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Suetonius the Twelve Caesars

Suetonius the Twelve Caesars

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The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, by C.

Suetonius Tranquillus;

The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Lives Of The Twelve Caesars, Complete by C. Suetonius Tranquillus This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

Title: The Lives Of The Twelve Caesars, Complete To Which Are Added, His Lives Of The Grammarians, Rhetoricians, And Poets Author: C. Suetonius Tranquillus Release Date: October 22, 2006 [EBook #6400] Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK TWELVE CAESARS ***

Produced by Tapio Riikonen and David Widger


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The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, by C. Suetonius Tranquillus;

By C. Suetonius Tranquillus;
To which are added,

The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D. Revised and corrected by T.Forester, Esq., A.M.

C. Suetonius Tranquillus was the son of a Roman knight who commanded a legion, on the side of Otho, at the battle which decided the fate of the empire in favour of Vitellius. From incidental notices in the following History, we learn that he was born towards the close of the reign of Vespasian, who died in the year 79 of the Christian era. He lived till the time of Hadrian, under whose administration he filled the office of secretary; until, with several others, he was dismissed for presuming on familiarities with the empress Sabina, of which we have no further account than that they were unbecoming his position in the imperial court. How long he survived this disgrace, which appears to have befallen him in the year 121, we are not informed; but we find that the leisure afforded him by his retirement, was employed in the composition of numerous works, of which the only portions now extant are collected in the present volume. Several of the younger Pliny's letters are addressed to Suetonius, with whom he lived in the closest friendship. They afford some brief, but generally pleasant, glimpses of his habits and career; and in a letter, in which Pliny makes application on behalf of his friend to the emperor Trajan, for a mark of favour, he speaks of him as "a most excellent, honourable, and learned man, whom he had the pleasure of entertaining under his own roof, and with whom the nearer he was brought into communion, the more he loved him." 1

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The plan adopted by Suetonius in his Lives of the Twelve Caesars, led him to be more diffuse on their personal conduct and habits than on public events. He writes Memoirs rather than History. He neither dwells on the civil wars which sealed the fall of the Republic, nor on the military expeditions which extended the frontiers of the empire; nor does he attempt to develop the causes of the great political changes which marked the period of which he treats. When we stop to gaze in a museum or gallery on the antique busts of the Caesars, we perhaps endeavour to trace in their sculptured physiognomy the characteristics of those princes, who, for good or evil, were in their times masters of the destinies of a large portion of the human race. The pages of Suetonius will amply gratify this natural curiosity. In them we find a series of individual portraits sketched to the life, with perfect truth and rigorous impartiality. La Harpe remarks of Suetonius, "He is scrupulously exact, and strictly methodical. He omits nothing which concerns the person whose life he is writing; he relates everything, but paints nothing. His work is, in some sense, a collection of anecdotes, but it is very curious to read and consult." 2 Combining as it does amusement and information, Suetonius's "Lives of the Caesars" was held in such estimation, that, so soon after the invention of printing as the year 1500, no fewer than eighteen editions had been published, and nearly one hundred have since been added to the number. Critics of the highest rank have devoted themselves to the task of correcting and commenting on the text, and the work has been translated into most European languages. Of the English translations, that of Dr. Alexander Thomson, published in 1796, has been made the basis of the present. He informs us in his Preface, that a version of Suetonius was with him only a secondary object, his principal design being to form a just estimate of Roman literature, and to elucidate the state of government, and the manners of the times; for which the work of Suetonius seemed a fitting vehicle. Dr. Thomson's remarks appended to each successive reign, are reprinted nearly verbatim in the present edition. His translation, however, was very diffuse, and retained most of the inaccuracies of that of Clarke, on which it was founded; considerable care therefore has been bestowed in correcting it, with the view of producing, as far as possible, a literal and faithful version. To render the works of Suetonius, as far as they are extant, complete, his Lives of eminent Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets, of which a translation has not before appeared in English, are added. These Lives abound with anecdote and curious information connected with learning and literary men during the period of which the author treats.

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T. F.


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I. Julius Caesar, the Divine 3, lost his father 4 when he was in the sixteenth year of his age 5; and the year following, being nominated to the office of high-priest of Jupiter 6, he repudiated Cossutia, who was very wealthy, although her family belonged only to the equestrian order, and to whom he had been contracted when he was a mere boy. He then married (2) Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, who was four times consul; and had by her, shortly afterwards, a daughter named Julia. Resisting all the efforts of the dictator Sylla to induce him to divorce Cornelia, he suffered the penalty of being stripped of his sacerdotal office, his wife's dowry, and his own patrimonial estates; and, being identified with the adverse faction 7, was compelled to withdraw from Rome. After changing his place of concealment nearly every night 8, although he was suffering from a quartan ague, and having effected his release by bribing the officers who had tracked his footsteps, he at length obtained a pardon through the intercession of the vestal virgins, and of Mamercus Aemilius and Aurelius Cotta, his near relatives. We are assured that when Sylla, having withstood for a while the entreaties of his own best friends, persons of distinguished rank, at last yielded to their importunity, he exclaimed—either by a divine impulse, or from a shrewd conjecture: "Your suit is granted, and you may take him among you; but know," he added, "that this man, for whose safety you are so extremely anxious, will, some day or other, be the ruin of the party of the nobles, in defence of which you are leagued with me; for in this one Caesar, you will find many a Marius." II. His first campaign was served in Asia, on the staff of the praetor, M. Thermus; and being dispatched into Bithynia 9, to bring thence a fleet, he loitered so long at the court of Nicomedes, as to give occasion to reports of a criminal intercourse between him and that prince; which received additional credit from his hasty return to Bithynia, under the pretext of recovering a debt due to a freed-man, his client. The rest of his service was more favourable to his reputation; and (3) when Mitylene 10 was taken by storm, he was presented by Thermus with the civic crown. 11 III. He served also in Cilicia 12, under Servilius Isauricus, but only for a short time; as upon receiving intelligence of Sylla's death, he returned with all speed to Rome, in expectation of what might follow from a fresh agitation set on foot by Marcus Lepidus. Distrusting, however,

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the abilities of this leader, and finding the times less favourable for the execution of this project than he had at first imagined, he abandoned all thoughts of joining Lepidus, although he received the most tempting offers. IV. Soon after this civil discord was composed, he preferred a charge of extortion against Cornelius Dolabella, a man of consular dignity, who had obtained the honour of a triumph. On the acquittal of the accused, he resolved to retire to Rhodes 13, with the view not only of avoiding the public odium (4) which he had incurred, but of prosecuting his studies with leisure and tranquillity, under Apollonius, the son of Molon, at that time the most celebrated master of rhetoric. While on his voyage thither, in the winter season, he was taken by pirates near the island of Pharmacusa 14, and detained by them, burning with indignation, for nearly forty days; his only attendants being a physician and two chamberlains. For he had instantly dispatched his other servants and the friends who accompanied him, to raise money for his ransom 15. Fifty talents having been paid down, he was landed on the coast, when, having collected some ships 16, he lost no time in putting to sea in pursuit of the pirates, and having captured them, inflicted upon them the punishment with which he had often threatened them in jest. At that time Mithridates was ravaging the neighbouring districts, and on Caesar's arrival at Rhodes, that he might not appear to lie idle while danger threatened the allies of Rome, he passed over into Asia, and having collected some auxiliary forces, and driven the king's governor out of the province, retained in their allegiance the cities which were wavering, and ready to revolt. V. Having been elected military tribune, the first honour he received from the suffrages of the people after his return to Rome, he zealously assisted those who took measures for restoring the tribunitian authority, which had been greatly diminished during the usurpation of Sylla. He likewise, by an act, which Plotius at his suggestion propounded to the people, obtained the recall of Lucius Cinna, his wife's brother, and others with him, who having been the adherents of Lepidus in the civil disturbances, had after that consul's death fled to Sertorius 17; which law he supported by a speech. VI. During his quaestorship he pronounced funeral orations from the rostra, according to custom, in praise of his aunt (5) Julia, and his wife Cornelia. In the panegyric on his aunt, he gives the following account of her own and his father's genealogy, on both sides: "My aunt Julia derived her descent, by the mother, from a race of kings, and by her father, from the Immortal Gods. For the Marcii Reges 18, her mother's family, deduce their pedigree from Ancus Marcius, and the Julii, her father's, from Venus; of which stock we are a branch. We therefore unite in our descent the sacred majesty of kings, the chiefest among men, and the divine majesty of Gods, to whom

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kings themselves are subject." To supply the place of Cornelia, he married Pompeia, the daughter of Quintus Pompeius, and grand-daughter of Lucius Sylla; but he afterwards divorced her, upon suspicion of her having been debauched by Publius Clodius. For so current was the report, that Clodius had found access to her disguised as a woman, during the celebration of a religious solemnity 19, that the senate instituted an enquiry respecting the profanation of the sacred rites. VII. Farther-Spain 20 fell to his lot as quaestor; when there, as he was going the circuit of the province, by commission from the praetor, for the administration of justice, and had reached Gades, seeing a statue of Alexander the Great in the temple of Hercules, he sighed deeply, as if weary of his sluggish life, for having performed no memorable actions at an age 21 at which Alexander had already conquered the world. He, therefore, immediately sued for his discharge, with the view of embracing the first opportunity, which might present itself in The City, of entering upon a more exalted career. In the stillness of the night following, he dreamt that he lay with his own mother; but his confusion was relieved, and his hopes were raised to the highest pitch, by the interpreters of his dream, who expounded it as an omen that he should possess universal empire; for (6) that the mother who in his sleep he had found submissive to his embraces, was no other than the earth, the common parent of all mankind. VIII. Quitting therefore the province before the expiration of the usual term, he betook himself to the Latin colonies, which were then eagerly agitating the design of obtaining the freedom of Rome; and he would have stirred them up to some bold attempt, had not the consuls, to prevent any commotion, detained for some time the legions which had been raised for service in Cilicia. But this did not deter him from making, soon afterwards, a still greater effort within the precincts of the city itself. IX. For, only a few days before he entered upon the aedileship, he incurred a suspicion of having engaged in a conspiracy with Marcus Crassus, a man of consular rank; to whom were joined Publius Sylla and Lucius Autronius, who, after they had been chosen consuls, were convicted of bribery. The plan of the conspirators was to fall upon the senate at the opening of the new year, and murder as many of them as should be thought necessary; upon which, Crassus was to assume the office of dictator, and appoint Caesar his master of the horse 22. When the commonwealth had been thus ordered according to their pleasure, the consulship was to have been restored to Sylla and Autronius. Mention is made of this plot by Tanusius Geminus 23 in his history, by Marcus Bibulus in his edicts 24, and by Curio, the father, in his orations 25. Cicero likewise seems to hint at this in a letter to Axius, where he says, that Caesar (7) had in his consulship secured

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to himself that arbitrary power 26 to which he had aspired when he was edile. Tanusius adds, that Crassus, from remorse or fear, did not appear upon the day appointed for the massacre of the senate; for which reason Caesar omitted to give the signal, which, according to the plan concerted between them, he was to have made. The agreement, Curio says, was that he should shake off the toga from his shoulder. We have the authority of the same Curio, and of M. Actorius Naso, for his having been likewise concerned in another conspiracy with young Cneius Piso; to whom, upon a suspicion of some mischief being meditated in the city, the province of Spain was decreed out of the regular course 27. It is said to have been agreed between them, that Piso should head a revolt in the provinces, whilst the other should attempt to stir up an insurrection at Rome, using as their instruments the Lambrani, and the tribes beyond the Po. But the execution of this design was frustrated in both quarters by the death of Piso. X. In his aedileship, he not only embellished the Comitium, and the rest of the Forum 28, with the adjoining halls 29, but adorned the Capitol also, with temporary piazzas, constructed for the purpose of displaying some part of the superabundant collections (8) he had made for the amusement of the people 30. He entertained them with the hunting of wild beasts, and with games, both alone and in conjunction with his colleague. On this account, he obtained the whole credit of the expense to which they had jointly contributed; insomuch that his colleague, Marcus Bibulus, could not forbear remarking, that he was served in the manner of Pollux. For as the temple 31 erected in the Forum to the two brothers, went by the name of Castor alone, so his and Caesar's joint munificence was imputed to the latter only. To the other public spectacles exhibited to the people, Caesar added a fight of gladiators, but with fewer pairs of combatants than he had intended. For he had collected from all parts so great a company of them, that his enemies became alarmed; and a decree was made, restricting the number of gladiators which any one was allowed to retain at Rome. XI. Having thus conciliated popular favour, he endeavoured, through his interest with some of the tribunes, to get Egypt assigned to him as a province, by an act of the people. The pretext alleged for the creation of this extraordinary government, was, that the Alexandrians had violently expelled their king 32, whom the senate had complimented with the title of an ally and friend of the Roman people. This was generally resented; but, notwithstanding, there was so much opposition from the faction of the nobles, that he could not carry his point. In order, therefore, to diminish their influence by every means in his power, he restored the trophies erected in honour of Caius Marius, on account of his victories over Jugurtha, the Cimbri, and the Teutoni, which had been demolished by Sylla; and when sitting in judgment upon murderers, he treated those as assassins, who, in the late proscription, had received money from the treasury, for bringing in

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the heads of Roman citizens, although they were expressly excepted in the Cornelian laws. XII. He likewise suborned some one to prefer an impeachment (9) for treason against Caius Rabirius, by whose especial assistance the senate had, a few years before, put down Lucius Saturninus, the seditious tribune; and being drawn by lot a judge on the trial, he condemned him with so much animosity, that upon his appealing to the people, no circumstance availed him so much as the extraordinary bitterness of his judge. XIII. Having renounced all hope of obtaining Egypt for his province, he stood candidate for the office of chief pontiff, to secure which, he had recourse to the most profuse bribery. Calculating, on this occasion, the enormous amount of the debts he had contracted, he is reported to have said to his mother, when she kissed him at his going out in the morning to the assembly of the people, "I will never return home unless I am elected pontiff." In effect, he left so far behind him two most powerful competitors, who were much his superiors both in age and rank, that he had more votes in their own tribes, than they both had in all the tribes together. XIV. After he was chosen praetor, the conspiracy of Catiline was discovered; and while every other member of the senate voted for inflicting capital punishment on the accomplices in that crime 33, he alone proposed that the delinquents should be distributed for safe custody among the towns of Italy, their property being confiscated. He even struck such terror into those who were advocates for greater severity, by representing to them what universal odium would be attached to their memories by the Roman people, that Decius Silanus, consul elect, did not hesitate to qualify his proposal, it not being very honourable to change it, by a lenient interpretation; as if it had been understood in a harsher sense than he intended, and Caesar would certainly have carried his point, having brought over to his side a great number of the senators, among whom was Cicero, the consul's brother, had not a speech by Marcus Cato infused new vigour into the resolutions of the senate. He persisted, however, in obstructing the measure, until a body of the Roman knights, who stood under arms as a guard, threatened him with instant death, if he continued his determined opposition. They even thrust at him with their drawn swords, so that those who sat next him moved away; (10) and a few friends, with no small difficulty, protected him, by throwing their arms round him, and covering him with their togas. At last, deterred by this violence, he not only gave way, but absented himself from the senate-house during the remainder of that year. XV. Upon the first day of his praetorship, he summoned Quintus Catulus to render an account to the people respecting the repairs of the Capitol 34; proposing a decree for transferring the office of curator to another person 35. But being unable to withstand the strong opposition made by the aristocratical party, whom he perceived quitting, in great numbers, their attendance upon the

