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Antoine Marie Roger De Saint-Exupery (French)
Point of View
The point of view in the story is actually told through first-person, in the words of the narrator who gets stranded in the Sahara desert. Although parts of the story tend to sound as if they are being told in an omniscient style, like when the Little Prince ventures from the various asteroids, the telling of these experiences is based on what the narrator has learned while he is with the Little Prince himself. For example, at one part, when the narrator describes his situation: "I realized clearly that something extraordinary was happening. I was holding him close in my arms as if he were a little child; and yet it seemed to me that he was rushing headlong toward an abyss from which I could do nothing to restrain him..." That is a line (and not a quote) that would only appear in the narration of a first-person point of view story.
The protagonist, the little prince, has quite the most prominent character trait of innocence. Though he is extremely thoughtful, intelligent, and curious as well, it is his vast uninvolvement in the worldly, mechanical concepts in life people have no longer been questioning that allows him to understand our society, unblocked from other things. In other words, this childish innocence of his allows him to keep asking the questions and recieving the answers that allow the conflict to develop throughout the novel. Although there are many smaller conflicts, after much questioning I have been led to believe that the prominent conflict in The Little Prince is man versus man - more specifically, children and their morals versus those of the adults. On earth, the little prince ventures to a train station and meets a railway switchman. He continuously prods the railway switchman with questions, not knowing how bothersome he might be and oblivious to what is the 'sensible' level of questions one might ask an older, more experienced person. Perhaps the railway switchman understands the little prince's childish innocence, so he continues answering his inquiries. He asks the switchman why the people and trains keep exchanging: "'Were they not satisfied where they were?' ...'No one is ever satisfied where he is,'" the switchman replies. A little later in the conversation, the little prince says, "'Only the children know what they are looking for.' 'They waste their
time over a rag doll and it becomes very important to them; and if anybody takes it away from them, they cry...' 'They are lucky,' the switchman said." Because the children have something to pursue, like these children that have lost their rag dolls, know what they are looking for and are not unsatisfied or preoccupied with other worldly matters, such as the quest for wealth and power. They are satisfied with their rag dolls and are searching for just that in order to achieve happiness and satisfaction. The depicted adults, however, are occupied with their endless prospects of gaining more wealth, power, and mundane objects. This is just one of the examples that adds onto the developing conflict of children versus adults. I have witnessed this kind of wanting, even in my own family - I know for a fact that my older sister and I were always wanting more things - money, clothes, accessories, and so on. It can't really be helped, because this outside world demands that we 'improve' ourselves with these things. But while we were wishing we had more, our little sisters would be playing with their toys or pets, not looking through clothes catalogs or asking for money. And quite apparently, they were the ones that were happy - happy before we got those 'to-die-for' pants and happy while we had them, even though we would just long for shoes to match those pants. Being unhappy moves in a cycle - an unhappiness caused by this unsatisfactory state of continous wanting (and the thin line between needing). In this scenario, my sister and I play the role of the adults, while my younger sisters play the children. This sort of cycle is like that of the depicted adults in The Little Prince businessmen greedy to count their wealth, kings greedy to own the stars when wealth really cannot be counted and stars never owned. When the little prince meets a snake in the desert, they courteously begin a conversation. They talk about the loneliness of the desert, and how it is like the loneliness of men, where physical barriers do not make a difference in isolating the adults. The snake says, "'...But you are innocent and true, and you come from a star...You move me to pity - you are so weak on this Earth made of granite.'" First of all, the snake is touched by the little prince because he is kind and innocent - not afraid of this creature that so many others have feared. When he spoke of 'being weak on an Earth made of granite,' he again was speaking of the little prince's frail innocence. The 'granite' he says it consists of is the rigid, stereotypes of Earth, a pollution from the depicted adults with their fact and figure-based ideas. The little prince represents the children here, as the children hold the minority of ideas thought to be 'important' in the world because they are not thought of as significant - yet, if they paid more attention to this way of seeing through the outside, this Earth may be made of gold, rather than granite!
