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Kerosene:

Kerosene is an oil distillate commonly used as a fuel or solvent. It is a thin, clear liquid consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons that boil between 302F and 527F (150C and 275C). While kerosene can be extracted from coal, oil shale, and wood, it is primarily derived from refined petroleum. The term kerosene is, in fact, derived from the Greek word for wax. Sometimes spelled kerosine or kerosiene, it is also called coal oil because of its asphalt origins.

Uses:
Before electric lights became popular, kerosene was widely used in oil lamps and was one of the most important refinery products. kerosene is primarily used as a heating oil, as fuel in jet engines, and as a solvent for insecticide sprays.. Kerosene is used in transportation process.

Properties:
Kerosene, a thin, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons, with a density of 0.78 0.81 g/cm3 is obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 C and 275 C, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between six and 16 carbon atoms per molecule. The flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 C (100 and 150 F), and its autoignition temperature is 220 C (428 F). Heat of combustion of kerosene is similar to that of diesel; its lower heating value is around 18,500 Btu/lb, or 43.1 MJ/kg, and its higher heating value is 46.2 MJ/kg. Kerosene is immiscible in water (cold or hot), but miscible in petroleum solvents. Heating value minimum 16,000 BTU per pound. Sulfur content maximum 1.0 percent weight.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Watch for Children and Pets Children and pets are in great danger when near a kerosene space heater. Never leave children or pets unattended in rooms where these heating sources are used. By taking extra precautions, you will avoid your children and pets from burns that result from kerosene burn. Aesthetic features Kerosene produce unpleasant odor. In spite of the fact that modern items emit less odor that their predecessors, a person still can detect it when fist entering the room. Even if the appliance is off it can produce this smell in case it runs out of fuel. Avoiding Fire Kerosene safety includes your using a fireproof surface such as fireproof tile. The surface should be large than the bottom to avoid the distribution of sparks, which can cause fire

Aviation fuel:
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft. It is generally of a higher quality than fuels used in less critical applications, such as heating orroad transport, and often contains additives to reduce the risk of icing or explosion due to high temperatures, among other properties.

Properties:
Avgas is sold in much lower volumes. Principal components include n-heptane and isooctane.

Uses:
Like other fuels, blends of aviation fuel used in spark-ignited piston-engined aircraft are often described by their octane rating. Overwing fuelling is used on smaller planes, helicopters, and all piston-engine aircraft.

Safety precautions
Aviation fuel can cause severe environmental damage, and all fuelling vehicles must carry equipment to control fuel spills. In addition, fire extinguishers must be present at any fuelling operation, and airport firefighting forces are specially trained and equipped to handle aviation fuel fires and spills. Aviation fuel must be checked daily and before every flight for contaminants, such as water or dirt.

Diesel Oil:
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as bio diesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrol diesel Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents.

Uses:
In Mobile Applications Trucks Locomotives Ships Another major user of diesel fuel is the construction industry. Equipment such as forklifts, cranes, excavators and loader backhoes depend on diesel's power to fuel their work.

Properties:
Boiling Range: 320 to 690 F (160 to 366 C) Vapour Pressure: 0.009 psi @ 70 F (21 C) Vapour density (air = 1): > 1.0 Specific Gravity : 0.83 to 0.88 @ 60 F (16 C) Percent volatiles: 100 % Evaporation Rate: Slow; varies with conditions Solubility (H2O): Negligible Diesel fuel flash points vary between 52 and 96 C (126 and 205 F).

Safety Precautions:
Keep away from flame, sparks, excessive temperatures and open flame. Use approved vented containers. Do not pressurize, cut, heat, weld or expose such containers to sources of ignition.

Residual Fuel Oil:


Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power.

Uses:
Fuel in Ships. Burner fuel oil for power generation plants (oil fired power stations) and for other industrial applications. It is often used as a backup fuel for peaking power plants in case the supply of natural gas is interrupted or as the main fuel for small electrical generators.

Properties:
flash point of approximately 40 C (104 F) fuel oil is a high-viscosity residual oil requiring preheating to 220 - 260 F (104 127 C). specific gravity usually ranging from 0.95 to 1.03.

Safety Precautions:
Pollutant Substance,limited usage.

Lubricant :
A lubricant is a substance introduced to reduce friction between moving surfaces. It may also have the function of transporting foreign particles. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity. A good lubricant possesses the following characteristics:

High boiling point. Low freezing point. High viscosity index. Thermal stability. Corrosion prevention. High resistance to oxidation.

Uses:
Lubricating oil must need to be considered for use in the transportation industry. Both gas and liquid lubricants can transfer heat. However, liquid lubricants are much more effective on account of their high specific heat capacity

Properties:
High boiling point. Low freezing point. High viscosity index. Thermal stability Corrosion prevention. High resistance to oxidation

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Oil and Grease Spills: Oil or grease spilled on floors, catwalks, and ladders can present fall and fire hazards. Wipe up lubricant spills immediately or use absorbent drying pads or granules. In the oil house or storage area, replace leaky dispensing devices, keep drip pails in place, and wipe up any spills:. Application to Machines: Do not apply lubricants to machines in operation unless the machine is equipped with central lubrication systems or the fittings and oil caps are piped out to a safe place. Do not reach over, under, through, or past moving parts of machinery.

Safe Clothing: Follow plant rules for the proper kind of safety shoes, hats, goggles, glasses, gloves, or special clothing. Do not wear loose or torn clothing that can be caught in moving parts of a machine. Wear long sleeves in the vicinity of hot surfaces.

Grease:
The term grease is used to describe semisolid lubricants. Although the word grease is also used to describe rendered fat of animals, in the context of lubrication, grease typically applies to a material consisting of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil.

Properties:
It is semi-solid substance It is a type of pseudo-plastic fluid Thixotropic. Very viscous.

Uses:
Silicone grease heat sinks to computer CPUs. Fluoro ether-based grease used as greases in demanding environments due to their inertness. Laboratory grease lubricating stopcocks and ground glass joints. Water-soluble grease analogs used as a surgical and personal lubricant, is K-Y Jelly.

Asphalt:
Asphalt also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highlyviscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits, it is a substance classed as a pitch.

Properties:
Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses Its material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil (boiling at 525 C (977 F) Flexible to low temperature Dark Brown or Black coloured solid Boiling point is above 300C Melting point is between 54C -173C Solubility in Water: none Flash point is above 200C c.c Auto ignition temperature is above 400C

USES:
Used in making Roads, pavements, etc Used in making rolled asphalt concrete Used in making Asphalt emulsion.

Precautions:
It can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol A harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly when dispersed or when heated. Fumes of this substance are possibly carcinogenic to humans

Coke:
Coke is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Cokes from coal are grey, hard, and porous. While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is man-made.

Uses:
Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. It is there to reduce the iron oxide (hematite) in order to collect iron. The bulk specific gravity of coke is typically around 0.77. It is highly porous The most important properties of coke are ash and sulfur content, which are linearly dependent on the coal used for production.

Properties:

Precautions:
Precautions as same as for organic compounds.

NAME: ROLL NO: PPSUBJECT: PPD Assignment YEAR: S.E BATCH: 2010-2011