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until they were both dismissed from office by a vote of the senate. seized his goods. whether he had not voluntarily made a discovery to him of some particulars of the conspiracy. and fully resolved to resist his proposal. he dropped the design. to whom a reward had been voted. notwithstanding. feeling that this treatment was not to be borne. and sending for him. after high commendation of his conduct. or from his anxiety to lose no time in relieving the allies. and in the senate by Quintus Curius. being already fixed by proclamation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. being named amongst the accomplices of Catiline. however. He afterwards approved himself a most resolute supporter of Caecilius Metullus. with the resolution of being quiet. in spite of all opposition from his colleagues. threw him into prison. the senate. given to Catiline. He. he returned to Rome. Contrary. new consuls 36. The day of election. for having first discovered the designs of the conspirators. Vettius even engaged to produce in evidence against him his own hand-writing. who were for detaining him. to retain his post and continue in the administration of justice. and in a riotous manner made a voluntary tender of their assistance in the vindication of his (11) honour. to which he likewise sent Novius the quaestor. however. in a time so unfavourable to his interests. without waiting for the arrival of his successor. gave him their thanks by some of the leading members of the house. appealed to Cicero himself. XVII. had proposed some laws of a violent tendency 37. This happening contrary to expectation. he could not legally be admitted a http://www. both before Novius Niger the quaestor. and betook himself privately to his own house. tribune of the people. for having presumed to take an information against a magistrate of superior authority.gutenberg. he took his departure before the usual equipage and outfit were prepared. He ventured. and pacified his creditors. by Lucius Vettius the informer. obliged Vettius to give pledges for his behaviour. He had no (12) sooner established tranquillity in the province. Curius affirmed that he had received his information from Catiline. than. At the expiration of his praetorship he obtained by lot the Farther-Spain 38. and the consulship. But he soon got into fresh trouble. but finding that preparations were made to obstruct him by force of arms. XVIII. who met in haste. by C.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and seeing him almost torn in pieces before the rostra. he dismissed the lictors. cancelled their former vote. to both law and custom. which two days afterwards flocked about him. and after heavily fining him. with equal haste. Suetonius Tranquillus. therefore. Caesar. who implored him to come to their aid. to sue for a triumph 40. and restored him to his office. on account of the tumult. It is uncertain whether this precipitancy arose from the apprehension of an impeachment. by finding sureties for his debts 39. who. He likewise pacified the mob. with which he was threatened on the expiration of his former office. XVI. threw off his gown. and so baulked Curius of his expected reward.htm (11 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] .

" putting the same person down twice. unless he entered the city as a private person 41. under his name and surname. Caesar had the sole management of public affairs." but. and most of them contributed towards the expense. did not add "in the consulship of Caesar and Bibulus. but such was the consternation. advised Bibulus to promise the voters as much as the other. at that time dissatisfied with the senate for the backwardness they shewed to confirm his acts. He was accordingly elected consul jointly with Bibulus. that the daily acts both of the senate and people should be committed to writing. Of the two other competitors for the consulship. with a colleague disposed to concur in and second his measures. Next day the insulted consul made a complaint in the senate of this treatment. which was displeasing to any of the three. was for the public good 42. he was so much dispirited. Lucius Luceius and Marcus Bibulus. therefore. candidate. which had been often done under outrages of less importance. who had been at variance from (13) the time of their joint consulship. he joined with the former. in which office they were continually clashing. Caesar.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. should promise money to the electors. but such an indulgence being strongly opposed. whom he violently drove out of the forum. The following verses likewise were currently repeated on this occasion: http://www. and published 44. in their joint names. he introduced a new regulation. XIX.gutenberg. Upon preferring a bill to the people for the division of some public lands. He likewise brought about a reconciliation between Pompey and Marcus Crassus. insomuch that some wags. and he entered into an agreement with both. endeavoured by the most assiduous and flattering attentions to gain to his side Cneius Pompey. and did nothing but issue edicts to obstruct his colleague's proceedings. and his lictors follow him. lest he should be disappointed of the consulship. that nothing should be transacted in the government. that no one having the courage to bring the matter forward or move a censure. From that time. incensed at this indignity. after his victories over Mithridates. such as the care of the woods and roads. XX. upon condition that Luceius.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "of Julius and Caesar. He also revived an old custom. that an officer 45 should precede him. that until the expiration of his office he never stirred from home. dreading how far he might carry matters in that high office. Actuated still by the same motives. under such circumstances. he was opposed by his colleague. on the alternate months when the fasces were not carried before him. being a man of less interest but greater affluence. Cato himself admitting that bribery. Having entered upon his office 43. On this emergency he solicited a suspension of the laws in his favour. by C. the prevailing party took care to assign provinces of small importance to the new consuls. Upon which the party of the nobles. Suetonius Tranquillus. he found himself under the necessity of abandoning all thoughts of a triumph.htm (12 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . when they signed any instrument as witnesses.

therefore. Publius Clodius. a change which he had long solicited in vain 46. to deprecate the consul's resentment. transferred his enemy. And upon Cicero's lamenting in some trial the miserable condition of the times. by nine o'clock. he divided. he by great rewards prevailed upon Vettius to declare. and by whose means chiefly he had but a little before baffled Bibulus. XXI. whereas he used before to give that distinction to Marcus Crassus. he ordered to be dragged out of the senate-house by a lictor. he the very same day. but not by lot. as most likely to furnish him with matter and occasion for triumphs. At last. Caesar only then was consul here. not without great suspicion of subornation. likewise. About the same time he married Calpurnia. (14) The land of Stellas. who was to succeed him in the consulship. of a third part of the sum which they had engaged to pay into the public treasury. by http://www. After this new alliance. he fell on his knees. He made various profuse grants to meet the wishes of others. At first indeed he received only Cisalpine-Gaul. no one opposing him.htm (13 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . from a patrician to a plebeian family. rejecting Servilius Caepio. Non Bibulo quidquam nuper. he so terrified with the apprehension of being criminated. Being. and it was (15) the usual practice for the consul to observe throughout the year the method of consulting the senate which he had adopted on the calends (the first) of January. who interrupted him in his proceedings. Suetonius Tranquillus. is supposed to have taken off his informer by poison. Nothing was done in Bibulus's year: No. it was soon suppressed. and carried to prison. Lucius Lucullus. consecrated by our ancestors to the gods. effectually to intimidate all those of the opposite party.gutenberg. Caesar. despairing of success in this rash stratagem. sed Caesare factum est. after naming one or two to no purpose. upon any debates in the senate. Nam Bibulo fieri consule nil memini. with the addition of Illyricum. that he had been solicited by certain persons to assassinate Pompey. upon their petition. of all the provinces he made choice of Gaul. with some other lands in Campania left subject to tribute. or if any such attempt was made. to whom she had been contracted. by C. XXII. who had each of them three or more children. among upwards of twenty thousand freemen. for opposing him with some warmth. to ask Pompey's opinion first. and gave his own daughter Julia to Cneius Pompey. for the support of the expenses of the government. now supported by the interest of his father-in-law and son-in-law. he began.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. that. Marcus Cato. and openly admonished them not to bid so extravagantly upon the next occasion.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He eased the publicans. the daughter of Lucius Piso. and when he was brought before the rostra to name those who had been concerted between them.

Immediately. his quaestor was charged with several misdemeanors. also. But so great had been the success of his enterprises. that the senate passed a decree for sending commissioners to examine into the condition of Gaul. that if they should refuse it him. among the former of which was one levied in Transalpine Gaul. and to continue him in his command for five years longer. upon his being elected consul. however unjust and dangerous. to sue again for the consulship. To secure himself. upon a motion being made in the senate by Caius Memmius and Lucius Domitius. as well the allies of Rome as the barbarous nations which were its enemies: insomuch. by C. which he trained and armed in the Roman fashion. From this period he declined no occasion of war." he jocosely replied. Presumptuous now from his success. a few days afterwards. XXIV.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he would effect that which he could not accomplish when he was praetor. that he had. and divest him of the command of the armies. after three days spent in vain altercation. tribune of the people. and pressed them. the praetors. therefore.gutenberg. he added. Indeed. who would not positively undertake to defend him in his absence for which purpose he made no scruple to require of some of them an oath. One of the senators observing. however. and even a written obligation. submissive to his pleasure. obtained all he desired. and the Amazons possessed great part of Asia." XXIII. Suetonius Tranquillus. and openly threatened that. a decree proposed by Vatinius to the people. When the term of his consulship had expired. that province. the senators being apprehensive. he set out for his province. without any provocation. But when Lucius Domitius became a candidate for the consulship. for the purpose of disappointing Domitius. assisting none of the candidates with his interest. attacking. and that for the future he would make them. for the time to come. but (16) they declining the business. for the purpose of implicating Caesar himself. sarcastically: "That will not be very easy for a woman 48 to do. a city in his province. he sent for Crassus and Pompey to Lucca. "Semiramis formerly reigned in Assyria.htm (14 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . Alauda 49. he was particularly careful to secure the good-will of the magistrates at the annual elections. at his own private charge. more legions to those which he had received from the republic. nor suffering any persons to be advanced to any office. to their shame. respecting the transactions of the year past.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and called by a Gallic name. that he had the honour of obtaining http://www. would be granted him by the people. in a full senate-house. in spite of his enemies. he could not refrain from boasting. he offered to refer himself to the house. an accusation was soon after preferred against him by Lucius Antistius. he succeeded in having the prosecution suspended during his absence in the service of the state. but soon afterwards obtained from the senate Gallia-Comata 47 also. and some members even proposed that he should be delivered up to the enemy. but by making an appeal to the tribune's colleagues. and to their great mortification. and afterwards conferred on it the freedom of the city. with both which requisitions they complied. Elated now with his success.

and the senate passing a vote that only one consul. by acts of liberality and kindness to individuals. attacked the Germanic tribes inhabiting the country beyond that river. that the most celebrated gladiators. and such as had merited his favour. that he might not be obliged on that account to quit his province too soon. though absent. Cneius Pompeius.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but in the houses of Roman knights. and in the territory of the Germans. XXV. if at any time during the combat they incurred the displeasure of the public. he began to construct a new forum. into the form of a province. With money raised from the spoils of the war. where one of his legions was put to the rout. he made yet farther preparations in private houses. During this period 51 he lost his mother 52. of defence. by C. carrying his views still higher. although he had agreed with victuallers of all denominations for his feast. Having attained this object. his achievements were as follows: he reduced all Gaul. http://www. namely. During nine years in which he held the government of the province. in Gaul. and reserved for some future occasion. who intended joining him in nomination with Pompey. He issued an order. and having vanquished them. when his fleet was nearly wrecked in a storm. imposing upon this new acquisition an annual tribute of forty millions of sesterces. should be chosen for the ensuing year. once in Britain. the ground-plot of which cost him above a hundred millions of sesterces 54. at Gergovia. a people formerly unknown.htm (15 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . the Rhine and the Rhone. the Alps.gutenberg. than had ever before been decreed to any commander. more days 50 (17) of supplication. he prevailed with the tribunes of the people.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. exacted from them contributions and hostages. and the two rivers. whom he defeated in several engagements. should be immediately carried off by force. and being about three thousand two hundred miles in compass. and before the conclusion of the war. Amidst such a series of successes. The more to raise their expectations on this occasion. He also invaded the Britons. whose death was followed by that of his daughter 53. to propose to the people a bill. Young gladiators he trained up. XXVI. crossing the Rhine by a bridge. and a feast in memory of his daughter. bounded by the Pyrenean forest. Meanwhile. Suetonius Tranquillus. the republic being in consternation at the murder of Publius Clodius. and those more frequently. to become a candidate for his second consulship. mount Gebenna. enabling him. not in the school. of his granddaughter. his lieutenants Titurius and Aurunculeius were cut off by an ambuscade. He promised the people a public entertainment of gladiators. such as no one before him had ever given. He was the first of the Romans who. he experienced thrice only any signal disaster. when the term of his command should be near expiring. excepting only the nations in alliance with the republic. and animated with the hopes of success. not long afterwards. and. and by the masters. he omitted no (18) opportunity of gaining universal favour. both in public and private.

or in debt. made a motion in the senate that some person should be appointed to succeed Caesar in his province. Marcellus. because the war being brought to a conclusion. and a great part likewise of the senate. and the victorious army ought to be disbanded. he offered him in marriage his sister's grand-daughter Octavia. declaring first by proclamation. and sending to others the assistance of troops. and a portion of land.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. poverty. Gaul. he corrected his mistake. had forgot to except Caesar. in the article in which he declared all such as were not present incapable of being candidates for any office. that the freedom of the city should be taken from those colonists whom. he had settled at New Como 55. at whatever time and place they desired. presenting some with thousands of captives. by the Vatinian law. in his law relating to the choice of chief magistrates. Every person about him. Claudius Marcellus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he openly declared. who were favourites with their masters and patrons. when it was in plenty. the consul. he secured by loans of money at low interest. and by a stretch of the laws. and Spain. and the privilege intended him by Pompey. when the law was inscribed on brass. by C. earnestly requesting them. and deposited in the treasury. who had been married to Caius Marcellus. as Pompey himself had afterwards abrogated that privilege by a decree of the people. that he intended to propose a measure of the utmost importance to the state. because it had been conferred upon them with ambitious views. as appears from his letters. excluding from (19) his bounty those only who were so deeply plunged in guilt. These. before the term of his command was expired. and speculating on the obvious tendency of these proceedings. or luxury. He offered also singular and ready aid to all who were under prosecution. his claims to be a candidate at the next election of consuls should not be admitted. but soon afterwards. not neglecting even the freed-men and slaves. The fact was. He doubled the pay of the legions in perpetuity. without any restriction. that Caesar being absent. could derive no benefit from any other means than a civil war. or none at all. he made liberal presents. He likewise embellished with magnificent public buildings the most powerful cities not only of Italy. He endeavoured with equal assiduity to engage in his interest princes and provinces in every part of the world. skilled in the use of arms. http://www. not content with depriving Caesar of his provinces. that it was impossible effectually to relieve them. and requested for himself his daughter. but of Greece and Asia. Suetonius Tranquillus. He further moved. that Pompey. either by invitation or of their own accord.htm (16 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . allowing them likewise corn. likewise moved the senate. until all people being now astonished. and to all others who came to wait upon him. and to prodigal youths. To maintain his alliance and good understanding with Pompey. to undertake the discipline of those novitiates. peace was restored. without any authority from either the senate or people of Rome. XXVII. and to give them the word during their exercises. lately contracted to Faustus Sylla. and sometimes distributing to every soldier in his army a slave. and even senators.gutenberg. XXVIII.

