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Martin F.Price




mechanical. Kirkmahoe.form or ~J! a'!)l means. UK W'\. electronic."W. ISBN: 0-9552282-2-0 If I~ .Published by Sapiens Publishing Duncow.com Copyright © 2006 Martin E Price First Published 2006 No part of this publication m~J' be reproduced> stored in a retrieval system. ClP data or a catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. without prior permission if the cORyright holders. saplenS-llOw.ing or otherwise. Dumfrieshire DG 1 1TA. photocop). or transmuted in arg.

as only scattered years have wet summers. with an emphasis on integration of area management. the Stir. to store plant seed and develop nursery popula. lOCI (Indian Ocean Climate Initiative). Castro and Regino Zamora Spain Water is a critical resource for seedling establishment in many ecosystems worldwide. cia Fonseca GAB and Kent J. nmg. References CSIRO. • to apply a threatened community through strategic recovery plans. The latter is developing a strategic approach to threatened species recovery planning in the region. Can global change alter species com.'\I. . Nature 2000. with subsequent storage at -18°C as a long term fall-back strategy in the event that all known naturally-occurring populations become extinct. to increase regional landscape scale connectivity a?d regional threatened species recovery plan. IUCN 2004: 340-345. The Mediterranean climate has pronounced rainfall seasonality. At the species level. Therefore. PARKS 200 I. to create a threedimensional network of connectivity. I 1:44-47. Andromeda Editrice. S (in prep). Harmon D and Worboys GL (eds). Notes on Changed Climate in Wesrern Australia 2004: Number 2. P. How has Rainfall Changed ? The South \'Vest. • • • to address other threatening processes a' thoroughly as possible. we are collecting seed from threatened plants. Mittermeler CG. Myers N. Climate change 'scenarios for the Australian Region Website 20(}(): http://~'W'.Jorge University of Granada.~. and summer drought is a major factor constraining establ~hment in Mediterranean-type ecosystems (Castro et al. 2005).RKS 1999. Globally significant biodiversity widlin city limits : the case of South Africa's Cape. species recovery and threat amelioration. In : Managing Mountain Protected Areas: Challenges and Responses for the 21st Century. As a small and isolated biodiversity hotspot. For some critically endangered montane plants.dar.9: 7-16.-\.csiro/publications/scenarios. McNeely]A. including the introduction of fast attack aerial water bombers in 2004. "ve have also been developing regional approaches to improving landscape connectivity rN atson and \Vilkins 1999) and threatened species recovery (Danks et al. Watson ] and Barrett S. plus high between-year variability. 2005.position of Mediterranean rrrourrtafn forests? An experimental approach in Sierra Nevada National Park (Southern Spain) Irene Mendoza.403:853-858. references therein). 2005. Comer S and Gilfillan."rOLTNTAINS suppression capability. The former aims to provide 'macro corridor' linkages across the landscape between protected areas and' other large areas of remnant natural vegetation. Small is BeautifuirConserving the Nature of Low-Altitude Mountain Protected Areas in South Westeru Australia. ling Range may have a valuable role within a global approach to addressing climate change impacts. with dry and hot summers. Regional Recoven' and Threat Abatement Plan for Threatened Species and Co~. wetter summers are considered critical for the establishment of seedlings of long-lived woody . approach Watson J and Wilkins PJ. rnunities in the South Coast Region of Western Australia. The Western Australian South Coast Macro Corridor Project . htm SUDlIDary Low-altitude mountains OCCUlTing within global biodiversity hotspots can assume 'Himalayan' proportions in terms of their biodiversity. They can also playa significant role in helping to address climate change scenarios due to their accessibility and the concentration of various threatening processes into relatively small areas. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.184 GLOBAL CHANGE IN r. seedling nurseries have been established in the hope that re-introduction to PhytophtllOra-free areas can occur in the future. tions of critically endangered species. Italy.A Bioregional Strategy for Nature Conservation. Mittermeler MA. Strategies for montane communities in S\N Australia are Danks .

