Portland Cement Association

CONCRETE
INFORMATION

Slab Thickness Design for Industrial Concrete Floors on Grade
by Robert G. Packard"

This publication presents guidelines for the thickness design of concrete floors on grade subject to loadings that may occur in factories and warehouses. The guidelines apply only to the design of plain slabs (unreinforced slabs or slabs with only distributed steel, sometimes termed "shrinkage and temperature steel"); however, the charts included may be used to determine bending moments for the design of structurally reinforced slabs. Existing design information'{ ,~}* * covers only a limited range of slab thicknesses and load magnitudes and configurations. For today's heavy industrial floors, design guidelines for plain slabs need to be extended. The design procedures presented for loading conditions on factory and warehouse floors are also applicable to the design of slabs for outdoor storage and material handling areas. The three types of loading discussed are: (1) Wheel loads of industrial vehicles such as lift trucks and straddle carriers. (2) Concentrated static loads such as those exerted by posts of storage racks. (3) Distributed loads due to material stacked on the floor in storage bays. While this discussion is confined to the methods of determining an adequate slab thickness, other considerations equally important to the long-term serviceability of the floor include adequate subgrade-subbase preparation and compaction to achieve reasonable uniformity in the foundation, proper design and spacing of joints, quality concrete, good workmanship in construction, and a durable surface to withstand the surface wear to which the floor may be subjected. Plain nonstructurally reinforced slabs can be economically and successfully used for a wide variety of load and site conditions. However, soils with very low bearing capacity, high compressibility. or that are highly expansive may require remedial treatment or special slabs (structurally reinf .reed slab, possibly with stiffening beams, or slab not directly supported by the soil). These special problems, discussed elsewhere'[ in texts on soil foundation engineering and literature on design of structurally reinforced floors, re-

quire the analysis of specialists in these fields. The design procedures presented here are derived principally from highway and airport pavement design practice because of the large amount of applicable research and performance experience in these fields. As in pavement design, the design factors involved in determining the required floor slab thickness are: • strength of the subgrade-subbase • strength of the concrete • nature and frequency of imposed loads These design factors are discussed in detail in the following sections. SUBG RADE-SUBBASE STR ENGTH

A soils investigation of the site should be conducted to determine the strength of the sub grade soil and if there are adverse soils conditions that would preclude the use of a simple slab-on-grade: If heavy loads will be applied to the floor slab, the soils investigation should provide estimates of the allowable soil-bearing value and the potential soil settlement. Soil bearing capacity, soil compressibility, and soil reaction modulus are properties that need to be considered in a design problem. It is important to consider how these different measures of strength-deformation properties apply to the design of floor slabs. The hearing capacity of the soil is the pressure which, if exceeded, will result in a soil shear failure, which is an abrupt break-through of the load into the soil. The allowable soil pressure to protect against a shear failure may be

* Formerly Principal Paving Engineer, Paving and Transportation Department, Portland Cement Association (currently Director of Engineering and Design, American Concrete Pavement Association). ** Superscript numbers in parentheses in the text and tables designate refrences at the end of this publication and at the bottom of tables, respectively. t Rcfrences 3, 4, and 5 specifically discuss the design of floor slabs on expansive and compressible soils.

© Portland Cement Association,

1996

Flexural strength is determined by modulus of rupture. the k value will increase. and the k-value is computed by dividing the unit load by the deflection obtained.. A detailed description of the load test is given in ASTM D1196. and sand-gravel mixtures relatively free of plastic fines Average 3 100 High 10 200 1High compressibility. 2 . compressive-strength test results can be used to estimate the flexural strength by the formula (computed values are shown in Table 2): MR = 9vt. The selection of concrete quality also must be governed by the requirements of durability and wear resistance. if a subbase is used. compressibility of cohesive soils. soil-bearing capacity. Another soil characteristic. used under the floor slab. tests using ASTM C78. The units of k are given in pounds per square inch per inch (psi per in. If there are no unusually adverse soil conditions. CONCRETE PROPERTIES When a load is applied to a floor on grade. This is conservative since the concrete continues to gain strength after 28 days. This is because they are measurements of entirely different characteristics of a soil. k. is commonly used in design procedures for concrete pavements and floors-on-grade that are not structural elements in the building (floors not supporting columns and load-bearing walls). Where the size of the job does not warrant the extra cost of making flexural-strength tests. on top of the subbase. A substantial amount of pavement research shows that elastic deflections and stresses of the slab are predicted reasonably well when the k value is used to represent the subgrade response and that control of slab stresses computed based on the subgrade k-value is a valid design procedure.(2l percent 2 or less Design k-value. When it is not feasible to perform plate-bearing tests at the jobsite. the allowable soil-bearing capacity and the amount of settlement should be computed to determine if excessive settlement may be expected. Whereas the k value used for floor-slab design reflects the response of the subgrade under primarily elastic conditions and small deflections-usually 0. normally applied so that differential settlements between footings or parts of a raft foundation are not excessive. MR. A third measure of soil strength. The k-value is measured by plate-loading tests on top of the compacted subgrade or. However. the design analysis requires only the determination of the strength of the subgrade in terms of k. and soil compressibility. the flexural stress and the flexural strength of the concrete are used in floor-slab design for the determination of thickness. A 30-in. gravelly silts and clays Poorly graded sands Gravelly soils. The usual method for predicting settlement is based on conducting soil consolidation tests and determining the compression index for use in the settlement computations. Low compresslb llltv . On large projects it may be feasible to construct a test section and perform plate-load tests on top of the subbase.) or. psi f. well-compacted granular subbase is Table 1_ Relationships Between Soil Type and Bearing Values Subgrade strength Low CBR. as cornmouly expressed. reflect total permanent (inelastic) subgrade deformations that may be 20 to 40 (or more) times greater. the k value can be estimated from correlations such as shown in Table 1. ASTM D1883. well-qradsd sands. pci 50 Type of soil Silts and clays of high compressibility(1) at natural density Silts and clays of high compressibllitv' 1) at compacted density Silts and clays of low compressibil ity( 1) Sandy siIts and clays. (Liquid limit by ASTM 0423. There is no reliable correlation between the three measures of soil properties: subgrade modulus. psi = compressive strength. pounds per cubic inch (pei). The compression index may be estimated by correlation to the liquid limit of the soil. Consequently. flexural stress is the more critical because the flexural strength of concrete is much less than the compressive strength. Usually the 28-day strength is selected as the design strength for floors. 1. liquid limit equal to or greater than 50.-diameter plate is loaded to a deflection not greater than 0. the k value on top of the subbase can be estimated from Fig. If this is not practical. Although the k value does not reflect the effect of compressible soil layers at some depth in the subgrade. it is the correct factor to use in design for wheel loads and other concentrated loads because soil pressures under a slab of adequate thickness are not excessive. determines the amount of long-term settlement under load. it causes slab bending and produces both compressive and flexural (tensile) stresses in the concrete slab. or less-considerations of soil compressibility and load-bearing capacity values. where MR = flexural strength (modulus of rupture). or standard field penetration tests. liquid limit lessthan 50. If a high-quality. Non-Repetitive Static Plate Load Tests of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements. Standard Method of Test for Liquid Limit of Soi ls. triaxial or direct shear tests.) 2California Bearing Ratio. Standard Method of Test for Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils.05 in.based either on a verbal description of soil consistency or degree of soil compaction. if heavy distributed loads will be applied to the floor. Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading). unconfined compressive strength tests.05 in. Of the two. Westergaard's modulus of subgrade reaction.