who informs us that Caesar. but it is supposed that there were other motives for his conduct. Caesar. having gone the circuit for the administration of justice. until he should be elected consul. contrary to the auspices.gutenberg. that he could more easily collect his veteran soldiers. with all his private wealth. the other consul. or but one legion with Illyricum. resolved to have recourse to arms if the senate should proceed to extremity against the tribunes of the people who had espoused his cause. by C. (20) XXIX. and the protests of the tribunes. and his enemies declared that they would enter into no compromise where the safety of the republic was at stake. But as the senate declined to interpose in the business. and thinking. XXX. Cneius Pompey used frequently to say. as soon as he disbanded his army. Suetonius Tranquillus. that if he returned as a private person.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. made a halt at Ravenna. with the Cisalpine province. whenever he pleased. upon condition that he might retain two legions. must have been condemned. as it is thought. he http://www. partly by means of the tribunes. Others pretend that he was apprehensive of being (21) called to account for what he had done in his first consulship. at his return. to complete the works he had begun. and Caius Curio. surrounded by armed men. with an oath. But finding the opposition obstinately bent against him. Roused by these proceedings. Marcus Cato having sometimes declared. by means of an immense bribe. have to plead his cause before the judges. after all the great achievements I had performed. who succeeded his cousin Marcus in the consulship. pursued the same course. he advanced into Hither-Gaul 56. and answer. and that the consuls-elect were also of that party. The following year likewise. fully persuaded. he made his adversaries an offer to disband eight of his legions and give up Transalpine-Gaul. that he sought to throw every thing into confusion. or else that the other generals should resign the command of their armies as well as himself. This conjecture is rendered highly probable by Asinius Pollio. the other consul. upon viewing the vanquished and slaughtered enemy in the field of Pharsalia. he wrote a letter to the senate. Caius Caesar. engaged in his defence Aemilius Paulus. the vast expectations which he had excited in the people. This was indeed his pretext for the civil war. At the same time. expressed himself in these very words: "This was their intention: I. had I not summoned the army to my aid!" Some think. than Pompey could his new-raised troops. Caesar made a vigorous opposition to the measure. from the first rank of citizens to the second. that having contracted from long habit an extraordinary love of power. too. because he was unable. and having weighed his own and his enemies' strength. that he would prefer an impeachment against him. laws. like Milo. he would.htm (17 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . who interposed in his behalf. the most violent of the tribunes. A report likewise prevailed.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and. requesting that they would not deprive him of the privilege kindly granted him by the people. as he was often heard to say. and partly through Servius Sulpicius. when Caius Marcellus. now that he was the chief man in the state. than from the second to the lowest of all. and that. that it would be a more difficult enterprise to reduce him.

For sovereign power alone can justify the cause. sat down to table with a numerous party of his friends." XXXII. mules being put to his carriage from a neighbouring mill. "Let us go whither the omens of the Gods and the iniquity of our enemies call us. he turned to those about him. he shewed them the tribunes of the people. and that they themselves had fled from the city. While he was thus hesitating. whom he found towards day-break. But after sun-set. embraced that occasion of usurping the supreme power. that the interposition of the tribunes in his favour had been utterly rejected. and some trumpeters among them. by the help of a guide.htm (18 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . who tells us. that Caesar used to have frequently in his mouth two verses of Euripides. Accordingly. therefore. he halted for a while. and a small retinue. regnandi gratia Violandum est: aliis rebus pietatem colas. Be just. was received. with tears in his eyes. in the presence of that assembly. which he thus translates: Nam si violandum est jus. A person remarkable for his noble mien and graceful aspect. appeared close at hand. Upon this. having marched his army over the river. When intelligence. and said: "We may still retreat. in the third book of his Offices. and. which was the boundary of his province 58. as usual. When. but if we pass this little bridge. crossed to the other side." XXXIII. the following incident occurred. Coming up with his troops on the banks of the Rubicon. and. he snatched a trumpet from one of them. nothing is left for us but to fight it out in arms. and http://www. revolving in his mind the importance of the step he was on the point of taking. to prevent any suspicion of his design. This seems to have been the opinion entertained by Cicero. The die is now cast. sitting and playing upon a pipe. but privately. and sounding the advance with a piercing blast. not only the shepherds. until at length. called upon the troops to pledge him their fidelity. who. Caesar exclaimed. unless a kingdom tempts to break the laws. and. to keep up appearances. attended at a public spectacle. upon their being driven from the city. which indeed he had coveted from the time of his youth. he immediately sent forward some cohorts. and (22) wandered about a long time. but a number of soldiers also flocked from their posts to listen to him. examined the model of a fencing-school which he proposed to build.gutenberg. had come to meet him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by C. ran to the river with it. he set forward on his journey with all possible privacy. 57 XXXI. and. he proceeded on foot through some narrow paths. he lost his way. and again reached the road. Suetonius Tranquillus. The lights going out.

that to recompense those who should support him in the defence of his honour. and having obliged Lucius Domitius. He took possession of Picenum. and should return thence against a general without an army. by C. and four hours after coming in sight of him. to which place the consuls and Pompey were fled with the intention of crossing the sea as soon as possible.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. the soldiers at a distance. under an aspiring prefect. and his insolence and fierceness had grown with his success. and an estate of four hundred thousand sesterces. he presently found himself also engaged. had seized the opportunity which the distraction of the times offered for making war upon his neighbours. yet in a short time he bore down all before him. who had been tumultuously nominated his successor. "That he was going against an army without a general. which shut her gates against him. he saw. he would willingly part even with his ring. within a line of ramparts of prodigious extent. induced by intelligence which he had received respecting Pharnaces. and dismissed him. Suetonius Tranquillus. overthrew him in one http://www. Caesar. was destitute of every thing. and Etruria. to surrender. Pursuing him in his flight to Alexandria. before he set forward. who was son of the great Mithridates. however. he marched along the coast of the Upper Sea. and wholly unprepared (24) for such a conflict. not by the ear. where he appealed to the senate on the present state of public affairs. For when. It was winter. in the order in which they occurred 61. by all the obstacles he could oppose. in his enterprise. and thence to Pontus. under all the disadvantages of time and place. by the eye. It has been supposed. in his harangue to them. and crossing the sea to Macedonia. 60 XXXIV. who could more easily see than hear him while he spoke. lest. formed their conception of what he said. his garment rent from his bosom." Though his progress was retarded both by the siege of Marseilles. XXXV. under the command of three lieutenants. Lucius Afranius. and then set out for Spain. Umbria. Of his subsequent proceedings I shall give a cursory detail. and a very great scarcity of corn. From Alexandria he went into Syria. had treacherous designs upon his life.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. with king Ptolemy. that he had promised to each of them the privilege (23) of wearing the gold ring. blocked up Pompey during almost four months. and held Corsinium with a garrison. This prince. to prevent their leaving the harbour. who. declaring amongst his friends. it might become the centre of revolt. and accordingly gave out. and at last defeated him in the battle of Pharsalia. He succeeded.htm (19 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . where he was informed of his murder. and Marcus Varro. in a very dangerous war. within the walls of a well-provided and subtle enemy. he turned his steps towards Rome. in which province Pompey had a numerous army. he frequently held out a finger of his left hand. being afraid to make it a province. and he. that upon this occasion he promised to every soldier a knight's estate. and put the kingdom of Egypt into the hands of Cleopatra and her younger brother. and declared. Marcus Petreius. but that opinion is founded on a mistake.gutenberg. within five days after entering his country. however. to Brundusium. After vain attempts. Thence he returned to Rome.

I CONQUERED 63. and as many pounds of oil. For the victories obtained in the several wars. despairing of the event.gutenberg. two public dinners. forty elephants 62 carrying torches on his right and left. XXXVII. To the people of Rome. and the last for that in Spain. who were rallying the remains of the party in Africa." the other instance occurred in his last battle in Spain. an army in Pontus. and unsuited to his profuse liberality. a tablet with this inscription was carried before him: I CAME. he frequently remarked to those about him the good fortune of Pompey. and (25) they all differed from each other in their varied pomp and pageantry. http://www. not signifying. XXXVI. Upon which. and a distribution of meat. of whom Caius Curio fell in Africa. he said that "Pompey knew not how to conquer. He afterwards defeated Scipio and Juba. For. he. except on two occasions: once at Dyrrachium. chiefly. considering the first he had given as too sparing. Amongst the pageantry of the Pontic triumph. and a hundred more to each for the delay in fulfilling his engagement.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and Cneius Domitius Culvinus. Caius Antonius was made prisoner in Illyricum. after the defeat of Scipio: four times in one month. I SAW. so much as the dispatch with which it was done. for such houses in Rome as did not pay above two thousand sesterces a year. for all such as did not exceed in yearly rent five hundred sesterces. which was most plentiful. he triumphed five different times. but not in contiguity. His first and most glorious triumph was for the victories he gained in Gaul.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He likewise allotted them lands. he gave twenty thousand more. In every encounter with the enemy where he himself commanded. who had obtained his military reputation. being obliged to give ground. besides ten modii of corn. as other mottos on the like occasion. he ascended the Capitol by torch-light. when. and Pompey's sons in Spain. that the former owners might not be entirely dispossessed.htm (20 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . five days afterwards. and through the rest of Italy. On the day of the Gallic triumph. which he had formerly promised them. XXXVIII. as he was proceeding along the street called Velabrum. nor was the issue ever doubtful. and once again after the conquest of Pompey's sons. by victory over so feeble an enemy. decisive battle. During the whole course of the civil war. besides the two thousand sesterces paid him in the beginning of the civil war. each triumph succeeding the former by an interval of a few days. except in the case of his lieutenants. he even had thoughts of killing himself. he never once suffered any defeat. and Pompey not pursuing his advantage. To all this he added a public entertainment. in the shape of prize-money. when. To every foot-soldier in his veteran legions. the fourth for his African victory. after his Spanish victory 64. Publius Dolabella lost a fleet in the same Illyricum. He likewise remitted a year's rent due to the treasury. added another. by C. and. he gave three hundred sesterces a man. after narrowly escaping a fall from his chariot by the breaking of the axle-tree. what was done. Suetonius Tranquillus. the next for that of Alexandria. he came off with complete success. the third for the reduction of Pontus.

a combat of gladiators 65. that most of the strangers were obliged to lodge in tents erected in the streets. Furius Leptinus. and the representation of a sea-fight. drawn. and thirty horse on each side. and likewise rode races on single horses. In the conflict of gladiators presented in the Forum. which. The spectacles he exhibited to the people were of various kinds. XL. and being presented on the spot with five hundred thousand sesterces. the circus being enlarged at each end. and a pleader of causes.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. through the unwarrantable liberty which the pontiffs had taken in the article of intercalation. he went from the stage. The hunting of wild beasts was presented for five days successively. To such a height had this abuse proceeded. by C. directly opposite to each other.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and a canal sunk round it. some by four. That the year might thenceforth commence regularly with the calends. or along the roads near the city. including the month of intercalation. and stage-plays in the several wards of the city. in a stadium provided for the purpose in the Campus Martius. entered the lists as a combatant. and a gold ring. according to the division of time then in use.htm (21 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . or first of January. In the Circensisn games. so that the year in which this regulation was made consisted of fifteen months. happened that year. acted in his own piece. as did also Quintus Calpenus. wrestlers. To these various diversions there flocked such crowds of spectators from all parts. Suetonius Tranquillus. three. several of the young nobility drove chariots. nor those for the vintage in autumn. namely. He accommodated the year to the course of the sun. twenty elephants. and resumed his place in the seats (27) allotted for the equestrian order. Decimus Laberius. The Trojan game was acted by two distinct companies of boys. he corrected the calendar 68. Wrestlers likewise performed for three days successively. containing two. In the plays. with a number of men on board. ordaining that in future it should consist of three hundred and sixty-five days without any intercalary month. Turning afterwards his attention to the regulation of the commonwealth. and on the last day a battle was fought by five hundred foot. one differing from the other in age and rank. amongst whom were two senators. A lake having been dug in the little Codeta 67. the goals were removed. who had been a Roman knight. that neither the festivals designed for the harvest fell in summer. afforded an animated representation of a sea-fight. likewise Circensian games 66. XXXIX. he inserted two months between November and December. The Pyrrhic dance was performed by some youths. and others by two horses. and in different languages. and four banks of oars. http://www. formerly a senator.gutenberg. who were sons to persons of the first distinction in Asia and Bithynia. and in their space two camps were pitched. Several in the throng were squeezed to death. To afford room for this engagement. and that every fourth year an intercalary day should be inserted. a man of praetorian family. which had for (28) some time become extremely confused. ships of the Tyrian and Egyptian fleets. through the orchestra.

