<:22222 111111111 sssn A sn 0 111 lU 222222Z2~22. Light density indicated by 2 symbols.<2ilt'n<:n<'272 . op. flakes.7 artifacts per square meter and without 6. including scraping tools. application of the procedure to two 16. Group 2. band at the center of the 40 em.r22n72U 22 2222Z2Z22Z221! 22 U. a series of computergenerated maps were produced for each artifact category by means of a two-dimensional plotting routine originally developed by a former University of Kansas student. 22U'. chips. burins.0116 Figure 14. programmer with the University of Kansas Computer Center. burins. Joel Gunn.:..~~~~~~~~~~~~~g~22~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1 )~l:!~'22Z2U2Z22l. ~A 11 UUL_ll_---l_ 2222222222222?2?22272?222222?ni222222i!2Zi lltU. 2222222<:2 ! suss U 8B A"111111 snl U 22222222Ui222Z:>2?2n. As noted previously. the frequency data recorded for 50 ern. a second analytical procedure involved gridding the block excavation into 50 em. m. units used in the analysis. grid unit. while observations were 239 50 em. V. Robert Whallon. U 1111 11111111 22222<'222222222n222227~2n22 22222i!2z 1 1111 1111 AIlAU 8 I 1 1 11 1 11111 11 2.E r. David. cit. marginally retouched blades. developed a version of the dimensional analysis of variance procedure adapted for archaeological purposes by Robert Whallon " from ecological studies. P.. Group I included end-scrapers.USSSS uss AU S 11 11 lUI nZ22222Z212222222222?22Z2222222222222222 lss. "Spatial Analysis of Occupation Floors I: Application of Dimensional Analysis of Variance. backed points and truncated blades.0 sq.o222'222Z2." and updated and generalized by Ronald Oliver." Variables entered in the program were frequency counts of 13 artifact categories.5. 2"2 ~~ 272·2222212222 .1 U11 lUlU 11 11111111 1 S 11 a 222222222.:0I~2~ . __ _UJ_ SSSSU~$ l_!.nun SlSUSUI S 11 11%11111 2UZZI?2 22222222222222Z?2222222~222222za2222222 SISUISS Sss _1. and B. and suggested an oval pattern for the distribution (FIG. Contours based on variations in artifact densities within 50 cm.ONTCIJR ~ 11.>2221 ?2'Z" zn) Ull 2U:U22222U.11 111 11 11 0 U11 11 1111 1111 '222i1!2:t22 2~22?2222n2222 11111111111 1 l111U111 sunnuln 1111 1222 111 2i2~n2222!"2?2 ?i!22 2 l111Ulll SS lUi I AA.0 sq. a procedure which reduces an original data-set to a series of independent components.. nicely corresponding with the indications of artifact clustering near the center of the block excavation suggested by inspection of the plots of artifacts and the contouring procedure. excavation units.222222:1222<'2222. and blades. 1111111111 l111U 22222?2Z0!2222222'.< 1111 1 1111 22212222222<'272222222<>222 222221:'222 '1l 1111 2227-21. m.1 ilUIU1UJ AA . a graduate student in Anthropology at the University of Kansas.222 . 23. 22122<l22221222?22t2222l22'l12221222222!2222221l222222222i:'2zn222~ 2222l2l2i/22 22 2:~2n2222i!2?22 22 72222212 2 2' 21 2222<>22 RErERE~(.u 22Z22. squares.222222222222222:'22222?'l22 2222222222Z22222l2222222222222l2Z2:!2222 2nZ2"222222272J:e2?n?~222Z7 22222222n ?22?2222U222222122n22??nt222?2?-Zn~ 727.AUA"~ 'UU IS .2 111 . .1"C. Contouring the frequency data verified the impression of a centrally-positioned artifact concentration.4 artifacts per square meter).31149 CONTOUR unERVAL • 2. "The Use of Computer Programs for Mapping Archaeological Data.. A plot of component I against component 2 suggested the presence of three highly correlated groups of artifact categories. Greig-Smith. Group I.>2 11 2222 Ul1Utl11l1111111 11111 1 222222~'22U 2il22?22Z2~222 a 22 1 1111 Hl!l111111 Ii! 1: lUlU 1111 1 i!222Uf. co". grid units.I.222.:UU! AUA 88 8 U 11 11 1 . "The Use of Random and Contiguous Quadrats in the Study of the Structure of Plant Communities. demonstrated maximum clumping for a majority of the artifact categories at 8. vertical spread of artifacts). L21~ 1. To test this indication. Group 3. 