"When a mystery is too overpowering, one dare not disobey." That is the mystery of The Little Prince, a novel that represents and emphasizes some of the many roles of aspects in life - such as honesty, loneliness, hate, success, love, compassion, fear, regret - and has a strange power to portray them with extreme precision. I have learned so much about life from this richly-themed novel that since reading it, I have been seeing and
understanding the world differently. The first main principle I learned from The Little Prince is simply to see with your heart and imagination rather than with eyes, facts, and figures. With the author's depiction of adults, lonely people who have lost their ability to understand and make their surroundings into beyond what they are on the surface, the little prince and the narrator alike understand this loneliness as inability to perceive beyond. The adults he meets are so lost and alone without even knowing so because they rely only figures to prove something, whereas in the children's world, emotions and 'matters of consequence' are viewed upon with imagination and a relative understanding (something you don't need to see to know that it exists). To be able to think like the children do is a trait much worth seeking, though. When the little prince was about to depart from a fox he met that had wished to be tamed by him, he was left with this: "'And now here is my secret, a very simple secret: It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.'" A fox, that has spent its days observing men and their habits, surely would have derived the morals that govern the people that can se life for more than wealth and status. Unlike the children and people who know what their goals are, the adults depicted are always wistful of other things - money, power, material, and mundane objects. The second important theme I have learned from The Little Prince is not to let all the new developments and material things our rapidly developing society has to offer take away that which has always been most important in life. When the little prince meets the merchant selling pills, which he claims will quench thirst, saving a calculated fifty-three minutes from every week spent drinking, he asks, "'And what do I do with those fifty-three minutes?' 'Anything you like...' 'As for me,' said the little prince to himself, 'if I had fifty-three minutes to spend as I liked, I should walk at my leisure toward a spring of fresh water.'" People in modern society have developed such things that advertising claims to make their lives easier and more efficient. They drink bottled water and eat pre-packaged meals; and they would much rather prefer taking diet pills than exercising off extra pounds. "How old fashioned," most of us would probably reply to the little prince's desire to use those extra minutes to walk to a fresh spring. But this kind of stay-convenient and technologically-dependent attitude of modern society is what may very well lead to a foreshadowed depression (and has already begun its process) - if anything at all. Yet another important message I wanted to mention that relates to the latter theme is the extreme importance of preserving true friendship in our lives, which is quickly fading. Being a friend will give an unfallible uniqueness and undying quality to life that nothing else can imitate. During
a conversation with a fox, the little prince learns that "'Men have no more time to understand anything. They buy things all ready made at the shops. But there is no shop anywhere where one can buy friendship and so men have no friends anymore...'" As I look around my high school environment, it is as if the most dramatic change has occurred. Beauty, wealth, and social status has so vastly superseded the original qualities people once looked for in a friend, such as trust and compassion, that I cannot stress the importance of this theme enough. When the little prince encountered the many thousands of roses, contradictory to what his single beloved rose told him on his planet, he did not give up that love for his rose, even though there were so many that looked like her. He simply told them about his fox friend: "'...He was only a fox like a hundred thousand other foxes. But I have made him my friend, and now he is unique in all the world.' And the roses were very much embarrassed. 'You are beautiful, but you are empty,' he went on. 'One could not die for you...but in herself alone [his rose] she is more important than all the hundreds of you other roses...'" Like a field of beautiful women the little prince could easily have given in to, the little prince much preferred his one rose to all the hundreds of them. This kind of friendship and love is so rare to find, because as said earlier, "'...there is no shop anywhere where one can buy friendship...'" and is one of the few things people have left yet to survive on.
