CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1.

1 GENERAL In a remote area there used to be two general solutions for its electrification making a connection to the closest grid or using diesel generation to get self-sufficiency. Both methods are incredibly expensive and that is the origin for the hybrid systems, which means the combination between that dispatch able diesel source and a renewable one. Wind-diesel Hybrid Power Systems are designed to provide electrical generating capacity to remote communities and facilities that are not linked to a power grid. The introduction of wind-diesel hybrid systems reduces reliance on diesel fuel, which creates pollution and is costly to transport. Wind energy has received considerable public attention since the last decade, and has been the fastest growing energy source. The global installed wind capacity is expected to grow much more rapidly in the next decade as many policies around the world have implemented or are in the process of implementing policies such as Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) [5]. Acceptance of the RPS is a commitment to produce a specified percentage of the total power generation from renewable sources within a certain date. Most of this renewable energy will come from wind as other renewable sources are not very suitable for bulk power generation. Wind energy is non-depleting, site-dependent, non-polluting, and a potential source of the alternative energy option. The first wind turbine for electricity generation has already been developed at the ending of the 19th century. During the winter of 1887-88, Brush built is today believed to be the first automatically operating wind turbine for electricity generation. It has been a giant in size but with a capacity of 12 kW. At the beginning of the 20th century, the research institute began to pay attention of wind power technology, and the first wind power journal has been published by Poul la Cour (1846-1908) [1]. During the period of 1940-1950, two significant technical improvements have been made: first, the 3 blades structure of wind turbine; second, AC generator replaced DC generator. In the 1970s, the oil crisis rekindled the interests of wind power. The capacity of wind power units has increased to several hundred kW. From 1980, a wind turbine of MW has begun to be implemented in power system. Moreover, another direction of wind technology is to
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reduce the cost, which is one major difficulty, which wind power researchers has faced. By the end of the 1990s, the wind power has re-emerged as one of the most important sustainable energy resources. The wind power is expected to play a comparatively significant role in the future national energy scene [1]. At the beginning of 2004, the total installed capacity of wind energy systems all over the world reached 39 GW with an annual growth rate of about 30% [2]. It is predicted that 12% of the total world electricity demands is expected to be supply from wind energy by 2020 [3]. As for Canada, the total wind energy production now is 1451 MW with an annual average growth rate of about 35% [4]. The main goal to be achieved, as reported by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (Can-WEA), is to generate more than 10GW electricity from wind energy by 2010 (10 X 10 Canada Wind Vision Program) [4]. Diesel generators also known as Generation sets, provide reliable power when properly maintained. The initial cost of a complete diesel power system is also relatively low. They can be easily transported and are having low-technical problems which aids in their reliability and ensures ease of operation. Consumption of fuel takes place even at zero loads [5]. In some areas of the world where wind power is not abundant other forms of renewable energy such as solar and hydro power can be used and in some cases the diesel generator has been done away with all together. Hybrid systems range in size from a few Kw to several Mw of power. The variable nature of most renewable energy sources means that hybrid systems often have to have extensive control systems so that demand can met and power quality assured. Hybrid systems can guarantee the certainty of meeting load demands at all times at reasonable cost, for certain latitudes and escapes of the total dependency of the resources of the hydrocarbons and the economic viability of some other energetic alternatives.

1.2 HYBRID SYSTEMS The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to cater to the present day demands. Alternative energy resources such as solar, wind, ocean thermal and tidal have attracted
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energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. However, solar and wind energy systems are being considered as promising power generating sources due to availability and the topological advantages in local power generation. It is prudent that neither standalone wind energy system nor solar system can provide a continuous supply of energy due to seasonal that combine solar and wind generating units with battery backups are implemented to satisfy the load demand. A great deal of research and has been carried out on hybrid energy systems with respect to performance, optimization, integration with diesel /biomass systems and other related parameters of significance. Power systems using multiple generation sources can be more accurately described by the term ‘hybrid power systems’ [6]. Hybrid power systems range from small systems designed for one or several homes to very large ones for remote island grids or large communities. Alternative energy resources such as solar, wind, ocean thermal and tidal have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. However, solar and wind energy systems are being considered as promising power generating sources due to availability and the topological advantages in local power generation. It is prudent that neither standalone wind energy system nor solar system can provide a continuous supply of energy due to seasonal that combine solar and wind generating units with battery backups are implemented to satisfy the load demand [7]. Power systems utilizing renewable energy such as wind, solar and micro-hydro require control methods to maintain stability due to the real time variation of input energy and load, while maximizing the use of renewable resources. In such cases, the WDPS(Wind Diesel Power System) serves an entire isolated load and is responsible for maintaining frequency and voltage stability (dynamic performance). The main focus in WDPS design is to secure both fuel saving of diesel generator unit and reliable power supply to load. Using, diesel generator installed capacity is sized to meet the peak power demand, but is used in practice to supply power only when the wind power output is insufficient to meet the load demand. 1.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF THE HYBRID SYSTEMS • Optimum utilization of renewable energy sources in a remote area

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production. • Choice of the system configuration Load profile determination of the area to be served (seasonal/monthly/yearly) Sizing of the system components and switchgear. service and maintenance when required. the hybrid systems batteries meet the daily load fluctuation. Most eco friendly and clean source of power.2. The hybrid systems provide more consistent year round renewable energy Lying of the expensive grid line. NPV etc) 4 • • • . 1.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF HYBRID ENERG SYSTEMS The design of hybrid energy systems involves the following steps • Selection of the energy resources to be used (this will depend on the of potential of different renewable energy resources in the area). transmission and distribution losses can be Eliminates any associated expensive electricity bills. and the diesel generator takes care of the long term fluctuations. • • • • • Designed for easy to operate. eliminated.• • The certainty of meeting load demands at all times is greatly enhanced by the In some hybrids.2.2 TYPES OF THE HYBRID SYSTEMS • • • • • • Solar and wind Hybrid system Wind and Diesel Hybrid system Solar and Diesel Hybrid system Wind and Diesel and Fuel cell Hybrid system Wind and micro-Hyde Hybrid system Wind diesel and solar Hybrid system 1. batteries are used in addition to the diesel generator. These systems are modular and can be expand easily. distribution networks etc. Economic analysis of the project (payback.

Das D.Yeager KE. K.• • • • Environmental/socio-economic evaluation for sustainability Provision for expansion.Sebastian [9] has proposed a control technique for smooth transition from wind to wind diesel mode and vice versa for high penetration autonomous wind diesel hybrid system with battery storage. an integrated numerical algorithm is build to estimate the energy autonomy configuration of the hybrid system. Kothari D. S.Sebastian. 1.Karki.K. conservation and high efficiency.NJImur.Stott.Mueller. J. P. 0. land costs and environmental clearances Testing of the system design through simulation exercises.Ramdan [11] Explained about production cost evaluation for wind diesel system using probalistic techniques.Chedid and R. Aditya. the system is ready for the implementation stage. R. H. Modification of the system configuration on the basis of simulation feedback Once the main considerations have been finalized. S.The goal is to design an intelligent controller to maintain a good power quality under varying wind and load conditions.3 LITERATURE REVIEW Many in recent past have carried out research in Hybrid systems.H.A.[14] has given a new topology for a fully variable speed hybrid 5 . Roy.A.Lee [8] described an intelligent controller based on a neural network for a winddiesel power system . Hope [13] has proposed an adaptive control technique for fuel flow into diesel engine. R. The subsequent performance of the system will then be governed by appropriate system management strategies. along with the representative calculation results based on the developed mathematical model. Willis JR [12] has proposed a Modeling of diesel generators in a nuclear power plant and explained about designing actuator and speed governor system for diesel generator set. Accordingly. SK. J Quesada [7] has proposed distributed control system (DCS) by analyzing the control requirements for frequency control in different modes of operation and described the actuation of its sensor and actuator nodes for isolated wind systems. T.P [10] has focused on dynamics of diesel and wind turbine generators on an isolated power system. Malik and G. which can promote local employment.S. P.Ko.Kaladellis [6] has focused on presenting a detailed mathematical model describing the operational behavior of the basic hybrid system components.Y. R. S. M.B.

The proposed work is organized in following chapters Chapter I: This chapter deals with the introduction to the hybrid power systems based on Wind diesel system. Fault analysis on wind diesel system and future work.4 OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS The work presented in this thesis is divided into six chapters which include the literature review. Chapter II: 6 . Arafah introduced a hybrid systems combining wind energy conversion systems and diesel generators are considered one of the alternatives to feed demands at lower energy cost and acceptance reliability 1. Shawki H. Roberto Cardenas [16] introduced a indirect vector scheme control structure for a variable speed wind diesel energy system based on doubly fed induction generators to provide an energy to an isolated load. Ruben pena.smooth transition from wind to wind diesel mode and its control circuit. Chad Abbey [15] introduced an energy-flow model developed for performance analysis and unit sizing of an autonomous wind-diesel Microgrid. types and advantages of hybrid system . and overall efficiency of the diesel plant. A. The model is employed to analyze the interaction of wind and diesel power plants in order to identify alternative unit sizing approaches that improve wind-energy absorption rate of the wind plant.Fadia M.This chapter also presents literature review and various control schemes for voltage and frequency are reported in the literature on wind diesel hybrid power systems. This scheme uses a common DC bus enable super and sub synchronous operations of both machines .wind/diesel power system modeled in Matlab/ Slimulink. Finally integration of a variable speed wind turbine and new variable speed diesel generator through the DC-link stage of an AC/DC/AC power converter has been simulated to establish compatibility Farid Katiraei. Ghali. Voltage and frequency control with fixed speed wind turbine and variable speed wind turbine for a wind diesel system . system description. The load matching capabilities of the variable speed diesel generator to wind speed drops in the hybrid system are then assessed. Use of the variable speed diesel generators is shown to increase the fuel savings over a constant speed generator in a hybrid system.

