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Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation

# Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation

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05/04/2012

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# AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

AIM: 1. To construct an amplitude modulator and to determine its modulation index. 2. To construct an amplitude envelope detector and to obtain its demodulation signal. DEVICES, COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Transistor -BF494 Diode -OA79 Resistor -10k,33k,1.5k,100k Capacitors -0.01uf,22uf Signal generator -(0-1)MHz CRO -100MHz Regulated power supply -12V

THEORY: AMPLITUDE MODULATION The process of amplitude modulation is an up shifting of the message frequency to a range more useful for transmission. Two signals are necessary to implement modulation. One frequency (low) signal and one high frequency signal. The message in the low frequency hand. The high frequency signal is called the carrier because it in effects carriers signals to induce modulation. The low frequency signal is also called as the modulating signal or the information signal. A carrier signal with its peak amplitude is changed to take the shape of a modulating signal. The carrier signal is a sine wave at the carrier frequency or radio frequency. Thus AM an increase or decreases of the carrier voltage amplitude with the other entire factor remaining constant. When the amplitude of the carrier signal is changed, the degree of change is a measure of the percentage of modulation. Thus 100% modulation can be described as an amplitude change that causes the carrier voltage to go to 0v at one point of the wave and to two times the unmodulated carrier at another point of the wave The modulation factor is obtained by viewing the modulated wave on an oscilloscope and recording the peak to peak values of the wave at its crest and its trough. In case, the two unmodulated voltages are known. AMPLITUDE DEMODULATION: Its necessary to provide a circuit at the receiver, which enables the information signal envelope to be recorded from the modulated wave. In the demodulation wave, the diode

acts as a rectifier and is on when the input voltage is positive allowing the capacitor holds the positive charge received so that the output voltage remains at the positive peak. PROCEDURE: 1. The circuit connections were given as per the circuit diagram. 2. AF signal of 1 kHz frequency and 2.4v was fed at the emitter side and Rf signal of 250 kHz frequency and 20mv as fed at the input side. 3. The AF signal and RF signal are given to the 2 channels of the CRO and the output Am wave is viewed in the XY mode. 4. The value of modulation index is calculated. 5. The graphs are plotted for the AM wave. 6. The AM wave is given as input to the demodulation circuit and the output – demodulated signal is obtained. 7. The graph is also plotted for demodulation RESULT: Thus the amplitude modulation and demodulation are done and the modulation index is calculated as Modulation index=

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