The story begins when the narrator depicts his childhood, when he drew many creative pictures and showed them to adults but was disheartened by their crude comments. He says he then gave up his potential career of an artist and putting his creativity to use, and instead became a pilot, because it was what the adults believed was sensible. One day, his plane crashes and lands in the middle of the Sahara Desert. There he meets the little prince, who instructs him to draw a sheep. Learning pieces about the strange prince through their conversations, the narrator pilot finds his little friend has come from an asteroid, B-612. The little prince took great care of his asteroid, preventing baobabs - destructive plants - and other unwanted things from destroying his home. One day, a rose appears on his asteroid, and as he cares for it most deeply, thinking she is the most wonderful, special creature ever - he is depressed to assume that she does not love him back. The little prince then leaves his asteroid and rose. As he lands on many asteroids, each one is occupied by a different adult. First, he meets the king, a man attempting to rule over the universe and the stars. The monarch, however, does not realize the will of his presumed subjects, who do not even know they are being 'ruled' over because of natural instincts. He covers up his lack of understanding for these things by saying, "'Accepted authority rests first of all on reason. If you ordered your people to go and throw themselves into the sea, they would rise up in revolution. I have the right to require obedience because my orders are reasonable.'" As he continues his journey, he meets more
and more seemingly pathetic people - a conceited man who believes the little prince is only an admirer; a tippler who is attempting to drink his problems away; a businessman too busy to stop his work for anything; a lamplighter who does nothing but light his lamp, day and night; and a geographer who cannot complete his work because there is no explorer. Next, the little prince goes to earth, where he meets a snake, who is very much pleased in the prince's company because of his innocence and honesty in all matters, and says his bite can send them back to their homes (where they truly belong). He then finds a flower; an echo, of which he believes is mocking him; many roses (which depress him, because the rose on his planet had told him she was the only one of her kind in the universe); and a fox, whom he befriends and attempts to tame. He also meets some humans, who seem highly peculiar to him - a railway switchman who is unsatisfied, and knows people are unsatisfied, except for children, who are the only ones that know what they are looking for; and a merchant, who sells pills that, will quench thirst and save valuable time. This is the end of the little prince's told story, the part where he ends up in the desert with the narrator pilot. They finally find a well to quench their thirst, and share an understanding moment when they both know that people no longer see what is most important in life but lead mechanical, empty lives. However, the little prince misses his homeland dreadfully, and finds the snake to bite him and send him back to his asteroid. Before he leaves, he gives the narrator a gift of "laughing stars," something no one else in the universe has. The narrator, with his newfound friend and outlook on life, then proceeds to examine the lovely and sad landscape of the desert and the lone star of the little prince, shining in the night sky.
The Little Prince
of the two protagonists of the story.
After leaving his home planet and his beloved rose, the prince journeys around the universe, ending up on Earth. Frequently perplexed by the behavior of grown-ups, the prince symbolizes the hope, love, innocence, and insight of childhood that lie dormant in all of us. Though the prince is sociable and meets a number of characters as he travels, he never stops loving and missing the rose on his home planet.
lonely pilot who, while stranded in the desert,
befriends the little prince. They spend eight days together in the desert before the little prince returns to his home planet. Although he is discouraged from drawing early in his life because adults cannot understand his drawings, the narrator illustrates his own story and makes several drawings for the little prince. The narrator is a grown-up, but his view of the world is more like a child's than an adult's. After the little prince departs, the narrator feels both refreshed and saddened.
The Rose A coquettish flower who has trouble expressing her love
for the little prince and consequently drives him away. Simultaneously vain and naïve, she informs the little prince of her love for him too late to persuade him to stay home and not to travel. Throughout the story, she occupies the prince's thoughts and heart.
The Fox Although the fox asks the little prince to tame him, the fox
is in some ways the more knowledgeable of the two characters, and he helps steer the prince toward what is important in life. In the secret the fox tells the little prince before they say their good-byes, the fox sums up three important lessons: only the heart can see correctly; the prince's time away from his planet has made him appreciate his rose more; and love entails responsibility.
The Snake The first character the prince meets on Earth, who
ultimately sends the prince back to the heavens by biting him. A constant enigma, the snake speaks in riddles and evokes the snake of the Bible, which incites Adam and Eve's eviction from Eden by luring them into eating the forbidden fruit.