This chapter describes about the dynamic model equations of the wind turbine. different types of wind turbine systems. diesel only mode and wind diesel mode. A growing number of viable sites have now been developed with increased reliability of the systems. modeling of diesel engine and its speed control Chapter III: This chapter deals with dynamic performance of wind diesel system (with fixed wind speed turbine) in different modes of operation such as wind only mode. Chapter IV: This chapter deals with the operation of smooth transition model from wind to wind diesel mode and the proposed control circuit Chapter V: This chapter deals with dynamic performance of wind diesel system (with Variable wind speed turbine) in wind diesel mode. Performance of wind diesel system with a transmission line between them and.1 GENERAL Wind-diesel generating systems have been under development and trialed in a number of locations during the latter part of the 20th century. Performance of wind diesel system with a transmission line between them and fault analysis to ensure the system stability are also discussed is also discussed. Chapter VI: This chapter deals with the conclusions drawn on the basis of work carried out. This is key to their 7 . CHAPTER-II WIND AND DIESEL ENERGY SYSTEM 2. More over the scope of further work is also enlisted in brief. fault analysis to ensure the system stability are also discussed.

mainly for grinding grain or pumping water. drive or coupling device. Fixed speed can only operate at a fixed speed. generator. The tip speed ratio λ in pu of λ_nom is obtained by the division of the rational speed in pu of the base rotational speed and the wind speed in pu of the base wind speed. converter and control system.Wind mills have been used for at least 3000 years. Variable speed wind turbines use doubly fed induction machine (DFIG) or permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) as the generator. rotor. The three inputs are the generator speed (ωr_pu) in pu of the nominal speed of the generator. as minimizing the cost of technical support in remote communities is vital for the ongoing development and implementation of this technology. converter and control system.1 WIND TURBINE MODEL IN SIMULINK The Simulink model of the wind turbine is illustrated in the following figure2. and use induction machine as generators.success. nacelle (gearbox and generator drive).Fixed speed wind turbine and variable speed wind turbine. While operational speed of variable speed wind turbine can variant with a constant frequency. The output is the torque applied to the generator shaft. 2. 8 . generator. Wind turbine model can be mainly divided into 3 parts: mechanical drive and control.1. Wind turbines can be classified to 2 types . If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery such as pumping or grinding stones. A wind turbine (WT) consists of turbine blades.2 WIND TURBINE Wind turbine is a machine that converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy.2. while in sailing ships the wind has been an essential source of power for even longer. the machine is called a windmill [18]. shaft. among which the model of the generator is most important 2. the pitch angle in degrees and the wind speed in m/s.

6 0 .2 0 0 . is illustrated below.4m 4 /s 1 .73) and base rotational speed = 1. The power coefficient is a function of both tip speed ratio λ and blade pitch angle β.2 /s 1p u 9 m .4 /s 7 m .2 1 0 M x. The tip speed ratio.8m 0 /s 1 .8 T rb esp e (p o n m a g n ra r sp e ) u in e d u f o in l e e to e d 1 1 .6 0 .8 a o e t a in e d 2 /s) n e e 0 .2.2 Wind turbine characteristics for different wind speeds 2.2 1 . p w r a b sew dsp e (1 m a db ta= 0d g .4 0 . This figure is obtained with the default parameters (base wind speed = 12 m/s.2.6 /s 1 m 2 /s 1 . for different wind speeds and for blade pitch angle β = 0 degree.bb ed ) ta a -1 A v o id d iv is io n b y z e ro 1 T m(p )u Fig. The turbine power characteristics for different values of turbine speed at a pitch angle 0o are illustrated in Fig 2.2 6m /s 0 -0 .4 0 .4 8 m .1 Simulink Model of Wind turbine The mechanical power Pm as a function of generator speed. Turbine output power (pu of nominal mechanical power) T rb eP w r C a cte u in o e h ra ristics (P a g b ta= 0d g itch n le e e) 1 . which is defined as the ratio of speed at the blade tip to the wind speed can be given as [10]. maximum power at base wind speed = 0. 9 .2 WIND TURBINE GENERATING SYSTEMS The wind turbine continuously extracts the kinetic energy of the wind by decelerating the air mass and feeds to the generator as a mechanical power.2. Fraction of mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.2 0 .2 pu).73 pu (kp = 0.2m 3 /s Fig.W 3 in d (m /s) -K - w i_ sn p _ep eu d d u (1 )^ 3 w i _n s d p e^ 3 e d P w _ pi n u d P _mp u s p e e d 1 /w i _n b d a s e A v o id d iv is io n b y z e ro -K p -u> p u P ro d u c t c _p u p -K 1 G e n e r a t(p o )u r s p e e d p -u> p u l a m _p b u d a -K - la m b d a la m b e ta b d a c p -K 1 /c _pn o m P r o d u c t l a m _ bn do am 2 P i t c h (d a e )n g g l e c (lp a m .2.

for different values of the pitch angle ß. Pm = c p( λ. for different values of the pitch angle ß. This particular value of λ is defined as the nominal value ( λnom ).48) is achieved for ß = 0 degree and for λ = 8. are illustrated in Fig.3 TYPES OF WIND TURBINES Wind turbines can operate with either fixed speed (actually within a speed range about 1 %) or variable speed.2. the generator (induction generator) 10 .λ= Rω V (1) The output power of the turbine is given by the following equation.2.1. 2. For fixed-speed wind turbines. The maximum value of c p ( c p max = 0. β) ρA 3 v wind 2 (2) The turbine performance coefficient can be determined from the following equation c c p (λ .3 c p − λ characteristics. β )= 1c (2 λi − 3c β−c ) e 4 − c5 λi 6 c + λ (3) Fig. The c p − λ characteristics.3.

the power quality impact caused by the wind turbine can be improved compared to a fixed-speed turbine [27]. 3. Since the speed is almost fixed to the grid frequency. • • • • Fixed-speed wind turbine with an induction generator.4.is directly connected to the grid. Variable-speed wind turbine equipped with a cage-bar induction generator or Synchronous generator. for a fixed-speed system the turbulence of the wind results in power variations. and most certainly not controllable. The rotational speed of a wind turbine is fairly low and must therefore be adjusted to the electrical frequency. The number of pole pairs sets the mechanical speed of the generator with respect to the electrical frequency and the gearbox adjusts the rotor speed of the turbine to the mechanical speed of the generator. Variable-speed wind turbine equipped with a doubly-fed induction generator. which makes it possible to control the rotor speed.1 FIXED SPEED WIND TURBINE For the fixed-speed wind turbine the induction generator is directly connected to the electrical grid according to Fig. This can be done in two ways: with a gearbox or with the number of pole pairs of the generator. The rotor speed of the fixed-speed wind turbine is 11 .3. • 2. and thus affects the power quality of the grid [19]. Hence. Multiple-pole permanent-magnet synchronous generator. In this section the following wind turbine systems are presented. Variable-speed wind turbine equipped with multiple-pole synchronous Generator. For a variable-speed wind turbine. it is not possible to store the turbulence of the wind in form of rotational energy. the generator is controlled by power electronic equipment. In this way the power fluctuations caused by wind variations can be more or less absorbed by changing the rotor speed [20] and thus power variations originating from the wind conversion and the drive train can be reduced. Therefore.

The generator could either be a cage-bar induction generator or a synchronous generator.3. consists of a wind turbine with doubly-fed induction Generator. 2.5 Variable-speed wind turbine with a synchronous/induction generator.Gearbox IG Soft Starter Transformer AC Mains Capacitor bank Fig.6). or it can be a generator with two windings having different ratings and pole pairs [21]. 28]. G ear box G Pow er electronic converter T ransform er AC M ains Fig. This is accomplished by using two generators with different ratings and pole pairs.2 VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE The system presented in Fig.4 Fixed-speed wind turbine with an induction generator . 3. This system has recently become 12 .2.3.3 VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE WITHDFIG This proposed system (Fig. In principle determined by a gearbox and the pole-pair number of the generator. 2. 2. The gearbox is designed so that maximum rotor speed corresponds to rated speed of the generator [22.2. The fixed-speed wind turbine system has often two fixed speeds.5 consists of a wind turbine equipped with a converter connected to the stator of the generator. This means that the stator is directly connected to the grid while the rotor winding is connected via slip rings to a converter.

1 SPEED CONTROL OF DIESEL ENGINE Speed control of power generation plants driven by diesel prime-movers is difficult because of the presence of a dead time and changes in parameters. This is mainly due to the fact that the power electronic converter only has to handle a fraction (20–30%) of the total power [23.2.Transformer Gear box DFIG AC Mains Rotor VSC Grid VSC Power electronic converter Fig. This significantly degrades the performance of the prime mover under disturbances.6 Variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). 29 and 30]. This results in slow plant dynamics. compared to a system where the converter has to handle the total power. or where local demand for additional power necessitates augmentation of power source.4 DIESEL ENGINE Diesel engines are a common part of our everyday lives and they widely used in automobiles and other applications. it is imperative that control techniques that are fast converging. and involve low computational burden. popular as generators for variable-speed wind turbines [23]. 2. By using indirect estimation of the dead time and recursive least 13 . 2. the cost of the converter becomes lower due to their reduced rating. Since the response of the prime mover itself is fast. Diesel prime-movers are attractive for applications requiring fast responding backups at the time of peak load demands. and also of the engine speed. the losses in the power electronic converter can be reduced. Therefore.4. The dead time of the diesel engine is non-linear function of operating conditions. Although certain PID schemes presently in use give acceptable performance [13]. Self tuning PID controller based on indirect estimation of the dead time is proposed resulting in fast response at the startup and quick recovery. In addition. when a disturbance occurs.

3 MODELING OF DIESEL ENGINE There are many methods for modeling diesel engine. especially in case of a load. A diesel engine is a nonlinear system together with a nonlinear. 4.squares parameter estimation. Comparison of a k-predictive adaptive controller. Combination of neural network and fuzzy logic approaches 3.5(a) shows the actuator model and the current driver constant K3 [13]. The output of the actuator is the fuel-flow ‘υ’. The general structure of the fuel actuator system is usually represented as a first order phase lag network. It is usually modeled by a simple first order relating the fuel consumption (fuel rack position) to the engine mechanical power [24]. The task of the governor is to adjust the fuel flow and then regulate the input of the engine and the generator so as to provide the required power to meet changing in the load. which is characterized by gain K2 and time constant τ2. time-varying dead time between the injection and production of the mechanical torque. There are also system parameter uncertainties which together with the varying dead time significantly degrade the performance of the prime mover. 2. 14 . Fig . Typical diesel engine model describes the fuel consumption rate as a function of speed and mechanical power at the output of the engine.4. an explicit estimate of the plant parameters and dead time is obtained.2 METHODS OF SPEED CONTROL OF DIESEL ENGINES 1.4. with comparison of those a kpredictive adaptive controller method is used most widely. It is commonly controlled with a PI controller to prevent steady-state error in speed. The presence of dead-time between the actuator fuel injection and the production of mechanical torque is very important characteristic of the diesel engine. An adaptive speed controller method 2. An H∞ controller for diesel engine systems. 2.

