Design and realization of Controller in wind solar hybrid generating system

Design and Realization of Controller in Wind Solar Hybrid Generating System

Fengge Zhang, Yuxin Wang, and Erxin Shang

Abstract - Aiming at the Problem to generate difficultly steady electric energy in wind solar hybrid power system (WSHGS), the management and control method based on the battery power control is discussed. The system designed in this paper realizes the control for battery intelligent charging and discharging process by the system software and PIC16F877 signal chip computer. The hardware design scheme is given too in this paper. The emulation of the control system is carried out by simulation tool. The simulation results show that the system controller can manage the batteries charging and discharging well, so the batteries' life will be longer. Index Terms- battery charging and discharging, renewable resource, wind solar hybrid power.

battery in the stand-alone WSHGS, the paper study on the method for the charging and discharging management. An energy management system based on a PIC16F877 in standalone WSHGS is designed. This system can accomplish the storage batteries' capacity prediction and charging and discharging control [3].
II. SYSTEM OPERATION PRINCIPLE

The WSHGS is composed of photovoltaic array, wind turbine generator, intelligence controller, storage batteries, and inverter, etc. The schematic diagram of WSHGS is shown in Fig. 1.

1.

INIRODUCTION

"' "X JIND energy and solar energy are inexhaustible green V V energies, and they have very strong complementarities.
Today, green energy can resolve crisis of conventional energy shortage and environmental pollution in the world, so the WSHGS has a bright application and development prospect. According to the local environment and the load characteristic, the rational capacity allocation of wind turbine generator, solar cells and storage battery can raise power supply's reliability, and reduces the system cost [1]. In stand-alone WSHGS, storage batteries play an important role as an energy storage component. CATEX is very high and they also are the weakest part in the system. Whereas the charging/discharging management of storage battery directly affects the quality of power supply since electric energy from wind turbine generator and solar cells has obvious fluctuation. It brings forward higher demand to electric power management system [2]. Therefore, it has realistic significance to study power management of batteries. BoostlBuck DC chopper combined with three states charge method is used to realize charging and discharging control of storage battery. The control strategy improves dynamic performance of system more efficiently than traditional control. The energy management problem of batteries is solved preferably. According to the characteristic of storage
This work was supported by "Liaoning BaiQianWan Talents Program in China". "Scientific Research Foundation for Returned Scholars. Ministry of Ecncation of China. and "Shenyang city science plan project(1063288-1-00) in China". Fengge Zhang, Yuxin Wang, Erxin Shang are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, 110178 China (e-mail: zhangfg@sut.edu.cn.wangyx@sytvu.cn).

System Controller

Fig.1. Schematic diagram ofWSHGS.

The wind turbine generator converts the wind energy into the electric power; three-phase full-bridge rectifier circuit produces DC output after AC-DC power conversion. DC output charge for the batteries by controller. Batteries have functions of electrical energy storage and adjustment. If electrical energy is excess from wind turbine generator and photovoltaic array, the batteries save energy. When the system generated energy is insufficient, and power consumption is increased, the loads is supplied for energy by the battery. The battery runs in discharging State. Then it makes the power supply voltage steady. The State of battery is adjusted by controller with MOSFET as switching tube. The batteries work alternately in the state of charging, discharging or float charging [4]. Accordingly, the stability and continuity of generator system are guaranteed. The final, output energy of the system is supplied to user loads through PWM control.

978-1-4244-1762-9/08/$25.00

©2008 IEEE

Ill.

CONTROL METHOD

A. Hardware design of Control system The hardware of control system includes wind turbine generator sampling module, photovoltaic cells sampling module, battery sampling module, temperature sampling module, out module, drive module, display module, clock module, power supply and reset module etc. The peripheral module ofMCU is shown in Fig.3.