should absent himself from Italy for more than three years at a time. of their whole estates. he ordered that the praetor should every year fill up by lot the vacancies occasioned by death. thousand. unless in the retinue of some high officer. according to the valuation of their estates. (29) XLII. by C. deducting from the debt what had been paid for interest either in money or by bonds. that no senator's son should go abroad.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Eighty thousand citizens having been distributed into foreign colonies 69. and also increased the number of praetors. as Cicero observes. such as had been degraded by the censors. from those who were not enrolled for the receipt of corn. but street by street. he stripped murderers. by the principal inhabitants of the several quarters of the city. With respect to debts. He filled up the vacancies in the senate. or convicted of bribery at elections. Suetonius Tranquillus. and other offenders of one half. in order to fix them in it. who was not in the military service. He was extremely assiduous and strict in the administration of justice. at the rate at which they were purchased before the commencement of the civil war. that no less than a third of the number of their shepherds free-born should be youths. and he reduced the number of those who received corn at the public cost. and inferior magistrates. in order to stop the drain on the population. and under forty. he enacted.gutenberg. The revised census of the people he ordered to be taken neither in the usual manner or place. he disappointed the expectation which was generally entertained. and as to those whose pursuit was tending flocks and herds. and the rich being more easily induced to commit them because they were only liable to banishment. that no freeman of the city above twenty. He expelled from http://www. that by the favour of your votes they may attain to the honours for which they sue. quaestors. and all teachers of the liberal arts. I recommend to you (naming likewise the persons). at the same time. and induce others to settle there. that they would be totally cancelled.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars." He likewise admitted to offices the sons of those who had been proscribed. from three hundred and twenty. excepting only the candidates for the consulship. The trial of causes he restricted to two orders of judges. by virtue of which provision about a fourth part of the debt was lost. He dissolved all the guilds. aediles. to recommend such persons as he had pitched upon. free of the city.htm (22 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . XLI. by advancing several plebeians to the rank of patricians. and he the other. The choice of magistrates he so divided with the people. years of age. except such as were of ancient foundation. restoring. The method which he practised in those cases was. without the forfeiture of their property. they nominated one half of them. XLIII. by bills dispersed through the several tribes to this effect: "Caesar the dictator to such a tribe (naming it). the equestrian and senatorial. He likewise made all those who practised physic in Rome. and ordered that the debtors should satisfy their creditors. to a hundred and fifty. that. excluding the tribunes of the treasury who had before made a third class. To prevent any tumults on account of the census. Crimes were punished with greater severity.

although there was no suspicion that they had been guilty of any illicit connection. sometimes sending his lictors and soldiers to (30) carry away such victuals as had escaped the notice of the officers. of a fair complexion. and jewels. round limbed. even when they were upon the table. he was carried off by death.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.gutenberg. The use of litters for travelling. for the public use. XLV. He intended likewise to drain the Pomptine marshes. He imposed duties on the importation of foreign goods. It is said that he was tall. and out of that immense and undigested mass of statutes to extract the best and most necessary parts into a few books. purple robes. He was so nice in the care of his person. until he had made some trial of their prowess in war. and then to make war upon the Parthians. who had married a lady two days after her divorce from a former husband. Suetonius Tranquillus. together with what relates to his pursuits. He therefore used to bring forward http://www. and that he enjoyed excellent health. to seize upon all meats exposed to sale contrary to the rules. having often found himself upon that account exposed to the jibes of his enemies. and he dissolved the marriage of a man of pretorian rank. He was likewise twice seized with the falling sickness while engaged in active service. to cut a channel for the discharge of the waters of the lake Fucinus. when he was subject to sudden fainting-fits. he intended to fill up the lake on which he had entertained the people with the spectacle of a sea-fight. For this purpose. by C. except towards the close of his life. But in the midst of all his undertakings and projects. through the Lesser Armenia. who had over-run Pontus and Thrace. and manners. and bring them to him. he meditated the construction of a temple to Mars. and on particular days. the province of providing and putting them in proper order being assigned to Marcus Varro. which should exceed in grandeur every thing of that kind in the world. it may not be improper to give an account of his person. but not to risk a general engagement with them. He also projected a most spacious theatre adjacent to the Tarpeian mount. XLIV. both civil and military. In the first place. with eyes black and piercing. His baldness gave him much uneasiness. to reduce the Dacians. and also proposed to reduce the civil law to a reasonable compass. he permitted only to persons of a certain age and station. as well as for guarding and extending the bounds of the empire. within their proper limits. rather full faced. that he not only kept the hair of his head closely cut and had his face smoothly shaved. and disturbance in his sleep.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. a practice for which some persons rallied him. to form a road from the Upper Sea through the ridge of the Appenine to the Tiber. He enforced a rigid execution of the sumptuary laws. but (31) even caused the hair on other parts of the body to be plucked out by the roots.htm (23 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . placing officers about the markets. before I speak of which. dress. to make as large a collection as possible of works in the Greek and Latin languages. the senate such members as were convicted of bribery. His thoughts were now fully employed from day to day on a variety of great projects for the embellishment and improvement of the city. to make a cut through the isthmus of Corinth.

he occupied a palace belonging to the state in the Via Sacra. and his entertainments sumptuous. the size of which he would compare together. and exposed him to much bitter raillery. one for the officers of the army. for serving him with a finer sort of bread than his guests. The only stain upon his chastity was his having cohabited with Nicomedes. 73 I pass over the speeches of Dolabella. and the inner-side of the royal couch. who often advised the nobles to beware of "the ill-girt boy. and http://www. and Curio. because it did not exactly suit his taste. and of all the honours conferred upon him by the senate and people. XLIX. They likewise report that he invaded Britain in hopes of finding pearls 72. the hair from the crown of his head. executed by the eminent masters of antiquity. I will not dwell upon those well-known verses of Calvus Licinius: Whate'er Bithynia and her lord possess'd. there was none which he either accepted or used with greater pleasure. and was in debt. and provincials of the first distinction. and ascertain the weight by poising them in his hand. We are also told. "the brothel of Nicomedes. in which the former calls him "the queen's rival. XLVII. both little and great. Her lord who Caesar in his lust caress'd." XLVI. that in the provinces he constantly maintained two tables. who was a particular favourite. which he had built from the foundation and finished at a vast expense. than the right of wearing constantly a laurel crown." and the latter. Many writers say that he liked his residence to be elegant. He first inhabited a small house in the Suburra 71. that he once threw a baker into prison. that he would purchase. He was so very exact in the management of his domestic affairs. and that indeed stuck to him all the days of his life. carved works. but rather loosely. Suetonius Tranquillus. although he had at that time but slender means. For he used the Latus Clavus 70 with fringes about the wrists. and that he would give for young and handy slaves a price so extravagant. that he forbad its being entered in the diary of his expenses.gutenberg. This circumstance gave origin to the expression of Sylla. and put to death a freed-man.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and pictures. the father. It is said that he was particular in his dress.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. gems. and always had it girded about him. for debauching the lady of a Roman knight. but after his advancement to the pontificate. and the other for Romans of the highest rank. and the gentry of the country. and that he entirely took down a villa near the grove of Aricia.htm (24 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . and that he carried about in his expeditions tesselated and marble slabs for the floor of his tent. by C. XLVIII. statues. at any cost. although no complaint had been made to him of the affair.

in which he proclaimed his colleague under the name of "the queen of Bithynia. and therefore the more free in his raillery. 74 L. "That to gratify his ambition. amongst other verses. and Mucia. But Caesar's conqueror gains no victor's meed. in his first consulship after the commencement of their intrigue. Caesar to Nicomede. That he had intrigues likewise with married women in the provinces. the wife of Aulus Gabinius. both father and son. that he was conducted by the royal attendants into the king's bed-chamber. upon whose account he had divorced his wife. he married the daughter of a man. For it is certain that the Curios. in the presence of a large company. appears from this http://www. the wife of Marcus Crassus. Suetonius Tranquillus. by C." adding. Caius Memmius likewise upbraided him with serving the king at table. among whom were Posthumia. after having had three children by her. Lo! Caesar triumphs for his glorious deed." To conclude. assigned to her. 76 (34) LI. as Marcus Brutus relates. the Bithynian stew. Lollia.gutenberg. lay upon a bed of gold with a covering of purple. with a deep sigh. the mother of Marcus Brutus. was Servilia." 75 But the mistress he most loved. "Pray tell us no more of that. Tertia was deducted:" for Servilia was supposed to have prostituted her daughter Tertia to Caesar. but now coveted a kingdom.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and in the civil war. which since that time have become extremely common: The Gauls to Caesar yield. the wife of Cneius Pompey. that "he had formerly been in love with a king. Many persons expressing their surprise at the lowness of the price. one Octavius.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. replied. for it is well known what he gave you. recited these. following the general's chariot. the daughter of (32) Nicomedes before the senate. a pearl which cost him six millions of sesterces. "To let you know the real value of the purchase.htm (25 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . such as they jocularly sung on those occasions. made it a reproach to Pompey. and that he debauched many ladies of the highest quality. in which were some merchants from Rome." I would likewise say nothing of the edicts of Bibulus. addressed Caesar by that of queen. It is admitted by all that he was much addicted to women. Cicero wittily remarked. and many others. a man of a crazy brain. for whom he purchased. his soldiers in the Gallic triumph. But Cicero was not content with writing in some of his letters. to call Aegisthus." At which time. and recounting the king's kindnesses to him. for a trifling consideration. Tertulla. as well as very expensive in his intrigues with them. among the rest of his catamites. the names of whom he mentions. after he had in a crowded assembly saluted Pompey by the title of king. the wife of Servius Sulpicius. between ourselves. besides other presents. some valuable farms when they were exposed to public auction. and you gave him. and that the youthful bloom of this scion of Venus had been tainted in Bithynia —but upon Caesar's pleading the cause of Nysa. and whom he used.

or civil offices.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. either in his military commands. with the hope of leaving issue. admitted to several persons the fact. and the rest of the company would not touch it. ye cits. published a book to shew. and would have gone with her through Egypt in dalliance. and the rest of Caesar's friends knew it to be true. "that Caesar was the only sober man amongst all those who were engaged in the design to subvert (35) the government. Curio. He afterwards invited her to Rome. A remark is ascribed to Marcus Cato. that in regard to wine. Caius Oppius informs us. allowing him. that he had a bill ready drawn. thou com'st to borrow more. whence he sent her back loaded with honours and presents. such as Eunoe. according to the testimony of some Greek historians. On which occasion. as Naso reports. Suetonius Tranquillus. to take any wife he chose. the wife of Bogudes. he was abstemious. and that Caius Matias. and plundered at the point of the sword some towns of the http://www. with whom he often revelled all night until the dawn of day. and gave her permission to call by his name a son. Thy gold was spent on many a Gallic w—-e. had not the army refused to follow him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and from the Roman allies in that quarter. a Moor. to whom and her husband he made. distich.htm (26 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] ." LIV. in one of his speeches.gutenberg. for we have the testimony of some writers. many large presents. oil 78. "that the child which Cleopatra fathered upon Caesar. resembled Caesar both in person and gait. "He was every woman's man. that he took money from the proconsul. instead of fresh." In the matter of diet. the father. in her luxurious yacht. that he might not seem to tax the master of the house with rusticity or want of attention. tribune of the people. and to leave no room for doubt of his infamous character for unnatural lewdness and adultery. But his greatest favourite was Cleopatra. that Caesar had acknowledged the child as his own. It is acknowledged even by his enemies. Caius Oppius. as if it had been an imputation which he was called upon to refute. Exhausted now. and as many of them as he pleased. who. But his abstinence did not extend to pecuniary advantages." LIII. In the number of his mistresses were also some queens. by C. which Caesar had ordered him to get enacted in his absence. was not his. which was as much repeated in the Gallic Triumph as the former:— Watch well your wives. and every man's woman. A bald-pate master of the wenching trade. for the discharge of his debts. Oppius. had served him with stale. Mark Antony declared in the senate. as far as Aethiopia." Helvius Cinna. who was his predecessor in Spain. says. "that he was so indifferent. that when a person in whose house he was entertained. we bring a blade. 77 LII. he alone ate very heartily of it.

and his action was animated. He has likewise left Commentaries of his own actions both in the war in Gaul. LV. of the Gallic war. for gold. noble. the titles of allies and kings. In his first consulship he purloined from the Capitol three thousand pounds' weight of gold. He afterwards supported the expense of the civil wars. which can you prefer to him? Which of them is more pointed or terse in his periods. he rifled the chapels and temples of the gods. on account of the suddenness of the enemy's attack. by the most flagrant rapine and sacrilege. from whose oration in behalf of the Sardinians he has transcribed some passages literally into his Divination.htm (27 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . and in the civil war with Pompey. These Augustus supposes. splendid. "that he (36) had an elegant. and opened their gates to him upon his arrival before them. Of Caesar's http://www. who. than publications of his own. He bartered likewise to foreign nations and princes. He has left behind him some speeches. Asinius Pollio says." and says. Some think they are the production of Oppius. The speech addressed "To his soldiers in Spain. In eloquence and warlike achievements. vindicating Metellus and himself from the aspersions cast upon them by their common defamers. who were not able to keep pace with him in the delivery. After his prosecution of Dolabella. and some of Hirtius. We meet with two under this title. African.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he writes of him in the following terms: "What! Of all the orators." whereas the speech is delivered in the name of Caesar. and Spanish wars is not known with any certainty. by C. Lusitanians. one made. in the first battle. in the name of himself and Pompey. In Gaul. In his delivery he is said to have had a shrill voice.gutenberg. that he exchanged it through Italy and the provinces of the empire for three thousand sesterces the pound. he equalled at least. and magnificent vein of eloquence. Cicero." but "What he wrote to Metellus. which were filled with rich offerings. during the whole course of their lives. the latter of whom composed the last book.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. "that he does not see that Caesar was inferior to any one of them. if he did not surpass. such as that on behalf of Quintus Metellus. which is imperfect. LVI. to be rather the production of blundering short-hand writers." And in a letter to Cornelius Nepos. and substituted for it the same quantity of gilt brass. and the other in the last. at which time. By this means gold became so plentiful with him. he was indisputably reckoned one of the most distinguished advocates. declares. Suetonius Tranquillus. notwithstanding they attempted no resistance. in recounting to Brutus the famous orators. than for any ill they had done. have done nothing else. and of his triumphs and public spectacles. with reason. For I find in some copies that the title is not "For Metellus. he seems to have chosen Strabo Caesar for his model. he had not leisure to address the soldiers. among which are ranked a few that are not genuine. or employs more polished and elegant language?" In his youth. as is pretended. but not ungraceful. and demolished cities oftener for the sake of their spoil. and squeezed out of Ptolemy alone near six thousand talents. for the author of the Alexandrian." Augustus considers likewise as spurious. the greatest of men.