The fuel consumption rate per Kw of power is increase at lower loads and fuel 15 . 2. electro hydraulic. electronic. K3 is a factor that determines the amount of the mechanical torque obtained per unit of fuel flow. Standard diesel generators are fitted with synchronous generators and consequently are controlled to run at a constant speed to guarantee constant electrical frequency. To achieve this dump loads may need to be installed at extra cost to the consumer.4 DIESEL GENERATORS Diesel generators also known as Gensets. The values K3 and K2 can be considered to be constant for a particular engine setup. direct mechanical type. They can be easily transported and are low-tech which aids in their reliability and ensures ease of operation. K3 depends on the operating point of the prime mover. Fig.8 the Diesel Engine Model The governor can be defined as a mechanical or electromechanical device for automatically controlling the speed of an engine by relating the intake of the fuel.4. Fig 2. 5(b). 5(c) Shows the block diagram of diesel engine model with permanent magnet generator.The engine torque constant K1 which can be represented by the model of the diesel engine as shown in Fig. provide reliable power when properly maintained. most of the engines manufacturers recommend their plants be operated no lower than 40% of rated capacity in order to prolong diesel engine lifetime.Fig 2. Due to the poor efficiency at low load. and microprocessor based governors.7 The Actuator Model and the current driver constant The fuel flow then converted to mechanical torque ‘q’ after time delay τ1 [13]. The initial cost of a complete diesel power system is also relatively low. So far they sound like the ideal solution for the given application but where they fall down is in the environmental and running costs. Several types of governors exist as mechanical-hydraulic. Self tuning PID controller based on indirect estimation of the dead time is proposed for control system.

particularly in the remote areas with diesel engines. Fig 2.9 shows the schematic diagram of diesel engine with Permanent Magnet Generator where K in the fig is equal to K1*K2*K3. interest in medium to large scale (100kw to multi-MW) winddiesel hybrid power systems for rural electrification has grown enormously among 16 .1 GENERAL In the last several years. Typical values of system parameters were given in Appendix A. the main push for the variable speed revolution is the inherent problems of fixed speed minimum operating load and poor efficiency at low load. Recent advancements in power electronics and control strategies have made it possible to regulate the voltage of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) in many different ways. Fig 2. This has resulted in renewed interest in PM synchronous generators.consumption at no load is still 15-30% of the full load value. small-scale power generation with small hydro heads and wind power. Permanent magnet synchronous generator is used as variable speed diesel generator for most of the applications.9 Block diagram of Diesel engine model with Permanent Magnet Generator CHAPTER-III WIND DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEM 3. At low loads the speed of the generator will be reduced ensuring the engine is running optimally in terms of fuel economy. Due to the above considerations the variable speed diesel generators were recommended.

Only a small fraction of researchers and engineers working in the wind power industry. This is true for low penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems. Since 1995.2 MAIN PRINCIPLE The power output from wind turbines varies during the day according to the variations in wind speed. In a small and isolated grid the power balance between production and consumption has to be continuously maintained in order to keep frequency of the small grid within predefined limits. the fluctuating wind power and the diesel power must be maintained by 17 . As the wind power does not supply constantly.energy officials and utility planners in the developing countries. only slightly more complicated than a conventional grid-connected installation. the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL has been researching wind-diesel hybrid power systems. requiring only a few ancillary components at a relatively modest cost. which is relatively small itself. This thesis focuses to some of the control challenges faced by developers of wind-diesel systems. In a large grid these variations and fluctuations in wind power are absorbed by the strong grid. system stability and long term performance. the power balance between the consumption. are involved in hybrid systems for off-grid applications. 3. for high penetration systems much more sophisticated controllers and more extensive components in addition to the wind turbines are required. It is tempting to view the addition of wind turbines to a diesel mini-grid or isolated system as a straight forward task. thus controlling frequency and voltage. There is therefore relatively little information available on the technical issues involved in implementing a wind-diesel power system.

Figs 3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

DIESEL GOVERNOR

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

INDUCTION MACHINE

WIND TURBINE

EXCITER BLOCK

CAPACITOR BANK

SYSTEM LOAD

DUMP LOAD

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Regulating the output of diesel generator to maintain system integrity of diesel generators, the following two strategies are possible [5]. Fig.3.1 shows the model of hybrid system. •

Running the diesel continuously with some minimum load requirement Starting and stopping the diesel to make up instantaneous wind short falls.

System which allows shutting down the diesel generator during the high wind power availability (high wind speeds) is called as high penetration wind diesel system. 3.2.1 FREQUENCY CONTROL Control of the hybrid power system frequency is maintained by the fast control of the power balance between the fluctuating wind power, the dump load bank (electrical heating elements) and the consumer load. In periods where the diesel engine is in operation the frequency is controlled by the diesel engine governor. In periods with 100% wind power, the frequency is controlled by absorbing the surplus wind energy in a dynamic variable dump load or load bank. 3.2.2 VOLTAGE CONTROL Control of the wind-diesel hybrid system voltage is maintained by the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) of the synchronous generator - also supplying reactive power for energizing the induction generators in the wind turbines. At increasing load or decreasing wind power, thus the wind power is not able to supply the complete consumption the diesel genset is automatically started supplementing the wind power. 3.3 DIFFERENT MODES OF OPERATION High penetration wind diesel system has three modes of operation. Table.1 shows the actuation of different components in different modes [4]. 1. Diesel only mode 2. Wind only mode 3. Wind diesel mode FunctionTable 1: WDHS components actuation only Diesel only Wind in different modes diesel Wind Active power generation Frequency control mode Diesel generators DG speed regulator
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mode Wind turbine generators Dump load

mode Both wind and diesel generators DG speed regulator

3.3.1 WIND ONLY MODE Power systems for wind only mode consists of wind turbine generators, synchronous machine, dump load and the consumer load. In wind only mode (WO), wind turbine generator supply the power demanded by the consumer load. As the wind turbine generator is a fixed pitch constant speed type, there is no control mechanism to regulate the power output of WTG. Therefore to regulate the frequency in wind only mode, concept of dump load is employed in this model.The dump load consists of eight three-phase resistors connected in series with GTO (Gate Turn-Off) type based switches. The dump load uses an 8-bit binary command so that the load can be varied in the range of 0 to the maximum power in 256 steps [3]. During high wind penetrations, frequency is maintained at constant value by dumping the extra power after meeting the load into dump load [26]. Wind only mode can work only if the power produced by the wind turbine generator is greater than the consumer load [10]. 3.3.2 DIESEL ONLY MODE Most diesel energy conversion systems use a synchronous generator to supply energy to the load. The excitation of the generator is regulated in order to control the generator terminal voltage. Due to the restriction of load constant frequency the speed of the diesel engine is regulated at a constant value However, diesel engine has high fuel consumption at light load at constant speed and usually a minimum load of about 40% is recommended by the manufacturers In periods with sufficient wind power to supply the electrical system and necessary water production or heating the diesel engine(s) are disconnected from the generator by means of a magnetic clutch and shut down in order to save fuel. In these periods the power system is solely supplied from the wind turbine(s) (100% wind power penetration) and there is no idle fuel consumption of the diesel engine(s). The standby diesel engine shall be preheated in order to facilitate a fast start up.
3.3.3 WIND DIESEL MODE 20

.2 Simulink model of diesel governor system.4. The cost of fuel in continuous wind diesel mode is much more than the intermittent wind diesel mode. During high wind penetrations clutch is disengaged and during low wind penetrations clutch is engaged. Synchronous machine in the diesel generation set is used to regulate the system voltage. In this mode diesel has to run continuously. both wind and diesel generators operate to meet the load. intermittent wind diesel mode is used where the diesel governor is disengaged or engaged with synchronous machine by means of clutch. Therefore the system frequency is regulated by diesel governor for different wind speeds and loads.In continuous wind diesel mode.0 0 9+1 s T F1 1 0.0 3 8 s+1 4 T F2 A C TU A TO R 1 s T oTr o uqeu e qr In t e g ra t o r E N G IN E P ro d u c t Td 1 P m e(p u) c Fig 3.2 5s+1 0. 3. In order to reduce the fuel cost of diesel gen set. even at high wind speeds. MATLAB MODEL FOR DIESEL GOVERNOR SYSTEM 1 w r e (p u) f 2 w (p u) P ID P ID C o n t r o lle r 0. 21 . There is no concept of dump load when both wind and diesel are in operation. Diesel governor regulates the diesel output power to balance the total generation from both wind and diesel to the system load.

3.w_Turb ) -1 Gain 13 -C- SL Vabc_S Iabc _S Control Control Switch 1 Vabc Vabc_SL C A B C [Vabc_SL] MEASUREMENTS [Iabc _SL] Iabc _Load Vabc_Load Scope 5 Consumer Load Main Load 100 kW Consumer Load A B Discrete Secondary Frequency Regulator Load (0-446 .3 Simulink model of wind diesel system .1 MATLAB MODEL FOR WIND DIESEL SYSTEM Discrete .4. Ts = 5e-005 s. powergui HIGH PENETRATION WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH NO STORAGE 1 Vtref (pu )3 <Rotor speed wm (pu)> wref (pu) Pmec (pu) w (pu) Pm m A B Vf _ C aA bB cC aA bB cC Tm A B C m 1 Vtref (pu )1 Demux GOVERNOR & DIESEL ENGINE vref vd vq vstab 1 w <Rotor speed (wm)> Vf Synchronous Condenser 480 V 330 kVA D WT Asynchronous Generator 480 V 330 kVA Aa Bb EXCITATION Cc Load aA bB cC Wind 1 -K 1800 rpm P(w_Wind .25 kW) Vabc_Load Vabc_WT MEASUREMENTS Iabc _WT Subsystem Subsystem1 Scope 1 Fig 3.

Frequency of system in wind only mode is shown in Fig . (b) Active Powers generated wind and supplied load in Kw.6 6 0 .4 (d).4(d).3.3.4 (a) to Fig. Fig.4 (a) shows the simulated wind speed.3. 1 1 . to maintain system frequency at desired value.3.3.1 WIND ONLY MODE Results of wind only mode with dump load action are shown in following figures from Fig. As the wind power increases (system load constant).5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.4(c) shows the wind generator and dump load powers respectively.6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 140 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Time (sec) T im e (sec ) (c) (d) Fig. Fig3.3. Simulation is performed for 20 sec.4(a) –Fig 3.5 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 T ime (sec) T ime (s ec ) (a) 6 0 .8 160 W in d s p e e d fr o m 1 0 t o 1 1 m /s 5 9 .4 (b).Fig.4 (b) 260 240 Frequecny of System in Hz Dump load power in Kw 220 6 0 .4(d):-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind only mode :( a) wind speed in m/s. (c) System Frequency in Hz (d) Dump load in Kw .5 10 9 . sudden change of wind speed from 10m/s to 11m/s is taken into consideration for observing the performance of dump load for frequency regulation. dump load takes 150Kw power till 10sec.5 350 300 Load W in d 11 Load and Wind Generaor Power in Kw 250 200 150 100 50 0 W in d s p e e d fr o m 1 0 t o 1 1 m /s 266 K w Wind speed in m/s 1 0 .2 200 60 180 5 9 . power absorbed by the dump load also increases from 150Kw to 215Kw.3. which is 150Kw more than the system load Therefore.5. Initially wind turbine generator generating 200 Kw.