I I 2 4 10 I 20 I 40 I 100 200 I 400 1000 10 _.q. The values used to develop the design charts in this publication are E = 4. flexural stress under the load is not as critical as other responses. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 -CONCRETE -PUNCHING BEARING SHEAR Thickness of subbase. excessive deflections.psi Fig. The most critical of these responses-the controlling design consideration-is different for different sizes of load contact area. Approximate Relationship Between Compressive and Flexural Strength of Concrete Compressive psi LOAD CONTACT (for each tire.000 4.500 6. negative moment refers to tensile stresses in the top of the slab. sometimes under severe conditions.000 569 604 636 667 697 726 753 DESIGN OBJECTIVES Several types of slab distress due to excessive loads can occur-cracking due to excessive flexural stress.15.000 psi for Class 4 floors (light industrial/commercial) and 4. as indicated in Fig. and) for very concentrated loads.500 7. I 'I 3 to 7-ft. settlement due to excessive soil pressures. For example. . Variations in modulus of elasticity. /1.000 6. compressive strength at 3 days should be at least 1. post. obtained at higher cement contents. 3 . excessive concrete bearing or shear stresses.TIRES --TIREST ------0 SPECIAL LOAD)? e.rolls or coils STORAGE AREAS s c 0 c. The strategy of design of the floor slab is to keep an these responses within safe limits.FLEXU RAL STRESS UNDER LOAD Fig. For distributed loads covering large areas in storage bays. These values should be considered as minimums. Flexural strength MR. and Poisson's ratio. . E. Strengths greater than the minimums indicated above. Generally. Controlling design consideration depends on size of load contact area. flexural stress is the controlling design consideration for lift trucks that normally have wheel contact areas (each wheel) in the range shown.I CONCENTRATED TYPE OF LOA~ LOADS DISTRIBUTED LOADS 300 'u c. An adequate slab thickness that keeps flexural stress due to wheel loads within a specified limit of safety will keep the other load responses shown in Fig. In addition. in. Negative moments" away from the load may cause 'Here. dio.500 5.000 psi and /1 = 0.800 psi in order to avoid damage from subsequent construction traffic. ACI Standard 302(1) recommends a 28-day compressive strength of 4.000. I 20 I 40 100 I I 200 400 SQUARE INCHES SQUARE FEET AREA cr e c ) Table 2. Effect of granular subbase thickness on k-value. 4. not only permit a design slab-thickness reduction but provide other benefits in concrete properties such as improved wear resistance. -" CONTROLLING DESIGN Co~slbERATIONS . have only a slight effect on thickness design. 2 within an even greater degree of safety.500 psi for Class 5 (single-course industrial).NEGATIVE MOMENT IN UNLOADED AREA -JOINTFAULTING -SETTLEMENT I 50L__L __ ~ __ L-_L __ ~ __ L--L__J. 2. POSTS OF STORAGE RACKS WITH BASEPLATES VEHICLE SOLID TIRES WHEELS ~ 0 IJ IJ WITHOUT BASE PLATES '" ::l '0 '" PNEUMATIC SPECIAL . 1. 2. or single loaded strength. it is the best practice to use the higheststrength concrete that can be reasonably obtained with available aggregates.000 5.

for any design procedure. including slab thickness. this is balanced by a less conservative assumption in another aspect of design. and Distributed Loads. Because of this. the loads are increased by a factor for the effect of wheel impact. For pavement design. FLEXURAL STRESSES AND SAFETY FACTORS When design procedure is based on flexure. pavement research(8.7) shows that the. the slab thickness at undoweled butt joints (for example. VEHICLE LOADS The design procedure for vehicle loads involves deterrnination of several specific design factors: maximum axle load number of load repetitions tire contact area spacing between wheels on heaviest axle subgrade-subbase strength flexural strength of concrete *Except for long. actual stress developed will be only a third or half of that computed. **For a complete discussion of comparative design procedures and results. If a base plate of adequate size is not provided. the allowable working stress is determined by dividing the concrete flexural strength by an appropriate safety factor. A third example of the effect of the size of loaded area is provided by a heavy load on the leg or post of a storage rack.0 28 or 90 days In comparing pavement design procedures of different agencies." and impact. this is balanced by the use of lower safety factors plus an allowance for load transfer. The safety factors for vehicle loads have been established based on experience gained in pavement performance and take into account several influences. When the slab edges at all joints are provided with adequate load transfer (dowels. it has been found that the area acts as a continuous large slab. It should be noted that Fig. and sub grade strength and compressibility. with appropriate modifications in load contact area. * *In some procedures for industrial floor design.4 to 2.5. the selection of values to use as safety factor and concrete design strength depends on other design assumptions. The load effects and the controlling design considerations are also discussed in the following pages under Vehicle loads. a shrinkage stress of 23 psi is computed for an 8-in. concrete strength. where edge load stresses are used (higher than interior load stresses). static loads and distributed loads are not well established by experience and research. Obviously. In any design procedure.9) shows that slab stresses arc less for moving loads than for static loads. shrinkage stresses. the other appropriate responses should be considered in the design. shrinkage stresses are not considered significant. Assumptions taken out of context with the total design procedure can lead to overdesign or underdesign. The assumption of interior load stresses must be combined with the selection of appropriate safety factors and appropriate concrete design strength to give a reasonable basis for floor design. thickness at a free edge is increased 20% to 25% at a slope not greater than I in 5. continuously reinforced slabs. Post loads. 2 is presented as a guide only. slab jointed at :'0 ft. excessive soil pressures due to distributed loads may result in objectionable total settlement of some soils. At free edges without adequate load transfer. For example. In pavement design. Thus. +Slab stresses for vehicle and post loads were determined by the use of the computer program described in Reference 10. boundaries between different controlling design considerations are not exact and will vary somewhat depending on many factors. see Reference II. several different design procedures have been developed by various agencies. keyways.IR-89 recommends that the slab be thickened by approximately 25% at a taper not to exceed the slope of J in 10.procedures give quite similar slab-thickness requirements** because each method is coupled with design adjustments that reflect performance experience. The flexural stresses indicated in the design chartsf are those at the interior of a slab. thus keeping the load stresses at these slab edges within safe limits. One agency may use a different set of design assumptions than another. When the base plate is of adequate size to prevent a bearing or shear failure. or the load may cause faulted joints due to differential settlements. slab distress due to excessive bearing or punching shear is of more concern than the other responses. assuming that the load is applied at some distance from any free edge.** Appropriate safety factors for concentrated. However. The designer is' ad vised to give careful consideration to specific design conditions and performance requirements and to seek out performance characteristics of slabs under similar loading conditions. 4 . Therefore. Pavement research(6. * ACI 302. The design assumptions cover the following ranges: load position (for computing stress) safety factor concrete strength interior or edge 1.a crack in the aisleway. where floor meets driveway at truck door) should be increased" to compensate for the absence of load transfer. For example. using the commonly accepted subgrade friction factor of 1. including number of load repetitions. load stresses are somewhat greater than those for the interior load condition. for values of contact areas between or near the limits shown. flexural stress becomes the controlling design consideration. a load impact factor is not used in this procedure. it has been noted that where a particular procedure makes a more conservative assumption in one aspect of design. it is important to select the proper "set" of design assumptions so that results are reasonably conservative but not excessively so. OT aggregate interlock under saw cuts). The result is that the dlfferent. Also. Thus.