with the same number under the title of Anti-Cato.gutenberg. he may perhaps have encouraged some silly creatures to enter upon such a work. He was perfect in the use of arms. and able to endure fatigue beyond all belief. and the last during the four-and-twenty days he employed in his journey from Rome to Farther-Spain. if there was occasion for secrecy. He has left behind him likewise two books on Analogy. as he was returning to the army after making his circuit in Hither-Gaul. but we know. or a very young man. in a short and plain letter to Pompeius Macer. he used to go at the head of his troops. he seems to have precluded. for they only know how well and correctly he has written. but oftener on foot. said to have been written by him when a boy. he used the alphabet in such a manner. precise. who will needs be dressing up his actions in all the extravagance a (37) bombast. as d for a. and elegant. an accomplished rider. Of these books. as the Encomium of Hercules. concerning his domestic affairs. or through defect of memory. how easily and quickly he did it. likewise. that. the second work about the time of the battle of Munda. a tragedy entitled Oedipus. Some things likewise pass under his name. used constantly in their letters to continue the line quite across the sheet. who was employed by him in the arrangement of his libraries. Commentaries.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h." Pollio Asinius thinks that they were not drawn up with much care. and that. without any affectation of rhetorical ornament. speaks thus: "He wrote his Commentaries in a manner deserving of great approbation: they are plain. at the rate of a hundred miles a day. he has not given a very faithful account of his own acts. or with a due regard to truth. sometimes on horseback. (38) LVII. expressing at the same time an opinion that Caesar intended a new and more correct edition. He would travel post in a light carriage 79 without baggage. with his head bare in all kinds of weather. we have more reason to admire him than others. by C. and so for the other letters respectively. written in a manner never practised by any before him. and if he was stopped by floods http://www. In having thus prepared materials for others who might be inclined to write his history. he composed the first two in his passage over the Alps. either by design. and others to his friends. There are extant some letters of his to the senate. Suetonius Tranquillus." Hirtius delivers his opinion of these Commentaries in the following terms: "So great is the approbation with which they are universally perused. in which. the efforts of any future historian. Yet. he wrote in cyphers.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. without any folding or distinction of pages. and a collection of Apophthegms. but he has discouraged wise men from ever attempting the subject. that not a single word could be made out. for he insinuates that Caesar was too hasty of belief in regard to what was performed by others under his orders. On a march.htm (28 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . that is. Cicero. with respect to this work. The way to decipher those epistles was to substitute the fourth for the first letter. There are extant likewise some letters from him to Cicero. and a poem entitled The Itinerary. for they are distinguished into pages in the form of a memorandum book whereas the consuls and commanders till then. instead of rousing. in his Brutus. all which Augustus forbad to be published.

until towards the end of his life. he gave a lucky turn to the omen.htm (29 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . under orders to join him. nor retarded in the prosecution of it. when nobody could imagine he would stir. in person 81. in the winter. fortunate and invincible in that province.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. in the rivers. but to no purpose. he swam across. And happening to fall. they might be under the greater necessity of standing their ground. on account of his scandalous life. that the name of the Scipios was. aboard a small vessel in the night time. and alone. in a Gaulish dress. by C. but made sudden attacks when an opportunity offered. without having previously examined the nature of the ground by his scouts. and that nothing he could gain by a victory would compensate for what he might lose by a miscarriage.gutenberg. Nor did he cross over to Britain. he at last went privately. upon stepping out of the ship. and the troops. was surnamed Salutio. He rode a very remarkable horse. he did not therefore defer his expedition against Scipio and Juba. When a victim. He never marched his army by roads which were exposed to ambuscades. nor did he make himself known. or floated on skins inflated with wind. before he had carefully examined. When intelligence was brought to him of the siege of his camp in Germany. LIX.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He then was of opinion. and the soothsayers having interpreted these circumstances into an omen that its owner would be master http://www. he sent away all the horses. through the midst of the enemy's fleets. Suetonius Tranquillus. LXI. which he was about to offer in sacrifice. and his own first. When the issue of a battle was doubtful. of the family of the Cornelii. who. made its (39) escape. notwithstanding repeated messages to hurry them. He was never deterred from any enterprise. through the enemy's stations. with his head muffled up. Nor was he ever backward in fighting. He not only fought pitched battles. often at the end of a march. and giving them no time to rally their forces. with feet almost like those of a man. He never defeated the enemy without driving them from their camp. that having no means of flight. In his expeditions. he made his way to his troops. He crossed the sea from Brundisium and Dyrrachium. 80 LVIII. LX. it is difficult to say whether his caution or his daring was most conspicuous. the less he ought to expose himself to new hazards. that the oftener he had been crowned with success. by the decrees of fate. and the most convenient point of landing in the island. so that he often anticipated intelligence of his movements. "I hold thee fast. or suffer the master to put about. the harbours. he retained in the camp a profligate wretch. by superstition 82. although the wind blew strong against them. by exclaiming. the hoofs being divided in such a manner as to have some resemblance to toes. and sometimes during the most violent storms. being slow in their movements. This horse he had bred himself. Africa." To chide the prophecies which were spread abroad. the navigation. until they were ready to sink.

but for his courage only. When at any time his troops were dispirited by reports of the great force of the enemy. he would suddenly depart by day or by night. LXII. not by denying the truth of what was said. Then indeed he was so strict a disciplinarian. holding up his left hand out of the water. Cassius humbly gave him his submission. and he would frequently draw them out of the camp without any necessity for it. but. and so far from endeavouring to escape. and upon holy-days. when they were giving way. He never valued a soldier for his moral conduct or his means. LXIV. He often rallied his troops. thus stopped. although numbers were so terrified. and broke him in himself.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. that an eagle-bearer 83. Suetonius Tranquillus. with ten ships of war. being forced by a sudden sally of the enemy into a boat. one of the opposite party. as the horse would suffer no one else to mount him. by C.htm (30 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . for fear of wetting some papers which he held in it. made a thrust at him with (40) the spear-head. After the battle of Pharsalia. that he would give no notice of a march or a battle until the moment of action. and said. especially in rainy weather. which lay at the distance of two hundred paces. he leaped into the sea. and several others hurrying in with him. he brought him up with particular care. (41) Accordingly. he went alongside his ship. A statue of this horse was afterwards erected by Caesar's order before the temple of Venus Genitrix.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in order that the troops might hold themselves in readiness for any sudden movement. by his personal efforts. and even more remarkable. LXVI. lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy. stopping those who fled. of the world. Let none of you. as they followed him at a distance. thirty thousand horse. as he was passing the straits of the Hellespont in a ferry-boat. At Alexandria. LXIII. and treated his troops with a mixture of severity and indulgence. he rallied their courage. Sometimes. in the attack of a bridge. when his troops were in great alarm at the expected arrival of king Juba. http://www. and saved himself by swimming to the next ship. by exaggerating every particular. The following instances of his resolution are equally. and pulling his general's cloak after him with his teeth. and lengthen the marches in order to tire them out. upon a similar occasion. but only when the enemy was near. giving them orders not to lose sight of him. and another. LXV. with ten legions. keeping others in their ranks. he called them together. "I have to inform you that in a very few days the king will be here. therefore. left the standard in his hand. and three hundred elephants. for he did not always keep a strict hand over them. he met with Lucius Cassius. on the contrary.gutenberg. having sent his troops before him into Asia. or by diminishing the facts. and calling upon him to surrender. a hundred thousand light-armed foot. and seizing them by their throat turned them towards the enemy.

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presume to make further enquiry, or indulge in conjectures, but take my word for what I tell you, which I have from undoubted intelligence; otherwise I shall put them aboard an old crazy vessel, and leave them exposed to the mercy of the winds, to be transported to some other country." LXVII. He neither noticed all their transgressions, nor punished them according to strict rule. But for deserters and mutineers he made the most diligent enquiry, and their punishment was most severe: other delinquencies he would connive at. Sometimes, after a great battle ending in victory, he would grant them a relaxation from all kinds of duty, and leave them to revel at pleasure; being used to boast, "that his soldiers fought nothing the worse for being well oiled." In his speeches, he never addressed them by the title of "Soldiers," but by the kinder phrase of "Fellow-soldiers;" and kept them in such splendid order, that their arms were ornamented with silver and gold, not merely for parade, but to render the soldiers more resolute to save them in battle, and fearful of losing them. He loved his troops to such a degree, that when he heard of the defeat of those under Titurius, he neither cut his hair nor shaved his beard, until he had revenged it upon the enemy; by which means he engaged their devoted affection, and raised their valour to the highest pitch. LXVIII. Upon his entering on the civil war, the centurions of every legion offered, each of them, to maintain a horseman at his own expense, and the whole army agreed to serve gratis, without either corn or pay; those amongst them who were rich, charging themselves with the maintenance of the poor. No one of them, during the whole course of the war, deserted to the enemy; and many of those who were made prisoners, though they were offered their lives, upon condition of bearing arms against him, refused to accept the terms. They endured want, and other hardships, not only (42) when they were besieged themselves, but when they besieged others, to such a degree, that Pompey, when blocked up in the neighbourhood of Dyrrachium, upon seeing a sort of bread made of an herb, which they lived upon, said, "I have to do with wild beasts," and ordered it immediately to be taken away; because, if his troops should see it, their spirit might be broken by perceiving the endurance and determined resolution of the enemy. With what bravery they fought, one instance affords sufficient proof; which is, that after an unsuccessful engagement at Dyrrachium, they called for punishment; insomuch that their general found it more necessary to comfort than to punish them. In other battles, in different quarters, they defeated with ease immense armies of the enemy, although they were much inferior to them in number. In short, one cohort of the sixth legion held out a fort against four legions belonging to Pompey, during several hours; being almost every one of them wounded by the vast number of arrows discharged against them, and of which there were found within the ramparts a hundred and thirty thousand. This is no way surprising, when we consider the conduct of some individuals amongst them; such as that of Cassius Scaeva, a centurion, or Caius Acilius, a common soldier, not to speak of others. Scaeva, after having an eye struck out, being run through the thigh and the

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shoulder, and having his shield pierced in an hundred and twenty places, maintained obstinately the guard of the gate of a fort, with the command of which he was intrusted. Acilius, in the sea-fight at Marseilles, having seized a ship of the enemy's with his right hand, and that being cut off, in imitation of that memorable instance of resolution in Cynaegirus amongst the Greeks, boarded the enemy's ship, bearing down all before him with the boss of his shield. LXIX. They never once mutinied during all the ten years of the Gallic war, but were sometimes refractory in the course of the civil war. However, they always returned quickly to their duty, and that not through the indulgence, but in submission to the authority, of their general; for he never yielded to them when they were insubordinate, but constantly resisted their demands. He disbanded the whole ninth legion with ignominy at Placentia, although Pompey was still in arms, and would (43) not receive them again into his service, until they had not only made repeated and humble entreaties, but until the ringleaders in the mutiny were punished. LXX. When the soldiers of the tenth legion at Rome demanded their discharge and rewards for their service, with violent threats and no small danger to the city, although the war was then raging in Africa, he did not hesitate, contrary to the advice of his friends, to meet the legion, and disband it. But addressing them by the title of "Quirites," instead of "Soldiers," he by this single word so thoroughly brought them round and changed their determination, that they immediately cried out, they were his "soldiers," and followed him to Africa, although he had refused their service. He nevertheless punished the most mutinous among them, with the loss of a third of their share in the plunder, and the land destined for them. LXXI. In the service of his clients, while yet a young man, he evinced great zeal and fidelity. He defended the cause of a noble youth, Masintha, against king Hiempsal, so strenuously, that in a scuffle which took place upon the occasion, he seized by the beard the son of king Juba; and upon Masintha's being declared tributary to Hiempsal, while the friends of the adverse party were violently carrying him off, he immediately rescued him by force, kept him concealed in his house a long time, and when, at the expiration of his praetorship, he went to Spain, he took him away in his litter, in the midst of his lictors bearing the fasces, and others who had come to attend and take leave of him. LXXII. He always treated his friends with such kindness and good-nature, that when Caius Oppius, in travelling with him through a forest, was suddenly taken ill, he resigned to him the only place there was to shelter them at night, and lay upon the ground in the open air. When he had placed himself at the head of affairs, he advanced some of his faithful adherents, though of mean extraction, to the highest offices; and when he was censured for this partiality, he openly said, "Had I

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been assisted by robbers and cut-throats in the defence of my honour, I should have made them the same recompense." (44) LXXIII. The resentment he entertained against any one was never so implacable that he did not very willingly renounce it when opportunity offered. Although Caius Memmius had published some extremely virulent speeches against him, and he had answered him with equal acrimony, yet he afterwards assisted him with his vote and interest, when he stood candidate for the consulship. When C. Calvus, after publishing some scandalous epigrams upon him, endeavoured to effect a reconciliation by the intercession of friends, he wrote to him, of his own accord, the first letter. And when Valerius Catullus, who had, as he himself observed, fixed such a stain upon his character in his verses upon Mamurra as never could be obliterated, he begged his pardon, invited him to supper the same day; and continued to take up his lodging with his father occasionally, as he had been accustomed to do. LXXIV. His temper was also naturally averse to severity in retaliation. After he had captured the pirates, by whom he had been taken, having sworn that he would crucify them, he did so indeed; but he first ordered their throats to be cut 84. He could never bear the thought of doing any harm to Cornelius Phagitas, who had dogged him in the night when he was sick and a fugitive, with the design of carrying him to Sylla, and from whose hands he had escaped with some difficulty by giving him a bribe. Philemon, his amanuensis, who had promised his enemies to poison him, he put to death without torture. When he was summoned as a witness against Publicus Clodius, his wife Pompeia's gallant, who was prosecuted for the profanation of religious ceremonies, he declared he knew nothing of the affair, although his mother Aurelia, and his sister Julia, gave the court an exact and full account of the circumstances. And being asked why then he had divorced his wife? "Because," he said, "my family should not only be free from guilt, but even from the suspicion of it." LXXV. Both in his administration and his conduct towards the vanquished party in the civil war, he showed a wonderful moderation and clemency. For while Pompey declared that he would consider those as enemies who did not take arms in defence of the republic, he desired it to be understood, that he (45) should regard those who remained neuter as his friends. With regard to all those to whom he had, on Pompey's recommendation, given any command in the army, he left them at perfect liberty to go over to him, if they pleased. When some proposals were made at Ileria 85 for a surrender, which gave rise to a free communication between the two camps, and Afranius and Petreius, upon a sudden change of resolution, had put to the sword all Caesar's men who were found in the camp, he scorned to imitate the base treachery which they had practised against himself. On the field of Pharsalia, he called out to the soldiers "to spare their fellow-