5(c):-Simulation results of the proposed system for Diesel Only Mode :(a) Active Power generated by diesel engine in Kw.3.5(c) shows active power generated by diesel engine generator. 3.5(b) and Fig.5 9 9 . Simulation is performed for 14sec.9 5 9 .5 10 1 0 . Diesel 180 160 150 160 Active Power of Diesel Generator in Kw 140 140 Load Active Power in Kw 8 .3 CONTINUOUS WIND DIESEL MODE . (b) System Frequency in Hz.5 12 1 2 .5 13 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (a) 6 0 .3 6 0 .5 12 1 2 .5 9 9 . Fig.5 11 1 1 .8 5 9 .7 5 9 .5 13 130 120 110 100 90 80 120 100 80 60 8 70 8 8 . Frequency regulation in this case is performed by the speed regulators of diesel engine generators.5 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 T im e (S ec ) (c) Fig.5. Synchronous machine speed (frequency) falls down from desired value.3.5(a).5.3. Results of diesel only mode for sudden change in load at t=10 sec is shown in following figures. Finally frequency settles to desired value.5(a) –Fig 3. Initially system load of 100 Kw is met by diesel generator. (c) System Load in Kw.2 DIESEL ONLY MODE In Diesel only mode (DO) diesel generators supply the active and reactive power demanded by consumer load [4]. frequency of power system in Hz and system load respectively. By sensing this decreasing speed by diesel governor increases its fuel input to meet the extra load.2 6 0 .6 5 9 .3. As the sudden change of load (extra 30 Kw) takes place at t= 10 sec.1 (b) System Frequency in Hz 60 5 9 .5 11 1 1 .5 10 1 0 . Fig.3.

changed to 7 m/s at t=15sec and to7.5 m/s at t=30 sec.6(d). Fig . Simulation of continuous wind diesel system is carried for different wind speeds and different load conditions for an interval of 50 sec.6(a) shows the simulated wind speeds for an interval of 50 sec. Wind speed is kept constant at 6m/s till 15 sec. Fig. therefore intake of fuel to diesel generator is reduced to reduce the power generation by it. Fig .e.5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 T im e (s ec ) T im e (S ec ) (a) (b) .3. Fig. System load is kept constant at 100 Kw till 40 sec.6(b). . system load and frequency of power system in Hz respectively.3.5 Active Powers from Wind and Diesel in Kw 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 5 Wind Speed in m/s 7 6 .3.3. Diesel is continuously operating with wind turbine generator to meet the system load.6(e) shows active power generated by diesel generators. Fuel cost for the operation of diesel engine in continuous mode is 20% more than the start-stop diesel operation i. When the wind speed changes from 6m/s to 7m/s (generated power increases).5 6 5 .6(c). Fig. 8 9 0 8 0 D ie s e l W in d 7 . Table.In this mode.2 shows the power sharing by diesel and wind turbine generator at different wind speeds and load conditions. wind turbine generator.3. intermittent diesel operation [10]. Therefore at different load and wind speeds intake of diesel fuel is adjusted to meet the load generation constraint.

2 5 6 0 .6(e):-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind diesel mode :( a) wind speed in m/s.(d) System Frequency in Hz.9 9 9 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 T im e (S ec ) (e) Fig.0 0 2 1 .1 5 6 0 .9 5 1 00 95 90 5 T im e (S ec ) 5 9 .1 6 0 .9 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 T im e (S ec ) (c) 1 .Power sharing in Wind diesel mode Wind speed Wind power 6m/s (0<t<15) 7m/s (15<t<30) 7.5m/s(40<t<50) (Kw) 16 50 71 71 Diesel power (Kw) 84 50 29 39 Total power generated 100 100 100 110 100 100 100 110 load .3. (c) Active Powers generated by wind and diesel generators in Kw .0 0 2 5 (d) Speed of a Synchronous Machine in pu 1 .0 0 3 1 . (b) System Load in Kw.0 0 1 1 .9 9 9 5 0 .0 5 6 0 5 9 .3 1 10 6 0 .0 0 0 5 1 0 .0 0 1 5 1 .2 System Load in Kw System Frequency in Hz 10 15 20 25 30 3 5 4 0 45 50 1 05 6 0 .1 15 6 0 .6(a) –Fig 3.(e) Speed of Synchronous Machine in pu Table 2.5m/s(30<t<40) 7.

7(c).5.7(d). In order to maintain the active power balance extra power of comes from Diesel generator through transmission line. Fig 3. If one generator alone is unable to supply its load. the extra load is met by the other generator via transmission line.7(h) shows the wind speed in m/s.7(e). Fig 3. Fig 3. So.7(f).7(b). Voltage at wind generator bus and Reactive Power generated by both generators respectively. Load at Diesel Generator is Kept constant at 50Kw till 40 sec and sudden increase of 50 Kw takes place at 40sec.7(g) and Fig 3. Fig 3. Active power generated by generators. Simulation of this circuit is performed for 55 sec. Load at Wind Generator is kept constant at 200Kw till 25 sec. Fig 3. in order to maintain active power balance at Wind Generator bus extra power comes from Diesel Generator through transmission line. Power flow in line.Wind generator and diesel generator are meeting their loads at corresponding buses to maintain the active power balance.3. Wind turbine generator and Diesel Generator are separated by a Transmission line of 1 mh .4 WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE In this Mode. The extra load increment at diesel generator bus is supplied by diesel generator to maintain power balance Fig 3.7(a). as the load at wind generator bus increases keeping the wind speed constant. Voltage at diesel generator bus. At 25 sec. Wind Speed is kept constant at 10m/s and sudden decrease in wind speed to 9m/s from 10m/s takes place at 10 sec as shown in the Fig 3.7(a). . System frequency in Hz. Fig 3. But as the wind speed decreases to 9 m/s wind generator only produce Kw. and load increases to 250Kw at 25 sec.At 10 m/s Wind generator can supply its own load. Initially Diesel generator generates Kw to supply its own load and extra power to load at wind generator bus. Load at generator buses.

2 System Frequency in Hz 5 0 6 0 .13 12 (c) 140 120 Wind Speed in m/s 11 Power Flow in Line in Kw 10 100 80 60 40 20 0 9 8 7 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 T ime (S ec) (a) 250 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 T im e (S ec ) (e) 510 D ie s e l P o w e r 200 Active Powers in Kw 500 150 Voltage at Diesel Generator bus in pu 490 100 W in d P o w e r 480 470 50 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 460 T im e (S ec ) 30 0 450 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 T im e (S ec ) 25 0 (g) Load Active Power in Kw 20 0 L o a d a t W in d B u s 6 0 .9 5 9 .1 6 0 5 9 .7 5 9 .4 15 0 L o a d a t D ie s e l B u s 10 0 6 0 .8 5 9 .3 6 0 .6 0 1 0 15 2 0 25 30 35 40 45 5 0 55 T im e (S ec ) 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 5 5 T im e (S ec ) (d) .

(g) Voltage at wind generator bus in pu. Wind and diesel generators are separated by a transmission line of 1 mh and meeting corresponding loads at wind and diesel buses. (h) Reactive Power generated by both generators in Kvar Table 2.7(a) –Fig 3. (b) Active Powers generated by wind and diesel generators in Kw .8(a).(c) System Loads at Load buses (d) System Frequency in Hz. (f) Voltage at diesel generator bus in pu.5 FAULT ANALYSIS ON WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE: To ensure the system stability.Load at diesel generator and wind gen buses are kept constant at 100Kw and 200Kw respectively as shown in the Fig 3. extra .8(e).8(b).5. Wind speed is kept constant at 9m/s throughout the simulation interval as shown in the Fig 3.Power sharing in Wind diesel mode with transmission line Wind speed 10m/s (0<t<10) 9m/s (10<t<25) 9m/s (25<t<40) 9m/s (40<t<55) Wind power (Kw) 200 143 143 143 Diesel power (Kw) 50 107 157 207 Power Flow in line In Kw 0 57 107 107 Load at Diesel gen bus 50 50 50 100 Load At wind gen bus 200 200 250 250 3.7(h):-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind diesel system with transmission line :( a) wind speed in m/s. fault analysis is performed on wind diesel system with transmission line.3.As the wind generates less than 200Kw as shown in the Fig 3.(e) Power flow in line.510 4 0 2 0 0 500 Voltage at Wind Generator bus in pu Reactive Powers in Kvar 490 -2 0 -4 0 -6 0 -8 0 -1 0 0 D ie s e l 480 470 W in d 460 450 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 -1 2 0 1 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 4 5 5 0 5 5 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (f) (h) Fig.8(d) and Fig 3.

Fig 3. Short circuit fault is simulated for 10 cycles to show the response of the system under fault conditions.Speeds of machines such as DFIG and synchrouns machine are shown in the Fig 3.8(m) and Fig 3. Voltage at diesel gen bus is controlled by exciter of a synchronous machine where as voltage at wind gen bus is controlled by keeping synchronous condenser at wind generation bus.5 50 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 8 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (e) 6 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 (a) 40 0 30 0 20 0 10 0 0 -1 0 0 -2 0 0 -3 0 0 10 Wind Active Power in Kw Diesel Active Power in Kw 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 1 2 14 1 6 1 8 2 0 22 2 4 2 6 2 8 30 T im e (S e c ) T im e (S ec ) (b) (c) .8(h) and Fig 3. Power flow in the line throughout the simulation interval is shown in the Fig 3.power is generated by diesel and supplies through transmission line.8(k). Diesel speed regulator is used to control the frequency.8(j) and Fig 3.5 Load at Diesel Gen bus in Kw 200 Wind Speed in m/s 150 9 100 8 . Fig 3. 1 0 300 250 9 .8(n).8(g).8(l) respectively. Fig 3.8(c). fault current from wind generator and total fault current respectively. system frequency.8(f). Fig 3. Fault current from diesel generator. Voltage is retained to required value after removing fault at both wind and diesel gen buses as shown in the Fig 3.8(i) shows the active power generated by diesel.

1 8 0 1 6 0 1 4 0 6 1 .5 Load Active Power at Diesel Gen bus in Kw 1 2 0 1 0 0 8 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 System Frequency in Hz 6 0 5 9 .5 5 9 5 8 .5 6 1 6 0 .5 5 8 1 0 T im e ( S e c ) 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 (d) T im e ( S e c ) (f) 800 700 6 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 Fault Current from Diesel Gen in Amps Fault Current from Wind Gen in Amps 600 500 400 300 200 100 10 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 1 2 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (g) (h) .