, harmless trees on Earth, pose a great threat to smaller planets like the prince's if left unchecked. They can squeeze whole planets to pieces with their roots. Although baobabs have no malicious opinions or intentions, they represent the grave danger that can befall people who are too lazy or indifferent to keep a wary eye on the world around them.
the first planet the little prince visits, he encounters a king who claims to rule the entire universe. While not unkindly, the king's power is empty. He is able to command people to do only what they already would do.
The Vain Man The sole resident of the second planet the little
prince visits. The vain man is lonely and craves admiration from all who pass by. However, only by being alone is he assured of being the richest and best-looking man on his planet.
third person the little prince encounters after leaving home is a drunkard, who spends his days and nights lost in a stupor. The drunkard is a sad figure, but he is also foolish because he drinks to forget that he is ashamed of drinking.
caricature of grown-ups who is the fourth person the little prince visits. Too busy even to greet his visitor, the businessman owns all the stars. Yet he cannot remember what they are called and contributes nothing to them. Although the little prince comments on the oddity of the grown-ups he meets, the businessman is the only character the prince actively chastises.
fifth and most complex figure the prince encounters before landing on Earth. At first, the lamplighter appears to be yet another ridiculous character with no real purpose, but his selfless devotion to his orders earns him the little prince's admiration. Of all the adults the little prince encounters before reaching Earth, the lamplighter is the only one the prince thinks he could befriend.
sixth and final character the little prince encounters before he lands on Earth. Although the geographer is apparently well-read, he refuses to learn about his own planet, saying it is a job for explorers. He recommends that the little prince visit Earth and his comments on the ephemeral nature of flowers reveal to the prince that his own flower will not last forever.
The Railway Switchman
railway switchman works at the hub for the enormous trains that rush back and forth carrying dissatisfied adults from one place to the other. He has more perspective on life than the unhappy, thoughtless passengers his trains ferry. He agrees with the prince that the children are the only ones who appreciate and enjoy the beauty of the train rides.
salesclerk sells pills that quench thirst on the grounds that people can save up to fifty-three minutes a day if they don't have to stop to drink. He symbolizes the modern world's misplaced emphasis on saving time and taking shortcuts.
The Roses in the Rose Garden The Three-Pedaled Flower
sight of the rose garden first leads the prince to believe that his flower is not, in fact, unique. However, with the fox's guidance, the prince realizes that even so many similar flowers cannot stop his own rose from being unique.
three-petaled flower lives alone in the desert, watching the occasional caravan pass by. She mistakenly informs the prince that there are only a handful of men in the world and that their lack of roots means they are often blown along.
The Little Prince's Echo
little prince's echo is not really a character, but the little prince mistakes it for one. When he shouts from a mountaintop, he hears his echo and believes that Earth people simply repeat what is said to them.
The Turkish Astronomer - The first human to
discover the prince's home, Asteroid B-612. When the Turkish astronomer first presents his discovery, no one believes him on account of his Turkish costume. Years later, he makes the same presentation wearing Western clothes, and his discovery is well received. The scientific community's treatment of the Turkish astronomer reveals that ignorance propels xenophobia (a fear or hatred of foreigners) and racism.