I) r. axle loads. pci.\ V/// / /// ~\ . of axle load.\ I\~ / // // . and frequencies of loading for the heaviest vehicles that will use the floor. T I 10 c ul w (f) --.-- V/ r.J 2 et:: 0 0 f------- \' . Figs. Fig.47-7'" / -'" -./ V V/ V V '/ / . as in aisleways and stag- ing areas.- 10 987- WHEEL SPACING in. and wheel spacings of industrial trucks.1 I 8 . -: 3- /' V V ~r: / /.: t- w r. Fig..7 to 2. Because of the large variety of sizes. 50 100 200 SUBGRADE k. of< The higher end of this range should be used where heavy load traffic is frequent and channelized... w 15 'i x « cO . The required traffic information includes the load magnitudes. 3 and 4. 3 is used for industrial trucks with axles equipped with single wheels. safety factors in the range of 1.0 are suggested. have been prepared that can be used for the axle loads and axle-wheel configurations of most industrial trucks affecting floor design.Estimating the traffic is an important factor in floor design. This allowable stress is computed by dividing the concrete flexural *The fatigue criteria described in Reference 12 gives a more quantitative procedure for selecting safety factors and determining the allowable number of load repetitions.\ 1\\ // /V \ l\\i\\ / .'\ \. 5 .. The safety factor (ratio of design flexural strength to working stress) depends on the expected frequency of loadings of the heaviest vehicles.\ / // / /V /// // '\ \\ 1\\ // 1\ \ . including plant maintenance and engineering departments. wheel configurations. in most cases the projected traffic data arc only an estimate that docs not warrant a more precise analysis. "~ ~ ~ <. The chart is entered with an allowable working stress per 1. However. two design charts. it is not practical to provide separate design charts for each vehicle.. ~ '~ ~ "~ ~r-.000 lb.. Traffic and load data for past and future plant or warehouse operating conditions can be gathered from several sources. -~-~ . 3.r / \\ .~. For industrial floor design.I) a. / W Il:: fC/l / // 65- 4 - 7 -' ".J (f) / ~~ ~~ ~'" ~ ~ -- ~ ~ 7 ~\~ ~ ~~ \. Based on this information../ -:/) V/ ~ r)~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ID <:( VI --4'- 1\...\ \ / 1\\ \ 1\\ /" ~ \\ \ l\ L// \\ .--~~+\ ~ ~ K> // vx 1\0 60 " I] / 25/ -- / 50 100 / / / / \80 12~ EFFECTivE CONTACT AREA sq in.: \\ .J "' 0. and manufacturers' data for lift trucks and other vehicles. -:: 40 - 30 - 20 - 0" « 0 ./ ~~-.J . an adequate safety factor can be selected and used to determine an allowable working stress.. 9 z I ::. Consequently. planning and operations departments. Design chart for axles with single wheels.

' rI1/ 0. v....(14. First... the contact area may be estimated for pneumatic tires by dividing wheel load by inflation pressure and roughly approximated for solid or cushion tires by multiplying tire width by three or four. ~\ \ 1\ . The basis for this adjustment is given in Reference 13. I.\ 45 . :J Cl .. 1'. the tire data may be obtained from manufacturers'tables.55 / V6 V' ".t'-I ~ -1-·- ...- -..J o /7 60 40 L V V V V ".-. w W 30 . MR 100 pci 640 psi at 28 days 6 .: <!. k Concrete flexural strength. The degree of correction increases as contact area becomes smaller and slab thickness becomes greater. ~ -: ..-I-. Fig._ . . A \. Fig./ Slab thickness..._- - _ .50 10 " Fig.in. -: ~~.=-=--_ inflation pressure 25. Subgrade and Concrete Data Subgrade modulus. . V.. 25 '" I-.. Fig.c---/-i~ t 090 140 1--'.. Sd ----1 SLAB -t S - ~~.. Effective load contact area depends on slab thickness.0...85 120 f--_.~ ~y -c o ~ I. If the tire size is known. The reason for making this correction is that the slab stresses for small load contact areas are overestimated contact area to be used is sometimes referred to as the gross contact area. '" I :~ c t.65 -w LL / 20 0. The load contact area is the area of slab contact of one tire..~R 0 I I + 1 20 5 i'- I t--- -..-I- " I / VII' // / VV VI\ lX.60 .::c:. -. with the equivalent load.. . 3 is used to determine the flexural stress in the slab. -- > 0 W :J )I i\. JJ ~ .. S.... * If tire data are not available... . ~\ 1/ 1"f- I-rt -~ 0.." ~. i\../: /~ / V K /.\ ~- I 0. Figs..'" ~ d- / ~ CD V L ~ I ~0~~ '\ . +- z <!./ -: V Y : I I I I .. . _-- V/ r-- 0. of wheels on axle Tire inflation pressure Tire contact area 25 kips 37 in.-I--' <6 35 z (f) _j ~ 0.. For axles equipped with dual wheels.. *The when computed by conventional theory.- I »: -: -:V '~ .. 0 00 't 1. 2 110 psi wheel load = -----. //.s <II 100 / . 5 it is necessary to assume a slab thickness./ r/ IP. '_ 40 Load contact 80 60 area.sq In.I--f- -f~f- 40 . '. in. 'li /' ...000 lb. _ l\ \ \ 1\ -~f i i rr \ I-./__ p..:.50 1\ \\ j . . 0. this is a trial-and-error process to be checked against the final required design thickness. Then.80 ~\l\I\ / VV" // -r--\. 'li. The following example problems illustrate the use of Figs.~ "-1--.J .. +I .._ 6'0. sq..I .\ 1\ \ THICKNESS In f'/ //.15) When the tire contact area has been determined. / -- -'- r- .75 '''-1- 80 :r: .J :.l ~ a 0. (This same adjustment is used for post loads discussed in a later section. / / ~~><~ V' X/ / V / 1/ I V'?> I· ~ 0 <!.r._...) In using Fig. the total area of the contact envelope regardless of the tire tread design. +c 0 Q) a . 100 Fig.. // A/ /. I'\.-~EFFECTIVE ~CONTACT AREA. 4 is used to convert the dual-wheel axle load to an equivalent Single-wheel axle load (the axle load is multiplied by the factor. 4.:>: o .::~::./ ~~ 0:: ti' oi 0 f0 0 +(.- L 7 ~ -: V l.. ~o 20 ~I !LV / 1/ / / V V VI /_-r.. /.. 3 and 4 are used together to determine floor slab thickness.'J /. 3 and 4 for slab-thickness design for vehicle loads: Design Example-Sing/e Wheels Data for Lift Truck A Axle load Wheel spacing No... F).. 5 is used to find the effective contact area for use in the design charts.000/2 110 = 114 sq... that is.\ \ \ I\. strength by the safety factor and then dividing this result by the axle load in kips (1 kip= 1.). in.70 fW .:. Design chart for axles with dna] wheels.