(c) Active Powers generated by wind generator in Kw .0 4 500 (j) Speed of Synchronous Machine in pu 1 .0 6 1 .0 5 1 .0 2 1 .0 3 3 00 2 00 (m) Power Flow in line in Kw 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 1 00 0 -1 0 0 -2 0 0 -3 0 0 -4 0 0 10 Speed of IG in pu 1 .9 6 10 12 1 4 1 6 1 8 20 2 2 2 4 2 6 28 3 0 Voltage at Wind gen bus in pu 400 300 200 100 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (k) 1 .9 9 0 .9 7 1 0 12 14 1 6 1 8 20 2 2 2 4 2 6 28 3 0 T im e (S e c ) T im e (S ec ) (l) (n) Fig. (b) Active Powers generated by wind generator in Kw.8(n) :-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind diesel system with transmission line : ( a) wind speed in m/s.(g)Fault .9 8 0 .9 7 0 .3.0 5 1 .(d) System Load at wind bus (e) System Load at wind bus (f) System Frequency in Hz.0 3 1 .0 2 1 .8(a) –Fig 3.0 1 1 0 .0 4 1 .0 1 1 0 .9 9 0 .9 8 0 .6000 5000 6 50 6 00 Fault Current from Wind Gen in Amps 4000 Voltage at Diesel Gen bus in pu 5 50 5 00 4 50 4 00 3 50 3 00 10 3000 2000 1000 0 -1 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 14 1 6 18 20 22 2 4 26 2 8 30 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (i) 600 1 .

.current from diesel gen bus (h) Fault current from wind gen bus (i) Total fault current (j) Voltage at diesel gen bus (k) Voltage at wind gen bus (l) Speed of DFIG (m) Speed of synchronous machine (n) Power flow in line.

Wind only mode can only work. If the wind diesel hybrid system is capable of shutdown the diesel generators during the high wind penetrations.CHAPTER-IV SMOOTH TRANSISTION FROM WIND TO WIND DIESEL MODE 4. b.it is clear that the fuel cost reduced for intermittent wind diesel system compared to continuous wind diesel mode Fig 4. c indicates fuel used for diesel only mode.1 INTRODUCTION A wind diesel hybrid system uses the wind turbine generators along with the diesel generators to obtain contribution by the intermittent wind resource to the total power produced. continuous wind diesel mode and intermittent wind diesel systems. Facility for Diesel engine to engage (in both diesel only and wind diesel modes) or disengage (in wind only mode) from synchronous machine by means of a clutch. In the Fig 4. a. Smooth transition from wind to wind diesel mode is required at low wind speeds (load constant). then the system is called a high penetration wind diesel system.1.2 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF CONTROL MECHANISM .1.1 Fuel used in diesel generator for different modes of operation 4. if the power produced by the WTG is greater than the consumed power by the load. From the Fig 4.

2 Model of wind diesel system with Clutch When the condition is not satisfied. There is a facility for Diesel engine to engage (in both diesel only and wind diesel modes) or disengage (in wind only mode) from synchronous machine by means of a clutch as shown in the Fig 4.Smooth transition from wind mode to wind diesel mode is required at low wind speeds [4]. clutch is engaged to changing to the WD mode [11]. 3 Ts 1 H s C LU TC H G a in1 K 1 / (H + H d s ) G a in3K 2 W s 1 pm 0 C o n s ta n t S w it c h P ro d u c t 1 1 Ts H d G a in2 K 2 Tc Fig. so the control system of WDHS (wind diesel hybrid system) must order to start the DE (Diesel engine) and when the speed difference between the DE and SM (synchronous machine) is small enough.2 .4.1. the diesel engine will supply the necessary active power first to rise and after to keep the system frequency constant. if the power produced by the WTG is greater than the consumed power by the load.4. With clutch locked. I G WIND TURBINE CLUTCH DIESEL ENGIN E LOA D S M Fig 4. The locked clutch mechanism with only two states is shown in the Fig.3 Control circuit for Locked clutch mechanism .Wind only mode can only work. the system frequency will fall.

3.4 Speed control circuit for diesel engine generator The DRUN binary input to the diesel block is the output of the Boolean switch as shown in the Fig4.4.0 3 8s+4 1 T F2 A C T U A T O R 1 s T q u T o ro q r u e e 1 T d E N G IN E T d 2 T c 1 /2 H d In t e g ra t o r 1 D R U N 0 .5 Fig .2 shows the DE along with its actuator and speed regulator which outputs the diesel speed ωd and mechanical torque Td (pu) necessary to take the diesel speed to its reference speed. In the disengaged state. the DE and SM axis are independent and the transmitted torque is zero.Where Td and Ts are the DE and SM torques and H s and H d are the SM and DE inertias respectively.7 (a) selects between 0 and Tc under the control of CLUTCH signal . Switch block in Fig.2 5s+ 1 0 .4.5 S e c D e l a y 1 s In t e g r1 t o r a 1 /1 .2 5 S L O W W d P ID C o n t ro lle r 0 . Finally the DE torque equation is given by [4] dwd = Td − Tc dt 2H d (5) S w it c h F o r S p e e d R e fe re n c e 1 R A T E D P ID 0 .Input mechanical power to the SM block ( ωs * Tc ) is calculated. the two axes behave like only one and transmitted torque Tc in pu is given by [4] H STD + H DTS HS + H D TC = (4) Fig . In the locked CLUTCH state (CLUTCH=1). This frequency relay (relay2) watches the frequency in WO mode and when the system frequency falls due to the lack of active power (may be due to increase in load or .0 0 s+ 1 9 T F1 1 0 . both the SM and DE have the same speed.

5 sec and 0. W s |u| W d Ad 2 d As b R la 2 ey AD N Lg a o ic l O e to p ra r NT O 0 DF OF d taty e a p bo a o le n R la 1 ey S itc 1 w h 1 DU RN Lg a o ic l O e to p ra r S-R F -F p lip lo S 2 R Q C UC LTH 3 Fig . When the DE is started the cranking system is switched on until the DE reached the firing speed where the internal combustion process starts.Fig .decrease in speed).Fig .15+0. CLUTCH signal is changed to ‘1’ at t=9.7(b) shows the difference in speeds of DE and SM.3 Results and Discussion: Initially Wind turbine generator supplying 93Kw (8m/s) to supply the load of 93 Kw.5 Active Power regulators for transition from wind to wind diesel modes Active power regulator receives inputs as speeds of DE and SM and binary DRUN. For this study cranking time and firing speed is taken as 0. Frequency relay senses the change in frequency at t=7. Therefore speed reference to DE changes to 1 pu at t=7. Once the firing speed is reached DE cranking system is switched off and the DE speed controller is activated with a speed reference of 1 pu.5) .15 sec and changes the DRUN signal to ‘1’ as shown in the Fig4.6(c) shows the change in CLUTCH .3 pu respectively.Fig . It outputs the CLUTCH signal.65 sec (7. DE reference speed set at 0.4. Sudden change in the load takes place at t=7 sec.5sec.3 shows the control circuit for active power regulator.6(a). output of frequency relay becomes 1.25 pu even though it is not supplying any load to simulate the cranking process. The RS flip flop sets its output to ‘1’when the relative speed between the DE and SM is very less 4.To regulate the active power balance diesel engine must be engaged to SM via clutch.4.4. When the speed difference is zero..

4.4 6.8 8 Load change at 7 sec Mains failure at t=7.6 (e).4 1.4 0.4.6 0.2 DRUN (Diesel Run) Signal DRUN=1 1 0.2 0 6 6. 1.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Clucth locks at t=9.5 sec Chnage of speed reference at t=7.2 1 0.6 (g) shows the active power generated by diesel engine generator.6 (d).15sec Time(sec) (a) 1 CLUTCH Signal 0. Time (sec) (c) .15+0.8 0.4 0.8 7 7.6 0.6 (f) and Fig.4 0. Fig.65 sec (7. wind turbine generator.8 0.2 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Load change at t= 7 sec Clutch locked at t=9.5).5 sec Time (sec) (b) Difference in speeds in pu (SM and DE) 1.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 0.2 6. Fig4.6 0.signal. Fig.6 6.4. speed and system load respectively.

7 Matlab model of control circui .4 MATLAB MODEL OF COMPLETE CONTROL MECHANISM W s |u| W d Ad 2 d As b Ry e la 2 Lg a oic AD N S Q C TH L C U NT O 0 DF O F bo a olen Ry e la 1 cn r io ov s n e Sit h w c 0 H s 1 1/1.4.09 s 0 +1 T 1 F 1 0.8 1 T s -K 1/ s+H ) (H d H d 0 C sat o tn n Sit h w c DU 1 RN 1 DU RN R Lg a oi l c S -R F -F p lip l o 2 W s P dc r ut o 1 St r t n aa u io 1 p m 1 RTD AE -C SO LW ATAO C TR U W d T d P I D Sit h w c 2 P C to r I o rl D n le 0.5 ScD y e e la It gt r n ro ea 1 s 1 Gn aK i 4 1/1.08 s 34 +1 T 2 F 1 s It gt r n ro ea Tr u o e q T d EGE NI N T d 3 DU RN 0.5 Fig 4.2 s 5 +1 0.

4 DE Crank ing finished at t= 7.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 DE S peed S M s peed 18 20 Time (Sec) (f) .65 s ec 0.65s ec 0. 5 se c 0 -2 0 5 10 15 20 T im e (s e c ) (d) 140 Output Wind Power in KW at 8m/sec 120 C l u c th l o c k e d a t t= 9 .100 Active Power of Synchronous Machine Set in Kw 80 60 E x tr a l o a d a t t = 7 se c 40 20 C l u tc h lo c k e d a t t= 9 .2 S M s peed Speed / Frequency in pu 1 0. 6 5 se c 100 80 E x tr a l o a d a t t= 7 se c 60 40 20 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 20 Time (sec) (e) 1.8 Clutc h loc k ed at t= 9.6 0.

180 160 140 Load in Kw 120 100 80 60 40 20 Extra load of 45 Kw at t=7 sec 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (sec) (g) Figs 4. (d) Active Power generated by diesel engine generator in Kw (e) Active Power generated by wind turbine generator in Kw (f) Speeds of SM and DE in transition from wind to wind diesel mode (g) System load in Kw CHAPTER-V .6(g): (a) Change of diesel run (DRUN) signal from wind to wind diesel mode. (b) Change of clutch (CLUTCH) signal from wind to wind diesel mode. (c) Difference in speeds of diesel generator and synchronous machine.6(a)-4.