± 2. and Taxus baccaia (yew). for forest regeneration. and 15 for A. oaks being the most tolerant. 2004).2004.2%. affecting forest species differently. and yew the lowest (18. Light intensity was reduced 74% by understorey shrubs and 95 % by woodland canopy. obtaining a Global Site Factor (GS_F) value per sowing point. P < 0. watering had a intermediate effect (58. even in a mild year.00 I for recruitment percentage).700 seeds were monitored in 2003 and 7650 in 2004. Quercus ilex (Holm oak).042 m2 plot). and 29. 5.rand the other half to the control. compared with open areas. Six naturally found mountain-forest tree species were selected: Acer granatense (maple).3% ± 2. SE Spain.l. Irrigation was applied to simulate local summer rainfall} and a gradient in light availability was selected. demonstrating the effectiveness of watering. P < 0. F 23.001): Scots pine had the highest emergence rate (49. Results and discussion After the irrigation treatment. This is presumably due to the combination of higher soil moisture and lower radiation in this habitat (see also Castro et al. In the context of global change.5 ± 1. drought alleviation exerted a weaker effect. equivalent to a heavy local summer storm.s. Irrigation boosted survival and recruitment (proportion of live seedlings _with respect to the number of seeds planted) in all species compared to the control.0286 m2 plot).4 ± 2. The percentage of volumetric moisture content (VMe %) of soil was monitored with a Theta ~Probe sensor.1 program. Light intensity was measured with hemispherical photography. Drip irrigation. and woodland canopy). given the variable summer-drought tolerance of Mediterranean flora (Blondel & Aronson 1999). However. especially helping P.001 for survival percentage. in control). an experirnental approach is needed to evaluate the responses to summer rainfall. shrubby understorey. W·e selected three habitat types representative of local light heterogeneity (open areas. Our aim is to determine whether the predicted decline in summer rainfall may alter the species composition of Mediterranean mountain forest. boreal species were extremely dependent on a mild summer for seedling establishment: 26.56. we chose 20 sowing points per stand in 2003 and 10 in 2004.9 in watered plots versus 21. The emergence rate differed among habitats and species (F = 36. P < 0. This study experimentally quantifies the alleviation of summer drought on seedlingestablishment in a Mediterranean mountain community. and every 30 days in . drought alleviation boosted seedling survival in open areas (45. summer drought had a different jmpact across habitats and species: in woodland. 1650 m.View 2. These species differ in drought tolerance. and yew and Scots pine the least.CAN GLOBAL CHANGE ALTER SPECfES COMPOSITION OF l\IEDITERRANEAN l\IOUNTAIN FORESTS? . Means are shown ± 1 standard error. 10 for T. taking two measurements = .vlvestris seedlings. but the effect was both speciesand habitat-dependent (F = 19. For each species.6). summer rainfall may be rarer in these ecosystems. However. was 30 11m2 every 10 days. Half of the points were assigned to an irrigation treatment. provided from peak seedling emergence to the end of summer drought. and cause of death were periodically monitored for 2 years (1 April 200325 May 2005).8% in the control plots. soil moisture was higher for the irrigated sampling stations than for the control.8. The benefit of a wetter summer persisted the year following the irrigation treatment. By contrast. Each sowing point was caged against seed predation. Q pyrenaua (Pyrenean oak). with global change. pictures were analyzed with Hemi.5. with three stands per habitat type.PART 8 185 species and} hence. P.. ~Finally. considering the seedling stage. Seedling emergence (percentage of seedlings that emerged from sown seeds).0% in control plots. a mosaic of small patches of several forest types characteristic of the Mediterranean mountains.6). survival (percentage of seedlings surviving to the end of the experiment). Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine).5% of watered yew seedlings versus 8.7 ± 1. seeking to determine the impact of global change on forest-regeneration dynamics.. Overall. our hypothesis was that rainfall will be more vital for species that are intolerant of summer drought. The other species were less drought-sensitive.. granatense. Serbus aria (whitebeam). A total of 11. Because wetter summers are rare. with an increase of 13% in survival in watered plots compared to the control treatment. Analyses used factorial analyses of variance (ANOV As).a. baccata.). per sowing point every 14 days in 2003.0% of Scots pine seedlings survived when watered versus 2.7% Material and :methods The study was conducted in 2003 and 2004 at Trevenque (Siena Nevada National Park. under a shrubby understorey. aria (sown in a 0. The number of seeds per sowing point was adjusted to seed size and to seed availability at planting: 5 for Quercus spp (SO\Vll in a 0. syluestris and S. 5 so establishment in open areas is restricted to more _ drought-tolerant species. which had increased emergence the year following a wet summer.