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citizens," and afterwards gave permission to every man in his army to save an enemy. None of them, so far as appears, lost their lives but in battle, excepting only Afranius, Faustus, and young Lucius Caesar; and it is thought that even they were put to death without his consent. Afranius and Faustus had borne arms against him, after obtaining their pardon; and Lucius Caesar had not only in the most cruel manner destroyed with fire and sword his freed-men and slaves, but cut to pieces the wild beasts which he had prepared for the entertainment of the people. And finally, a little before his death, he permitted all whom he had not before pardoned, to return into Italy, and to bear offices both civil and military. He even replaced the statues of Sylla and Pompey, which had been thrown down by the populace. And after this, whatever was devised or uttered, he chose rather to check than to punish it. Accordingly, having detected certain conspiracies and nocturnal assemblies, he went no farther than to intimate by a proclamation that he knew of them; and as to those who indulged themselves in the liberty of reflecting severely upon him, he only warned them in a public speech not to persist in their offence. He bore with great moderation a virulent libel written against him by Aulus Caecinna, and the abusive lampoons of Pitholaus, most highly reflecting on his reputation. LXXVI. His other words and actions, however, so far outweigh all his good qualities, that it is thought he abused his power, and was justly cut off. For he not only obtained excessive honours, such as the consulship every year, the dictatorship for life, and the censorship, but also the title of emperor 86, (46) and the surname of FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY 87, besides having his statue amongst the kings 88, and a lofty couch in the theatre. He even suffered some honours to be decreed to him, which were unbefitting the most exalted of mankind; such as a gilded chair of state in the senate-house and on his tribunal, a consecrated chariot, and banners in the Circensian procession, temples, altars, statues among the gods, a bed of state in the temples, a priest, and a college of priests dedicated to himself, like those of Pan; and that one of the months should be called by his name. There were, indeed, no honours which he did not either assume himself, or grant to others, at his will and pleasure. In his third and fourth consulship, he used only the title of the office, being content with the power of dictator, which was conferred upon him with the consulship; and in both years he substituted other consuls in his room, during the three last months; so that in the intervals he held no assemblies of the people, for the election of magistrates, excepting only tribunes and ediles of the people; and appointed officers, under the name of praefects, instead of the praetors, to administer the affairs of the city during his absence. The office of consul having become vacant, by the sudden death of one of the consuls the day before the calends of January [the 1st Jan.], he conferred it on a person who requested it of him, for a few hours. Assuming the same licence, and regardless of the customs of his country, he appointed magistrates to hold their offices for terms of years. He granted the insignia of the

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consular dignity to ten persons of pretorian rank. He admitted into the senate some men who had been made free of the city, and even natives of Gaul, who were semi-barbarians. (47) He likewise appointed to the management of the mint, and the public revenue of the state, some servants of his own household; and entrusted the command of three legions, which he left at Alexandria, to an old catamite of his, the son of his freed-man Rufinus. LXXVII. He was guilty of the same extravagance in the language he publicly used, as Titus Ampius informs us; according to whom he said, "The republic is nothing but a name, without substance or reality. Sylla was an ignorant fellow to abdicate the dictatorship. Men ought to consider what is becoming when they talk with me, and look upon what I say as a law." To such a pitch of arrogance did he proceed, that when a soothsayer announced to him the unfavourable omen, that the entrails of a victim offered for sacrifice were without a heart, he said, "The entrails will be more favourable when I please; and it ought not to be regarded as a prodigy that a beast should be found wanting a heart." LXXVIII. But what brought upon him the greatest odium, and was thought an unpardonable insult, was his receiving the whole body of the conscript fathers sitting, before the temple of Venus Genitrix, when they waited upon him with a number of decrees, conferring on him the highest dignities. Some say that, on his attempting to rise, he was held down by Cornelius Balbus; others, that he did not attempt to rise at all, but frowned on Caius Trebatius, who suggested to him that he should stand up to receive the senate. This behaviour appeared the more intolerable in him, because, when one of the tribunes of the people, Pontius Aquila, would not rise up to him, as he passed by the tribunes' seat during his triumph, he was so much offended, that he cried out, "Well then, you tribune, Aquila, oust me from the government." And for some days afterwards, he never promised a favour to any person, without this proviso, "if Pontus Aquila will give me leave." LXXIX. To this extraordinary mark of contempt for the senate, he added another affront still more outrageous. For when, after the sacred rites of the Latin festival, he was returning home, amidst the immoderate and unusual acclamations (48) of the people, a man in the crowd put a laurel crown, encircled with a white fillet 89, on one of his statues; upon which, the tribunes of the people, Epidius Marullus, and Caesetius Flavus, ordered the fillet to be removed from the crown, and the man to be taken to prison. Caesar, being much concerned either that the idea of royalty had been suggested to so little purpose, or, as was said, that he was thus deprived of the merit of refusing it, reprimanded the tribunes very severely, and dismissed them from their office. From that day forward, he was never able to wipe off the scandal of affecting the name of king, although he replied to the populace, when they saluted him by that title, "I am Caesar, and no king." And at the feast of the Lupercalia 90, when the consul Antony placed a crown upon his

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head in the rostra several times, he as often put it away, and sent it to the Capitol for Jupiter, the Best and the Greatest. A report was very current, that he had a design of withdrawing to Alexandria or Ilium, whither he proposed to transfer the imperial power, to drain Italy by new levies, and to leave the government of the city to be administered by his friends. To this report it was added, that in the next meeting of the senate, Lucius Cotta, one of the fifteen 91, would make a motion, that as there was in the Sibylline books a prophecy, that the Parthians would never be subdued but by a king, Caesar should have that title conferred upon him. LXXX. For this reason the conspirators precipitated the execution of their design 92, that they might not be obliged to give their assent to the proposal. Instead, therefore, of caballing any longer separately, in small parties, they now united their counsels; the people themselves being dissatisfied with the present state of affairs, both privately and publicly (49) condemning the tyranny under which they lived, and calling on patriots to assert their cause against the usurper. Upon the admission of foreigners into the senate, a hand-bill was posted up in these words: "A good deed! let no one shew a new senator the way to the house." These verses were likewise currently repeated:
The Gauls he dragged in triumph through the town, Caesar has brought into the senate-house, And changed their plaids 93 for the patrician gown. Gallos Caesar in triumphum ducit: iidem in curiam Galli braccas deposuerunt, latum clavum sumpserunt.

When Quintus Maximus, who had been his deputy in the consulship for the last three months, entered the theatre, and the lictor, according to custom, bid the people take notice who was coming, they all cried out, "He is no consul." After the removal of Caesetius and Marullus from their office, they were found to have a great many votes at the next election of consuls. Some one wrote under the statue of Lucius Brutus, "Would you were now alive!" and under the statue of Caesar himself these lines:
Because he drove from Rome the royal race, Brutus was first made consul in their place. This man, because he put the consuls down, Has been rewarded with a royal crown.

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Brutus, quia reges ejecit, consul primus factus est: Hic, quia consules ejecit, rex postremo factus est.

About sixty persons were engaged in the conspiracy against him, of whom Caius Cassius, and Marcus and Decimus Brutus were the chief. It was at first debated amongst them, whether they should attack him in the Campus Martius when he was taking the votes of the tribes, and some of them should throw him off the bridge, whilst others should be ready to stab him upon his fall; or else in the Via Sacra, or at the entrance of the theatre. But after public notice had been given by proclamation for the senate to assemble upon the ides of March [15th March], in the senatehouse built by Pompey, they approved both of the time and place, as most fitting for their purpose. LXXXI. Caesar had warning given him of his fate by indubitable (50) omens. A few months before, when the colonists settled at Capua, by virtue of the Julian law, were demolishing some old sepulchres, in building country-houses, and were the more eager at the work, because they discovered certain vessels of antique workmanship, a tablet of brass was found in a tomb, in which Capys, the founder of Capua, was said to have been buried, with an inscription in the Greek language to this effect "Whenever the bones of Capys come to be discovered, a descendant of Iulus will be slain by the hands of his kinsmen, and his death revenged by fearful disasters throughout Italy." Lest any person should regard this anecdote as a fabulous or silly invention, it was circulated upon the authority of Caius Balbus, an intimate friend of Caesar's. A few days likewise before his death, he was informed that the horses, which, upon his crossing the Rubicon, he had consecrated, and turned loose to graze without a keeper, abstained entirely from eating, and shed floods of tears. The soothsayer Spurinna, observing certain ominous appearances in a sacrifice which he was offering, advised him to beware of some danger, which threatened to befall him before the ides of March were past. The day before the ides, birds of various kinds from a neighbouring grove, pursuing a wren which flew into Pompey's senatehouse 94, with a sprig of laurel in its beak, tore it in pieces. Also, in the night on which the day of his murder dawned, he dreamt at one time that he was soaring above the clouds, and, at another, that he had joined hands with Jupiter. His wife Calpurnia fancied in her sleep that the pediment of the house was falling down, and her husband stabbed on her bosom; immediately upon which the chamber doors flew open. On account of these omens, as well as his infirm health, he was in some doubt whether he should not remain at home, and defer to some other opportunity the business which he intended to propose to the senate; but Decimus Brutus advising him not to disappoint the senators, who were numerously assembled, and waited his coming, he was prevailed upon to go, and accordingly (51) set forward about the fifth hour. In his way, some person having thrust into his hand a paper, warning him against the plot, he mixed it with some

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other documents which he held in his left hand, intending to read it at leisure. Victim after victim was slain, without any favourable appearances in the entrails; but still, disregarding all omens, he entered the senate-house, laughing at Spurinna as a false prophet, because the ides of March were come, without any mischief having befallen him. To which the soothsayer replied, "They are come, indeed, but not past." LXXXII. When he had taken his seat, the conspirators stood round him, under colour of paying their compliments; and immediately Tullius Cimber, who had engaged to commence the assault, advancing nearer than the rest, as if he had some favour to request, Caesar made signs that he should defer his petition to some other time. Tullius immediately seized him by the toga, on both shoulders; at which Caesar crying out, "Violence is meant!" one of the Cassii wounded him a little below the throat. Caesar seized him by the arm, and ran it through with his style 95; and endeavouring to rush forward was stopped by another wound. Finding himself now attacked on all hands with naked poniards, he wrapped the toga 96 about his head, and at the same moment drew the skirt round his legs with his left hand, that he might fall more decently with the lower part of his body covered. He was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering a groan only, but no cry, at the first wound; although some authors relate, that when Marcus Brutus fell upon him, he exclaimed, "What! art thou, too, one of them? Thou, my son!" 97 The whole assembly instantly (52) dispersing, he lay for some time after he expired, until three of his slaves laid the body on a litter, and carried it home, with one arm hanging down over the side. Among so many wounds, there was none that was mortal, in the opinion of the surgeon Antistius, except the second, which he received in the breast. The conspirators meant to drag his body into the Tiber as soon as they had killed him; to confiscate his estate, and rescind all his enactments; but they were deterred by fear of Mark Antony, and Lepidus, Caesar's master of the horse, and abandoned their intentions. LXXXIII. At the instance of Lucius Piso, his father-in-law, his will was opened and read in Mark Antony's house. He had made it on the ides [13th] of the preceding September, at his Lavican villa, and committed it to the custody of the chief of the Vestal Virgins. Quintus Tubero informs us, that in all the wills he had signed, from the time of his first consulship to the breaking out of the civil war, Cneius Pompey was appointed his heir, and that this had been publicly notified to the army. But in his last will, he named three heirs, the grandsons of his sisters; namely, Caius Octavius for three fourths of his estate, and Lucius Pinarius and Quintus Pedius for the remaining fourth. Other heirs [in remainder] were named at the close of the will, in which he also adopted Caius Octavius, who was to assume his name, into his family; and nominated most of those who were concerned in his death among the guardians of his son, if he should have any; as well as Decimus Brutus amongst his heirs of the second order. Be

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bequeathed to the Roman people his gardens near the Tiber, and three hundred sesterces each man. LXXXIV. Notice of his funeral having been solemnly proclaimed, a pile was erected in the Campus Martius, near the tomb of his daughter Julia; and before the Rostra was placed a gilded tabernacle, on the model of the temple of Venus Genitrix; within which was an ivory bed, covered with purple and cloth of gold. At the head was a trophy, with the [bloodstained] robe in which he was slain. It being considered that the whole day would not suffice for carrying the funeral oblations in solemn procession before the corpse, directions were given for every one, without regard to order, to carry them from the city into the Campus Martius, by what way they pleased. To raise pity and indignation for his murder, in the plays acted at the funeral, a passage was sung from Pacuvius's tragedy, entitled, "The Trial for Arms:"
That ever I, unhappy man, should save Wretches, who thus have brought me to the grave! 98

And some lines also from Attilius's tragedy of "Electra," to the same effect. Instead of a funeral panegyric, the consul Antony ordered a herald to proclaim to the people the decree of the senate, in which they had bestowed upon him all honours, divine and human; with the oath by which they had engaged themselves for the defence of his person; and to these he added only a few words of his own. The magistrates and others who had formerly filled the highest offices, carried the bier from the Rostra into the Forum. While some proposed that the body should be burnt in the sanctuary of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and others in Pompey's senate-house; on a sudden, two men, with swords by their sides, and spears in their hands, set fire to the bier with lighted torches. The throng around immediately heaped upon it dry faggots, the tribunals and benches of the adjoining courts, and whatever else came to hand. Then the musicians and players stripped off the dresses they wore on the present occasion, taken from the wardrobe of his triumph at spectacles, rent them, and threw them into the flames. The legionaries, also, of his (54) veteran bands, cast in their armour, which they had put on in honour of his funeral. Most of the ladies did the same by their ornaments, with the bullae 99, and mantles of their children. In this public mourning there joined a multitude of foreigners, expressing their sorrow according to the fashion of their respective countries; but especially the Jews 100, who for several nights together frequented the spot where the body was burnt. LXXXV. The populace ran from the funeral, with torches in their hands, to the houses of Brutus and Cassius, and were repelled with difficulty. Going in quest of Cornelius Cinna, who had in a speech, the day before, reflected severely upon Caesar, and mistaking for him Helvius Cinna,

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who happened to fall into their hands, they murdered the latter, and carried his head about the city on the point of a spear. They afterwards erected in the Forum a column of Numidian marble, formed of one stone nearly twenty feet high, and inscribed upon it these words, TO THE FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY. At this column they continued for a long time to offer sacrifices, make vows, and decide controversies, in which they swore by Caesar. LXXXVI. Some of Caesar's friends entertained a suspicion, that he neither desired nor cared to live any longer, on account of his declining health; and for that reason slighted all the omens of religion, and the warnings of his friends. Others are of opinion, that thinking himself secure in the late decree of the senate, and their oaths, he dismissed his Spanish guards who attended him with drawn swords. Others again suppose, that he chose rather to face at once the dangers which threatened him on all sides, than to be for ever on the watch against them. Some tell us that he used to say, the commonwealth was more interested in the safety of his person than himself: for that he had for some time been satiated with power and glory; but that the commonwealth, if any thing should befall him, would have no rest, and, involved in another civil war, would be in a worse state than before. (55) LXXXVII. This, however, was generally admitted, that his death was in many respects such as he would have chosen. For, upon reading the account delivered by Xenophon, how Cyrus in his last illness gave instructions respecting his funeral, Caesar deprecated a lingering death, and wished that his own might be sudden and speedy. And the day before he died, the conversation at supper, in the house of Marcus Lepidus, turning upon what was the most eligible way of dying, he gave his opinion in favour of a death that is sudden and unexpected. LXXXVIII. He died in the fifty-sixth year of his age, and was ranked amongst the Gods, not only by a formal decree, but in the belief of the vulgar. For during the first games which Augustus, his heir, consecrated to his memory, a comet blazed for seven days together, rising always about eleven o'clock; and it was supposed to be the soul of Caesar, now received into heaven: for which reason, likewise, he is represented on his statue with a star on his brow. The senate-house in which he was slain, was ordered to be shut up 101, and a decree made that the ides of March should be called parricidal, and the senate should never more assemble on that day. LXXXIX. Scarcely any of those who were accessary to his murder, survived him more than three years, or died a natural death 102. They were all condemned by the senate: some were taken off by one accident, some by another. Part of them perished at sea, others fell in battle; and some slew themselves with the same poniard with which they had stabbed Caesar 103.

