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Jump to: navigation, search Félix Rubén García Sarmiento
Rubén Darío has been praised as "The prince of Castilian letters" and "Father of Modernism"
January 18, 1867 Metapa, today known as Ciudad Darío, Matagalpa, Nicaragua February 6, 1916 León, Nicaragua Rubén Darío Poet, Journalist, Diplomat Nicaraguan Modernismo Rafaela Contreras, Rosario Murillo, Francisca Sánchez
Died Pen name Occupation Nationality Literary movement
2 In El Salvador 1.6 In Argentina 1. Bernarda Sarmiento. 1916) was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated Spanish-American literary movement known as Modernismo (modernism). in Leon.3 In Chile 1. Rosa Sarmiento established a relationship with another man and moved with him to San Marcos de Colon.Influenced[show] Félix Rubén García Sarmiento also known as Rubén Darío (Metapa.1 In León 1. a daughter named Candida Rosa. after obtaining the necessary ecclesiastic permissions since they were second degree cousins. who allegedly engaged in excessive consumption of alcohol. .9 His last years 2 Ruben Dario's poetry o 2. The marriage deteriorated again to the point where Rosa left her husband and moved in with her aunt. Contents [hide] 1 Life 1.5 Travels 1.7 Between Paris and Spain 1. 1866. While greatly considered the father of modernism itself. prompted Rosa to abandon her conjugal home and flee to the city of Metapa in Matagalpa where she gave birth to Felix Ruben. Dario has had the greatest and most lasting influence into twentieth century Spanish literature. Manuel's conduct.8 Ambassador in Madrid 1. He has been praised as The Prince of Castilian letters. and journalism. Honduras. 1867 – Leon February 6. January 18. However. flourishing at the end of the 19th century.4 Journey in Central America 1. who died a few days after being born. The couple made up and Rosa even gave birth to a second child. in Choluteca. he is revered also as a great diplomat of Central and South America.2 Evolution 3 Assessment 4 Further reading 5 References o o o o o o o o o  Life  In León Manuel Garcia and Rosa Sarmiento were married on April 26.1 Influences o 2. After a brief period of time.
(according to his own testimony. A little later he also collaborated in El Ensayo. who was a merchant. according to his baptism. to be educated by Jesuits. the family went through rough economic times and they considered sending young Ruben as a tailor's apprentice. a literary magazine in Leon. and he published for the first time in a newspaper when he was thirteen years old. A precocious reader.) He barely spoke to his mother. who Dario considered." In these initial verses. in Leon. he signed his assignments as Felix Ruben Ramirez. a great greatgrandfather of mine had Dario as his last name. he attended several schools in Leon before going on. Ruben's last name was Garcia. of the city of Rivas on July 26.which was published in the daily El Termometro. The elegy. his paternal family had been known by the last name of Dario for many generations. carried out all his business as Manuel Dario. he learned to read when he was three years old) he soon began to write his first verses: a sonnet written by him in 1879 is conserved. his family as the Darios. Ruben Dario explains it as follows in his autobiography: According to what some of the elderly folk of that city of my infancy have referred to me. Felix and Bernarda. and gained a fame of "child poet. 1880. according to Teodosio Fernández. who lived in Honduras.. It was in this manner that the last name began to disappear to the point where my paternal great-grandmother already signed documents as Rita Dario. in 1871. The catedral-basílica de la Asunción. His remains are buried in this church. In the small town he was known by everyone as Don Dario. in his infancy. his . this became patronymic and acquired legal validity since my father." Although little is known about his first years. it is documented that after the death of Felix Ramirez. to be his real parents (as a matter of fact.Although. or with his father. during his first years in school. during 1879 and 1880. According to his biographer Edelmiro Torres. who he referred to as "uncle Manuel. Ruben Dario spent his childhood in the city of Leon.. Una lagrima. where the poet spent his infancy. He was brought up by his mother's aunt and uncle in law.
