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Hangeul Grammar

Hangeul Grammar

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Lesson 1 Hangul Alphabet System (1092 total words in this text) Vowels : ㅏ "a" ㅛ "yo" Consonants : ㄱ "g" or "k" ㅂ "b" or "p" ㅋ " g' " or " k' " ㅑ "ya" ㅜ "oo" or "u" ㅓ "eo" ㅠ "yoo" or "yu" ㅕ "yeo" ㅡ "eu" ㅗ "o" ㅣ "i


ㄴ "n" ㅅ "s" ㅌ " d' "

ㄷ "d" or "t" ㅇ ㅍ " p' "

ㄹ " r " or " l " ㅈ " ch " ㅎ "h"

ㅁ "m" ㅊ " ch' "

Note that " ' " means the letter is aspirated, i.e a sharp sound.

ㅎ+ h ㄱ+ g

ㅏ+ a ㅜ+ u

ㄴ= n ㄱ= k


guk 한국 pronounced HanGuk meaning Korea

Lesson 2 Double Vowels (모음) (218 total words in this text) ㅐ eir ㅒ yeir ㅔ ere ㅖ yere ㅘ wa ㅙ where ㅝ wo ㅞ weo

ㅟ ㅢ weou wei

Lesson 3 Use of Consonants (자음) and Vowels (모음)

ㅇ ㄹ ㄱ ㄲ ㅇ ㅇ ㄲ ㅎ ㄱ + + + + + + + + + ㅏ ㅡ ㅏ ㅜ ㅗ ㅓ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ + + + + + + + + = ㅁ = ㅁ = ㅇ = ㅅ = ㅂㅅ = ㅊ = ㄴ = ㄱ = 아 름 감 꿍 옷 없 꽃 한 극 a rum kam kkoong ot eop kkot han guk More on constructing words A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right ㄴ+ㅏ=나 n + a = na A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: ㅁ+ㅗ=모 m + o = mo . right or beneath each other in order to form a word. beginning with the consonant at the beginning of the word. you must add a mixture of consonants and vowels.(788 total words in this text) Vowels in the korean languages may be attached to the left. In some cases. there is no need to use a consonant at the beginning in which case ㅇ (null character) is used. the following are examples of their use : - 가 = ka 갸 = kya 바 = pa 뵤 = pyo 즈 = chu 머 = meo 너 = neo 디 = ti 요 = yo 드 = tu 거 = keo 기 = ki 버 = peo 지 = chi 조 = cho 무 = mo 이=i 고 = ko 오=o 두 = too 겨 = kyeo 고 = ko 부 = pu 저 = cheo 마 = ma 나 = na 야 = ya 댜 = tya 도 = to 그 = ku When constructing a word.

When you are referring to someone who you know well. Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements. For example.or floor -. ha. or can be a question stating that you are fine. it is the followed by a two-syllable first name. or "I go" or "he goes" ).and sa. An example of this would be Doojin-ssi Making Polite Sentences With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-. the final consonant. Lee and Pak ). and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice. then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. ㅁ+ㅏ+ㄴ=만 m + a + n = man Lesson 4 . Korean names consist of 3 syllables. However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with. the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin.If a syllable has a consonant. In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject .of that syllable.object . for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyo literally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English. Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is. questions.Grammer (259 total words in this text) Korean Names In general.. such as using their first name. such as Kayo ( which means "to go". or am meeting for the first time. called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -. The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim.Sentence Structure and order (276 total words in this text) Korean Sentence Structure and Word order In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences. then you may be able to refer to them directly. Lesson 5 . suggestions or commands. Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo. In Korean. it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words.verb "Jon the ball kicked" . and consonant. vowel.

