Exp.No.

5 AIM:

PULSE CODE MODULATION

To study the operation of the pulse code modulation and the demodulation using the PCM trainer kit. EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PCM trainer kit RPS (0-30)V CRO (0-20)MHz Probes Connecting Wires

THEORY: Pulse code modulation systems are complex in that message signal is subjected to the large number of operations. The essential operations in the transmitter of a PCM system are sampling, quantizing, and the encoding. The sampling, quantizing, encoding operations are usually performed by the same circuit analog the transmitter path. At the receiver, the essential operation consists of one last stage of the regeneration followed by the decoding and then the demodulation. SAMPLING: The incoming message signal is sampled with a train of the narrow rectangular pulses so that to closely approximate of the instantaneous sampling process. In order to ensure perfect reconstruction of the message at the receiver, the sampling rate must be greater than twice the highest frequency component of the message signal in accordance with sampling theorem. QUANTIZING: The conversion of analog sample of the signal into a discrete form is called quantizing power. ENCODING: It is used to translate the discrete set of sample values to a more appropriate form of signal. PROCEDURE: 1. The PCM modulation and demodulation bits are arranged as per the circuit diagram and connections are given. 2. The PAM output is noted from the position of the bit. 3. The PCM output generated from the PAM output. 4. The modulation and demodulation are done.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

BLOCK DIAGRAM

TABULAR COLUMN: OUTPUT AMPLITUDE(V) TIME(ms)

RESULT: Thus the pulse code modulation is constructed successfully and the result is obtained.

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