The AC/DC/AC converter is divided into two components: the rotor-side converter (Crotor) and the grid-side converter (Cgrid). The DFIG technology allows extracting maximum energy from the wind for low wind speeds by optimizing the turbine speed. Wind turbines using a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) consist of a wound rotor induction generator and an AC/DC/AC IGBT-based PWM converter modeled by voltage sources. The three-phase rotor winding is connected to Crotor by slip rings and brushes and the three-phase stator winding is directly connected to the grid. The control system generates the pitch angle command and the voltage command signals Vr and Vgc for Crotor and Cgrid respectively in order to . Variable speed operation has many advantages in terms of reduction of mechanical stress and smooth the fluctuation of the power injected into the supply. The stator winding is connected directly to the 60 Hz grid while the rotor is fed at variable frequency through the AC/DC/AC converter. Crotor and Cgrid are Voltage-Sourced Converters that use forced-commutated power electronic devices (IGBTs) to synthesize an AC voltage from a DC voltage source. 5. while minimizing mechanical stresses on the turbine during gusts of wind. A coupling inductor L is used to connect Cgrid to the grid.2 CONTROL TECHNIQUE FOR DFIG The wind turbine and the doubly-fed induction generator (WTDFIG) are shown in the Fig 5. The optimum turbine speed producing maximum mechanical energy for a given wind speed is proportional to the wind speed. The power captured by the wind turbine is converted into electrical power by the induction generator and it is transmitted to the grid by the stator and the rotor windings. A power electronic interface is needed to match the AC bus fixed frequency and voltage with the variable voltage and frequency of the wind energy system. A capacitor connected on the DC side acts as the DC voltage source.1.WIND DIESEL HYBRID SYSTEM WITH VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE 5. Moreover variable speed operation can increase the production of the energy and reduce noise.1 GENERAL A wind energy system can be added to diesel engine system to provide some of the load power and fixed or variable speed operation may be considered.

1 ROTOR SIDE CONVERTER CONTROL LOOPS The q-axis component control loop is dedicated to track the maximum output power using the instant values of the incident wind speed and the generator rotational speed with a maximum power tracking characteristic for the turbine as shown in the Fig 5. This reference current value is then compared with the actual q-axis rotor current to activate a PI controller which in turn generates the reference qaxis voltage reference signal (V*q) for the rotor-side converter.1 Connection diagram of the DFIG with control technique signals 5.5.1 [25].2.Q )g rid sid e .Q)stato r Th reep h ase D FIG Wr Wm (P. This is carried out in parallel with its main function and that is to regulate the DC bus voltage of the back-to back converter. The difference between the optimum power (Pref) and the summation of the actual generated power and the power losses activates a PI (proportional integral) controller that generates the q-axis reference current (I*q). (P . The model is based on using the grid-side converter (VSC) for the wind turbine terminal voltage regulation. Moreover.5. The connection diagram of the DFIG with a brief description for the converter’s control actions and the required signals are shown in Fig.2.control the power of the wind turbine. (P.Q)g rid G w in d Q g enerated s id e Three phase R oto r side converter D C Lin k Three phase G rid s ide converter G rid P g en erated -side In p u t co ntro l sig n als -W in d sp eed -R otatio n al sp eed -R oto r cu rren ts C o ntro l sig n als R o to-sid e r co nv erter co n trollers C o n tro l sign als G rid-sid e co n v erter co n tro llers D C & G rid v o ltag e co n tro l Inp u t co n tro l sig n als -D C lin k v o ltag e -Stato r term in al v o ltage -G rid sid e co nv erter cu rren ts M ax im u m p o w er track in g Fig. the DC bus voltage and the reactive power or the voltage at the grid terminals. the maximum power tracking job is carried out by the generator (rotor) side converter.

Fig 5. The q-axis reference current (I*d) is generated by passing the error through PI controller generated by comparing reference Voltage at stator (Vref) and actual voltage at stator (Vact). The rotor-side converter control loops are illustrated in Fig. This reference current value is then compared with the actual q-axis rotor current to activate a PI controller which in turn generates the reference d-axis voltage reference signal (V*d) for the rotor-side converter. By setting of stator reference reactive power to zero. one gets unity power factor condition at stator of the generator terminals.2 Turbine power characteristics for a different value of turbine speed On the other hand. Using such reference current settings. the rotor converter supplies only the reactive power of the rotor. .3. 5. the d-axis component control loop is dedicated to generate the d-axis voltage reference signal (V*d).

1 V_ref PI Rate Limiter Rate Limiter Idr * PI 1 Vd * 2 V_B1 3 Idr 4 Refernce Power from Optimum Power Tracker 5 P_B1 PI Limiter 1 Rate Limiter Iqr * PI 1 2 Vq * 6 Iqr Fig.5.ref) activates a PI (proportional integral) controller to produce the required d-axis current component control signal (I*d). .2 STATOR SIDE CONVERTER CONTROL LOOPS The difference between the actual value of voltage of the DC link (VDC.1 are presented in List of symbols. actual) by making the q-axis reference current as zero (I*q. 5.2.5 and for Eq. The corresponding block diagrams for the grid-side converter control loops are presented in Fig.The parameters of the Figures 4.3 Control loops for rotor side converter In this figure.4. the d-axis and q-axis reference voltages (V’ d and V’q) are added with the voltage drops in the rotor circuit parameters to get the actual reference signal at the converter side. A similar scenario is applied for generating the q-axis voltage reference signal (V* q) which is dedicated to regulate the grid terminal voltage (VGrid.5. 4. 4. This is then compared with the actual grid-side converter d-axis current and the generated error activates another PI controller to generate the d-axis reference voltage signal (V*d) for the grid-side converter.actual) and the required reference value (VDC. This is then compared with the actual grid-side converter qaxis current and the generated error activates another PI controller to generate the q-axis reference voltage signal (V*q) for the grid-side converter.3.ref).4 and 4.

2.1 Vc _r f d e P I Rt L it r a im e e Irf de P I 2 V * d 2 2 Vc d 4 I d 3 I q_r f e P I Rt L it r a im e e 3 1 V * q 5 I q Fig.5 Pitch angle control loop 5.6 Block diagram model of wind diesel system with DFIG .4 Control loops for grid side converter 5. The corresponding block diagram for the pitch angle control loop is presented in Fig. The maximum pitch angle is set to be 45° while the pitch angle rate of change is limited to 1°/s. 4.3 PITCH ANGLE CONTROL LOOP As the turbine rotational speed (ω) exceeds the reference value at which the output power of the turbine is 1 pu.. Max angle + ωr ωr for P=1pu Pitch angle actuator controller 0 Rate limiter Pitch angle Fig.5.6.5.3 MODEL OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH DFIG Wind Turbine Diesel Engine DFIG SM Loa d Fig. the pitch angle actuator is activated to adjust the turbine mechanical power to 1 pu.5.

1 MATLAB BASED MODEL OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH DFIG. Phasors powergui 1 Vtref (pu )3 <Rotor s peed wm (pu)> wref (pu) Pm ec (pu) w (pu) Pm m A B Vf _ C aA bB cC Wind (m/s) Wind (m/s) 0 A B C A B C aA bB cC <Vdc (V)> <wr (pu)> Wind1 Trip A B Trip m GOVERNOR & DIESEL ENGINE 1 Vtref (pu )1 Demux 1 w <P (pu)> <Q (pu)> vref vd Vf vq vstab Excitation System1 C Synchronous Machine 480 V 260 kVA Diesel Bus Wind Bus W ind Turbine Doubly -Fed Induction Generator (Phasor Type )1 <Pitch_angle (deg)> Scope 3 Scope 4 1800 MW4 4/120 Aa Bb Cc MW5 Load Aa Bb Cc Load 1 Vabc_S Vabc A Iabc a B b C c V1_B575 I1_B575 P_mean Q_mean Vabc_S1 Iabc _S1 Measurements Vabc_Load 1 Iabc _Load 1 Scope 5 Subsystem1 Scope 2 Vabc Iabc A a B b C c Three2 Three1 Iabc _S Measurements Vabc_Load a b c A B C Iabc _Load Subsystem Scope 1 W ind turbine Data acquisition 3-Phase Breaker C A B C Load 25 kW2 Load 25 kW1 C A B A B Load 25 kW Scope 20 Fig 5.3.5.7 Wind diesel system with transmission line .

DFIG improves the system stability and efficiency of isolated system. and Fig5. The ratings of the DFIG (doubly-fed induction generator). wind turbine and the simulation parameters of the system are represented in the Appendix.8 (f).diesel generator and doubly fed induction generator along with proposed control loops for grid-side converter and rotor-side converter are modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. Diesel unit balances the system power for changing wind speeds.8 (a) shows the simulated wind speed. .4. Speed of DFIG increases from 1pu to 1. DC voltage across capacitor maintained constant at 800V by using stator side converter loops of doubly fed induction generator.8(e) shows the System load.8(b).8(d) and Fig5. system frequency and speed of DFIG in pu respectively.2 pu as wind speed changes from 10m/s to 12 m/s Fig5.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The wind diesel hybrid system i. Pitch angle control mechanism is used to regulate the output power beyond the particular speed. In this model. DFIG control mechanism and synchronous machine uses to control the voltage of the system. Variable speed wind generator is equipped with diesel generator is used to supply stand alone loads.Fig5.8 (h) shows the dc voltage at capacitor. System voltage is maintained constant at 1pu by operating the DFIG in constant voltage regulation mode.1 PERORMANCE OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH ‘R’ LOAD. When the wind speed increases the power output from diesel generator decreases in order to maintain the active power balance as shown in the Fig5. The performance of the system has been analyzed with and without transmission line for different loads 5. wind turbine . In this simulated model 275 Kw of DFIG is equipped with 275 Kw of diesel generator.Fig5. the extra load of 50Kw is met by diesel generator. Simulation is performed for 60 sec. Fig5.8(c). As the load increases at 40 sec keeping the wind speed constant. Fig5.e. Wind speed is kept constant at 20sec and sudden increase of wind speed from 10 to 12m/s is taken place at 20 sec. Frequency is maintained constant by using diesel governor which senses the change in speed and acts according to it. Reactive power supplied by diesel and wind generators respectively.8 (g)..5.

15 14 13 3 0 0 2 5 0 2 0 0 Wind Speed in m/s Active Power in Kw 12 11 10 9 8 7 15 1 5 0 1 0 0 D ie s e lP o w e r 5 0 0 W in d P o w e r 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 T im e (S ec ) 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 5 5 6 0 T im e (S ec ) (a) 2 80 2 60 2 40 6 0 .2 81 0 81 5 (d) 1 .5 5 9 15 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 40 45 50 5 5 6 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (c) 1 .5 6 1 (b) Load Active Power in Kw 2 20 2 00 1 80 1 60 1 40 1 5 20 2 5 3 0 3 5 40 4 5 5 0 55 6 0 System Frequency in Hz 6 0 5 9 .2 5 1 .9 1 5 80 0 79 5 79 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 30 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 5 5 6 0 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 40 4 5 50 5 5 60 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (e) (f) .1 1 .9 5 0 .1 5 DC voltage at Capacitor in Volts Speed of DFIG in pu 80 5 1 .0 5 1 0 .