oyo if the last vowel ends with -a or -o In context the oppposite of iss. we use -a or -o. these include -yo which makes sentences polite. In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised. then the "in order section" is next. and on what you are talking about. The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go" In Korean unlike English.Asking for things (431 total words in this text) There Are / There is The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 ) They are dependent on the context in which you use them. which is then followed by "the place you are going". and -ro which means "in order to". Uses of the verbs chogi issoyo means "it exist over there". (In English) (in Korean) I I (optional) go to the shops bread buy .yo . or "its over there" Issoyo on its own can mean "I have/he has" .which literally means "there isnt" or "there arent". Vowel stem Consonant stem Consonant Stem .ayo . The stem of the verb is iss. Lesson 6 . such as -ayo.with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo. the subject of the sentences is optional like "I".is ops. * The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences. However in the case where the verb stem ends in vowel. thus forming the ending oyo."To Go" in order to do sentences There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences.in-order to in-order -to buy bread shops to go The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread buy-in order-to go).

it is the opposite. The word hago becomes part of burger. and for younger woman agassi is used for young women. . the word for and is -hago. but is used as a general word when addressing someone in a shop. For example. in Korea women do not take their husbands surname when they get married. it is only for the referral of a man. Koreans use ajossi literally meaning uncle. Using 'and' In Korean. For example we would say. but would rather say SangHyun-ssi. one would say Yoo Songsaegnim or with the full name Yoo SangHyun Songsaegnim.Korean Names and Topics (389 total words in this text) In Korean. The particle hago can also mean with such as. attached to chu-. For that same reason. or she maybe reffered to in a similar English terminology such as Misesu Han(Mrs Han). we would say 'with-me'. Ordering with numbers When asking for 'one' item we say 'hana' which is said after you have selected the meal you wish to order. this is a particle so when it is to be used it must be attached to a noun. this literally means teacher. or Yoo SangHyun-ssi. you cannot say Yoo-ssi. which means "give me please" Lesson 7 . whereas Korean is 'me-with'. such like SangHyun Songsaegnim. when you want to address men politely. such as na-do (me-too). In Korean. Doojin-hago shinae-e kayo meaning 'I am going to town with Doojin'. However if it were to be used in a formal way. soju hana chuseyo meaning "soju one give me please". It is not possible to a Korean persons first name. Addressing Korean women. we use a particle which comes after a noun that it relates to. in Korean it would be 'burger-hago chips. one would use the word songsaegnim attached to their surname or full name. The word chuseyo utilises the polite word stem -yo. In English. for people over 35-ish. when you say 'burger and chips'. when you use the ssi. then she may referred to as Kim songsaengnim-puin (Kim mr-wife).Opsoyo means "I dont have" or "I havent got" In a shop When addressing a shop keeper or waiters. For example if Mrs Han is married to Mr Kim. For females the word ajumma meaning aunt is used. For example.

you will have to use special verbs called copula. If you want to say A is B(like "This is a Korean book"):A B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Korean book-ieyo It is obvious that you would use -eyo when B ends in a vowel. It cant be used to say "is located in"(is underneath". if you want to describe A is B . it makes As for Business or As for me. "it is". whereas -un is attached to a vowel. songsaengnim-ieyo (is teacher) soju-eyo (is soju) IMPORTANT to note that in Korean the copula is only used to describe when this "is equivalent to". On the other hand it may be used as a question Kuraeyo? meaning "is it like that?". EG soju-nun (as for soju). "is near") nor can it be used to say "is a certain way" (i. "is happy"). Songsaengnim-un (as for teacher).Using Copula to describe "this is that" In Korean. "thats right". this copula is present at the end of a sentence. and may be used as a statement such as "it's like that". Lesson 8 . "really?" or "is that so?". In Korea. and behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs.e "is red". Korean has a special particle. used in attachment to place emphasis on what is being talked about. Ottaeyo means is how?. but -ieyo when B ends on a consonant. by adding -un or nun. Describing how things are Korean possess words which mean "is a certain way".More on Grammar (272 total words in this text) . as in: songsaengnim ottaeyo? ( How is teacher ? or What is teacher like? ) saob ottaeyo? (How is business? or What is business like?) Kuraeyo literally means "it is like that". -nun is attached to a noun.