that started with a recitation of one of his poems. given his gift for poetry. however. Rosario Emelina Murillo. creativity. Ruben. participating in celebrations such as the one hundredth year commemoration of Simon Bolivar. the anti-clerical tone of his verses did not convince the president of congress. In the capital. and he even had a book ready for printing. his most noteworthy influence was the Ecuadorian Juan Montalvo. His writings of this time also show the stamp of liberal (classic) thought. Although he enjoyed much fame and an intense social life in El Salvador. but also of modernist poetry as a whole. at the request of some liberal politicians that had conceived the idea that. although he managed to evade the fulfillment of the sentence. it would have to wait until 1888 when it was finally published as Primeras notas.  In El Salvador In El Salvador. In May 1884 he was condemned for vagrancy and sentenced to eight days of public work. for the first time. whom he wanted to marry. opted to stay in Managua where he continued his journalistic endeavour collaborating with the newspapers El Ferrocarril and El Porvenir de Nicaragua.predominating influences were Spanish poets contemporary to José Zorrilla. After his return. whom he deliberately imitated in his first journalistic articles. Gaspar Núñez de Arce and Ventura de la Vega. that would not see the light of day until the fiftieth anniversary of his death. he embarked in the port of Corinto for El Salvador. in August 1882. by Joaquin Mendez. he briefly resided in Leon and then in Granada. The use of the Alexandrine would become a distinctive trait not only of Dario's work. he fell in love with an eleven year old girl. at the petition of his friends who wanted to delay his marriage plans. he became very interested in Victor Hugo's work. and he . written in 1881. He tested his luck with Theater. things began to get worse: he went through economic hardships and he contracted smallpox. This second book also did not get published. During that time he continued experimenting with new poetic forms. he met the Salvadoran poet Francisco Gavidia. There. However. capital of the country. In December of that same year he moved to Managua. Rafael Zaldivar. which was going to be titled Epístolas y poemas. he should be educated in Europe at the expense of the public treasury. he returned to his native homeland. a poet who took him under his wing. hostile to the excessive influence of the catholic church. Further along the way. however. to adapt the French Alexandrine verse into Castilian metric. A little later. and was frequently invited to recite poetry in social reunions and public functions. He had a gifted memory. who would have a determinant influence in his poetic undertakings. but he finally moved again to Managua where he became an employee of the Biblioteca Nacional de Nicaragua (the Nicaraguan National Library) and he resumed his romance with Rosario Murillo. the conservative Pedro Joaquin Chamorro y Alfaro. Ramón de Campoamor. and it was resolved that he would study in the Nicaraguan city of Granada. which is why on October 1883. young Dario was introduced to the president of the republic. still convalescent. Under the auspices of Gavidia. Dario attempted. It was around this time (he was fourteen) that he wanted to publish a first book. as documented in his essay El jesuita. Regarding his political attitude. Poesia y articulos en prosa. a connoisseur of French poetry.
he found life in Managua unsatisfactory. but it was well received by the influential Spanish novelist and literary critic Juan Valera. Nonetheless. It was because of his friendship with Poirier that Dario was able to obtain a job in the newspaper La Época. but no copy of it has been found. in March 1887. two letters addressed to Ruben Dario. who published in the Madrid newspaper El Imparcial. Azul. Together they co-authored a sentimental novel titled Emelina.  In Chile After making a name for himself with love poems and stories. the poet Pedro Balmaceda Toro. in which. in Santiago on July 1886. he managed to forge a few friendships. The book was not an immediate success.) Dario's fame was firmly consecrated because of these letters from Valera.. Abrojos. whose letters. and prompted by the advice of some friends. 1886. in October 1888.. which were later published in Chile and other countries. was published in Valparaiso. .released his first play.. Azul . addressed to Ruben Dario in the periodical El Imparcial. decisively consecrated Rubén Darío.. novelist and literary critic. like the one with the son of the then president. Dario lived for several months until September 1887 in Valparaiso where he participated in several literary contests. with which they entered in a literary contest (although they did not win). he opted to embark for Chile on June 5. Juan Valera. Dario had to endure continuous humiliation from the Chilean aristocracy that scorned him for his lack of refinement and for the color of his skin. and disembarked in Valparaiso on June 23. although reproaching him for the excessive French influence in his writings (Valera's used the expression "galicismo mental" or 'mental Gallicism'). Nonetheless. Dario left Nicaragua for Chile in 1886.. During his stay in Chile. 1886. In the month of July 1888. titled Cada oveja. he recognized in Dario "[a] un prosista y un poeta de talento" ('a prose writer and poet of talent'. Dario soon after published his first pieces. In Chile he stayed with Poirier and a poet by the name of Eduardo de la Barra. the key literary work of the modernist revolution that had just begun. which had some success. is a compilation of a series of poems and textual prose that had already been published in the Chilean media between December 1886 and June 1888.