Point of View The Little Prince is told in the first person point of view. The author knows only what his character, the pilot, has experienced first-hand and what the little prince has told him. At times the author speaks of his encounters with the little prince. At other times he tells of events that happened to him separately. At others, he narrates an inner dialogue, but in each case, he is telling the story from the first person viewpoint. When the story begins, the author (the pilot) tells us about his life before he became a pilot. He explains the reaction he inspired in adults with his drawings. While he cannot know the real thoughts and feelings behind the actions of those he refers to, he is able to provide insight into the characters
The Little Prince is often lonely and fragile-sounding, much like the little prince himself, when he ventures into the world of adults in an attempt to understand them. The writer emphasizes, throughout the story, that loneliness is what isolates the adults rather than children because they are unable to see things with their minds, hearts, and imagination. Both the protagonist (the little prince) and secondary protagonist (the narrator) lead lonely lives because of this isolation due to the differences between the minds of children and adults. "So I lived my life alone, without anyone that I could really talk to," writes the narrator, before his plane crashes in the middle of the Sahara. He explains this in the first few chapters - living his life alone - because this 'world of grownups' does not understand him and wishes for him to talk of their idea of 'sensible' and 'practical' things. This made him very lonely, not so much in a physical sense, but so that he could never really find anyone to relate to. The narrator explains that after flat responses to his imaginative observations to things, "'Then I would never talk to that person about boa constrictors, or primeval forests, or stars. I would bring myself down to his level. I would talk to him about
bridge, and gold, and politics, and neckties. And the grown-up would be greatly pleased to have met such a sensible man.'" In one of my magazines is an article called, "Popularity Truths & Lies," where popular girls talk about their social status. In large, red print, it says, "Lie: Popular girls are never left out or lonely." The girls then go on to explain how sometimes, they feel as if they are making so many friends only because of their popularity. They say that it's great to be popular, but difficult to find someone that really wants to befriend them for true qualities rather than social status. The situations between the narrator of The Little Prince and these popular students is that it seems that they would never be isolated (popular students from their admiring peers and the supposedly sensible-minded narrator from the adult world) - physically, at least - but inside the kind of friend they are really longing for is someone to understand and honestly talk to in order to end the abstract barriers between these worlds of people. The narrator was also very lonely as a child, because he would draw creative pictures and show them to adults, who would dishearten him with ignorant comments rather than praise for his use of imagination. "The grown-ups' response, this time, was to advise me to lay aside my drawings of boa constrictors, whether from the inside or the outside, and devote myself instead to geography, history, arithmetic and grammar. That is why, at the age of six, I gave up what might have been a magnificent career as a painter. I had been disheartened by the failure of my Drawing Number One and my Drawing Number Two. Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them." His childhood loneliness progressed throughout his life until adulthood, not only because he was misunderstood, but was given a lasting impression as a young boy. His encounters with failure in the form of inability to please, a frequent social isolation factor for people in many situations (because they become afraid to assert their ideas), became a permanent breach in the worlds between himself and adults. A sad tone also plays a major role in The Little Prince. Because he and the narrator feel so lonely in the adult world, they are cast about, feeling depressed. The little prince also feels sad and confused when he ventures among the adults from each asteroid, because he cannot comprehend the way they go about leading their misunderstood lives. The little prince often enjoys looking at sunsets, and during a conversation with the narrator, he says, "'One day'...'I saw the sunset forty-four times!' And a little later you added: 'You know - one loves the sunset, when one is so sad...' 'Were you so sad, then?' I asked, 'on the day of the forty-four sunsets?' But the little prince made no reply." The little prince admits himself that he loves the sunsets and is sad when he watches them - he can't explain why he feels this way, but can't help the feeling either - like people's emotions after a bad dream, sometimes they can't explain why they feel sad or angry, because the dream isn't physically happening but has instead, a surreal quality - but it reminds them of something that could actually be real. The strangely depressing feeling is just like the little prince's reaction to sunsets and the overall tone of the story (because sunsets frequent the novel).
On his own asteroid, B-612, the little prince left behind a single, beloved rose. He'd cared for her, believing she was the most special, beautiful creature and that there was only one of her kind in the universe but when he arrived on earth, he discovered rosebushes filled with many roses. And his reaction: "...he was overcome with sadness. His flower had told him that she was the only one of her kind in all the universe. And here were five thousand of them, all alike, in one single garden!" Feeling a strong sense of mistrust and betrayal for his much-loved and cherished rose due to this paradoxical discovery, the little prince could not be blamed for the wave of misery that overtook him. The depression he felt while discovering this, caused by feelings of betrayal, is like the pain in learning about a partner's unfaithfulness in a romantic relationship. The little prince and the rose loved each other, even if not in the romantic sense, and when he discovered how the rose had mislead him, he was wounded so deeply because his love was great. This kind of sadness is so prevalent in literature and film because many can relate to it, and is the kind the Little Prince must cope with.
Zerlin P. Duran
IV-2 (Abad Santos)
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