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Farming Marine Shrimp in Recirculating Freshwater Systems

Farming Marine Shrimp in Recirculating Freshwater Systems

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MANUAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LANGOSTINOS Y CAMARONES EN SISITEMAS DE AGUA RECIRCULADA.
En este manual se da a conocer el diseño optimo de pozas, numero de especies, y recomendaciones para el cultivo de camarones.
MANUAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LANGOSTINOS Y CAMARONES EN SISITEMAS DE AGUA RECIRCULADA.
En este manual se da a conocer el diseño optimo de pozas, numero de especies, y recomendaciones para el cultivo de camarones.

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Published by: dtrinidad on Dec 20, 2008
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01/31/2014

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Changing the salinity can be accomplished either by lowering the water in the acclimation
tank and replacing the water with water from the body of water where the postlarvae will be
stocked, or by flowing the water through the tank at a slow rate and maintaining a constant
tank volume. In either case, the actual fraction of water replaced to bring about a given
change in salinity, or temperature, is determined by 1) the starting salinity (temperature) in
the acclimation tank, 2) the salinity (temperature) of the water being added, and 3) the
desired final salinity (temperature) at the end of the period. The fraction of new water that
must be added to bring about a given salinity change can be calculated from the following
formula:

Table 5-1: Recommended Salinity Acclimation Rates

Salinity Change

Recommended Time Allowed

Recommended
PPT Per Hour

32 ppt to 16 ppt

8 hrs

2 ppt/hr

16 ppt to 8 ppt

8 hrs

1 ppt/hr

8 ppt to 4 ppt

8 hrs

0.5 ppt/hr

4 ppt to 2 ppt

8 hrs

0.25 ppt/hr

2 ppt to 1 ppt

8 hrs

0.125 ppt/hr

1 ppt to 0.5 ppt

8 hrs

0.063 ppt/hr

Chapter 6 – Receiving and Acclimation of Postlarvae

- 122 -

where,

Pnew

= salinity (temperature) of the water added

Pinitial

= initial salinity (temperature) of tank water

Pfinal

= desired final salinity (temperature)

Example 1:

Initial Acclimation Tank Temperature = 18o

C
Water Temperature of New Water Added = 25o

C
Desired Temperature after addition of New Water = 20o

C

Fraction of New Water Needed = 1 − 25 − 20
25 − 18

= 1 - .71 = .29

The exchange is provided over the appropriate time period.

Example 2:

Initial Acclimation Tank Salinity = 30 ppt
Salinity of New Water Added = 0 ppt
Desired Salinity after addition of New Water = 15 ppt

= 1 – 0.5

= 0.5

In Example 2, a 50% water exchange is required to reduce the salinity by 50% (0.5), from 30
ppt to 15 ppt. This can be accomplished either by dropping the tank volume by 50% and
slowly refilling the tank with freshwater or by performing a continuous water exchange at
full volume. The continuous exchange procedure offers the advantage that the shrimp are
maintained at a constant density. Dropping the volume of the tank by 50% effectively
doubles the density of shrimp in the tank, which may increase the rate of cannibalism.
Another advantage associated with the continuous exchange procedure is that is possible to
adjust the flow rate of freshwater so that 50% of the water in the tank will be exchanged
every 8 hours. The same flow rate will work whether one is decreasing the salinity from 32
ppt to 16 ppt, or from 2 ppt to 1 ppt. In other words, as long as the tank volume remains

FractionofNewWaterNeeded=1−Pnew−Pfinal
Pnew−Pinitial

Fraction of New Water Needed

= 1 – 0 – 15
0 – 30

Chapter 6 – Receiving and Acclimation of Postlarvae

- 123 -

constant and a constant flow rate can be maintained into the tank, the flow rate only needs to
be adjusted one time for the entire acclimation from full strength seawater to 0.5 ppt.

An important point to note, however, is that a volume of water greater than 50% of the tank
volume will be required to replace 50% of the water originally in the tank at the start of the
exchange period. This is because a portion of the water draining out of the tank during the
exchange will be new water. There is a very useful formula (Kraul, et al., 1985) that can be
used to calculate the flow rate that is required to replace a given fraction of the tank volume
during a set period of time:

Q = -ln (1-F) x V/T

where,

Q = flow rate of freshwater (liters/hour)
F = the fraction of water actually replaced by new water
V = volume of the acclimation tank (liters)
T = the time period over which the exchange takes place (hours)

The following example illustrates how this formula can be used to calculate the required
exchange rate for acclimating to near-freshwater conditions.

Example 3:

An acclimation tank has a working volume of 1,500 liters. What flow rate will be required to
exchange 50% of the water in the tank in an eight hour period?

Fraction of water to be exchanged (F) = 0.50
Tank volume (V) = 1500 liters
Time required for exchange (T) = 8 hrs

The required flow rate, Q (liters/hour), is calculated as follows:

Q = – ln ( 1 – 0.5 ) x 1500 liters / 8 hours

= 0.693 x 187.5 liters/hour

= 130 liters/hr (i.e., 2.17 liters/min)

Chapter 6 – Receiving and Acclimation of Postlarvae

- 124 -

Literature Cited

Kraul, S., J. Szyper, and B. Burke. (1985) Practical formulas for computing water exchange
rates. Progressive Fish-Culturist 47(1): 69-70.

Lotz, J.M., C.L. Browdy, W.H. Carr, P.F. Frelier, and D.L. Lightner. (1995) USMSFP
suggested procedures and guidelines for assuring the specific pathogen status of
shrimp broodstock and seed. In: C.L. Browdy and J.S. Hopkins, editors. Swimming
through troubled water, Proceedings of the special session on shrimp farming,
Aquaculture ’95. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Chapter 7 – Nutrition and Feeding of Litopenaeus vannamei

- 125 -

Chapter 7

Nutrition and Feeding of Litopenaeus vannamei in
Intensive Culture Systems

by

Peter Van Wyk

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