. she hates it. On the other hand. For a sentence . as for me ( na-nun ). and the verb ending hamnida (note this is the formal style). For example. and simply add this to the end of a phrase. The topic particle. I love shopping as for mum (ma-nun).-hamnida and -jiman In Korean.Using Negative Copula's (519 total words in this text) Negative Copula . there is a special verb which may be used in the event where you want to ask someone if they are someone.. which is comprised of the verb stem shille ha-. Han songsaengnim-iseyo? ( Are you Mr Han?) Hangungmal songsaengnim-iseyo? (Are you the Korean Teacher?) Subjects and topics of Korean sentences In Korean. or attach -ga to the end of nouns which end in a vowel. it is possible to give emphasis. shillye-jiman (I'm sorry but. and is best used in order to compare two things. we attach -i to the end of nouns which end with consonants. Asking a person In Korean.. is similar to that of the english "As for". For example. for example. We would use -iseyo. Lesson 9 . this is switched back to the topic particle. when a subject is mentioned for the first time.. songsaenim-i ( teacher ) or maekju-ga (beer) give emphasis on each of these subjects in a sentence. on subjects in sentences.. the subject in this case would be The man. "The man kissed the dog". By doing this.. it is possible to add polite endings to verbs. shillye hamnida (excuse me).for example "Are you Mr Han".) which is a abbreviation of the verb and stem shillye ha-jiman . containing the ending -jiman which means but. the subject particle is used. There is also the verb and stem. but later on in a conversation..

.. we would say :cho-nun songsaengnim-i anieyo ( I am not a teacher ).....( do ) ha-jiman ( does.." .... but.. I do like it" or "Yes i dont" As you can see..( buy ) sa-jiman ( buys...but" or "I'm Sorry. you would say (X-subject) odieyo? However....but.) ha.. it is quite different to how we would speak in English.) mok..) sa.( is/are..( go ) ka-jiman ( goes.. when you are trying to say something is not something else. When saying 'A is not B'. We have previously seen that shillye hamnida and the equivalent shillye-jiman mean "Excuse me. you must always use issoyo as a verb such that:hakkyo-ga kogi issoyo ( the school is over there ).. so you will need to think carefully...but..(sit ) anj-jiman ( sits.. but . have ) it-jiman ( has. but.) anj. Using Korean sentences with but. it is also possible to say (X-subject) odi issoyo? When answering a Where is question. we use the negative copula anieyo.( eat ) mok-jiman ( eats..but.In Korean.) mashi.. Where is it? When asking where something is in Korean..( drink ) mashi-jiman ( drinks.it can be confusing at first.... but. hanguk hakkwa-ga anieyo ( Not the Korean department ).) Note that for the word iss-jiman the double ss is re-written to itjiman .. For instance..... here are a few of them:ka.) iss. Answering questions with Yes and No in Korean This is a tricky aspect of the Korean language.... For example: Question in English = "Do you like Korea ?" Answer in English = "Yes I do like it" or "No i dont" Answer in Korean = "No. There are lots of verbs where you may attach -jiman onto.but.

for example Han songsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo( Can I speak to Mr Han ). chom may be used to soften up requests by making it more polite. The use of these numbers depends on the context in which it is used.Using polite requests In Korean. for example the pure korean numbers are used when counting hours. and the other are Sino-korean which is based on the chinese numerals. it takes on the effect of please.000 shibil shibi shipsam shipsa shibo shimnyuk shipch'il shipp'al shibku iship 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ishibil ishibi ishipsam ishipsa 21 22 23 24 ishipku samship 29 30 Lesson 11 Using -seyo . As you can see. Lesson 10 Numbers and Counting (472 total words in this text) In Korean there are two sets of numbers which are used when counting. or you might use it in Soju chom chuseyo ( Please give me the Soju ).when making requests. and the sino korean when used to count minutes. when you use chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence. the word chom is used to mean "please". the first set are known as pure Korean numbers. however do not mistake it to mean the same as the English word for please for all occurances. For instance. It is most frequently using in relation to chu. kong il i sam sa o yuk ch'il p'al ku ship saship kuship paek ch'on man 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 90 100 1000 10.