Within the range of design variables presented in this section. 3 and 4.000/4 125 POST LOADS = 100 sq. MR Design Steps 100pci 640 psi at 28 days 1. 4 with a dual wheel spacing of 18 in. With an adequate-sizebase plate to control bearing stresses and an adequate slab thickness to control flexural stresses.775. more reliable and usually more economical designs may be obtained using more complete design data and Figs. These criteria . of wheels on axle Tire inflation pressure Tire contact area so kips 18X40X 18 in. Enter Fig.000 lb.8 psi 2 4.. on the line for subgrade k of 100 pci (use 10in-thick slab). The combination of these assumptions results in a greater-than-usual degree of conservatism.. 7 . This trial-and-error process-steps 3 through 5-may have to be repeated.8 *For inadequate-size base plates. which seems necessary when detailed design data are not available." WS = Jv1R SF = 640 :::: 356 psi 1.in.000 lb. WS: 4. move right to contact area of 100 sq.. any section along slab joints. or half of this for loads.:. Enter Fig. WS: In some industrial buildings and warehouses.concreterbearing and shear stresses may be excessive even though flexural stresses-are not. k Concrete flexural strength. The equivalent single-wheel axle load is the factor F times the dual-wheel axle load = 0. When flexural requirements are satisfied with an adequate slab thickness. The figure was prepared for typical lift trucks from manufacturers' data. The figure would not apply for vehicles with load and wheel-spacing data that differ substantially from the tabulated data. the design objective is to keep flexural stresses in the slab within safe limits.7 in.in. flexure controls the slab-thickness design.in. . Slab stress per 1. and when the appropriate sill: of baseplate is used. 4 125 psi wheel load inflation pressure 50. select a safety factor of 2.2 times the 28-day modulus of rupture.0 (permits unlimited stress repetitions). move right to a contact area of 100 sq. 3. These concentrated loads can be more severe than the wheel loads of vehicles operating in the building and thus may control the thickness design of the floor slab. or when detailed design data are not available. WS = SF = WS A1R 640 2. 3 with stress of 9. for loads at slab edge or corner. of axle load: axle load.0 = 320 PSt . 3 with stress of 12. **In using Fig. 6 regarding the subgrade strength and working stress in the concrete should be noted. significant stresses are induced in the floor slab by the loads on the posts supporting the rack. then right to read a slab thickness of 7. SF: Lift truck B will carry its maximum load inside the warehouse infrequently. F.8.-thick slab).in.. shear stresses arc not excessive for the ranges of design variables indicated in this section.775 X 50.8 kips. Concrete working stress. Therefore. 3. This statement on shear stresses is based on an allowable shear of 0.. . only once or twice a week. * Subgrade and Concrete Data Sub grade modulus. move right to contact area of 114 sq. 38.9 in. then up to wheel spacing of 40 in. 2. 6 may beused as a guide to indicate slab thickness based on the rated capacity of the heaviest lift trucks that will use the floor. For post loads. concrete bearing and shear stresses are not excessive.* then down to wheel spacing of 37 in. 5 is not required. Enter Fig. then up to a trial slab thickness** of 10 in. kips WS 38.' 356 92' psi 5.Design Steps 1. 4 it is necessary to assume a trial slab thickness that will later be checked against the design thickness determined from Fig.8 psi. 3.8. The size of the base plate should be large enough so that concrete bearing stress under maximum service load does not exceed 4. on the line for subgrade k of 100 pci (use S-in. soil pressures are not excessive.. of axle load axle load.:. current building code requirements(t6) may be applied to the situation of post loads on floor slabs. Slab stress per 1. kips = 20 3 5 = 12..applied at slab edges or corners. Safety factor. a safety factor near the lower end of the suggested range is selected -1 . of 0. Fig. composites of which are shown in Table 3. If the rack loads are heavy. 6 is intended as a rough guide only. *This contact area is Largeenough that correction by the use of Fig.27 times modulus of rupture and the assumption that the critical section in shear may be taken at a distance of half slab depth from uhe periphery of loaded area excluding. SF: For frequent operations of this forklift truck in channelized aisle traffic. Safety factor.2 psi.. 2. Concrete working stress. In preliminary design stages. then right to a slab thickness of 9.. then right to an equivalent load factor. Design Example-Dual Wheels Data for Lift Truck B Axle load Wheel spacing No. racks are used for storing products or materials. Fig.arc a suggested interpretation of how. The conservative assumptions in Fig.

far example.5 42. concrete working stress of 250 psi). Maximum axle load for many lift trucks is slightly greater than twice the rated cap aeity . 8. kiPS I 30 40 50 kips 16 16 RATED CAPACITY OF LIFT TRUCK.000 4. mast vertical. to c. 1 L0!ld~center 24 in.6 132. Lift Truck Characteristics (Composites Averaged from Manufacturers' Data) Range of wheel spacings. 8 . in.4 10..0 Single ~heels. 8(3 Dual wheels Sd(3) .4 14.000 45. 6. from fork face.000 10.OOO-lb.0 63..3 100.(3) 26 31 32 37 37 40 to to to to to to - 30 35 38 43 45 50 - 10 to 12(4) 10 to 12 12 to 14 14 18 21 41 to 53(4) 47 to 60 54 to 65 57 73 70 Other Data: Load Contact Pressure solid or cushion tires-1SO to 250 psi pneumatic tires-SO to 100 psi (inflation pressure) Load Contact Area (per tire) solid or CUShi~ tires-3 or 4 times tire width pneumatic tir -wheel load divided by contact pressure Approximately 90% of total waight (truck + load) on drive axle at rated capacity. Fig.000 20.000 15.2 32.: 10 o I I- en 9 8 7 6 5 ~~uw~IO--~---2~O--~--_J30--~--~40 0 1--+---+--+ S-SOLIDTIRES P-PNEUMATIC TIRE <l: _J CJ) 0----0 00--00 40 SINGLE WHEELS DUAL WHEELS I II 20 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 IIIIIII 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AXL~ LOA~.6 22. 3 and 4. limited data for 10.000 60. 3See insert drawings an Figs. Estimated slab thickness for lift trucks (based on average truck data shown in Table 3 and conservative design assumptions: k = SO pci.-capacity trucks with solid or CUshion tires shOW shorter spacings..000 30.000 6. 2. 4Values shown are for pneumatic tires. 2Varies by about 10% depending on manufacturer.000 Load on drive axle.) Rated capacity/l) lb.14 13 12 cO ch'11 CJ) w .5)(29 in. (2) kips 6. (c. Table 3.