The wind solar hybrid power system should provide stably energy as the independent system because system has the instability. The storage battery doesn't work on the typical charging and discharging circulatory state in the actual operation, but work under the three stages of main charge, current limiting charge and float charge. In the main charge stage, the energy of system is full used to charge for battery with large current. The battery voltage rise rapidly. When it climbs to threshold value of average charge voltage, battery turns into the second stage for charge with current limiting until state of charge arrive at 80% generally. The battery is not still filled in the second stage, supplementary charging should be operated and Charge current should be reduced gradually. When battery terminal voltage arrive at floating voltage, battery is be filled basically. In the third stage, the battery is filled unceasingly with floating charge. It is necessary to maintain the battery working mode at floating charge for batteries' life. With the number of charge and discharge cycles reducing, batteries' life is longer. At the same time, battery's electrical energy efficiency is enhanced, and the required battery capacity is reduced efficiently. The concrete control strategy is that the biggest charging current of the battery is controlled by system controller in charge process. Terminal voltage increase along with battery capacity rising. Comparing terminal voltage with voltage setting value, when terminal voltage is equal to floating voltage, the system adjust input energy to change charge stage into floating charge. If the voltage continues to rise, it is necessary to connect to unload unit suitably. On the other hand, the terminal voltage will reduce gradually in discharge process. System controller should tum on the charge circuit for battery charging. When terminal voltage decrease to discharge setting value (electric discharge depth), the system controller would stop to discharge in order to protect the storage battery. The circuit diagram of storage battery charge and discharge control is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig, 3, Peripheral module ofMCD.

a. Main circuit MOSFECT driving circuit is used in Main circuit to control the process of charging and discharging reasonably. Buck IBoost DC chopper is adopted for power balance control of the DC output between batteries, wind turbine generator and photovoltaic array. circuit diagram of storage battery charge and discharge is shown in Fig. 4.
p

+ T~

PV Array

ipv

+U "

Fig. 4, Circuit Diagram of Storage Battery Charge and Discharge,

Fig. 2. Circuit Diagram of Storage Battery Charge and Discharge.

IV.

CONTROLLER

DESIGN

MCU PIC16F877 is used for data acquisition, processing and control, So as to complete the capacity forecast of the storage battery as well as charge and discharge control. The design of Control system includes following parts.

b. Detection circuit The detection circuit mainly completes signal Conversion and the detection of open-circuit voltage, the charging voltage, the discharging voltage, the charging current, the discharging current as well as the environmental temperature, the battery temperature etc. Voltage feedback and current feedback Circuit is shown respectively in Fig. Sand Fig. 6.

IDK

+HV

Fig. 5. Voltage Feedback Circuit.

Fig.7. Storage. Battery Charge. andDischarge

Control Circuit.

Fig. 6. Current Feedback Circuit.

c. Control circuit The main part of control circuit is the switch power chip TL494, its circuit diagram is shown in Fig.7. In the. circuit, A2 is used to control the PI constant voltage, the internal error amplifier of the TL494 is used for inner loop limiting current PI control. CP\VM' comes from MCU's PWM signal and is turned into DC signal through resistance capacitance filter as battery's charge voltage setting value, hat is voltage transform value of battery charging, EN is the state control signal for controlling the charge circuit. The PW:ty1 signal coining from TL494 is transmit to driving circuit to drive switch tube. d. Driving Circuit The PWMsignal produced by PICl6F877 can not drive MOSFET directly, thereforedriver IC must be added in the exterior. MOSFETdriving circuit is shown in Fig. 8. The main function of this circuit is that the Pulse Signal from MeU is amplified enough to ensure the reliable operation of MOSFECT. The output signal is insulated by optical coupler to prevent the damage of prime circuit affected from the later. The push-pull amplifier is adopted for promoting the driving current. The MOSFECTcan be tum on or turnoff.

Fig. 8. MOSFET Driving Circuit.

e. Auxiliary Power Supply The storage battery is supplied as the chip power of control system because of high Cost. The voltage regulation circuit is. composed of LM7812, LM7806. Auxiliary power source Circuit is shown in Fig. 9. The input voltage of storage battery is transferred into DC voltage suited for control circuit, driving circuit, detection circuit etc. The voltage is mainly +5vand +12v. The necessary DC voltage can be obtained by DC-DGconverter.
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f. Protective Circuit Over-current and Over-voltage protection are divided into two aspects. One is devices protection, the other is System Protection. The current and voltage of switch devices are measured for protecting the switch device of the main circuit from damage. The input and the output of the test system, the current and the voltage of the load are measured for protecting system in real-time and avoiding system collapses. The overvoltage protection circuit is shown in Fig.IO.

FS

Fig. 10. Over voltage Protective Circuit.

