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Lecture Three Kinematics: Study of Displacements & Motion “…The deformation gradient at a point completely determines the rotation and the change in length of any fibre of material emanating from that point.”—EH Dill

Helpful Reading: Bower pp 13-38, Fakinlede 146-177

Kinematical Properties

In this section we shall look at several other kinematical properties

Stretch Ratio

The scalar quantity, 𝜆 ≡ 𝑙

𝑙0

is the ratio of the length of an

element in the deformed state to the length of the same element in the original state, is called the stretch ratio.

2 𝑙 2 = 𝑑𝑦𝑘 𝑑𝑦𝑘 = 𝑙0 𝐹𝑘𝑖 𝐹𝑘𝑗 𝑚𝑖 𝑚𝑗

Hence 𝑙 𝑙0

2

= 𝐹𝑘𝑖 𝐹𝑘𝑗 𝑚𝑖 𝑚𝑗 = 𝐦 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦

**Beginning with the inverse of the same equation, 𝑑𝑥𝑘 𝑑𝑥𝑘 = 𝐻𝑘𝑖 𝐻𝑘𝑗 𝑑𝑦𝑖 𝑑𝑦𝑗
**

2 We obtain, 𝐻𝑘𝑖 𝐻𝑘𝑗 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑗 𝑙2 = 𝑙0 , so that,

1 𝜆

2 𝑙

0 = 𝑙

2

= 𝐻𝑘𝑖 𝐻𝑘𝑗 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑗 = 𝐧 ⋅ 𝐁 −𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧

Shear Angle

To find the angle between two fibers in the initial state, let 𝐦1 , 𝐦2 be the unit vectors along the fibers
𝐦

1 ⋅ 𝐦2 = cos 𝜃12 (𝒍𝟎 )1 ⋅ (𝒍𝟎 )2 = = (𝑙𝟎 )1 (𝑙0 )2 𝒍1 ⋅ 𝑭−𝑇 ⋅ 𝑭−1 ⋅ 𝒍2 𝒍1 ⋅ 𝑭−𝑇 ⋅ 𝑭−1 ⋅ 𝒍1 𝒍2 ⋅ 𝑭−𝑇 𝑭−1 ⋅ 𝒍2

=

=
𝒍

1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝒍2 𝒍1 ⋅ 𝑩 ⋅ 𝒍1 𝒍2 ⋅ 𝑩 ⋅ 𝒍2
𝒍

1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝒍2 𝒍1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 = ⋅ 𝒍1 𝒍2 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝒍2 = 𝑙1 𝑙2 𝐧1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧2 𝑙1 𝑙2 𝐧1 𝐧1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧1 𝐧2 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧2 = 𝜆1 𝜆2 𝐧1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧2
𝐧

1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧2 𝐧1 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧1 𝐧2 ⋅ 𝑩−𝟏 ⋅ 𝐧2

Shear Angle

Let 𝐧1 , 𝐧2 be the unit vectors along the same fibers in the deformed state. They are now inclined to each other at angle 𝛩12 . 𝒍

1 = 𝑙1 𝐧1 and 𝒍

2 = 𝑙2 𝐧2
𝐧

1 ⋅ 𝐧2 = cos 𝛩12

=
𝒍

1 ⋅ 𝒍2 = = 𝑙1 𝑙2

(𝒍𝟎 )1 ⋅ 𝑭T 𝑭 ⋅ (𝒍𝟎 )2 (𝒍𝟎 )1 ⋅ 𝑭T 𝑭 ⋅ (𝒍𝟎 )1 (𝒍𝟎 )2 ⋅ 𝑭T 𝑭 ⋅ (𝒍𝟎 )2

= 𝐦1 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦2 𝐦1 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦1 𝐦2 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦2

(𝑙𝟎 )1 (𝑙0 )2 𝐦1 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦2 (𝑙𝟎 )1 (𝑙0 )2 𝐦1 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦1 𝐦2 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦2

= 𝐦

1 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦2 𝜆1 𝜆2

Shear Strain

Consider now two fibers that were initially at right angles. After deformation, let the right angle be decreased by 𝛾 so that the angle included 𝜋 in the fibers, 𝛩12 = 2 − 𝛾. From the above, it is clear that,
𝐧

1 ⋅ 𝐧2 = cos 𝛩12 𝐦1 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦2 = sin 𝛾 = 𝜆1 𝜆2

This is the standard definition of shear strain. It is a function of the Right Cauchy-Green tensor and the stretches as shown.