. El Correo de la Tarde. One day after the wedding there was a coup d'état against president (and general) Menéndez. Amongst those he interacted with frequently are poets Gaspar Núñez de Arce. substantially expanded. In January 1891 his wife reunited with him in Guatemala and they were married by the church on February 11 in the cathedral of Guatemala.. He arrived at the port in Corinto on March 7. an article titled Historia Negra in which he denounced Ezeta's betrayal of Menéndez. During the trip to Spain he made a stop in Havana. as prologue (it is now customary that these letters appear in every edition of this book). 1890. In November. In December 1890 he was tasked with directing a newly created newspaper. 1892 he disembarked in Santander. In June. in August. Dario published. which catapulted him to literary fame. only for him to separate very shortly thereafter. and traveled to Guatemala and Nicaragua. where he met Julián del Casal and other artists. and several distinguished politicians such as Emilio Castelar and Antonio Cánovas del Castillo. which was at the time the most heavily circulated periodical in Hispanic America. In Leon he was received as a guest of honor.  Travels In 1892. ceased to receive government subsidies. Eventually. was published in Guatemala. he set off on a trip back to Nicaragua. San Jose. Dario's marriage ended with the death of his wife. In San Salvador. Álvaro Contreras. novelists Juan Valera and Emelia Pardo Bazán. while his bride remained in El Salvador. Journey in Central America The newly attained fame allowed Dario to obtain the position of newspaper correspondent for La Nación of Buenos Aires. While in Costa Rica. on June 21. which lead him to remarry for a brief period. Dario left his family in Costa Rica. His stay in Nicaragua was brief. Dario chose to move to Costa Rica and installed himself in the country's capital. 1891. The coup was mainly engineered by general Carlos Ezeta. who had been a guest at Dario's wedding. José Zorrilla and Salvador Rueda. he returned . and he moved to San Salvador where he was named director of the periodical La Unión which was in favor of creating a unified Central American state. On August 14. Guatemalan president Manuel Lisandro Barillas was making preparations for a war against El Salvador. where he was barely able to support his family. Rubén Darío Contreras. the periodical that Dario was directing. He moved to Guatemala at the end of June. his first son. El Correo de la Tarde.. Dario decided to leave El Salvador despite job offers from the new president. A little after sending his first article to La Nacion. That same year the second edition of his successful book Azul. in the Guatemalan newspaper El Imparcial. in search for better economic prospects. erudite Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo. During a brief stop in Lima he met the writer Ricardo Palma. where he continued his journey to Spain via train. he was married by law to Rafaela Contreras. daughter of a famous Honduran orator. which forced it to close. was born on November 12. haunted by debt despite being employed. such as Aniceto Valdivia and Raoul Cay. 1889. and using Valera's letters. the Nicaraguan government named him a member of the Nicaraguan delegation to Madrid where events were going to take place to commemorate the fourth centennial of the discovery of America.