If the voltage signal obtained is higher than the setting value, the comparing result will change. The corresponding comparator LM-339 tum over to the high level (+ 12V); Otherwise, the operational amplifier outputs the low level (OV), the protection is not acted. When the over-voltage protection occurs, SCR VS would turns on. The relay K operates. Over-voltage Pilot lamp VD3 will be bright. The interrupt signal of over-voltage protection export simultaneously. The interrupt signal is turned into the low level FS through inverter, and FS is transferred into the low level through NAND gate 74HCOO. The pulse signal is directly blocked. Over-current protection circuit is similar to over-voltage protection electric circuit. g. Display Circuit The current, load, time and operational parameter of the battery charging and discharging will be described in this part. B. Software design of Control system The storage battery Management function of WSHGS is realized by the corresponding control program. The modular design is adopted for control software. Each part is independent and is easy for the adjustment. The master program flowchart is shown in Fig.II. Control program flow chart shown in Fig.12 is based on the judgment of charging and discharging status and DC bus voltage state.

End

Fig. II. System Main Program Flow Chart.

Charge Mode

No Bat_flag=l?

Yes ~-----,

Discharge Mode

,-------<.

Yes

End

Fig.12. Subprogram for battery charge and discharge control.

bbthabove 30% i,n pebruary.:w4 October. System's DC tetntirtal voltage Vii" battery voltage Vb,t and. battery current I~~tis, detected as feedback sigpa1. According- to tpe ,diffe(ent voltage level of the DC termi:nal voltage and the battery original oper\lfiort .status, c~rging ;'Inc).4i~charging range i~ .Gcm:fi,pned ~114 the n~g b~tisestabli's4~d. W4~~ th~ state of the flag bit, js 0, it ~xpre~s.e's that the energy ge·n~rate~.by re'nWabfep6'1er is bigger than he.ed of load. The biittery !lnters thechafging mode. Siml,l1taneously the battery voltaire is judged whether it' is higher than the cutoff' voltage: When the battery voltage, is higher than pre-set voltage; b,aJ;tery would stop charging, The signal of switch. Tbt~iis dosed. The state of the flag bit is-set to 1 for protecting The op,eratiori 0:( a .sYstem bynWk.irtg energy balance battery. q()nv~rsely, s\Yitc;h a~tibn eycle d;""is pbta.in~d~ e~1c~ati"~n~ for the e,~qpof the 8.,769 hoJ,lfs in.a y~ar i~ PID l:\illtrol andelecitjc cUrretitpf~di~fi.?n is u,~~dt9::control ~~niulated.Battery baijk state 0:( dj:ar~i~g .s ~Hown in fig.-15. charging for bllttery. TIle ,DC t.eriniha:l -vOltage 'Will be.' dropped. .. .. . .. .... Whert the state of the flag bit is 1, .it show that'the energy generated by tenewable power is lower than the need of load, The battery enters the discharging mode: Simultaneously the p.attery volt\lgeis judged whether it i~ lower thsn the cutoff voltage.. Whel1 the batt~lY voltage. is. lower than .pte-sOlit volf"age, battery iskfopl?ed :dischargirig. The signalpf ~Wit.6h T~,t is .c,lose{l.It isrtecbsarythat the loadshQ.uld beseparat.ed f0~ lengt1iening$t6rag~;~ life. 'C;opVe"isely,switch ;a6tibri'cy61~
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4;", 1$ obtai~ed to 'di~chafge for battery. The DC terminal' voltage is promoted, C· SditJ:llqfion,
Whole simulation module ofcharge-discharge is built up under' the authoritative softWare. according fo the 4j;Jermirtate parameters of the s';l~r -and Wind resout~e in certain ..area; the si,rrtulaiibn is mage to an~lY$is w.oi-king ~tafepfcbntrbl1er. A"\Zerage wina sp.eed is 5.4.4rn/s, The peak sblarradiafi"on time is _kWhim2/d,B~hely :fteq\le~cy histogram in one reat i$ shown' in F~gJ3,it shows the relatienshipbetween cha.rge ·state with frequency, 'The stateofcharge. .chattged with the freql:l~llcy of ollttety state, State of charge is worked more tP1'lrl Jb% at most time. The appearance rate ofbattety state is Pigger when state of charge is mote: than 90%.
30

Th¢ r¢sul~s of ~~m¢~tio~ .prove;*~.fe:asibi1ity of ~~che~e ahCl t4e\;~li~ty of the a~~igfl parameters.