for example if you say hansongsaengnim-i hakkyo-e kaseyo . cho-nun mok-ko ship'oyo which means I want to eat.Grammar 1 + 2 (383 total words in this text) . What you want to do ? Koreans use -ko ship'oyo which literally means want to. The use of -seyo means that you have a special respect for the person. as you may have guessed. -pshida is attached onto verb stems ending in a vowel. and -upshida is attached to verbstems ending in a consonant.becomes anjuseyo If you want to request someone to wait for you. Koreans use -(u)pshida ( literally means lets do).becomes mashiseyo ha. ( But you are also showing special respect for him ).(207 total words in this text) Making requests more polite The polite honorific -seyo can be used to make requests more polite.becomes issuseyo anj. Examples of these are:mashi.becomes kidariseyo iss. Here are some examples:Umryosu mashipshida ( Lets have a drink ) Lesson 12 . you would say kidariseyo (Please wait !!). notice that when it is used.becomes haseyo kidari. For example you may say. and -useyo is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant.you are saying Mr Han is going to school. Making Suggestions When making suggestions. -seyo is used when the verb stem ends in in a vowel. the -ko is utilised by being added to the end of the verb stem. and this can be added to a verb stem.

누가 갑니까? 예문~ . 너. -(에)서. I buy an eraser. . 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다. I swim. Grammar 2 을/를 조사. 딸기가 맛있습니다. 시계가 비쌉니다. 저. it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a vowel. 누가'로 된다. and 누구. . I read a newspaper. -(에)서' 등이더 있다. . Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb.' 내가 가요. When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나. 너. 신문을 봅니다. I drink a cup of coffee. 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이 2.. 수영을 합니다. --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요. add 가 보기~ 1. "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a consonant. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을 2. and 누가. [Subject particle. 영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요. [ In spoken language. 커피를 마십니다. . "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a vowel. etc. The watch is expensive. 저. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를 참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel. There is not a pair of glasses. 사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가 참고 '나. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant..' the words change into '내가. 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다. 제가.] 1. . 제가. There is a pencil." 예문~ . add 이 2. . add 를 보기~ 1. add 을 2. The strawberry is delicious.] 1. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서. Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서.. 네가. 안경이 없습니다.연필이 있습니다..Grammar 1 이/가 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 주격 조사. 자우개를 삽니다. 네가. 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가. . [Object particle.


they should be romanized as k. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ. When ㄱ. p. b. 05. ㄷ. 또한. Example: 밥 (rice) would be bap. 02. ㄹ. ㄹ. r. -와/과도' 처럼 다른 조사 . it should be romanized as shi. To avoid confusion of syllables. a hyphen can be used. 03. When ㄱ. t. ㅂ are found directly before vowel. 04. r.Grammar 3 + 4 (263 total words in this text) Grammar 3 도 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 조사.Rules: 01. that is what the letter should be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. '또. ㅂ are found directly before a consonant. d. Example: 다시 (again) would be dashi. ㄷ. If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/". '-에게도. Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e. Lesson 13 . they are romanized as g. 역시'의 의미를 나타내는 보조사.