In the French capital city he met Jean Moréas and he had a disappointing encounter with a man he admired much. he arrived at Buenos Aires. the Colombian president Miguel Antonio Caro.) Finally. who was the general director of the institution handling mail and telegrams in Argentina. since. 1895. where he renewed his affairs with Rosario Murillo. he published articles in La Prensa. and he realized his dream of visiting Paris where he was introduced to the bohemian ways by the Guatemalan Enrique Gómez Carrillo and the Spaniard Alejandro Sawa. her death considerably affected him. a city that marked him deeply. Dario published two of his most crucial books: Los raros. Amongst the personalities he dealt with are the illustrious politician Bartolomé Mitre. the French poet who most influenced his literary work. a collection of articles about the writers that most interested him. At the onset of 1893. He left Rosario in Panama and undertook his journey to the Argentinian capital. where he received a telegram from San Salvador notifying him of his wife's illness. to which he was already a correspondent. died on May 3. His mother. 1893. whose family forced Dario to marry her. where he met the illustrious Cuban poet José Martí. who died on January 23. in Buenos Aires. he stopped briefly in New York. towards whom he had a sense of affinity. to whom Dario dedicated his ode: Oda a Mitre. In 1896. he obtained a job as Carlos Carlés' secretary. In October of the same year there was another mishap. Mexican poet Federico Gamboa. Ruben remained in Managua. as Dario has stated in his autobiography: "no había casi colombianos en Buenos Aires y no existían transacciones ni cambios comerciales entre Colombia y la República Argentina. and his abuse of alcohol led to the need for medical care in several occasions. always at the margin of his economic possibilities. the Colombian government abolished its consulate in Buenos Aires depriving Dario of an important source of income. His position as the Colombian consul was merely honorific. La Tribuna and El Tiempo." In the Argentinian capital he led a libertine life-style. to name a few. had given him a position as honorific consul in Buenos Aires. Bolivian poet Ricardo Jaimes Freyre and the Argentinian poets Rafael Obligado and Leopoldo Lugones. Before going to Argentina. Paul Verlaine (possibly. As a remedy. He collaborated with several newspapers: in addition to La Nación. 1893.  In Argentina Bartolomé Mitre. . and second. In April he traveled to Panama. Dario was well received by the intellectual media of Buenos Aires. on August 13. Prosas profanas y otros poemas. where he received the news that his friend.to Nicaragua. the book that established the most definite consecration of Spanish literary modernism. Although the poet barely knew his mother. Rosa Sarmiento.
In Spain. his work was not initially well received. In the writings. the poet discovered an opportunity to travel to Europe when he learned that La Nación needed a Correspondent in Spain to inform about the situation in the European country after Spain's disaster of 1898.  Between Paris and Spain Dario arrived in Spain under the commitment. though. Cuba. Francisca was an illiterate peasant from Navalsauz in the province of Ávila. However popular it became. The Philippines. It is from the United States military intervention in Cuba that Ruben Dario coined. Mariano Miguel de Val. Dario visited Paris for a second time. especially those belonging to the Real Academia Española. like Francisco Villaespesa. however. two years before José Enrique Rodó. and his confidence in Spain's revival. and some that were prevalent in their time.It took time to happen. met Francisca Sánchez del Pozo in the Casa de Campo of Madrid. Dario won the admiration of a group of young poets who defended Modernism (a literary movement that was not absolutely accepted by the most established writers. Ruben expresses his profound sympathy towards Spain. commissioned by La Nación to cover the Exposition Universelle that took place that year in the French capital city. and Guam. she would become his companion through the last years of his life. the metaphorical opposition between Ariel (a personification of Latin America) and Calibán (a monster which metaphorically represents the United States of America. director of the magazine Ateneo. Ruben Dario. Ramón María del Valle-Inclán and Jacinto Benavente. Dario embarks once again towards Europe. but eventually the poems published in both works grew to great popularity in much of Latin America. which he impeccably fulfilled. . His chronicles about this topic would later be compiled in the book Peregrinaciones. despite the state of despair he observed.) Amongst these young modernists there were a few writers that would later have important roles in Spanish literature such as Juan Ramón Jiménez. Puerto Rico. and the loss of its colonial possessions.) On December 3 of 1898. titled España Contemporánea. who was still legally married to Rosario Murillo. In the month of April in 1900. Dario's petitions to the Nicaraguan government for a diplomatic position went unattended. Crónicas y retratos literarios. of sending four chronicles per month to La Nación about the prevalent mood in the Spanish nation after the defeat it suffered to the United States of America. and Emilio Carrere. These chronicles would end up being compiled in a book that was published in 1901. He arrived in Barcelona on December 22 of 1898. In 1899.