24.2(i!0I2222222 22227<:V 22<>2222 U snn s us A AIBal! ese Sl'IlIA 1 2 11 n snss 222222222?222222 222·2. chunks. $.r22222222. Joel Gunn.::?27222i'2n222n2222 22 UU1ill '5unll$ 1111111 22222222222222222222 "':<2:222220:2 222 lil. Frequency data resulting from this procedure were then contoured by means of a computer routine included in the SURFACE II package of mapping procedures developed by the Kansas Geological Survey. Artifacts plotted on these maps were those occurring within the concentration believed to represent the actual living surface (those artifacts from the 15 cm. and (2) a differential distribution of artifact categories within and without this centrally-located concentration. a second result of the visual inspection of the two-dimensional artifact plots was an indication of differential distribution of artifact categories.l 11111 1111111 11111111 2 ' 1222222222212222122222 222222222 2 U111H 22222 ll11UUUUU1UUa UllUllU1U 22222~2228222220122U 2222?22'2 2222 1111 222222Z 111111 tlU1Ull1111 11 lUl 1 2~2 222227.1. heavier densities by symbols I. flakes and ochre was found most frequently to occur within the 25. used rocks.White and Johnson CLUSTER As an initial step in the search for patterns in the artifact distribution at Kadar. A. X). Locality I._ U 11 111111 2222'7. In the case of the Kadar data..'22222Z22222 111111 1 un -_ US 111111 22222:. Contour map of block excavation (excavation units VI. Examination of the occurrence of artifact Groups 1 and 2 within the block excavation disclosed a pattern of overlapping but essentially complementary distributions. 2222222:>222 22 1111 I I A#lAU. Paul Brockington.>222222 z2?22 11111 111 unssun. To further test for the presence of a centrally-located artifact concentration. and ochre. .:22U 2222222~2222112 a 1.'V22222Z22 2222222n2 111111111 2222. grid units in the block excavation were subjected to principal components analysis.422 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet.':7U2~ 1 11 U~U 'Uh AU " AUA. 11 U11 11111 11 2 22222222i!22:l'222<'222222~2222222 2CZ2ZU .
1976 423 38N-42E ESTIMATED POSSIBLE • POST LIMITS OF STRUCTURE HOLE \ -. Area at bottom of map. involving truncated blades and cores." 26. two of the variables of Group 2. 50 ern. squares including artifacts of Group 2. 50 cm. and 3. Block excavation. square observation units located within the central artifact concentration were compared with frequency counts from units outside the concentration. not subdivided into 50 em. squares including artifacts of Group 1. squares. The discriminant function analysis as applied to the Kadar data was in full agreement with the complementary distribution of artifact groups as suggested by the principal components analysis.2. were discriminated from 50 cm. A similarly restricted distribution could not be discerned for artifact Group 3. The comparison was by means of discriminant function analysis. centrally-located concentration of artifacts. Kadar 1974. ~ GROUP 1 ARTIFACTS ".--_ -__ Iillililill GROUP 0GROUP ---- 2 ARTIFACTS 3 ARTIFACTS 30N·34E Figure IS. which is then maximally differentiated from other scores similarly defined by means of a linear function. In final analysis. IS). as identified by the principal components analysis. 3. squares with artifacts of this group were distributed throughout the block excavation (FIG. was excavated by Basler in 1966. 90 percent of the 50 ern.Journal of Field Archaeologyf Vol. Ibid. squares. Discriminant function analysis is a procedure which transforms an original set of measurements into a single score. Grid units are 50 cm. a series of numerical analytical procedures applied to the distribution of artifacts from a . but more often was outside. the frequency counts of artifact categories within 50 em. To summarize. squares with artifacts of Group 1 were within the centrally-located concentration.01 probability level. 72 percent of the 50 ern. To test this indication of complementary distribution for artifact Groups 1 and 2. showing distribution of artifact Groups 1. squares with artifacts of Group 2 were outside the concentration while 10 percent overlapped into the concentration. rather. Locality I.. Group 2 also occurred within the concentration. while 28 percent were outside._ --_-. The F value between group means is significant at the . Maximal discrimination occurred during the first two steps of the analysis.