in.J l0.~ . (/) / / W 0:: l(/) (/) / / / I' / / / / V / / V / /\ K \ . 7b.. is in the longitudinal direction of a continuous rack and x is the transverse spacing. and 7c may be used to compute the required tensile reinforcement. y. 8. the post spacing.Because flexure controls. -~ 8 1\ ~ 7 ~. (18) It should be noted that the design procedure is based on load stresses only . 20 10 AREA. *For a structurally reinforced slab. 14 13 12 100-Y' In. a circular or elliptical area may be used without significant error to approximate a square or rectangular area.J {/) \ '\~ \~ \ .. 6 SUBGRADE ko 50pci 0 5 40 sq. the load contact area should be corrected to effective contact area as determined from Fig.)V\ V :£.in. 7a. c: o <Ii \ \. 7a..:> Z o o o 0:: W 0. 7b.. \ -. 7b. and 7c. ~ I'v / / \\ 1\ / V/ / / V // 1/ "sO LL V V VV V kC:V V 1/ V .. **The computer program may be used with appropriate modifications in the shape of the contact area. and 200 pci. slab stresses may be determined by computer programs 1 O} ** or by influence charts. . \. subgrade k = SO pd.. 9 . 70 \ \ 1\ \ \. \ 1\ ~\. the design factors are similar to those used for vehicle loads except that the use of a higher safety factor may be appropriate.. . 9 1- :c rn / 1/ / /V 80 EFFECTIVE // / V V V \\ <! . When using the design charts.J x. \. 8. representing continuous racks. 7a. For the range of contact areas involved.. \ i\ 1\ 40 \ B} 1 I I I 1_ _ I I 1 \ lL 40 \ ~O ~ K o <! o . 73. Design chart for post loads. bending moments computed from the flexural stress determined from Figs.. 1\ \ on 0. The specific design factors are: maximum post load load contact area spacing between posts subgrade-subbase strength flexural strength of concrete Figs. 5. For special post load configurations that deviate substantially from those indicated in Fig. The charts" were developed to estimate slab stresses for the two equivalent post configurations and load conditions shown in Fig. ~ '\ " 40" 00 60' .100. In Figs. CONTACT Fig. it is not necessary to consider shrinkage stresses (see first footnote on page 4).~IO~ f-------.!O 10 (/) (/) _' r/ II - w <. and 7c are used to determine the slab thickness requirements for k values of 50.

to the PIx" curyes..in drawi?g the lines to determine slab thickness is to start at the pomt describing the contact area and stress per lOOO-lb post load.60 \\ \ 1\ . ~ 6 SUBGRADE kolOOpcj ". 8 shows that edge stresses exceed interior stresses by 13% to 50%. There are two reasons for this: (1) The range of possible safety factors may be quite wide. 7a. and effects of differences in deflection between rack posts are magnified with high racks. and (2) creep effects reduce stress under static load. 60' -. keyways. The rack posts are sometimes designed to partially support the roof structure. 7a. Safety Factors for Post Loads The specific safety factors to be selected for concentrated static loads are not given here but are left to the judgment of the design engineer. There may be several reasons to use higher safety factors for loads on high raeks than those used for low racks or for vehicle loads or distributed loads. Static loads on posts have effects different from loads on vehicles in that (1) moving wheel loads produce lower slab stresses than static loads of the same magnitude. if the rack layout and the slab joint layout are not coordinated. 10 . -. 7b. edge and COIner stresses are diminished somewhat in the usual situation where load transfer at the joints is provided by dowels. subgrade k :::100 pci. or quite high -approximately 5 -in a situation where consequences of slab failure are quite serious. *Edge load stresses are higher than corner load stresses. 7b. in.. ~ --< 10 CJ) ui w I ~ 9 rro c:( _j Z :. An analysis using a conservative 25% load transfer and the multiple post configurations indicated in Fig. c. 7b.:/100 1\ ~~ \ 1-----' x I V V_L~ 1/40 V/ 60V J _L V/ / // V ~ / V/ /' / ~h I I4 12 II c: lOa!. Note: When using Figs.. f--. and horizontally to the required slab thickness.\ 7 '1'\'\ t. \ "7 -) / \\ / . Design chart for post loads.\0 "fa :. Reference 17 gives experimental data on edge and corner stresses and equations for computing these. Unless the slab edges are thickened. ~ . in. In. B} I I I I I .. vertically. up or down.. 5 40 20 10 AREA.--+ -- ren / 10 / / II" J\ L\ \\ \ V . Fig.u.. CONTACT sq..: t. \ 50 \ 40 1\ \ \ \ \.. . and 7c.:: Ul I\. which are in tum higher than interior load stresses. In addition. However. the sequence .--. (2) Performance experience and experimental data for concentrated static loads are not available. it is possible that some rack posts could be located at or near a joint or corner. the factor may be relatively low-2 or lessunder a noncritical loading condition. Some of the factors to be considered in the selection of the safety factor are discussed below. then proceed horizontally to the "y" curves. this would result in higher stresses* than those shown in Figs. ./ 8 V 1/ J 80 EFFECTIVE VV V/ - / V/ / 1\. or aggregate interlock under saw cuts. \ \ 1\ 4. Information on how these effects may be quantified in design problems is not available..: \ K-~ "7V~ Dr t~ )<V LlL ~ f\\ / A"/ \ /. f-0_j 0 eD 0 0 20 Q a:: w 0CJ) w en II: 15 . c:l 30 « 0 -l CJ) x.

. safety factors cannot be suggested with as much confidence as for vehicle loads. Even if a joint or crack." \~ 8 "\ ~ . On the other hand. 7a. edges.. The latter are spaced farther apart and each supports a greater proportion of the total structural load. and interiors from which corresponding soil pressures can be computed. '" 5 CONTACT sq. ~. it is important to consider carefully the characteristics of this type of loading and the desired performance requirements. Since there is a lack of published data on performance experience with rack loads on slabs on grade. 7c.. Shear stress and concrete "'Reference 17 shows experimental data comparing deflections due to loads at slab corners. _J 20 0 1\ \ / / V '~ 1/ I}O. 10 en (f) w _-~ ~.J U) \~~ 1\. settlement. This is because the slab distributes the load over a large area of subgrade. should occur at a post. deflections and soil pressures will be increased by magnitudes of two or three* but are still not excessive. The fundamental difference between the two types of loading lies in the difference in the magnitudes of pressure on the underlying soil.. This value of 4. soil pressures under a slab of adequate thickness supporting a post load are much lower than those for a footing.. in.1nl\\ \~~1\ 100 30 \' \ ~8} I I . A safety factor of 4. Soil pressures under a footing may be near the limit of allowable soil bearing..8 can be computed based on building code requirements/ 16) if the post is considered as a critical structural element-a column-in the building and the slab is considered as an unreinforced spread footing. Fig. C- \1\ O '\\ \ '~ 1\ I_ 1 _ I 1 ~ ~ VW Vj V V~ V'/ ~ }7/ Bi / V . " 6 ~' 40 20 10 AREA. in. 6~. 14 13 12 1/40 _I « _J 0 I- o» 0.V "--. b. After the designer has considered the degree of criticalness of his loading conditions and selected an appropriate safety factor./ V V 100_ / II y.. Safety factors should be chosen to account for this possibility of higher stresses due to slab edge or corner loads. if a failure should occur in the footing. II c ai 0 0 'Vr-.40 \ '\ \1\\ 4? x. Therefore.8 is considered the upper limit of the safety factor range because the post load situation is usually not as critical as that for columns on footings. and 7 c. Fig. / /V/ / '" UJ '" a:: '" f- 10 /V IV y 80 EFFECTIVE 1/ // 1/ 1/ V VV / V/ / rx ~. which are based on loads at the slab interior. subgrade k'" 200 pci.. the allowable soil pressure would be exceeded and there would be a possibility of intolerable soil penetration. or c is used to establish a slab design thickness based on flexure . Design chart for post loads.. 40" 7 ~O\ SUBGRADE k= 200 pci .I--~9 Z )<: !=! ID I I- [\ « . 11 . or complete collapse. Q 15 a:: w c. or intersection of these.