**The Polar Decomposition
**

The great importance of the Right Cauchy-Green tensor in determining the important kinematical quantities is clear from the foregoing. In the next few slides we will take a closer look at some other of its properties. Polar decomposition theorem can be anticipated by the following physical observation: The final state of the deformed cube shown below can be achieved in two different ways: A deformation followed by a rotation, or a rotation followed by a deformation as the diagram (Wikipedia) shows:

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition Theorem

We state, without proof, the following important result: For a given deformation gradient 𝑭, there is a unique rotation tensor 𝑹, and unique, positive definite symmetric tensors 𝑼 and 𝑽 for which, 𝑭 = 𝑹𝑼 = 𝑽𝑹 𝑼 and 𝑽 above are called the right and left stretch tensors respectively. Clearly, 𝑪 = 𝑭𝑻 𝑭 = 𝑼𝑹𝑻 𝑹𝑼 = 𝑼𝟐 and 𝑩 = 𝑭𝑭𝑻 = 𝑽𝑹𝑹𝑻 𝑽 = 𝑽𝟐

**The Stretch Tensors
**

Recall that the stretch ratio is defined as:
𝑙

𝑙0
𝑙

𝑙0 2

= 𝐦 ⋅ 𝐂 ⋅ 𝐦 = 𝐦 ⋅ 𝐔𝐔 ⋅ 𝐦 = 𝐔𝐦 𝟐

**Which allows us to write that, the stretch along a unit vector
𝐦**

, is 𝜆 =

= Um

**The Spectral Decomposition
**

Recall that the stretch tensors 𝑼 and 𝑽 are symmetric and positive definite. It follows that the right Cauchy-Green Tensor is also symmetric and positive definite. The Spectral Decomposition Theorem: For any symmetric Tensor 𝐓, there is an orthonormal basis 𝒆𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1 … 3 of the eigenvectors of 𝐓 such that

3
𝑻

=
𝑖

=1
𝜔𝑖

𝒆𝑖 ⊗ 𝒆𝑖

Where 𝜔𝑖 is the eigenvalue corresponding to 𝒆𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1 … 3

Equal roots

The spectral decomposition shown earlier is unique only when the eigenvalues are distinct. Two other cases: 𝜔1 ≠ 𝜔2 = 𝜔3 : Recall that the identity tensor 𝐼 = 𝒆1 ⊗ 𝒆1 +𝒆2 ⊗ 𝒆2 +𝒆3 ⊗ 𝒆3 so that 𝜔2 𝒆2 ⊗ 𝒆2 +𝒆3 ⊗ 𝒆3 = 𝜔2 𝐼 − 𝒆1 ⊗ 𝒆1 In this case therefore,

3
𝑻

=
𝑖

=1
𝜔𝑖

𝒆𝑖 ⊗ 𝒆𝑖 = 𝜔1 𝒆1 ⊗ 𝒆1 +𝜔2 𝐼 − 𝒆1 ⊗ 𝒆1

And for 𝜔1 = 𝜔2 = 𝜔3 = 𝜔, 𝑻 = 𝜔𝑰

The Right Stretch Tensor

Let 𝜆1 , 𝜆2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜆3 be the eigenvalues of the right stretch tensor 𝑼 (these are also called the principal stretches) and let 𝐮1 , 𝐮2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐮3 be the corresponding eigenvectors, The spectral theorem implies that, 𝑼 = 𝜆1 𝐮1 ⊗ 𝐮1 +𝜆2 𝐮2 ⊗ 𝐮2 +𝜆3 𝐮3 ⊗ 𝐮3 A direct product of this with itself leads immediately to 2 𝑪 = 𝑼𝟐 = 𝜆1 𝐮1 ⊗ 𝐮1 +𝜆2 𝐮2 ⊗ 𝐮2 +𝜆2 𝐮3 ⊗ 𝐮3 2 3 So that the eigenvalues of the Right Cauchy-Green Tensor are the squares of those of the Right Stretch tensor.

**Principal Invariants in Rotation
**

A Tensor is said to be rotated when it is premultiplied by a rotation and post multiplied by its transpose. We show in the following the important fact that this operation does not affect the scalar invariants of a tensor: 𝐼1 𝑸𝑺𝑸T = tr 𝑸𝑺𝑸T = tr 𝑸T 𝑸𝑺 = tr 𝑺 = 𝐼1 (𝑺) 𝐼2 𝑸𝑺𝑸T 1 2 1 2 T − tr 𝑸𝑺𝑸T 𝑸𝑺𝑸T = tr 𝑸𝑺𝑸 = I1 (𝑺) − tr 𝑸𝑺𝟐 𝑸T 2 2 1 2 1 2 T 𝑸𝑺𝟐 = I1 (𝑺) − tr 𝑸 = I1 (𝑺) − tr 𝑺𝟐 = 𝐼2 (𝑺) 2 2
𝐼

**3 𝑸𝑺𝑸T = det 𝑸𝑺𝑸T = det 𝑸T 𝑸𝑺 = det 𝑺 = 𝐼3 𝑺
**

An immediate consequence of this is that a rotation preserves the eigenvalues of the tensor. We utilize this result in the following deductions.

