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NURSING LEADERSHIP

NCM 105

Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM
Clinical Instructor
WHO IS YOU FAVORITE
LEADER?
DO YOU KNOW THEM?
DO YOU KNOW THEM?
WHO ARE THE NURSING
LEADERS THAT YOU KNOW?
NURSING LEADERS
What is your personal
definition of Leadership?
DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

 Leadership is commonly
defined as a process of
influence whereby the
leader influences others
toward goal achievement
 Some researchers – people
endowed with authority are
leaders

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DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP
 Leadership is a force that
creates a capacity among
a group of people to do
something that is
different or better

 Leadership – what
leaders do; the process of
influencing a group to
achieve goals
LEADERSHIP

 Theprocess of influencing people to
accomplish goals

 Leaders innovate

 Leaders focus on people
 Leadersinspire thru personal
trustworthiness & self-confidence

 Leaders communicate a vision that turns
self-interest into commitment to the job
LEADERS

 Use a wide variety of interpersonal
skills to influence others to accomplish
a specific goal
 Have the capacity to earn and hold
trust
 Must be personally authentic and
accountable
 Must possess enthusiasm, energy, and
commitment
FORMAL AND INFORMAL
LEADERSHIP
Formal leadership
 is based on occupying a position in an
organization, called assigned leadership

Informal leadership
 occurs when an individual demonstrates
leadership outside the scope of a formal
leadership role or as a member of a group,
rather than as the head or leader of the group.
The informal leader can be considered to
emerge as a leader when accepted by others
and perceived to have influence.
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What makes a person a
leader?
LEADERSHIP THEORIES
EVOLUTION OF LEADERSHIP THEORY

Leadership theory is an evolving field;
while these highlight the most
common theories of the last century,
more theories continue to be
researched in the elusive search for a
definitive understanding of
leadership. More recent leadership
theories are discussed on the
following slides.
GREAT MAN AND TRAIT
THEORIES

Great Man Theory
 Earliest approach
 Identify great person from
masses
 Certain traits -
success/effectiveness
 Aristotelian philosophy – some
people are born to be leaders
while others to be led
GREAT MAN AND TRAIT
THEORIES
Trait Theories
 Assume some people have
certain characteristics or traits
that make them better leaders
than others
 Studied great leaders throughout
history
 Power and situations were
ignored
GREAT MAN AND TRAIT
THEORIES
 Contemporary theories said that
leadership is a skill and can be
developed
 Not inborn
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
 Pattern of actions used by different
individuals determines leadership
potential
 McGregor et al moved away from
studying the traits of leadership…
situation
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
 Lewin,
White and Lippit isolated
common leadership styles
Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire
CHARACTERISTICS OF
AUTHORITARIAN
 Strong control over work group
 Others are motivated by coercion
 Others are directed with
commands
 Communication flows downward
 Decision making does not involve
others
 Emphasis is on difference in
status

RESULTS OF AUTHORITARIAN
 Results in well-defined group
actions
 Results are predictable = reduce
frustration in work group
 Productivity is usually high
 Creativity, self-motivation and
autonomy are low
 Useful in crisis situation
 Common in large bureaucratic
system
CHARACTERISTIC OF DEMOCRATIC
 Less control is maintained
 Economic and ego awards are used to
motivate
 Others are directed through suggestions
and guidance
 Communication flows up and down
 Decision making involves others

 Emphasis is on “we” rather than “I” and
“you”
 Criticism is constructive
ADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC
 Appropriate for groups that work together
for extended periods
 Promotes autonomy and growth of
individual
 Effective when cooperation and
coordination are necessary
 Takes time because of consultative process

 Frustrating for those who want decisions
made rapidly
 Less efficient quantitatively
CHARACTERISTICS LAISSEZ-FAIRE
 Permissiveness, with little or no control
 Motivation by support when requested by
group
 Provision of little or no direction

 Communication upward and downward flow
among members
 Decision making dispersed throughout the
group
 Emphasis on the group

 Criticism withheld
SITUATIONAL AND CONTINGENCY
THEORIES
 Leader traits and/or leader behaviors
are important aspects but must be
taken in context.
That is, the situation matters.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
 No single best way to lead
 Focus on maturity or readiness of
followers
Ability and willingness
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY

 Adjust emphasis on task and
relationship behaviors according
to the readiness of followers to
perform their tasks
 Mary Follet
socialsystem of contingencies
Need for “integration”
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Leadership Styles
 Telling: low readiness, untrained and
inexperienced employees
 Selling: low/moderate readiness,
trained but inexperienced employees
 Participating: moderate/high
readiness, able but unwilling,
employees skeptical
 Delegating: high readiness,
employees ready and willing to take
responsibility
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Hersey and Blanchard
 Developed situational approach
 Effectiveness of leader is based
on level of maturity of followers
 As followers mature = less task
focus for leader
CRITICAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS (HERSEY
& BLANCHARD)

 Diagnosing
 Adapting
 Communicating
Blake & Mouton’s Management Grid

 Thefoundation of this theory is that
management should have concern for
both human relations and completion
of work tasks.

 Thetwo scales range from 1 to 9 with
9 being a higher concern.
Blake & Mouton’s Management Grid

 Five(5) management styles are
identified:
Impoverished Management –
low concern for both people
and tasks

Country Club Management –
high concern for people and
low concern for tasks
Blake & Mouton’s Management Grid

 Five(5) management styles
are identified:

Organizational Man
Management – adequate
performance is
accomplished by balancing
staff morale and getting
work done
Blake & Mouton’s Management Grid

 Five(5) management styles are identified:
Authority Obedience – high concern
for tasks and low concern for people

Team Management – high concern for
both people and accomplishment of
tacks
THE MANAGERIAL GRID
BLAKE & MOUTON

9 --------------------------------------------------------------------------
COUNTRY-CLUB TEAM
(1,9) (9,9)

CONCERN
FOR MIDDLE OF ROAD
PEOPLE (5,5)

IMPOVERISHED TASK
1 (1,1) (9,1)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 9
CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION
The Major Leadership Grid Styles

1,1        Impoverished management. Often referred to as Laissez-faire leadership.
Leaders in this position have little concern for people or productivity, avoid taking sides,
and stay out of conflicts. They do just enough to get by.
1,9        Country Club management. Managers in this position have great concern for
people and little concern for production. They try to avoid conflicts and concentrate on
being well liked. To them the task is less important than good interpersonal relations.
Their goal is to keep people happy. (This is a soft Theory X approach and not a sound
human relations approach.)
9,1        Authority-Compliance. Managers in this position have great concern for
production and little concern for people. They desire tight control in order to get tasks
done efficiently. They consider creativity and human relations to be unnecessary.
5,5        Organization Man Management. Often termed middle-of-the-road
leadership. Leaders in this position have medium concern for people and production.
They attempt to balance their concern for both people and production, but they are not
committed.
9+9      Paternalistic “father knows best” management. A style in which reward is
promised for compliance and punishment threatened for non-compliance
          Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” management.  In which the style utilized
depends on which style the leader feels will return him or her the greatest self-benefit.
9,9        Team Management. This style of leadership is considered to be ideal. Such
managers have great concern for both people and production. They work to motivate
employees to reach their highest levels of accomplishment. They are flexible and
responsive to change, and they understand the need to change.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Tannenbaum and Schmidt
 Managers need a mixture of
autocratic and democraric
leadership behaviors or styles
 Style depends on nature of
situation, skill of manager and
abilities of members
FIEDLER’S LEADERSHIP
CONTINGENCY THEORY
 Reinforced contingency approach
 Group effectiveness depends on
appropriate match bet. leader’s style
and the demands of the situation
 Situational control
 Least preferred coworker
 Important variables
Leader/member relations, task structure,
position power
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL
 Suggests that no one leadership style
is the best for every situation.
 There are three (3) dimensions that
influence leadership style:
Leader-staff relations
Task structure
Position power
PATH-GOAL THEORY
Rooted in Expectancy Theory
Leader behaviors
Directive
Supportive
Achievement-oriented
Participative
PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
SITUATIONAL FACTORS

Characteristics of subordinates
Locus of control
Experience
Perceived ability

Characteristics of environment
Task structure
Formal authority system
Work group
Path-Goal Leadership Styles
 Directive
 Supportive
 Achievement-oriented
 Participative
Path-Goal leadership Style
PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

DIRECTIVE
Lets subordinates know what is expected
Plans and schedules work to be done
Gives specific guidance – what should be done
and how it should be done
Maintains clear standards of performance

SUPPORTIVE
Shows concern for well-being of subordinates
Treats members as equals
Does little things to make the work more
pleasant
Friendly and approachable
PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED
Sets challenges goals
Expects subordinates to perform at the highest
level
Seeks improvement in performance, while
showing confidence in workers