WS: WS = SF MR . = 0.in..1.75 (load periphery) ~ 13.000 lb. contact area. For a 10-in. 5 to determine if the effective contact area is Significantly larger than the actual contact area. P on rl' L1J I rl' 'I I P I rl' L. 8. this correction does not significantly change the required slab thickness.l- allowable shear stress computed shear stress I I x . then move right to y-post spacing of 98 in. 2. For very heavy post loads.690 psi 1. each post 8-in. plate (64 sq.000 10 [24 + 20] = + 2 (slab depth)] Design Example-Post Loads Data for Post Configuration and Load Post spacings Post loads Load contact area Subgrade and Concrete Data Sub grade modulus.000 64 I rl1 I I I I I I rl.2MR = = = 2.L1J I I computed bearing stress I I post load load area 203 psi rl.5 (load periphery) 13.l I I I I I I I I I I I I the grid at the left of the figure. = 18' PSl computed shear stress for edge load post load slab depth [0.1J I L1J LI. 100 pci 640 psi at 28 days = 3. -- I I I rl. k Concrete flexural strength.0 has been selected.in. the effective contact area is 70 sq ... 6. -L1J L1J----1. J • I I P rl' •• I P/2 /Load each post___. In Distributed loads are defined as loads covering a large area 12 .27MR = 173 psi " I x I I = post load '"'h--s ear area Fig. L1r-I rl.in. PSl 4. 7a.. right column).4 psi stress and 64-sq .. 30 psi 98 in. The following check of concrete bearing and. kips = 13 = 213 164' . .0 = 213 640 PSl . transverse (x) 13 kips. 66 in.in. then right to slab thickness of 9. 5.-sq. .345 psi 13. Safety factor. computed shear stress for interior load post load slab depth [(load periphery) 13. slab and contact area of 64 sq.P/2 I rl' I. For a subgrade k-value of 100 pci. SF: Assume that a factor of 3. DISTRIBUTED LOADS 3.integral or separate footings under each post or line of posts (post locations would have to be permanently fixed). MR Design Steps 1. locate the point corresponding to 16.000 10 [16 + 10] + (slab depth)] = 5 psi O. .1MR 2. 7b. 7b.-thick slab).000 10 [32 + 40J + 4 (slab depth)] bearing stress should also be computed to determine if these values are within safe limits.structurally reinforced slabs with steel designed to take the tensile stresses.. use Fig. The following example problem illustrates the procedure for determining slab stresses due to post loads.use of a cement-treated subbase under the concrete slab. the required thickness of plain concrete slabs may be great enough that alternate designs should be considered. Post configurations and loads for which Figs. and 7c apply.) computed shear stress for corner load := post load slab depth [0. longitudinal (y). Slab stress per 1. Use Fig..8 in. up to x-post spacing of 66 in. shear stresses indicates that they are within allowable limits (see footnote on page 7. (use 10-in. of post load WS post load. allowable bearing stress for interior load for edge or corner load = 4.. such as: . Concrete working stress.

loads up to these magnitudes may be placed nonuniformly in any configuration and changed during the service life of the floor. is used in Tables 4 and 5.135 1. by the safety factor.480 830 1.390 800 1. flexural stresses were cornputed based on Hetenyi. This is appropriate for distributed loads covering large areas. the design objectives for distributed loads are (1) to prevent cracks in the aisleways due to excessive negative moment (tension in top of slab). after an adequate slab thickness has been selected to support the heaviest vehicle and post loads.175 1. Cracking in an unjointed aisle due to distributed loads can be controlled by selecting an adequate slab thickness. and joint 13 . Concerning slab stresses due to wheel loads at uplifted joints.0 (allowable working stress equal to one-half of the concrete's flexural strength).270 695 9S0 1. Table 5 is used. shrinkage stresses may be disregarded in the design procedure. as shown in Table 5.285 flexural 600 585 830 1.175 640 905 1. load width. MR.060 1. They also depend on aisle width. Table 4. These additional variables are not always constant or predictable during the service life of a floor. however. Since the allowable loads in Table 4 are based on the most critical conditions. Table 4 is used if the aisle and storage layout may be changed during the service life of the floor. cannot be prevented by making the slab thicker. Also. Slab settiement. width of loaded area. are suggested for practical design use where the aisle and storage layout is not predictable or permanent.. there are no restrictions on the load layout configuration or the uniformity of loading.515 830 1.660 895 1.280 740 1. Usually the magnitude of distributed loads placed on floors with properly prepared and compacted subgrades is not sufficient to cause excessive settlement. Although the basic equations are the same.255 1. As explained in the first footnote on page 4. 1) pci 50 100 200 50 100 200 50 100 200 50 100 200 50 100 200 50 100 200 Concrete 550 535 760 1.960 6 8 10 12 14 Allowable Loads to Prevent Cracking in Uniointed Aisleway In an unjointed alsleway between distributed load areas.) The allowable loads in Table 4 are based on a safety factor of 2.220 1.495 865 1.. the allowable loads shown in Tables 4 and 5 differ from those of Rice because he made a large allowance for slab shrinkage stresses.280 1. for very heavy distributed loads on compressible subgrades.140 1.355 760 1. If the layout is permanently fixed. then the allowable load may be computed as: W where W = O. psi h :::.070 1. Unjointed Aisle (Nonuniform Loading.l23ft.170 1.due to material placed directly on the floor in storage bays. Allowable loads based on this design objective are shown in Tables 4 and 5. while the use of the k-value on the top of the subbase is appropriate for concentrated loads.655 905 1. disregard increase in k: due to subbase. * The use of these tables is discussed in the following sections.795 load. rather than the k on top of the subbase (if there is one).075 585 830 1. Based on aisle and load widths giving maximum stress.965 1. the effects of distributed loads should also be examined. For other safety factors that the designer may wish to use. Therefore. Y. in. However. under restricted conditions of load configuration.270 1. psf working stress.055 1. Allowable Distributed Loads. slab stresses under distributed loads vary with aisle width. representing the most critical conditions. the maximum negative bending moment in the slab may be up to twice as great as the moment in the slab beneath the loaded area.790 980 1. one design objective is to limit these stresses in the aisleway so that a crack will not occur.370 750 1. pci it = allowable = allowable Fixed Storage Layout As discussed in the previous section.810 980 1. However. As discussed on pages 3 and 4. It should be noted that the k-value of the subgrade.115 1.045 1. concentrated loads are the controlling factor in floor design since distributed loads usually do not produce flexural stresses of the same magnitude.P!' A similar approach was used by Rice (20~for distributed loads.120 psi 700 685 965 1.930 1.500 2. This is conservative.rik load. 650 635 900 1. slab k = subgrade modulus. way. the allowable working stress is first computed by dividing the 28-day flexural strength. it can be shown that loads up to the magnitudes shown in Tables 4 and 5 produce only very small joint uplifts that would be completely tolerable for most requirements.: thickness. in. and (2) to avoid objectionable settlement of the slab.390 1. the allowable loads shown in Table 4.365 1.385 1. he considered zero uplift of joints in the aisleway as one of the design criteria.175 680 960 1. 5 SUb~rade k .615 2. Variable layout) Allowable Slab th ickness. * In the preparation of these tables. For most plant and warehouse buildings. experimental data (17) show that these are less than the stresses in slabs that are not uplifted at the joint.603 895' 1. the possibility of soil consolidation should be examined by soil foundation engineering techniques. As a result. psf(2) strength. Variable Storage Layout The magnitudes of flexural stresses and deflections due to distributed loads vary with slab thickness and sub grade strength. flexural strength. In addition. (Heavier loads may be allowed. and whether or not a joint or crack exists in the aisle- 2For allowable stress aqual to 1k of subgrade.055 1.495 2.725 965 1.