the

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V, CGNCLvsr01i~
Thepllper focuses on the st;ind-alone wSHGS .usirtg yalv¢ regl,l1ateCleadcatid battery (VRLA). In order to improy,e the l performance: andredl,fce: cq~~ the ~ystein,thel:bhtr01 ::6f ~tfa~~gy of'the i~plementatioil of cli,argingailddiscijarging, saving energy, maintenance of ~tora.ge b~tte.ries i~ stl,ldied, i.ti: detail, BoostlBuck DCchbpper'cotnbined With three-stage charge- method issued to realize charging anc;ldischarging control for stonge battery, A control.system with He 16Fsj7 microproeessor has. been put forward, it can not oniy realize the. intellectual ¢hargirtg function, but" \liso has a Perfect ploteqtiort :functiort. Thi~ ~yS"tem.improveS' the ch~rg~,ng ~e.iability greatly. The: simulation mod,el ba~e4 abovecoAtrol ~tfa~~gy has als.6 been built. The sitw:uati.6n resul.t~ sijow t4af thi~ controi method ta,n i.mpro've 'e"ffe-ctivelysystentdynarniCi, performance.
VLREFEREN.dES [qHuan:;i.ng Yin, SheJ;tghongMs,

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Fi~. 13. Fi"eq_1J.E!p.cy l:iisto,W~rii.

.Monthly stllti.stic~ i~ ~hoWrt ih .Fig. 14., it explains .fi..~·tl·t¢r that the mal):jmum discba~gedepthof 'the batt~ri¢~ etli pse wa$ decreased in one yeats, the maximum-discharging depth of the batteries appears, in February and october. State of charge is

No.5, pp32-34" ;0.05... ". <. '.. •..... '.' .. ..... -. l='1~ton Balt~~ "'Die Arizona University P)lOJco.voltai¢ Des,ig!"i.erProgtait! (ASUPVD)'.\ Dejlsrtri\ent ()~ Electrical and Computer- En~jneerin;~, Mir:6na State U\\i.versjty; 1\l~6. . . [~] Taltaihi ElY AMA, ,Shinichi HOUZUMA, Tornofumi lMAKUBO "EValuati9l1.r:i new$]. network based ..teal tinlewmmum jJowei"riacirig controller for .pv, systerri" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, ·Vo.l.lO, No.3, ::>epteJl1per l.9.25, [2]

.Management

in PV/WUtd System",

."Fiiizy Cpnt:ro.l Applicatiqn
RENEWAiiLE

E?iERGT;

f9r Load Vo.U12,

[4]

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John Chatzal{1s, Kostas Xalaltzakls,NiDholas G "Desigmpg a new generalized Battery management sydem" 'IEEE Trans. ''rnd Electron, VoLSQ,DGt2QCi3 .. Matthew A "Cl;targifgAlgorillirns for In creas It;lg Lead Acid Battery Cyde Life forE\ectric vehid~s'; National Renewable' Eri_efgy Laboratory 1617 Gole Boulevard 2QDZ.3)4. .

etc. M a Visiting Professor, he worked .nthe. Fachhochschule EsslingenHochschule fur Teehnik, UniversityofAppliedSciences, Esslingen, Germany frorri 20.0.'1 to: 20.0.2. (E'mail fgzIlahg31S@sohucom) . .
YuxiiI Wang wasborfi in liaoning province of cl;tina on Septe(llber 8, 1.976, received l;tls'MS.from tJ{eShehyang, Universityof Teclmo16gyof China in 2DD6,At. present he worked In ShenYang broadcast arid television uiliv ersity is PhD. student of the' electrical engineeringschool ofShenyang University of Tech~ology, hi~ main researchdirection- is Wind sola!' hybdd' 'Generating system and its control technology , (;E-mad. sytvu _wyx@163.com)

VII. Broq-RAPHIES
Ferrgge Zhang, was born ill Hebel province of ·China, onMarch: 18, 1963, received the.B EE.,.M S.. and PhD from 'the Sheny:wg University of Technology of China in 1984, 1990 arid 20m te8leGtlvely,.both are ill ElectricalEngineering. Since. 1984, Zhang has beeriserv mg. ')1 teacher to the' school of Electrical Engineering at. ShenYaf)g. University of T'eehnology. His research interests .include. .electric (llagnetictheory, modeling, 'slriJJI ation, optimized d~~iilnand powerconverter,

he' a

Dr

as

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