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they did not carry their detestation of regal authority so far as to abolish the religious institutions of Numa Pompilius. made an essential change in the political form of the state. and of that in which it was at the time of the revolution now mentioned. however vigorous in appearance. rather than those of individuals. that they became instruments of aggrandizement to any leading men in the state who could purchase their friendship. and in proportion as a community is enlarged by propagation. So sudden a transition from prosperity to the ruin of public freedom. with all the influence annexed to that order. whence it never more could emerge.htm (41 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . excites a reasonable conjecture.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Of this (57) the Romans became sensible in the growing state of the Republic. In the year of the City 312. (56) 104 The termination of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey forms a new epoch in the Roman History. By this wise policy a restraint was put upon the fickleness and violence of the people in matters of government. and a decided superiority given to the Senate both in the deliberative and executive parts of administration. Thus both the civil and religious institutions concurred to restrain the people within the bounds of good order and obedience to the laws. and when the occasional commotions subsided. there remained no permanent ground for the establishment of personal usurpation. the majority of the Tribunes being actuated by views which comprehended the interests of the multitude. however. they were invested with the authority not only of inspecting the morals of individuals. A short view of its preceding state. or the accession of a multitude of new members. and soon after. will best ascertain the foundation of such a conjecture. at which a Republic. the second of their kings. the priesthood. without the intervention of any foreign enemy. an object of the last importance to the peace and welfare of society is the morals of the people. that the constitution in which it could take place. must have lost that soundness of political health which had enabled it to endure through so many ages. according to which. relapsed into a state of despotism. or violation of decency. a more strict attention is requisite to guard against that dissolution of manners to which a crowded and extensive capital has a natural tendency. and the value of their estates. was placed in the hands of the aristocracy. In general. at the same time that the frugal life of the ancient Romans proved a strong security against those vices which operate most effectually http://www. two magistrates were first created for taking an account of the number of the people. as they interrupted the tranquillity. which had subsisted with unrivalled glory during a period of about four hundred and sixty years. In every government. Though the Romans. they did not so much endanger the liberty. upon the expulsion of Tarquin. This advantage was afterwards indeed diminished by the creation of Tribunes of the people.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by C. a set of men whose ambition often embroiled the Republic in civil dissensions.gutenberg. Suetonius Tranquillus. and who at last abused their authority to such a degree. but of inflicting public censure for any licentiousness of conduct. of the public.

the pressing necessity in which the conspirators were involved by their extreme dissipation. There may have been some foundation for this remark: but http://www. observes.000 pounds. he had attained to the summit of his wishes. that Julius Caesar was accessary to the design. The shame of public censure was extinguished in general depravity. An eminent historian. he acquired such riches as must have rendered him. he raised legions in Gaul at his own charges: he promised such entertainments to the people as had never been known at Rome from the foundation of the city. the most opulent person in the state. that Caesar not being able. by C. that of Catiline. therefore. This was not the project of a few desperate and abandoned individuals. countenances an opinion that his anxiety to procure the province of Gaul proceeded chiefly from this cause. was wont to say. we are told. The veneration for the constitution. a total corruption of manners. for the ground only of which he was to pay 800. prodigality. All these circumstances evince some latent design of procuring such a popularity as might give him an uncontrolled influence in the management of public affairs. divide amongst themselves both the public and private treasures. who lived at that time. with all his riches.gutenberg. The extreme degree of profligacy at which the Romans were now arrived is in nothing more evident. But in the time of Julius Caesar the barriers of public liberty were become too weak to restrain the audacious efforts of ambitious and desperate men. than that this age gave birth to the most horrible conspiracy which occurs in the annals of humankind.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. which was no less than to extirpate the Senate. He projected the building of a new Forum at Rome. usually a powerful check to treasonable designs. as the immediate cause. The causes which prompted to this tremendous project. that they beheld with a degree of complacency the prospect of civil war and confusion.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to fulfil the promises which he had made. it is generally admitted. The salutary terrors of religion no longer predominated over the consciences of men. without competition. that luxury and dissipation had encumbered almost all so much with debt. and above all. But during nine years in which he held that province. than a (58) splendid establishment had been the object of his pursuit. and it appears beyond doubt. we can ascribe his conduct to no other motive than that of outrageous ambition. and a writer who flourished soon after.htm (42 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . were luxury. that venality universally prevailed amongst the Romans. and set Rome on fire. towards sapping the foundations of a state. but of a number of men of the most illustrious rank in the state. Pompey. irreligion. If nothing more. But when we find him persevering in a plan of aggrandizement beyond this period of his fortunes. Suetonius Tranquillus. wished to throw everything into confusion. informs us. The enormous debt in which Caesar himself was early involved. viz. had been lately violated by the usurpations of Marius and Sylla.

But by dilatory measures in the beginning.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. considering the extreme corruption which prevailed amongst the Romans at this time. but at such an expense as must have stripped him of all his riches. in a letter to a friend. the positive declaration of L. but triumphed at once over his enemies and the constitution of his country. that Caesar's mind was seduced with the temptations of chimerical glory. it is more than probable that Caesar would have been acquitted of the charge. of the Republic. the opinion of Cicero is more probable. and even the existence. upon an eminence. however. It is to the honour of Caesar. His time was almost entirely occupied with public affairs. and the coolness of his former friend Pompey ever after the death of Julia. The elevation of Caesar placed him not above discharging reciprocally the social duties in the intercourse of life. commanding a beautiful prospect. Whatever Caesar's private motive may have been for taking arms against his country. It was accordingly determined on the plains of Pharsalia. Henceforth. and tending ultimately to an object incompatible with public freedom. Indeed.htm (43 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . he seems to have lived chiefly at Rome. by imprudently withdrawing his army from Italy into a distant province.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Domitius leaves little room to doubt: especially when we consider the number of enemies that Caesar had in the Senate. and by not pursuing the advantage he had gained by the vigorous repulse of Caesar's troops in their attack upon his camp. It is observable that neither Cicero nor Pompey intimates any suspicion that Caesar was apprehensive of being impeached for his conduct. by C. Yet. he embarked in an enterprise of a nature the most dangerous: and had Pompey conducted himself in any degree suitable to the reputation which he had formerly acquired. He was now no longer amenable either to the tribunal of the Senate or the power of the laws. though he employed many agents.gutenberg. http://www. in the management of which. the contest would in all probability have terminated in favour of public freedom. Of his private life either before or after this period. he appears to have had none in the character of actual minister. Suetonius Tranquillus. He was in general easy of access: but Cicero. at the commencement of the civil war. For it is said. near which he had a small villa. where Caesar obtained a victory which was not more decisive than unexpected. that there was reason for such an apprehension. little is transmitted in history. that when he had obtained the supreme power. and placed him again in a situation ready to attempt a disturbance of the public tranquillity. before he could have an audience. with a bribe little short of half a million sterling. complains of having been treated with the indignity of waiting a considerable time amongst a crowd in an anti-chamber. that he purchased the friendship of Curio. he exercised it with a degree of moderation beyond what was generally expected by those who had fought on the side of the Republic. this commander lost every opportunity of extinguishing a war which was to determine the fate. had he returned to Rome in a private station. The proposed impeachment was founded upon a notorious charge of prosecuting measures destructive of the interests of the commonwealth.

Other writers of distinguished reputation in the dramatic department were Naevius. and perspicuity. Accius and Pacuvius are mentioned by Quintilian as writers of extraordinary merit. Whatever may have been their merit. like that of Andronicus. they also have perished. His health was greatly impaired: his former cheerfulness of temper. The early period of Roman literature was distinguished for the introduction of satire by Lucilius. that during this whole period. after intestine divisions. (60) wrote the annals of the Roman Republic in heroic verse. though Quintilian thinks otherwise. Plautus. and of a hundred and eight which Terence is said to have translated from Menander. upon the model of the Greeks. Accius. Upon the whole. were debased with a mixture of feculency. though not his magnanimity. in conformity to the language of those times. At table. the fatigues. he was admired by the greatest poets in the subsequent ages. precision. an author celebrated for writing with remarkable ease. Terence. which flourished even during those calamities. From beholding the ruin of the Roman Republic. His commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars are written with a purity. and the first essay of Roman genius was in dramatic composition. in the opinion of Horace. the number transmitted to posterity is nineteen. Caecilius. formed the Fescennine verses into a kind of regular drama. who flourished about 240 years before the Christian aera. He was followed some time after by Ennius.htm (44 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . His style. It is observable. by C. Livius Andronicus. but for grandeur of sentiment and energy of expression.gutenberg. Afranius. He returned the visits of those who waited upon him. They are elegant without affectation.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he was habitually temperate. destructive to himself. who. it will afford some relief to take a view of the progress of literature. besides dramatic and other compositions. there appeared not one historian of eminence sufficient to preserve his name from oblivion. of near two centuries and a half. and the distractions of civil war. appears to have forsaken him. the writings of all the other authors have perished. The commencement of literature in Rome is to be dated from the reduction of the Grecian States. and irretrievably pernicious to his country. when the conquerors imported into their own country the valuable productions of the Greek language. and we behold in his fate a memorable example of illustrious talents rendered. and the perpetual anxiety which he had incurred in the pursuit of unlimited power. but whose compositions. which command approbation. and would sup at their houses. he added nothing to his own happiness by all the dangers. Pacuvius. Suetonius Tranquillus. there now remain only six. Excepting a few inconsiderable fragments. who adorned the advancing state of letters in the Roman Republic. Of twentyfive comedies written by Plautus. Julius Caesar himself is one of the most eminent writers of the age in which he lived. by inordinate ambition. and in the use of wine. with the works of a number of orators. was rough and unpolished. and beautiful http://www. etc.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

in which he carried down the history to the end of his exile. but did not publish it for several years. A few years after. But the latter returned for answer. scarcely any fragment is preserved. which were made by an author so much distinguished by the excellence of his own compositions. which was extant in Plutarch's time. Tullius Cicero. The three books were severally inscribed to the three Muses. who was born at Arpinum.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. which was probably an entertaining narrative. he afterwards composed a Latin poem in three books. that in an epigram written on the subject. He published another poem called Limon. (61) This production was greatly admired by Atticus. there is reason to believe that his poetical genius was scarcely inferior to his oratorical. scattered in different parts of his other writings. From a little specimen which remains of it. of which Donatus has preserved four lines in the life of Terence. but of this work there now remain only a few fragments. that.htm (45 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . in praise of the elegance and purity of that poet's style. in Latin verse. of which many fragments are still extant. He also published a poem of the heroic kind. Marius. he declares that it would live as long as the Roman name and learning subsisted. His poem entitled The Journey. They consisted originally of twelve. whilst he was yet a boy. Suetonius Tranquillus. about the same time. the birth-place of Cicero. to publish it in Athens and the cities of Greece. a Commentary or Memoirs of the Transactions of his Consulship. and those under the title of Anti-Cato.gutenberg. Amongst his juvenile productions was a translation into Latin verse. in honour of his countryman C. is likewise totally lost. He now published also. of which work no more than two or three small fragments now remain. from motives of delicacy. The most illustrious prose writer of this or any other age is M. if he approved it. of Aratus on the Phaenomena of the Heavens. He composed in the Greek language. he applied himself with unremitting assiduity to the cultivation of literature. it will be sufficient to mention his writings. wrote a poem. and requested of him to undertake the same subject in a more elegant and masterly manner. he was quite deterred from attempting it. had it been cultivated with equal industry. under the title of his Consular Orations. This he sent to Atticus. and old Scaevola was so much pleased with it. He published. called Glaucus Pontius. he put the last hand to his Dialogues upon the Character and Idea of the perfect Orator. and as his life is copiously related in biographical works. with a desire. Of the two books which he composed on Analogy. but we may be assured of the justness of the observations on language. and. This admirable work remains entire. a translation of the Prognostics of Aratus. without ornament. instead of being encouraged to write by the perusal of his tract. a collection of the principal speeches which he had made in his consulship. From his earliest years. describing a memorable omen given to Marina from an oak at Arpinum. by C. He sent a copy of it likewise to Posidonius of Rhodes.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and some of the rest are imperfect. but four are entirely lost. a monument both of http://www. Upon the plan of those Memoirs. and in the style and manner of Isocrates.

in three books. in his villa near Puteoli. if he could succeed in it. which still subsist. from which his commentator. or the Art of finding Arguments on any Question. yet worthy of his pains. but weighs and compares attentively all the arguments with each other. in which all the important questions in politics and morality were discussed with elegance and accuracy. he not only delivers the opinions of all the philosophers who had written anything concerning it. he wrote his treatise on Topics. called Timaeus. It was comprised in six books. He now likewise composed in two books. and to that on Friendship.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. considered merely as an essay. He was employing himself also on a history of his own times. by C. and the Duties of a Citizen. with strict orders not to read or publish it till after his death. which occupied the thoughts of this celebrated personage. and in which the chief speaker is Laelius. the astonishing industry and transcendent abilities of its author. in which the speakers were Scipio. oaths. to the gratification of the literary world. is one of the most entertaining productions of ancient times. Suetonius Tranquillus. it is written in the form of dialogue. or on the best State of a City. and approaching nearly to revelation. The same period gave birth to his treatise on Old Age. he yet found leisure to write several philosophical tracts. a discourse on Divination. but from this time he never saw his son. he next began a Treatise on Politics. Asconius. (62) Amidst all the anxiety for the interests of the Republic. In elucidating this important subject. At his Cuman villa. From the fragments which remain. however. He calls it a great and a laborious work. During a voyage which he undertook to Sicily. Dion Cassius says. He composed a treatise on the Nature of the Gods. ceremonies. though it is now unfortunately lost. or rather of his own conduct. which was the subject of a conversation with Hirtius. faith. it appears to have been a masterly production.htm (46 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . containing a comprehensive view of religion. Manilius. as never before was presented to the consideration of mankind. some copies of it were circulated. and in which the chief speaker is Laelius. it becomes doubly interesting to every reader of observation and taste. full of free and severe reflections on those who had abused their power to the oppression of the Republic. and other great persons in the former times of the Republic. Afterwards. This book. This likewise was written in the form of a dialogue. Philus. exhibiting the real characters and sentiments of men of the first distinction for virtue and wisdom in the Roman Republic. Like the preceding works. that he delivered this book sealed up to his son. has quoted several particulars. and he executed about the same time a translation of Plato's celebrated Dialogue. but. written also in dialogue. called Cato Major. etc. beheld as a picture drawn from life. in which he discusses at large all the arguments that may be advanced for and against the actual existence of such a species of knowledge.gutenberg. Cicero now also wrote his discourse on Fate. and survived him for several ages. on the nature and origin of the universe. and it is probable that he left the work unfinished.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. forming upon the whole such a rational and perfect system of natural religion. This was an abstract from Aristotle's treatise on the same http://www. Laelius.