Poland charcoal and oil production. R.ne sorrre ll10untain ranges in Central Europe Institute of Geography and Spatial :rv1il:oszJ odlowski Management. Environmental policy in Poland and former Czechoslovakia differed significantly. deciduous forest.a.s. J Biology and wildlife of the Mediterra_ nean Region. in any case. Thus. only the Polish part).].186 GLOBAL CHANGE IN I\WUNTAINS in watered plots versus 37. KrakOw. and anthropogenic krummholz-line.s. It protects the soil and stabilises the snow cover. Oxford: Oxford Universiry Press.].A. seven sites were chosen.. Therefore. Controls on the structure of the krummholz-line have been assessed and five types of ecotone were distinguished: orographic.e on abandoned pastures. ]agie/Jonian Unioersuy. The unique value of the natural environment was the reason for establishing biosphere reserves in.I.. The main factor affecting the krummholz-line was sheep and cattle grazing. The study area encompasses three mountain ranges located in Poland..). Zamora.Alleviation of summer drought boosts establishment success or Pinus sylveshis in a Mediterranean mountain: an experimental approach.a. The The main aim of tills study was to assess human impact on the contemporary structure of the krummholz-line in the mountains of Central Europe. Holtmeier 1981). Thus. in the Tatras. and the Czech Republic: the Tatra Mountains (2655 m.s. as well as copper and iron-ore mining (Plesnik 1978). seedling recruitment will be more constrained to scattered mild conditions."orking Group I.s. would become a mixed . J. J and Aronson. J. The current pine-dominated forest. in both Poland and Slovakia). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mountainpine thickets were also cleared due to extensive . For detailed studies.l. 1520 m. ]. with more diversity of droughttolerant species such as Quercus spp and.l. Encompassing the upper part of the forest-alpine tundra ecotone. 1999:34-42 Castro. features of the natural environment. Climate Change 2001. and the Giant Mountains (1993.J. a distinct subalpine belt with dense krummholz vegetation occurs (Troll 1973. morphological. the differential impact of summer drought across habitats' and species may affect the patterns of recruitment in Mediterranean mountain forests. in Poland mountain pine was introduced only to stabilise the slopes in the vicinity of tourist paths and deforested slopes below timberline. Hodar. in both Poland and Czechoslovakia. and G6mez. and Gomez. 181:191-202 IPCC '".a.edaphic.) and the Giant Mountains (1602 m. Slovakia.M. sensitive to summer drought. Zamora. mountain. mechanically lowered. The establishment of national parks in the study area in the 1950s limited human impacts and enabled the re_gl-owthof mountain pin. in the Babia Cora massif. varying in terms of the level of anthropogenic transformation. Closed mountain-pine (Pinus mugo) thickets stretch up to 300 meters above timberline reaching approximately 1600~1750 m.). now the Czech Republic). our results suggest that the different response of species to summer drought (in terms of seedling establishment) could shift community composition in Mediterranean mountain forests. Since the 16-1 7th century) mountain-pine thickets have been significantly altered by human activity. The krummholzline was lowered by up to 300 metres.8 ± 3. In these ranges. 2001).M . R. and provides habitat for mrulY species of flora and fauna.l. . The impact encompassed both degradation by animals and the clearing of mountain pine to create new pastures. Babia Gora (1976. thus restricting the release of avalanches. Seedling establishment of a boreal tree species (Pinus [Vivesiris) at its southern most distribution limit: consequences of being in a marginal Mediterranean habitat.a.a. Journal of Ecology 2004. in the Giant Mountains. References summers than under current Blondel.l..l. The Scientific Basis.s. Climatic models predict increased aridity and irregular precipitation for the Mediterranean area (IPCC.a. and 1360 m. Plant Ecology 2005. some mountain-pine thickets above timberline were destroyed.A. in a global-change context. H6dar.92:266-277 Castro. Babia Gora (1725 m. the Tatra Mountains (1992. whereas in Czechoslovakia large areas above timberline were planted. pine plays a significant role in the functioning of the natural environment. 2001 Anthropogenic transforntation of the krununholz-Ii. and location in the respective country.1 % 1Il control).s.

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