That same year Francisca had a daughter by the poet and after giving birth traveled to Paris to reunite with him. among other countries. Dario lived in Paris. United States president between 1901 and 1909 During the first years of the twentieth century. During those years. eres el futuro invasor de la América ingenua que tiene sangre indígena. and Italy. Germany. directed at then president of the United States. In 1902 while in Paris Dario met a young Spanish poet. leaving the girl to the care of her grandparents. edited by Juan Ramón Jiménez. Belgium. In 1901 he published. Antonio Machado. in which he extols Hispanic traits in front of what was perceived as the threat of United States imperialism. like "Salutación del optimista" and "A Roosevelt".Theodore Roosevelt. visiting. which allowed him to improve his economic condition. without her father ever meeting her. That year he published. que aún reza a Jesucristo y aún habla en español You are the United States you are the future invader of the naive America that has indigenous blood that still prays to Jesus Christ and that still speaks Spanish . in Madrid. Cantos de vida y esperanza. In 1905 he went to Spain as a member of a committee named by the Nicaraguan government whose task was to resolve a territorial dispute with Honduras. Dario traveled through Europe. Theodore Roosevelt. in Paris. who was a selfdeclared admirer of Dario's work. In March 1903 he was appointed as consul by Nicaragua. The girl died of smallpox during this period. and would also die at a very young age. not exempt of misfortunes. is almost prophetic in terms of the type of politics that the United States would pursue in Latin America: Eres los Estados Unidos. Some of his most memorable poems came to light in 1905. los cisnes y otros poemas. the United Kingdom. the third of his most important poetry books. The second poem. and reached some stability. the second edition of Prosas profanas. His second child by Francisca was born on the next month.
believed to be the daughter of the Russian ambassador in Brazil. and together they spent the winter of 1907 in Mallorca. he was not paid what was owed to him due to his position as consul. Regardless of the tributes offered to him. Dario. although some of its chapters were published in La Nación. in Paris. Upon recuperating. magic eagle with the great and strong wings to extend over the South your great continental shade. a palm of glory of the color of the immense hope. the poet was involved in an obscure romance with an aristocrat. In Rio de Janeiro. On his way back to Europe. Come. with whom he had been separated for years. After a few months he managed to be named resident minister in Madrid for the Nicaraguan government of José Santos Zelaya. una palma de gloria. He began writing a novel. This poem was criticized by several writers who did not understand Ruben's sudden change of opinion with respect to the United States' influence in Latin America. who. and he went through much economic difficulty during his period as Nicaraguan ambassador. Rosario Murillo. to bring in your claws. a traer en tus garras. anilladas de rojos brillantes. which he never finished. so he decided to return to Nicaragua to present his case in court. His tranquility was interrupted by the arrival of his wife. adorned with red bright rings. She did not accept granting a divorce unless she was guaranteed an economic compensation. he reunited with Francisca Sánchez. which made him unable to return to Paris. but he was unable to reach an agreement with his wife. who would later become a futurist poet. to serve as the diplomatic quarters of the . fell gravely ill. and that of painter Santiago Rusiñol. It seems that he then conceived the idea of divorcing Rosario Murillo. number 27 in Serrano street.In 1906 he participated as secretary of the Nicaraguan delegation to the Third Pan-American Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. In Paris. He used this as a motif to write his poem "Salutación del águila". he made a brief stop in Buenos Aires. and in your beak the olive of a vast and fecund peace. y en tu pico la oliva de una vasta y fecunda paz. offered himself as secretary to the Nicaraguan delegation at no charge and offered his house. In March 1907. whose alcoholism was very advanced. when he was leaving for Paris.  Ambassador in Madrid After two brief stops in New York and Panama. mágica águila de alas enormes y fuertes a extender sobre el Sur tu gran sombra continental. island in which he later frequented the company of Gabriel Alomar. partly with to his salary from La Nación and partly with the help of his friend and director of the magazine Ateneo. he returned to Paris. del color de la inmensa esperanza. He had economic problems since his limited budget barely allowed him to meet all of his delegation's expenses. Mariano Miguel de Val. he was unsuccessful in obtaining a divorce. He managed to get by. Dario arrived in Nicaragua where he was given a honoring welcome. while the economic situation was at its toughest. which the poet judged to be disproportionate. which offers a view of the United States very different to that offered in prior poems: Bien vengas. La Isla de Oro. In addition.