925 1.430 1.245 1.480 2.580 2.925 2.115 1.7 6.1 10.6 8.070 1.815 2.705 1.400 1.600 2.6 At critical aisle width 610 710 815 670 785 895 770 900 1.590 1.090 1.525 2.875 1.745 3.. aisle 1.255 2.420 1.325 1.105 1.575 1.460 1.415 1.070 1.210 2. Allowable Distributed Loads.320 1.750 I 12-ft.240 1.8 10.265 1.705 lI0-ftaisle 815 950 1.4 6.230 2. ft.770 1. disrega.895 3.1 9.455 1.270 2.900 1.065 1.630 900 1.065 2.990 3.330 1.570 1.180 1.6 7.275 1.085 780 910 1.270 1.145 955 1.215 1.515 2.305 1.480 1.030 2.6 6.330 2.625 1.360 2.130 915 1.045 2.4 8.rd increase in k due to subbase.972 2. psi 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 300 350 400 Critical aisle width.080 1.630 1.420 1.540 1.540 1.285 1.100 1.335 1.5 5.065 1.415 1.425 1.310 1.685 1.400 945 1.6 5.630 1.870 Subgrade k ~ 50 pei(1) 5 I 8-ft.4 9.865 1.730 1.340 1.420 2.470 1.890 3.145 1.205 2.465 1.245 2. aisle 670 785 895 695 810 925 770 900 1.895 2.185 925 1.035 2.6 5.405 1.145 1.995 2.4 6.025 855 1.700 At other aisle widths 6-ft.040 800 935 1.395 2.270 1.270 1.050 1.395 1.420 1.640 1. Fixed Layoutl Allowable load.170 1.020 2.930 2.1 4.270 1.745 2.980 2.950 I 14·ft.775 2.940 3.025 845 985 1.085 1.155 950 1.310 1.770 1.520 2.030 2.810 3.225 1.010 1.635 1.240 1.175 1.120 1.955 1.620 1.7 4.280 1.535 1.285 965 1.880 2.135 915 1.405 2.625 1.070 1. aisle 615 715 820 675 785 895 800 935 1.610 3.715 1.915 2.450 2.330 1.445 1.215 1.565 1.385 2.045 3.635 3.220 1.230 980 1.6 6. Assumed load width e 300 in.310 865 1.425 1.160 1.7 6.050 1.7 5.350 960 1.1 12.010 1.795 2.420 1.985 2. Working stress. in.950 1.290 995 1.645 1.150 1.855 2.0 9.320 1. aisle 1.890 1.120 2.810 2.865 1.5 4.200 955 1.300 3.325 1.6 6. Allowable stress e one-half flexural strength.610 1.945 2.565 2.070 3.065 850 990 1.245 1.445 1. Unjointed Aisle (Uniform Load. 14 .2 10.5 4.2 4.630 1.715 3.620 1.115 1.0 4.435 1.595 2.520 2.025 2.730 2.065 1.325 1.305 6 8 10 12 14 Subgrade k ~ 100 pei(l) 5 6 8 10 12 14 Subgrade k ~ 200 pci(1) 5 6 8 10 12 14 2 lk of subgrade.810 2. Critical aisle width equals 2.215 1.405 1.209 times radius of relative stittness.640 1.7 7.370 1.365 2.1 9.9 9.260 880 1.565 1.000 1.175 885 1.2 10.6 5.1 12.Table 5.655 2.9 7.275 3.875 2.075 3.740 3.345 1.190 2.650 1.695 1.4 6.800 3.745 2.580 4.0 8.000 1.220 980 1.050 2.125 1.150 2.4 5.360 2.225 1.755 1.860 3.365 1.290 2.210 2.675 1.4 5.035 1.965 2.070 930 1.525 1.495 1.785 1.6 7.660 2.470 1.6 6.200 3.120 1.8 10.475 1.6 7.615 1.025 1.665 1.105 2.0 8..420 1.860 2.425 1.700 1.550 1.6 5.4 10.095 1.400 1.070 2.115 2.050 1.095 2.240 1.810 2.270 2.330 2.480 2.105 1.890 2.265 1.420 1.8 12. pst Slab thickness.510 2.550 1.120 1.4 9.690 1.775 2.6 8. allowable load varies only slightly for other load widths.860 1.065 1.7 4.035 2.550 1. Modulus of elasticity (E) is 4 x 106 psi.9 7.0 4.(2) 5.545 1.6 8.0 4.650 1.755 2.225 1.760 1.