5.(f) DC Voltage at Capacitor in Volts.9 0 . and sudden increase in reactive load is met by DFIG and diesel generator in order to make the system voltage constant. Load Reactive power kept constant at 70Kvar till 70 sec as shown in the Fig5.8 (a) –Fig 5. diesel is producing145Kw.8 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 5 5 6 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (g) (h) Fig. This extra load is met by diesel generator. (b) Active Powers generated wind and diesel in Kw.9(b). DFIG is operated in voltage regulation mode in order to maintain voltage constant at diesel bus.8 5 0 .(g) System Voltage in pu.9 5 System Voltage in pu 0 . Fig5.9 (a) shows the simulated wind speed.9(c).5.(h)Reactive Power supplied by diesel generator in Kvar. Load active power is kept constant at 200Kw and sudden increase of 50Kw takes place at 70 sec as shown in the Fig 5.9(f) respectively. At 8 m/s wind turbine generator is producing maximum power of 55Kw.40 1 30 Reactive Power from Diesel Gen in Kvar 20 10 0 -1 0 -2 0 -3 0 -4 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 0 .4. .2 PERFORRMANCE OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM FOR ‘RL’ LOAD For this RL load Simulation is performed for 100 sec.9(d). Wind speed is kept constant till 40sec and sudden increase of wind speed from 8 to 12m/s is taken place at 40 sec.So in order to meet total load of 200 Kw.(d) System Frequency in Hz (e) Speed of DFIG in pu. (c) Load active power in Kw. System Voltage at both the buses and system frequency maintained constant at desired value as shown in the Fig 5. When the wind speed increases the power output from diesel generator decreases in order to maintain the active power balance as shown in the Fig 5.8(h):-Simulation results of the proposed system for Variable wind system equipped with diesel system:( a) wind speed in m/s.9(e) and Fig 5.

8 5 9 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (e) (f) . 1 5 1 4 2 5 0 2 0 0 1 3 Active Powers in KW 1 2 1 5 0 Wind Speed in m/s W in d P o w e r 1 1 1 0 9 8 1 0 0 D ie s e l P o w e r 5 0 0 7 6 3 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (a) 1 0 0 26 0 24 0 (b) 9 0 Load Active Power in Kw 22 0 Load Reactive Power in Kvar 8 0 20 0 7 0 18 0 6 0 16 0 14 0 5 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 70 80 90 100 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (c) 6 1 (d) 1 . DC voltage across capacitor.9(g).9 5 0 .5 0 .0 5 1 6 0 .9 5 9 .9(i) and Fig5.9(h).Fig 5. Reactive powers supplied by diesel and wind generators respectively.5 System Frequency in Hz 6 0 System Voltage in pu 4 0 50 6 0 7 0 80 9 0 10 0 0 .8 5 0 . Fig 5. Fig 5.9 (j) shows the Speed of DFIG in pu.

diesel generator reduces its generation to maintain frequency to scheduled value.3 PERFORMANCE OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM WITH TRANSMISSION LINE FOR ‘R’ LOAD. Loads are being met at both wind generator and diesel generator buses. Voltage . So.9(j):-Simulation results of the proposed system for Variable wind system equipped with diesel system (For RL load) : ( a) wind speed in m/s.System Frequency in Hz (f) System Voltage in pu (g) Speed of DFIG in pu. In this model of simulation. (h) DC Voltage at Capacitor in Volts. (b) Active Powers generated wind and diesel in Kw. then the extra power transfers to load at diesel generator bus.7 7 95 4 0 50 6 0 7 0 80 90 10 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (g) 80 1 60 60 1 40 (h) Reactive Power from Diesel Gen in Kvar Reactive Power from DFIG in Kvar 40 20 0 -2 0 -4 0 -6 0 -8 0 1 20 1 00 80 60 40 20 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (i) (j) Fig.9 8 00 0 .9 (a) –Fig 5. extra load is met by diesel generator by transferring the power via transmission line . (i) Reactive Power supplied by DFIG in Kvar. (j) Reactive Power supplied by diesel generator in Kvar 5.If the wind is generating more power. (c) Load active power in Kw.2 Speed of DFIG in pu 1 .(d) Load Reactive power in Kw (e).8 0 .1 1 DC Voltage at Capacitor in Volts 4 0 50 6 0 7 0 80 90 10 0 8 10 8 05 0 .5.4. If the wind power is unable to meet its own load at particular wind speed.8 15 1 . a transmission line of 1 mH is used to transfer power between wind and diesel energy systems.

at both the buses are maintained constant by operating DFIG in voltage regulation mode and also by using the reactive power generated by synchronous machine. When the wind speed increases to 14m/s.Fig 5.10(j). Diesel generator output decreases further.Fig 5.10(n). pitch control is comes into action to limit the turbine speed as shown in the Fig 5. Reactive power generated by diesel generator . Power flow in line for different wind speeds and loads is shown in the Fig 5.Fig 5. by maintaining active power balance between total generation and load. Speed of synchronous machine which is maintained constant at different conditions is shown in the Fig 5. which is the maximum speed the turbine can withstand.10(f). so that the maximum power for load at diesel generator is met by wind generator via transmission line. Speed of DFIG is shown in the Fig5.10(l) . Fig 5. Wind speed is maintained constant at 12m/s till 20 sec.System frequency is maintained constant at 60Hz as shown in the Fig5. so.Fig 5.10(e).when the wind speed increases to 14m/s. where as load at wind generator bus maintained constant at 140Kw till 75sec and sudden increase of 40Kw in its load took place at 75sec as shown in the Fig 5. . the extra power of 57Kw flows through transmission line to supply the load at diesel generator bus. voltage at wind generator load bus.10(o) and Fig 5. Simulation is performed for 100 sec to obtain the performance of wind diesel system for different wind speeds.10 (g).10(d).10(i).10(p) shows the dc voltage across capacitor. sudden increase from 12 to 14m/s at 20 sec and sudden decrease from 14m/s to 10m/s at 50sec is taken place as shown in Fig5. Load at diesel generator bus is maintained constant at 140Kw throughout the simulation interval as shown in the Fig 5.10(k). During 20<t<40.10(c) During 0<t<20 sec wind is able to generate 197Kw as shown in the Fig5.10(m).10(a).Reactive power at wind generator bus and reactive power flown in line respectively.10 (h). voltage at diesel generator load bus.10(b) to maintain active power balance.10(b). the diesel generates 83Kw as shown in the Fig5.Fig 5.

15 14 300 250 Wind Speed in m/s Active Powers in Kw 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 D ie s e l P o w e r 200 150 100 W in d P o w e r 50 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Time (Sec) Time (Sec) (a) 190 200 (b) Load Active Power at Diesel Bus in Kw 180 Load Active Power at Wind bus in Kw 180 170 160 160 140 150 140 120 130 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Time (Sec) T ime (Sec) (c) 3 100 (d) Power Flow in Line in Kw 50 2 .5 1 0.2 1.5 0 -150 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T ime(Sec) Time (Sec) (e) 1.5 -50 1 -100 0 .9 5 59 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T ime (Sec) T ime (S ec ) (g) (h) .5 Speed of DFIG in pu 1 .1 5 System Frequency in Hz 6 0 .1 60 1.5 Pitch Angle in Degress 2 0 1 .2 5 (f) 61 1 .0 5 5 9 .

9 5 0 .8 5 20 30 40 50 (j) 60 70 80 90 100 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T im e (S ec ) T ime (Sec) (k) 50 100 (l) Reactive Power from DFIG in Kvar Reactive Power from Diesel Gen in Kvar 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 -5 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T ime (S ec ) T ime (Sec) (m) 60 40 (n) Reactive Power flow in Line in Kvar 20 0 -2 0 -4 0 -6 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T im e (S ec ) (o) .0 5 1 0.8 5 0 .1 1 .9 0 .0 5 1 0 .8 1.1 5 1 .9 5 770 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T im e (S ec ) T ime (S ec ) (i) Voltage at Diesel Gen Load bus in pu Voltage at Wind Generator Bus in pu 1 .0 5 830 Speed of Synchronous Machine in pu DC Voltage at Capcitor in Volts 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 820 810 1 800 790 780 0 .1 .1 5 1 .9 5 0 .1 1.9 0.

During 20<t<40.when the wind speed increases to 14m/s. then the extra power transfers to load at diesel generator bus. (h).10(0):-Simulation results of the proposed system for Varaible wind system equipped with diesel system (For R load) : ( a) wind speed in m/s. a transmission line of 1 mH is used to transfer power between wind and diesel energy systems. If the wind power is unable to meet its own load at particular wind speed.10 (g).f)Power flow in line in Kw.Fig.10(e).11(c). where as load at wind generator bus maintained constant at 140Kw till 75sec and sudden increase of 40Kw in its load took place at 75sec as shown in the Fig 5. extra load is met by diesel generator by transferring the power via transmission line . Load at diesel generator bus is maintained constant at 140Kw throughout the simulation interval as shown in the Fig 5. the extra power of 57Kw flows through transmission line to supply the load at diesel generator bus. (b) Active Powers generated wind and diesel in Kw.4 PERFORMANCE OF WIND DIESEL SYSTEM FOR ‘RL’ LOAD WITH TRANSMISSION LINE In this model of simulation.10(b). the diesel generates 83Kw as shown in the Fig5. 5.10(c). So.(n) Reactive Power supplied by DFIG in Kvar (o) Reactive power flow in line in Kvar. Speed of DFIG is shown in the Fig5. sudden increase from 12 to 14m/s at 20 sec and sudden decrease from 14m/s to 10m/s at 50sec is taken place as shown in Fig5. e) Pitch angle in degrees . which is the maximum speed the turbine can withstand. g)speed of DFIG in pu. (c) Load active power in Kw at wind bus d) Load active power in Kw at diesel. .If the wind is generating more power. Simulation is performed for 100 sec to obtain the performance of wind diesel system for different wind speeds. Wind speed is maintained constant at 12m/s till 20 sec.4.5. Reactive Loads are being met at both wind generator and diesel generator buses.During 0<t<20 sec wind is able to generate 197Kw as shown in the Fig5. Voltage at both the buses are maintained constant by operating DFIG in voltage regulation mode and also by using the reactive power generated by synchronous machine.11 (b) to maintain active power balance. diesel generator reduces its generation to maintain frequency to scheduled value.10 (a) –Fig 5. When the wind speed increases to 14m/s.11(a).System Frequency in Hz (i) Speed of synchronous machine in pu. So. pitch control is comes into action to limit the turbine speed as shown in the Fig 5.(j) DC voltage at capacitor in volts (k) Voltage at diesel gen bus in pu (l) Voltage at wind gen bus in pu (m) Reactive Power supplied by diesel in Kvar .