PARTICIPATIVE
Consults with subordinates
Solicits suggestions
Takes suggestions seriously into consideration
before making decisions
SUPPORTIVE LEADERSHIP

Reduce boredom
Increase the intrinsic
Make job more valence of work
tolerable

Increase effort
Supportive
Leadership

Increase self-confidence Increase effort-
Lower Anxiety performance expectancy
DIRECTIVE LEADERSHIP
Increase effort-
Reduce role ambiguity performance
expectancy

Increase outcome Increase
Directive Increase size
valences for task subordinate
Leadership of incentives
success effort

Strengthen reward Increase performance-
contingencies reward expectancies
PATH-GOAL THEORY

Outcome Variables
Causal Variables Intervening Variables
Subordinate effort
Leader Behavior Subordinate expectations and satisfaction

Situational Moderator Variables
Characteristics of task and environment
Characteristics of subordinates
NEW APPROACHES TO
LEADERSHIP

CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF
LEADERSHIP
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Burns (1978)
 Both leader and followers have the
ability to raise each other to higher
levels of motivation and morality
 Traditional
manager – concerned with day-
to-day operations termed as transactional
leader

 Manager who is committed, has a vision,
and empowers others with vision is termed
as transformational leader
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
 Inspirational,idea-oriented, visionary
 Dramatic, arouses intense feelings

 Communicates high expectations and
a need for a change
 Unpredictable
 Relies on referent or charismatic power
 Raises level of awareness and
commitment
 Gets followers to transcend their self-
interests
 Requires trust and belief in the vision
Transactional Leadership
 Exchanges rewards for services
 Management by exception (Watches
for deviations)
 Keeps the system operating smoothly
 Uses reward and coercive power bases
 Recognizes what workers want and
tries to deliver it
 Rewards according to worker effort
 Responsive to worker self-interests
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Transformational Broadening and
Leadership elevating follower goals
•Idealized Influence Performance
beyond
•Inspiration expectations
•Intellectual stimulation
•Individualized
consideration

Transactional
Leadership Leader/follower exchange
•Contingent reward Agreed upon
•Management by performance
exception (active or
passive)
•Laissez faire
Leadership Styles
 Transactional leadership

 Transformational leadership
Transactional leadership

•Contingent Reward
•Management by Exception
•Laissez Faire
Transformational leadership
•Individualised consideration
•Charisma
•Inspiration
•Intellectual stimulation
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

“Transformational leaders concentrate
on motivating and developing staff
members so the organisation and its
staff achieve a shared vision. Key
stakeholders within the organisation
are empowered to build a culture that
supports this vision.”
(Dixon 1997)
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Transformational
Transactional leader
leader
 Focuses on  Identifies common
management tasks values
 Is a caretaker  Is committed

 Uses trade-offs to  Inspires others with
meet goals vision
 Does not identify  Has long-term vision
shared values  Looks at effects
 Examines causes  Empowers others
 Uses contingency
reward
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES

Interactional theory
 Leadership behavior is determined by
the relationship between the leader’s
personality and the specific situation
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES

Schein (1970)
 Human as complex beings whose
working environment was an open
system to which they responded
 System – objects, with relationships
between the objects and its attributes
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES
Brandt (1994)
 Leaders develop work environment
that fosters autonomy and creativity
through valuing and empowering
others
 Affirmsuniqueness of individuals
 Contribute unique talents to a common
goal

 Peter
Drucker – leadership is a
responsibility rather than a rank or
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES
Kanter (1989)
 Titleand position authority were no
longer sufficient to mold a workforce,
subordinates are encouraged to think
for themselves and instead managers
must learn to work synergistically with
others
LEADERSHIP ROLES

 Guiding
 Directing
 Teaching
 Motivating for goal setting
 Motivating for achievement
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS

 Honesty  Decisiveness
 Vision  Risk-taking
 Competence  Caring
 Communication  Balance
 Motivation  Humor
 Knowledge  Self-awareness
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS
 Intelligence  Alertness
 Knowledge  Confidence
 Judgment  Personal integrity
 Decisiveness  Emotional balance and
 Oral fluency control
 Emotional intelligence  Ability
 Independence  Able to enlist cooperator
 Personable  Interpersonal skills
 Adaptability  Tact
 Creativeness  Diplomacy
 cooperativeness  Prestige
 Social participation
 Nonconformity