psi h '" slab thickness. depending on the operational requirements of the floor. These computed elastic deflections may be a fair estimate only if the soil is relatively incompressible. In either case. use of a thick slab does not reduce settlement under distributed loads. As shown in Table 5. In a storage area where this layout is known and will remain fixed throughout the service life of the floor. In this case. strip loads--that differ substantially from those indicated in the previous discussions may be analyzed by one of the following methods: 1. For slabs on compressible subgrades. Allowable Loads to Prevent Slab Settlement In the previous discussion. depending on the particular chart used. settlement under distributed loads may be considerably greater than the computed elastic deflection. 2. the controlling design considerations cannot be expressed in terms of contact area. The tolerable settlement may be considerably less than that allowed for foundations. If the distributed loads are heavy. This doubles the negative bending moment (tension in top of slab) at aisle centerline. there need be no such restriction on the load magnitude. pci UNUSUAL LOADS Special load configurations-unusual wheel or post configurations. may require a special foundation design and this is beyond the scope of this discussion. slab stresses. it may be necessary to analyze several of the design considerations indicated in Fig. (For strip loads. the settlement should be estimated by methods used in soils engineering for spread or raft foundations. very large wheel contact areas.location.' 19) Vibrating loads. the error is not significant if the length exceeds 6. data from test footings of different sizes are helpful in estimating the amount of settlement on compressive soils.. the limit of load depends on the tolerable settlement of the slab. u = Poisson's ratio k '" modulus of subgradc reaction. the bending moments due to loads on each side of the aisle are not maximum. slab thickness has virtually no effect on soil pressure-the soil pressure is equal to the distributed . For concentrated loads (wheel or post loads). in. For aisle widths other than the critical aisle width. For example. **Int1uence charts cover a dimension of either 4. When one or both of the dimensions of a load contact area is large t (distributed loads in a storage bay or a strip load). 2 based on the size of the load contact areas. the controlling design considerations will be similar to those indicated in Fig. in.. the load on one side of the aisle may counteract stress caused by a load on the other side. construction. *What may at first appear to be anomalies in the values shown in Table 5 are explained by the following considerations. such as those caused by heavy generators or compressors. strip loads if the length of the load contact area is not great.t or 6£ (see next footnote).£ where 1. For a given slab thickness and subgrade strength there is a critical aisle width for which the slab stress in the aislcway is maximum. and soil pressures may be determined with influence charts(I8) or a computer program. if a joint or crack exists in the aisle or within certain distances of the edge of the distributed load.i 10) The influence charts may also be used for For more information on the design. These loads are based on limiting the negative moment in an unjointed aisleway so that an aisle crack does not occur. for distributed loads. Computing the deflection profile for the entire slab width provides an estimate of the potential slab uplift away from the load as well as downward deflection of the part of the slab that is under the load. An estimate of the minimum settlement that may occur can be made by computlngl? I) the elastic deflection using the subgrade modulus k. tThe analysis of Hetenyi as used for slab design applies to loads of finite width and infinite length. E = concrete modulus of elasticity. deflections.e ~ where 4 12(1 _ J. the situation can be considered as a onedimensional problem and the method of Hete'nyi(2 I) may be used. For concentrated loads. see Concrete Floors on Ground. However.) A wide range of design situations can be analyzed with a computer program for foundations mats. vehicles with closely spaced axles or with more than 4 wheels per axle. the differential settlement between the loaded and unloaded sides of the joint or crack may cause a bump that is objectionable to vehicle traffic. ** 2. Therefore. As described in most texts on soils engineering. the allowable load for the critical aisle width is less than for any other aisle width. If these cracks can be tolerated or if there are joints in the aisleways. The critical aisle width exists when the maximum bending moment in the aisle due to a load on one side of the aisle coincides with the point of maximum moment due to the load on the other side of the aisle. a greater slab thickness reduces the pressure on the soil. however. tracked vehicles.load plus the weight of the slab. EB075D.l2)k Eh3 f '" radius of relative stiffness. the allowable loads were based on preventing a crack in an unjointed aisleway between loaded storage areas. is defined by: . Slab settlement is caused by excessive pressures on the soil below. 15 . and repair of floors on ground. the heavier distributed loads shown in Table 5 * may be allowed.

Kelley. Portland Cement Association. 29.) 2. Michigan. Portland Cement Association. Highway Research Board. 14.. D. American Concrete Institute." American Society of Civil Engineers Transactions. Vol. ACI Committee 360. R. 15. National Academy of Sciences Publication 1571. Vol. "Frictional Resistance Under Concrete Pavements and Restraint Stresses in Long Reinforced Slabs.. Fax: 847-966-9781 \. respectively: DX21. Ohio. "Applications of the Results of Research to the Structural Design of Concrete Pavements. Tests of Concrete Pavement Slabs on Gravel Subbases. 1967. pages 49 to 73. No. (Formerly listed as D2l. 1975. S. "Stiffened Mats on Expansive Clay. Robert L. Westergaard. IS046B Portland Cement Association. American Concrete Pavement Association. Computer Program for The Analysis and Design of Foundation Mats and Combined Footings. 1992. R. ACI 302.. PCA-Mats . Road Test One-MD. and D86. education. 20. 5. Tests of Concrete Pavements on Crushed Stone Subbases. July 1971. Skokie. Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division.REFERENCES 1. The MSHO Road Test. Printed in U. Lytton. The Portland Cement Association DISCLAIMS any and all RESPONSIBILITY and LIABILITY for the accuracy of and the application of the information contained in this publication to the full extent permitted by law. Computer Program for Airport Pavement Design.4 rnm 1 sq ft = 0. pages 83-104. G. 54-7.. Engineering 16. 1967. research. Rice. 1962. 1925.15 MPalm Portland Cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road.) 13. Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction. 1966.. Haddadin. ACI Journal. Highway Research Board. Portland Cement Association. J. and public affairs work. Key to the Air Transportation System. 1989. Design of Slabs on Grade. and Ray. 1971. G. M.S. Prestressed Concrete Institute.. G. DX86. E. DX65. Highway Research Board Special Report No. 10. Part I. Mat Foundations. 5. M. American Concrete Institute. and Meyer. Friberg. L. SRlOOD. Portland Cement Association. 116. P. F. This publication is intended SOLELY for use by PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of the information provided herein. "Computation of Stresses in Concrete Roads. 12. Metric Conversions 1 ft =0.9 Pa 100 pci (subgrade k) = = = = 27.Where Are We?" Airports. 1954. three Portland Cement Association Development Department Bulletins.020 . (Replaces Design of Concrete Floors on Ground. Vol. ACI 360R-92. 4. Building Code Requirements for Structural Plain Concrete. 18195. D65. Pickett. K. 1992.. = 645 mm2 l lb 454 g 1 kip 454 kg 1 psi 6.093 m2 1 sq in. D. Beams on Elastic Foundations. Washington. G.) 17. and Combined Footings. Thickness Design for Concrete Pavements. "Concrete Airport Pavement Design. Paper No. Criteria for Selection and Design of Residential Slabs-onGround. Ohio. 8. 61E. 1952. American Concrete Pavement Association.1R-89. EB075. Nov-Dec. 1992. "Influence Charts for Concrete Pavements. Engineering Data and Off-the-Road Data. ACI Committee 318.6. ISOlOP. 7.. 21. (Formerly.Finite Element Analysis of Slabs. 1968. Highway Research Board. B. Vol. 1958. 2425. "Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Slabs-onGrade on Expansive or Compressible Soils.. American Concrete Institute. engineering. pages 167-184. 1946.. July 1939.) 20. Kirby. April 1971.A.305 m 1 in. K. pages 90-112. SR029P. MCOI2. 1963. Hetenyi. H. Vol. ACI 302-69. "Design of Concrete Floors on Ground for Warehouse Loadings. 1995. Cawley.) 11.) 3. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.." Proceedings. ACI Committee 302. L. ACI Committee 302." Proceedings. Tires." Journal. 20. 9. 22.1974 Yearbook. The University of Michigan Press. E. (Formerly." Journal. EB109. Portland Cement Association.9 kPa 1 psf= 47. C. No. American Concrete Institute. Akron. Childs.. Illinois 60077-1083 Phone: 847-966-6200 An organization of cement manufacturers to improve and extend the uses of portland cement and concrete through market development. Thickness Designfor Concrete Highway and Street Pavements. 1951. ACI 318-95. 1969.. 1995. and who will accept total responsibility for the application of this information.Ann Arbor. pages 105 to 113. Building Code Requirementsfor Structural Concrete. Packard. G. = 25. ACI 322-72. Tests of Concrete Pavement Slabs on CementTreated Subbases. Concrete Thickness for Airport and Industrial Pavements.5. 1964. pages 183-226. (Formerly. M. Akron. American Concrete Institute. August 1957. Concrete Floors on Ground. M. F. Ray. American Society of Civil Engineers. (Formerly." Public Roads. 1972.. 1984.) 18. 19. / 6. T. (Formerly.255 pages.2. The Tire and Rim Association. No. U. and Packard. MC006." Title No. Over-the-Road Tires. American Society of Civil Engineers. Recommended Practice for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction.

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