which he did on February 25 of 1909. whose requests for economic assistance went unheard by Dario.Nicaraguan delegation. Mexican dictator who refused to receive the writer. When Zelaya was overthrown. During his time as ambassador. however. whom he had heavily praised in his book Viaje a Nicaragua e Intermezzo tropical and with whom he had collaborated in the writing of Estados Unidos y la revolución de Nicaragua. where. in which the United States and the Guatemalan dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera were accused of planning the toppling of the Zelaya government. under the effects of alcohol. However. perhaps triggered by the way he had been . an attitude that was probably influenced by United States diplomacy. was well received by the people of Mexico. In his autobiography. the Nicaraguan government changed while Dario was abroad. there was a rift between Dario and his former friend Alejandro Sawa. Dario traveled to Mexico as a member of a Nicaraguan delegation to commemorate a century of Mexican independence.  His last years Porfirio Díaz. he attempted to commit suicide. and Mexican dictator Porfirio Díaz refused to receive the writer. the house of the old Caesarean emperor had been stoned. One could say that that was the first thunder of the revolution that brought the dethronement. who supported Dario and not the government. In 1910. The correspondence between them gives room to interpret that Sawa was the real author of several of the articles that Dario had published in La Nación. Dario relates those protests with the Mexican revolution which was about to occur: For the first time in thirty three years of absolute control. He remained loyal to Zelaya. Dario left for La Habana. Dario. Dario was forced to renounce to his diplomatic post. In light of the slight by the Mexican government.
Canto a la Argentina y otros poemas. his state could be very much placed as having forms of panic disorders and severe anxiety/depression. among other cities. where he published his last important work of poetry. where many decades into the past figures such as Chopin and George Sand had resided. his birthplace. Dario departed for the United States and he left his wife Francisca and their two surviving sons behind. The funeral lasted several days. São Paulo. where he entered a lengthy legal battle with the Guido brothers. With the outbreak of World War I. his health had been deteriorating greatly in his last few years. which had been made to order for La Nación. Dario died on February 6. he moved to Paris where he devoted himself to preparing new books.scorned. where he lodged at General Zelaya's house. which includes the laudatory poem he had written to Argentina. he started reading his poems (most specifically from “Pax”) at Columbia University in New York. however. and became pathologically obsessed with the idea of death. Dario soon resigned from his diplomatic post. At this point. Zelaya had taken Dario under his wing when he was president of Nicaragua. 1916 after he went back to Leon. Río de Janeiro. The deterioration of his mental health became accentuated. which was a fictionalization of his autobiography. where he continued being a correspondent for La Nación and where he took a position for the Mexican Ministry of Public Instruction (Ministerio de Instrucción Pública) which may have been given to him as a compensation for the public humiliation inflicted upon him. In January 1914 he returned to Paris. In May he moved to Barcelona. he returned home to Nicaragua. at the base of the statue of Saint Paul near the chancel under a lion made of marble by the Granadan sculptor Jorge Navas Cordonero. While at the time. and Dario was ultimately buried in the Cathedral of the city of Leon on February 13 that same year. which was published in the magazine Caras y caretas under the title of La vida de Rubén Darío escrita por él mismo. It is not certain how or why Dario died. But by the end of the year. he returned to Paris and in 1913. invited by Joan Sureda. . In 1912 he accepted an offer from the Uruguayan businessmen Rubén and Alfredo Guido to direct the magazines Mundial and Elegancias. Montevideo and Buenos Aires. due to his alcoholism. he went on tour in Latin America visiting. He was suffering frequent hallucinations. who still owed him a large sum of money for the work he had done for them. there was not much in the way of study in psychological disorders. After ending his journey due to the end of his contract with the Guido brothers. he traveled to Mallorca and he found quarters at the Carthusian monastery of Valldemosa. It was also around this time that the poet wrote his autobiography. In November 1910 he returned to Paris. It was in this island where Ruben began writing the novel El oro de Mallorca. In December he headed back to Barcelona. In January 1915. such as Canto a la Argentina. and the work Historia de mis libros which is very important when learning about his literary evolution. To promote said publications. his alcoholism caused him frequent health problems and psychological crisis.