**The Left Stretch Tensor
**

Observing that 𝑹𝑼 = 𝑽𝑹 → 𝑽 = 𝑹𝑼𝑹𝑻 it is easily seen that the eigenvalues are preserved by the rotation of a tensor. Hence 𝜆1 , 𝜆2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜆3 are also eigenvalues of 𝑽. However eigenvectors are different because of the rotations. In fact, 𝑽 = 𝑹𝑼𝑹𝑻 = 𝜆1 𝑹𝐮1 ⊗ 𝐮1 𝑹T + 𝜆2 𝑹𝐮2 ⊗ 𝐮2 𝑹T + 𝜆3 𝑹𝐮3 ⊗ 𝐮3 𝑹T = 𝜆1 𝐯1 ⊗ 𝐯1 +𝜆2 𝐯2 ⊗ 𝐯2 +𝜆3 𝐯3 ⊗ 𝐯3 Where 𝐯𝑖 = 𝑹𝐮𝑖 ∀𝑖 = 1,2,3. And the Left Cauchy-Green Tensor shares these eigenvectors with square eigenvalues as expected:

2 𝑩 = 𝑽𝟐 = 𝜆1 𝐯1 ⊗ 𝐯1 +𝜆2 𝐯2 ⊗ 𝐯2 +𝜆2 𝐯3 ⊗ 𝐯3 2 3

**Dilatation and Area Changes
**

For an element of area 𝑑𝒂 in the deformed body with a vector 𝑑𝒓 projecting out of its plane (does not have to be normal to it) we have the following relationship:

𝑑𝐯 = 𝐽𝑑𝑽 = 𝑑𝒂 ⋅ 𝑑𝒓 = 𝐽𝑑𝑨 ⋅ 𝑑𝑹

where 𝑑𝑨 is the element of area that transformed to 𝑑𝒂 and 𝑑𝑹 is the image of 𝑑𝒓 in the undeformed material. Noting that, 𝑑𝒓 = 𝑭𝑑𝑹 we have, 𝑑𝒂 ⋅ 𝑭𝑑𝑹 − 𝐽𝑑𝑨𝑑𝑹 = 𝒐 = 𝑑𝒂 ⋅ 𝑭 − 𝐽𝑑𝑨 𝑑𝑹

Nanson’s Formula
𝑭𝑇

𝑑𝒂 − 𝐽𝑑𝑨 = 𝒐 so that, 𝑑𝒂 = 𝐽𝑭−𝑇 𝑑𝑨

This is Nanson’s formula for obtaining the transformed area based on a given area element in the undeformed body. We have seen earlier that the volume ratio, 𝑑𝑣 = 𝐽 = det 𝑭 𝑑𝑉

Homework

1. Given that two eigenvalues 𝜔1 ≠ 𝜔2 = 𝜔3 are equal in a symmetric tensor T, Show that we may represent 𝒆2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝒆3 by any two orthogonal unit vectors and still have the spectral representation unaltered. 2. Show that the spectral representation of

a) 𝑼−𝟏 = 1/𝜆1 𝐮1 ⊗ 𝐮1 +1/𝜆2 𝐮2 ⊗ 𝐮2 +1/𝜆3 𝐮3 ⊗ 𝐮3 𝑈 − 𝜆−1 𝐼 = 0

b) 𝑭 = 𝜆1 𝐯1 ⊗ 𝐮1 +𝜆2 𝐯2 ⊗ 𝐮2 +𝜆3 𝐯3 ⊗ 𝐮3 𝐹 = 𝑅𝑈

c) 𝑭−𝟏 =

1/𝜆1 𝐮1 ⊗ 𝐯1 +1/𝜆2 𝐮2 ⊗ 𝐯2 +1/𝜆3 𝐮3 ⊗ 𝐯3 𝐹 −1 = 𝑈 −1 𝑅𝑇

**3. Use the Cayley-Hamilton theorem to show that,
**

2 a) 𝐼1 𝑪 = tr 𝑼2 = 𝐼1 𝑼 − 2𝐼2 𝑼 2 b) 𝐼2 𝑪 = 𝐼2 𝑼 − 2𝐼1 𝑼 𝐼3 𝑼

**c) 𝐼3 𝑪 = det 𝑪 = det 𝑼2 = det 𝑼 d) 𝑼 = e) 𝑽 =
**

2 𝑪2 − 𝐼1 𝑼 −𝐼2 𝑼 𝑪+𝐼1 𝑼 𝐼3 𝑼 𝑰

2

2 = 𝐼3 𝑼 𝐼

3 𝑼 −𝐼1 𝑼 𝐼2 𝑼

2 𝑩𝟐 − 𝐼1 𝑽 −𝐼2 𝑽 −𝐼1 𝑽 𝐼3 𝑽 𝑰
𝐼

3 𝑽 −𝐼1 𝑽 𝐼2 𝑽

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