However. 지하철은 빠릅니다. ] Lesson 14 . too] . 책이 있습니다. add "는" 보기~ 1. ] 1. [ I prepare the lessons. 물: 물 + 은 ---> 물은 2.버스가 느립니다. the subway train is fast. + 수박을 먹습니다. "는" ----> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in vowel. too] Grammar 4 은/는 조사.넥타이가 쌉니다. 우유: 우유 + 는 ---> 우유는 예문~ . [ I read a book. too] . 명사나 부사. too] . Attached to nouns.책이 있습니다. 예문~ . ] .'] [Similar to 'also. ------> 사과를 먹습니다. [ Topic particle. However. too'] 보기~ 1. [Particle with the meaning of 'also. I read a newspaper. [ The movie is interesting. [ The tie is cheap. the clothes are expensive. There is not a dictionary. it shows the subject of the sentence or may be used to show 'contrast' or 'emphasis'. [ There is a book. 수박도 먹습니다. though. 영화가 재미있습니다. other particles or endings. However. 노트도 있습니다. it's cold in winter. "은" ----> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. ] . 사전은 없습니다. [ The bus is slow. 다른 조사나 어미에 붙어서 문장의 주제임을 나타내거나 '대조'. 소설책도 재미있습니다. '강조'의 뜻으로 쓴다. 책을 읽습니다. The novel is interesting. 사과를 먹습니다. + 노트가 있습니다.여름이 덥습니다. ] .Grammar 5 + 6 (189 total words in this text) Grammar 5 에 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] . 신문도 읽습니다. too' May be attached to the end of other particles as in '에게도 and -과도. [ It's hot in summer. 예습을 합니다. adverbs.뒤에 붙기도 한다. I meet a friend. I go over the lessons. 복습도 합니다. [ I meet a teacher. 2. 선생님을 만납니다. 옷은 비쌉니다. 친구도 만납니다. -----> 책이 있습니다. add "은" 2. 겨울은 춥습니다.

[Locative particle. 가족이 교회에 있어요. I go twice a week.여섯 개입니다. 한 시간에 20페이지를 읽습니다. 옷 한 벌에 4만원입니다. Lesson 15 . . 우유가 가게에 있어요. 밤에 착을 읽어요. My family is at church. 일 주일에 두 번 갑니다.아줌마 .ajussi (Uncle) . Used after place or time noun and shows 'location. 만 원 -. direction or time'. 한 그롯 -. . . -----> 만 원에 여섯 개입니다. [Added to the unit noun which counts numbers. it shows the 'standard' of the counting or unit. 2.Family Members (159 total words in this text) Relative Titles .ajumni (aunt) [Polite] Older Woman . per. It costs 40.] [ Similar to 'in/at or to' ] 보기~ 1.친척과 관계된 호칭 Older Woman .아저씨 . . '위치'나 '방향'.ajumma (auntie) [Less Polite] Older Man . '때'를 나타낸다. 지금 은행에 가요. 한 반에 10명입니다. 아침: 아침 + 에 ---> 아침에 [때: time] 3. 도서관: 도서관 + 에 ---> 도서관에 [방향: direction] 예문~ . I read a book at night. 예문~ . 냉장고: 냉장고 + 에 ---> 냉장고에 [위치: place] 2. There are 10 students in a class. -----> 한 그롯을 이천 원입니다.000 won by the set.위치격 조사. Milk is in the shop. I read 20 pages per hour. .] [Similar to 'a. Grammar 6 에 셈을 세는 단위 명사와 결합하여 단위나 셈의 '기준'을 나타낸다. 장소나 시간 명사 뒤에 쓴다. . I go to the bank now.아주머니 .이천 원입니다. or by'] 보기~ 1.

언니 .dong saeng (Regardless of speaker's gender) Lesson Created By KkOmA .장모님 .오빠 .jang mo nim Siblings .시어머니 .uh muh ni Mother in law .Elderly Woman .nuna (If the speaker is male) Older Brother .unni (If the speaker is female) Older Brother .할아버지 .아빠 .누나 .손위 형제 자매 Older Sister .아버지 .jang in uh reun Dad .appa [Informal] Mum .동생 .시아버지 .umma Mother .oppa (If the speaker is female) Older Sister .형 .shi ah buh ji Father in law .어머니 .장인어른 .할머니 .hal muh ni (Grandmother) [Polite] Elderly Man .shi uh muh ni Mother in law .hyung (If the speaker is male) Younger Sibling .엄마 .hara buh ji (Grandpa) [Less Polite] Father .ah buh ji Father in law .

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