Spanish themes are well represented in his work. which he published on the same year as Prosas profanas. Catulle Mendès. it is important to say: my wife is from my land.. that Spanish literature was of no importance to his work. and in a decisive fashion. Lautréamont. such as Núñez de Arce and Campoamor." Los raros is an illustrative volume regarding Dario's literary tastes. when saying goodbye: "-Old man. a decisive influence in Dario's poetry. Dario was influenced by the parnassians: Théophile Gautier. after his second trip to Spain. for example. in his "Letanía de nuestro señor Don Quijote". Ruben Dario's poetry  Influences Paul Verlaine. In the first place.is the great Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Léon Bloy. Recapitulating his own poetic trajectory in the initial poem of Cantos de vida y esperanza (1905) Dario himself synthesized his main influences when he affirms that he was "strong with Hugo and ambiguous with Verlaine" ("con Hugo fuerte y con Verlaine ambiguo". Paul Verlaine. . this one Quintana. this one is Garcilaso. Conscious of contemporaneous Spanish decadence in politics and the arts (a preoccupation he shared with the so called Generation of '98). Paul Verlaine.." This is not to imply. one-handed genius. before Azul.! (and in my head: Verlaine... Eugenio de Castro and José Martí (the latter being the only one mentioned who wrote their literary work in Spanish. Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas.) The predominance of French culture is more than evident. this one is Lope de Vega. specially. Villiers de l'Isle Adam. the romantics. for Teresa of Ávila. Dario was a great admirer of Bécquer. particularly Victor Hugo. French poetry was a determinant influence in Dario's formation as a poet. already in Prosas profanas and. The final defining element of Darianian esthetic is his admiration towards the symbolists. in which his poetry owes a great deal to the great names of XIX century Spanish poetry. a poem included in Cantos de vida y esperanza (1905). Setting aside his initial stage. Later on.) In the section "Palabras Liminares" of Prosas Profanas (1896) Dario had already written a paragraph that reveals the importance of French culture in the development of his literary work: The old Spaniard with a white beard points towards a series of illustrious portraits: "This one -he says. and José María de Heredia.. for the brave Góngora and the strongest of all. most importantly. he frequently was inspired by characters and elements of the past.. however. Dario wrote: Modernism is nothing more than Spanish verse and prose passed through the fine sieve of the good French verse and the good French prose. in which he exalts Don Quijote's idealism.!)" Then. and dedicated to briefly glossing some of the writers and intellectuals towards whom he felt profound admiration.. in 1899. This is what happens." I ask him for the noble man Gracián. my mistress is from Paris. Then I say: "Shakespeare! Dante! Hugo. Amongst those in the book we find Edgar Allan Poe.
was written for a contest to imitate the Bécquer's Rimas.. under the title Primeras notas). in which he shows an amazing formal plainness in his work. published in Chile. Rimas (1887) and Abrojos (1887). medieval Spain and Italy. (1888).. it is not strange that the intimate tone adopted in this book is very similar to the one present in the writings of the Sevillian poet. Rimas. as is the stamp of Victor Hugo.. Before Azul. are directed to writers such as Ricardo Contreras. but published until 1888. In 1905. for example. In this book.  Evolution The evolution of Dario's poetry is marked by the publication of the books in which scholars have recognized his fundamental works: Azul. Modernism's stage of plenitude and of the Darian poetry is marked by the book Prosas profanas y otros poemas. instead. it is worth mentioning that he felt a profound admiration towards three writers from the United States: Ralph Waldo Emerson. which announces a more intimate and reflexive trend in his works. a collection of poems in which the presence of the erotic is more important. . In the first of these works his readings of Spanish classics is patent. the most acknowledged influence is that from the Spaniard Ramón de Campoamor. hence. Greek mythology. The metric is classic and the tone is predominantly romantic. also published in Chile and on the same year. and which contains some esoteric themes (such as in the poem "Coloquio de los centauros"). It presents us some of the preoccupations characteristic of Dario. Dario published Cantos de vida y esperanza. Azul. in Poema del otoño y otros poemas (1910). considered the inaugural book of Hispanic-American modernism. Prosas profanas y otros poemas (1896) y Cantos de vida y esperanza (1905). The epistles. has as many tales in prose as poems that caught the critics' attention through their metric variety. Dario wrote three book and a great number of loose poems which make up what is known as his "literary prehistory" ("prehistoria literaria". of amorous tone. etc. (1888). Edgar Allan Poe and Walt Whitman.Regarding authors in other languages.. we can also find Dario's own entire exotic imagery: The France of the XVIII century.. The intimate slant in his work is accentuated. Emilio Ferrari and Victor Hugo. whose expressive means are characteristically bécquerian. a trend that would be accentuated in El canto errante (1907) and in Canto a la Argentina y otros poemas (1914). Juan Montalvo. with poems like "A Roosevelt". this one was augmented with several new texts. without renouncing to the themes that have become linked to the identity of Modernism. amongst which were sonnets in Alexandrine verses.) The books are Epístolas y poemas (written in 1885. It consists of only fourteen poems.. the tale "El rey burgués") A new edition of the text was published in 1890. such as his expression of dissatisfaction towards the bourgeoisie (see. civic poetry appears in his work. At th same time. of neoclassic influence. In Abrojos.