Despite the scarcity of burins. Her areas of interest are the Advanced Paleolithic Cultures of Western and Central Europe. are difficult because of the variety of raw materials used at these sites. flakes. centrally-located post hole. D. He received his Ph. 27. while the resharpening of tools used within the structure would as well result in the production of debitage. Bordes. At the border of the Pannonian Basin and the Balkans. will contribute valuable information to the study of the prehistory of the area. Dordogne. furthermore. Artifacts within the central cluster have a slightly overlapping but essentially complementary distribution with artifacts outside the cluster. degree from the University of Arizona in 1965. As discussed above. for the most part." Quartdr 19 (1963) 251262. for the most part. One of the most important results of the project was to indicate that Kadar is a large and complex site which. marginally retouched blades. This warmer climatic episode is tentatively associated with the Bolling interstadial on the basis of dated geological and palynological evidence from Hungarian sites. we were able to establish through pollen analysis that the site was occupied during a period of temperate-cool and humid climate when open birch forest dominated the landscape. which are also found in extra-mural contexts. in width. Artifacts within the cluster include a series of scraping tools. the assemblage must be regarded as a late Gravettian manifestation. Sandalia on the other." and Borneck in Germany. were perhaps lost as animals. in length by 3. Alfred E. cit. The remaining three artifact categories. debitage. it is hoped. oriented from NW to SE. A date of about 11. Sagvar and Arka on the one hand. trimming flakes.0 m. northern Bosnia is a key geographic area of south-central Europe. but apparently included various types of manufacturing facilitated by the use of scraping and cutting tools and burins. and end-scrapers indicates a strong relationship with the industries from level 5-9 at Willendorf. were butchered outside the structure. Neumiinster in Holstein (Hamburg 1915). which measures 7. and blades (Group 3) are distributed throughout the block excavation. This size range is comparable to structures from other Gravettian sites such as Szagar in Hungary. France and Yugoslavia. and ochre. Die jung paldolithischen Leltanlagen von Ahrensburg.White is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Kansas. Spatial clusterings of artifacts within the Kadar I Locality suggest the former presence of a structure and differential activity patterning inside and outside the structure. numerous backed points.C. chunks (fragments broken from cores). In addition. an extra-mural activity. and is currently interested in problems related to the recognition of patterns in archeological data especially from the Midwestern United States and Eastern Europe. op. Artifacts from outside the possible structure include cores. burins. 29. and Lithic Technology.000 B. 29 The suggestion of the former presence of a structure in this location is supported by the presence of a single. and used rocks (small abrading stones perhaps used for striking platform preparation) suggesting that flint knapping was. has been proposed. (in note 13). given the geological dating of Horizon B. the presence of small blade cores. A Rust. She received her Doctorate from the University of Bordeaux (France)." Corbiac in France. Backed points. Summary The 1974 Kadar project was the first systematic excavation of a late Paleolithic site in northern Bosnia. Gabori and Gabori. and within a relatively close distance from the Adriatic coast. "Emplacement des tentes du Perigordien Superieur evolue 11 Corbiac (pres Bergerac).424 Kadar: A Late Gravettian Site/ Montet-White and Johnson Basler's original attribution of the site to the terminal Pleistocene was confirmed. and has done field work in North Africa. dispatched with the aid of these points. This group of artifacts occurs most frequently within an oval area. F. certain of the artifacts in Group 2 suggest that flint knapping was an extra-mural activity. this is perhaps expectable. The Kadar assemblage clearly belongs to the Eastern Gravettian tradition. 28. Activities within the structure cannot yet be defined specifically. in 1965. putative living surface at the Yugoslavian Gravettian site of Kadar indicate a centrally-located oval concentration. Johnson is Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Kansas. As these artifacts represent. Anta M ontet.0 m. . Comparisons with other Gravettian sites. chips.
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