10(o) . Speed of synchronous machine which is maintained constant at different conditions is shown in the Fig 5.10(k).Fig 5. Reactive power at diesel generator bus and reactive load at wind gen bus respectively.Fig 5.10(i).10(f). Reactive power generated by wind generator. 15 14 13 30 0 25 0 20 0 D ie s e l Wind Speed in m/s 12 11 10 9 Active Powers in Kw 15 0 10 0 5 0 0 W in d 8 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 70 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (a) 160 190 150 180 (b) Load at Diesel gen bus in Kw 140 Load at Wind gen bus in Kw 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 170 130 160 120 150 110 140 100 130 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T ime (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (c) (d) .10(p) and Fig 5.System frequency is maintained constant at 60Hz as shown in the Fig5.10(q) shows the dc voltage across capacitor.Fig 5.Fig 5.Fig 5. so that the maximum power for load at diesel generator is met by wind generator via transmission line.Diesel generator output decreases further.Fig 5. load reactive power at diesel generator bus. by maintaining active power balance between total generation and load. voltage at wind generator load bus.10(j). voltage at diesel generator load bus.10 (h). reactive power flow in line.10(l) . Power flow in line for different wind speeds and loads is shown in the Fig 5.10(m).10(n).Fig5.

9 5 7 7 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (i) ) (j .2 6 0 .5 5 0 Pitch Angle in Degrees 2 Power Flow in Line in Kw 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 .2 5 (f) 61 1.3 1 0 0 2 .5 1 0 .5 Speed of DFIG in pu 1.1 System Frequency in Hz 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 .5 -5 0 1 0 .5 -1 0 0 0 -1 5 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (e) 1 .9 5 59 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T im e (S ec) T im e (S ec ) (g) 1 .1 5 60 1 .0 5 8 3 0 (h) 8 2 0 Speed of Synchrnous Machine in pu DC Voltage at Capacitor in Volts 8 1 0 1 8 0 0 7 9 0 7 8 0 0 .0 5 5 9 .

0 5 1 0 .9 5 0 .0 5 1 0 .1 5 Voltage at Diesel Gen Bus in pu Voltage at Wind Gen Bus in pu 1 .1 1 .1 1 .8 1 .9 5 0 .9 0 .1 .8 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 9 0 1 00 20 30 40 5 0 6 0 7 0 80 90 1 00 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (k) 1 0 0 (l) 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 8 0 Reactive Power From Wind Gen in Kvar 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 Load Reactive Power at Diesel Gen bus T im e (S ec ) 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) (m) 4 0 1 0 0 (n) 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 -1 0 -2 0 -3 0 -4 0 8 0 Reactive Power supplied by diesel gen Reactive Power Flow in Line in Kvar 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e ( S e c ) T im e (S ec ) (o) (p) .9 0 .1 5 1 .8 5 0 .8 5 0 .

(h).Load at diesel generator and wind gen buses are kept constant at 140Kw and 140Kw respectively as shown in the Fig 5.f) Power flow in line in Kw. Fig 5. (b) Active Powers generated wind and diesel in Kw.11 (a) –Fig 5. Diesel speed regulator is used to control the frequency.(q) Reactive load at wind gen bus in Kvar 5.12(g).12(i) shows the . Wind speed is kept constant at 11m/s throughout the simulation interval as shown in the Fig 5.System Frequency in Hz (i) Speed of synchronous machine in pu.12(d) and Fig 5.6 5 6 0 Load Reactive Power at Wind Gen Bus 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 T im e (S ec ) (q) Fig.(n)Load reactive power at diesel gen bus (o) Reactive power flow in line in Kvar. g) Speed of DFIG in pu.5. Fig 5. Short circuit fault is simulated for 10 cycles to show the response of the system under fault conditions. Voltage at diesel gen bus is controlled by exciter of a synchronous machine where as voltage at wind gen bus is controlled by keeping synchronous condenser at wind generation bus.(p) Reactive power supplied by diesel gen in Kvar.12(h) and Fig 5.12(a).12(e).12(f).12(b).(j) DC voltage at capacitor in volts (k) Voltage at diesel gen bus in pu (l) Voltage at wind gen bus in pu (m) Reactive Power by wind in Kvar . e) Pitch angle in degrees . Fig 5.4.As the wind generates less than 200Kw as shown in the Fig 5. Wind and diesel generators are separated by a transmission line of 1 mh and meeting corresponding loads at wind and diesel buses. Fig 5.5 FAULT ANALYSIS ON WIND DIESEL SYSTEM FOR ‘R’ LOAD WITH TRANSMISSION LINE To ensure the system stability.12(c). (c) Load active power in Kw at diesel bus d) Load active power in Kw at wind.11(q):-Simulation results of the proposed system for Variable wind system equipped with diesel system (For R load) : ( a) wind speed in m/s. extra power is generated by diesel and supplies through transmission line. fault analysis is performed on wind diesel system with transmission line.

Fault current from diesel generator. 1 2 8 0 0 7 0 0 Wind Turbine Active Power in Kw 1 1 .5 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 T im e (S e c ) T im e (S e c ) (a) 8 0 0 7 00 (b) 7 0 0 6 00 6 0 0 Load Active Power at Diesel gen bus in Kw 5 00 Diesel Active Power in Kw 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 00 3 00 2 00 1 00 0 -1 0 0 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 35 40 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (c) (d) .12 (k).1 pu before and after the fault where as speed of synchronous machine at 1 pu.Speeds of machines such as DFIG and synchrouns machine are shown in the Fig 5.active power generated by diesel. Power flow in the line throughout the simulation interval is shown in the Fig 5.12(o).12(l) and Fig 5.12(n).DC voltage across capacitor is shown in the Fig5.5 6 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 Wind Speed in m/s 1 1 1 0 . Speed of DFIG remains at 1.12(m) respectively.12(j) and Fig 5. Voltage is retained to required value after removing fault at both wind and diesel gen buses as shown in the Fig 5. fault current from wind generator and total fault current respectively. system frequency.

5 5 8 10 200 100 0 -1 0 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 12 1 4 1 6 1 8 20 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (e) (f) 1400 1200 14 0 0 12 0 0 Fault current from diesel gen in Amps 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 Fault Current from Wind Gen in Amps 10 0 0 8 0 0 6 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 10 12 1 4 1 6 1 8 20 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 30 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S ec ) (g) (h) 2 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 .9 6 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 Fault Current in Amps 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 -5 0 0 -1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 T im e (S ec ) T im e (S e c ) (i) (j) .5 400 Load Active Power at Wind Gen bus in Kw System Frequency in Hz 300 6 0 5 9 .5 5 9 5 8 .0 4 1 .0 2 1 .0 3 Speed of a Synchronous Machine in pu 1 5 0 0 1 .0 5 1 .9 7 0 .9 8 0 .9 9 0 .5 6 1 6 0 .0 1 1 0 .500 6 1 .

5 T im e (S ec ) (m) 2 50 2 00 1 50 0 10 15 20 25 3 0 35 T im e (S ec ) (n) Power Flow in line in Kw 1 00 50 0 -5 0 -1 0 0 -1 5 0 -2 0 0 15 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 T im e (S ec ) (o) Fig.0 9 1 .1 2 1 .5 1 20 25 30 35 40 0 .5 DC Voltage across Capacitor in Volts 2 5 0 0 2 Voltage at Wind gen bus in pu 2 0 0 0 1 .5.5 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 T im e (S e c ) (k) 1 .5 1 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 . (b) Active Powers generated by wind generator in Kw.1 1 .1 1 5 1 .5 DFIG Speed in pu 1 .(d) System Load at diesel bus (e) System Load at wind bus (f) System Frequency in Hz.1 1 0 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 T im e (S e c ) (l) 2 .12(a) –Fig 5.0 9 5 1 .0 8 5 15 Voltage at Diesel gen bus in pu 1 .(g)Fault current from diesel gen bus (h) Fault current from wind gen bus (i) Total fault current (j) Speed of synchronous machine (k) DC Voltage at capacitor (l)Voltage at wind gen bus (m) Speed of DFIG (n) Voltage at wind gen bus (o) Power flow in line.12(o) :-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind diesel system with transmission line :( a) wind speed in m/s.(c) Active Powers generated by wind generator in Kw . .3 5 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 .1 0 5 2 1 .

voltage and frequency . diesel only mode and continuous wind diesel mode to assure the power quality. Quality of power supplied to the autonomous system is improved by controlling the frequency to a desired value. Compared with the conventional diesel-wind system.2 CONCLUSIONS The Hybrid system consists of wind turbine generators.1 GENERAL The main objective of the work has been to Voltage and Frequency control of wind diesel hybrid power system with fixed and variable wind turbines. the diesel generator terminal voltage and the upper limits for reactive power output of DFIG are important operative parameters affecting the operation performance. In order to reduce the diesel fuel cost in continuous wind diesel mode. The following are the main conclusions of the investigations carried out in this thesis work. Induction generator and the consumer load was simulated. Frequency is regulated in all the modes of operation such as wind only mode. diesel generators. 6. synchronous machine. In the present work. Locking clutch mechanism is used for engaging and disengaging the diesel engine from synchronous machine in this transition. smooth control circuit was designed for transition from wind to wind diesel mode during load wind penetrations and high system loads.3 FUTURE WORK This technique can be practically implemented and a thorough study can be made on its performance for different wind speeds and loads. Power fluctuation has reduced much by using variable speed wind turbine generator compared to fixed speed wind turbine. 6. the response of the system equipped with DFIG during wind fluctuation and load changes is more stable. The simulation of wind diesel hybrid system has been done under different wind speeds and loads. dump load. Analysis also shows that in this kind of system.CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 6. and the ability for reactive power output of DFIG is improved the reactive power control in system operation observably.

Photovoltaic cell.It can be further extended to grid mode of operation. Moreover. The performance of isolated diesel-wind power systems can be improved effectively by enhancing the wind generators. REFERNCES . the laboratory prototypes of these systems may be developed to validate the design. model and control techniques. Fuel cell and Micro turbine can also be integrated into wind diesel system.control is done for isolated systems .

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480V.4. β) coefficients: c1 = 0. CP. Magnetizing inductance (Lm) = 2.9 pu.015 pu. Rotor resistance (R’r) = 0. Rotor leakage inductance (L’lr) = 0. 480V. ω base = 1.016 pu. c2 = 116. 4 pole.0068. c3 = 0.5176.016 pu. and c6 = 0.APPENDIX SIMULATION PARAMETERS INDUCTION GENERATOR PARAMETERS: 275 KVA. CP(λ.48. c4 = 5. c5 = 21.06 pu. Stator leakage inductance (Lls) = 0. Number of units = 1. Inertia constant (H) = 2 s. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PARAMETERS: 275KVA. λnom = 8. Stator resistance (Rs) = 0. 60 Hz three-phase induction generator. TURBINE PARAMETERS: Base wind speed = 12 m/s.06 pu. 4 pole. max = 0. Number of pair poles (P) = 2.1.2. Number of pair poles (P) = 2. Stator resistance (Rs) = 0. K = 0. . 60 Hz three-phase synchronous generator. Inertia constant (H) = 2 s.73.

Number of units = 1. .

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