there is poetry before and after Rubén Darío. 1999 An art alienated from itself: studies in Spanish American modernism / Priscilla Pearsall. the government of Nicaragua struck a 50 cordoba gold medal and issued a set of postage stamps. and the poetics of despair / Alberto Acereda. as Garcilaso had infused Castilian verse with Italianate forms and spirit in the sixteenth century... 1974 "Rubén Darío and the romantic search for unity" / Cathy Login Jrade.. Neruda and the ancient quarrel between poets and philosophers / Jason Wilson... 1984 Modernism. 1970 Critical approaches to Rubén Darío / Keith Ellis. appearing only in publications in periodicals. 1967 Darío marks an important shift in the relationship between literary Europe and America.. 2000 . Borges.. transforming it forever. He ushered Spanish-language poetry into the modern era by incorporating the aesthetic ideals and modern anxieties of Parnassiens and Symbolism.. Darío was clearly the international vanguard of the Modernist Movement. were compiled after his death. yet neither is known abroad.  Assessment Rubén Darío." In honor of Darío's 100th birthday in 1967. however. American literary trends had largely followed European ones. . particularly in English-speaking countries. 2004 Darío.Not all of Dario's poems were published in books during his life. Many of them. Nicaraguan Postage. The set consists of eight airmail stamps (20 centavos depicted) and two souvenir sheets.. except by Hispanists. 1983  Beyond the glitter: the language of gems in modernista writers / Rosemary C LoDato.. the first major poet in the language since the seventeenth century .  Further reading English: Poet-errant: a biography of Rubén Darío / Charles Dunton Watland. Rubén Darío. Before him. Darío and Garcilaso led the two most profound poetic revolutions in Spanish. where they are all but unknown... They have not traveled well. 1965 Ruben Dario centennial studies / Miguel Gonzalez-Gerth. Roberto González Echevarría considers him the beginning of the modern era in Spanish language poetry: "In Spanish.
2001 La angustia existencial en la poesía de Rubén Darío / Roque Ochoa Hidalgo... 2005 Luis Cernuda y Rubén Darío : modernismo e ironía / James Valender.." Revista Iberoamericana 184-185 (1998): 441-455. "Rubén Darío y la búsqueda romántica de la unidad: El recurso modernista de la tradición esotérica" / Cathy Login Jrade.... 2000 "Calibán: icono del 98... 2003 Rubén Darío visto por Juan de Dios Vanegas / Juan de Dios Vanegas. A propósito de un artículo de Rubén Darío. 2003 Rubén Darío. 1984  References . 1969 Spanish: Miradas críticas sobre Rubén Darío / Nicasio Urbina. 2002 Paralelismo entre Rubén Darío y Salomón de la Selva / Nicolás Navas... 2000 Aproximación a Rubén Darío / Teodosio Muñoz Molina... / Carlos Jáuregui. 2005 La poesía de Rubén Darío : ensayo sobre el tema y los temas del poeta / Pedro Salinas. 2004 Rubén Darío / Julio Ortega. addenda / José María Martínez Domingo. puente hacia el siglo XXI y otros escritos / Carlos Tünnermann Bernheim. 2002 Bases para una interpretación de Rubén Darío / Mario Vargas Llosa. The meaning and function of music in Ruben Dario a comparative approach / Raymond Skyrme. 2003 Rubén Darío / Blas Matamoro. 2001 Rubén Darío.... 2003 Rubén Darío y su vigencia en el siglo XXI / Jorge Eduardo Arellano.
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