The variety and force of the arguments which he advances. amidst the almost constant exertions of the bar. as it gave alternately full scope to the arguments of the various disputants. The last (63) work composed by Cicero appears to have been his Offices. at least to the confirmation of moral truth. all conspire to place his character. and the zeal with which he endeavours to excite the love and admiration of virtue. he could not anticipate the principles inculcated by those divine philosophers. His researches were continually employed on subjects of the greatest utility to mankind. Born in an age posterior to Socrates and Plato. capacious. founded upon the noblest principles of human action. but of carrying his researches to greater extent into the most difficult regions of philosophy. not only of having prosecuted with unerring judgment the steps which they trod before him. The being of a God. This too he had the merit to perform. the immortality of the soul. but he is justly entitled to the praise. this mode of composition was well adapted. As a philosopher. he doubtless adopted in imitation of Plato. and the eternal distinction of good and evil. if not to the discovery. especially as the practice was then not uncommon.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to whom it is addressed. the employment of the magistrate. he drew it up from his memory. The form of dialogue. This treatise contains a system of moral conduct. who probably took the hint of it from the colloquial method of instruction practised by Socrates. so much used by Cicero. as a philosophical writer. and recommended by arguments drawn from the purest sources of philosophy. the duty of the senator. Such are the literary productions of this extraordinary man. and insatiable of knowledge. and those often such as extended beyond the narrow bounds of temporal existence. In the early stage of philosophical enquiry. including likewise his incomparable eloquence. Suetonius Tranquillus. through a period likewise chequered with domestic afflictions and fatal commotions in the Republic. whose comprehensive understanding enabled him to conduct with superior ability the most abstruse disquisitions into moral and metaphysical science. no kind of composition could be more happily suited than dialogue. he was endowed with every talent that could captivate either the judgment or taste. that the writer should exert his understanding with http://www. the splendour of his diction. penetrating. neither in the station of a private citizen. for mutual information.htm (47 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . on the summit of human celebrity. however. and though he had neither Aristotle nor any other book to assist him. his mind appears to have been clear. written for the use of his son. these were in general the great objects of his philosophical enquiries. and finished it as he sailed along the coast of Calabria. but in the bustle of public life. nor in the leisure of academic retirement. In treating of any subject respecting which the different sects of philosophers differed (64) from each other in point of sentiment. It required.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. subject. As a writer. by C. for speculative men to converse together on important subjects. and he has placed them in a more convincing point of view than they ever were before exhibited to the pagan world. and the incessant cares of the statesman. a future state of rewards and punishments.gutenberg.

that there was at that time such a number of illustrious Romans. equal impartiality and acuteness on the different sides of the question. must readily acknowledge. It appears from Cicero's correspondence. an affectionate brother. whether Cicero appears in his letters more great or amiable: but that he was regarded by his contemporaries in both these lights. with a variety of information relative to public transactions and characters of that age. and agreeable effusions of pleasantry. and a kind master. but also such as leads to the most probable and rational conclusion. weighs them with each other. and that too in the highest degree. In all the dialogues of Cicero. and draws from them the most rational conclusions. by C. they exhibit an ardent love of liberty and the constitution of his country: they discover a mind strongly actuated with the principles of virtue and reason. a tender husband.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. rank. What is likewise no small addition to their merit. deserve to be ranked among the most interesting remains of Roman literature. a zealous patron. and of arrogating to himself an invidious superiority. as never before existed in any one period of the Republic. and abilities. particularly in what relates to any decision of the understanding. for the dignity of the Roman senate was now in the zenith of its splendour. which. amount to upwards of four hundred. though he adduces the strongest arguments for and against any object of consideration. he yet discovers such a diffidence in his own opinion. that the (65) most penetrating understanding can suggest. as otherwise he might betray a cause under the appearance of defending it. among which are many of great length. his confidential friend. we have now to mention his Letters. It is difficult to say. After enumerating the various tracts composed and published by Cicero. though not written for publication. http://www. but those to Atticus alone. that he resigns himself implicitly to the judgment and direction of his friend. If ever. they are occasionally blended with the charms of wit.gutenberg. could have availed to overawe the first attempts at a violation of public liberty. In those excellent productions. uniting familiarity with elevation. a modesty not very compatible with the disposition of the arrogant. Suetonius Tranquillus. and ease with elegance.htm (48 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . it must have been at this period. that this imputation appears to be destitute of truth. they contain much interesting description of private life. who are commonly tenacious of their own opinion. he manages the arguments of the several disputants in a manner not only the most fair and interesting. The number of such as are addressed to different correspondents is considerable. and while they abound in sentiments the most judicious and philosophical. Beholding them in a more extensive view. an indulgent father. They are all written in the genuine spirit of the most approved epistolary composition. Cicero has been accused of excessive vanity. from his extraordinary talents but whoever peruses his letters to Atticus. as a warm friend. therefore. the authority of men the most respectable for virtue. They display in a beautiful light the author's character in the social relations of life.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.

as they appear in the writings of the poets. by whom he was likewise proscribed. that he considered the circumstance or being delighted with them. as not to afford the most distant intimation that this immortal orator and philosopher had ever existed. are to be added several chasms in the others. Such was the admiration which Quintilian entertained of his writings. did some justice to his memory: but it was not until the race of the Caesars had become extinct. that they all related to etymology. anomaly. The seventh book is employed on declension. In the eighth. The first contained such observations as might be made against it. and the Nestor of ancient learning. the celebrated Roman grammarian. and justify the character given him in his own time. His works originally amounted to no less than five hundred volumes. except a treatise De Lingua Latina. and generally queis for quibus. and we may add. The precision and perspicuity which Varro displays in this work merit the highest encomiums.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In the fourth book. Livy however. cui Cicero valde placebit. To the loss of the first three books. and even by the mention of his name. We may thence infer.htm (49 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . Of the former of these. is sufficiently evident. observations upon it. that the great poets in the subsequent age must have done violence to their own liberality and discernment. that he was lieutenant to Pompey in his piratical wars. there is reason to think. It appears from the introduction of the fourth book. and was taken by Caesar. three books at the beginning are also lost. that he displayed the same industry in communicating. as he had done in collecting it. in compliment to Augustus. and the third. whose sensibility would have been wounded by the praises of Cicero. In the civil wars he joined the side of the Republic. and obtained in that service a naval crown. which have all perished. he has acquired the greatest fame for his extensive erudition. Ille se profecisse sciat. and one De Re Rustica. It is observable that this great grammarian makes use of quom for quum. He next proceeds to investigate the origin of (66) Latin words. This http://www. such as might be made in its favour. the origin of both these classes. Suetonius Tranquillus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and their respective natural declinations from the nominative case. they have so industriously avoided the subject. in which the author enters upon a minute and extensive enquiry. as an indubitable proof of judgment and taste in literature. in the fifth. though they interrupt the illustration of it. viz. which is addressed to Cicero. by C. but fortunately they happen in such places as not to affect the coherency of the author's doctrine.gutenberg. The first mention made of him is. comprehending a variety of acute and profound observations on the formation of Latin nouns. takes a general view of what is the reverse of analogy. but obtained a remission of the sentence. and in the ninth and last book on the subject. he traces those which relate to place. Terentius Varro. those connected with the idea of time. of being the most learned of the Latin grammarians. and in the sixth. the second. that he received the free and unanimous applause of impartial posterity. he examines the nature and limits of usage and analogy in language. heis for his. 105 In this period is likewise to be placed M. Of all the ancients. when.

and had commenced author long before him. to whom several of his epigrams are addressed. This author's treatise De Re Rustica was undertaken at the desire of a friend. When he came to be known as a poet. it is probable that Caesar's production was of a much later date. and not to any prejudice of education. and how he who composed so many volumes. It is impossible to behold the numerous fragments of this venerable author without feeling the strongest regret for the loss of that vast collection of information which he had compiled. It appears that his works are not transmitted entire to posterity. We find from Quintilian.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Catullus is said to have been born at Verona. The remark of St. but there http://www. of feeding animals for the use of the table. Suetonius Tranquillus. where the author delivers instructions relative to the best method of fattening rats. who wrote in the Punic language. Though Varro was at this time in his eightieth year. by C. at least with respect to some particulars on that subject. the second. As Varro makes no mention of Caesar's treatise on Analogy. That it is astonishing how Varro. and of Mago the Carthaginian. He was brought to Rome by Mallius. that Varro likewise composed satires in various kinds of verse. we must impute his continuance of it to his opinion of its propriety. and to gain so much literary information. we meet with a remarkable instance of the prevalence of habit and fashion over human sentiment. the first of which treats of agriculture. he writes with all the vivacity. during a life of eightyeight years. that upwards of fifty Greek authors had treated of this subject in prose. could be at leisure to peruse such a variety of books. or an affectation of singularity.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and sets out with invoking. like Homer and Ennius. and accordingly we find his genius applauded by several of his contemporaries. recommended him to general esteem. upon its established principles of grammar. as he observes. The gentleness of his manners. who. of rearing of cattle. but the twelve deities supposed to be chiefly concerned in the operations of agriculture. who read such a number of books. exclusive likewise of many Roman writers. that those two writers differed from each other. could find time to compose so many volumes. and the economy of a country life. and the third. (67) In the last of these. and his application to study. not the Muses. in its various departments. his father and himself being in the habit of intimacy with Julius Caesar. requested of Varro the favour of his instructions relative to farming. though without the levity. and he had the good fortune to obtain the patronage of Cicero. It appears from the account which he gives. having purchased some lands. we are told.htm (50 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . of youth. of respectable parents.gutenberg. who both wrote in verse. all these circumstances would naturally contribute to increase his reputation for ingenuity. practice having become rather obsolete at the time in which he wrote. and of judicious observations which he had made on a variety of subjects. besides Hesiod and Menecrates the Ephesian. Augustine is well founded. and thence we may infer. Varro's work is divided into three books. almost entirely devoted to literature.

expressed nearly in the same terms which Caesar's legions. and not for any novelty in his lampoon. In a word. in each of which Caesar is joined with Mamurra. and the instances in which it is adopted by Catullus are not of that description. Much has been said of this poet's invective against Caesar. remain sufficient specimens by which we may be enabled to appreciate his poetical talents.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. This sentiment has been frequently cited by those who were inclined to follow the example of Catullus. by a mixture of common jocular ribaldry of the Roman soldiers.gutenberg. the author gives way to gross obscenity: in vindication of which. his sensibility to the scandalous imputation must now have been much diminished. who had acquired great riches in the Gallic war. for even Horace. but extended to greater length. the twenty-ninth and fifty-seventh.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (51 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . with which Caesar was attacked on various occasions. scrupled not to sport publicly in the streets of Rome. it must have been for the freedom used by the author. he produces the following couplet. have ranked Catullus amongst the iambic writers. it is only where the poet personates (68) a profligate character. which produced no other effect than an invitation to sup at the dictator's house. The thoughts. and Diomed the grammarian. to have pleaded the manners of the times. For the honour of Catullus's gratitude. as poetical compositions. though strongly attached to his person. Quintilian. by C. It was indeed scarcely entitled to the honour of the smallest resentment. however. has suffered his compositions to be occasionally debased by the same kind of blemish. Suetonius Tranquillus. the former of the arrangements seems to be the most suitable. Nam castum esse decet pium poetam Ipsum: versiculos nihil necesse est. we should suppose that the latter is the one to which historians allude: but. during the celebration of his triumph. who wrote only a few years after. they are equally unworthy of regard. while others have placed him amongst the lyric. if not entirely extinguished. and after so long a familiarity with reproach. There are two poems on this subject. but if such a practice be in any case admissible. viz. but that his verses need not be so. The other poem is partly in the same strain. are often frivolous. declaring that a good poet ought to be chaste in his own person. The principal merit of Catullus's Iambics consists in a simplicity of thought and expression. He has properly a claim to each of these stations. If any could be shewn. against their general. Caesar had been taunted with this subject for upwards of thirty years. It had perhaps been a better apology. but his versification being chiefly iambic. and even in the senate. it deserves to be http://www. whether well or ill founded. what is yet more reprehensible. a Roman knight. The fifty seventh is nothing more than a broad repetition of the raillery. and. after his return from Bithynia.

which perhaps proceeded from insanity. or love-potion. The descriptive poems of Catullus are superior to the others. by a philtre. (69) Lucretius is the author of a celebrated poem. that the sarcasm is indebted for its force.gutenberg. and its obscurity in some parts. Suetonius Tranquillus. by C. and on the whole. regarded as an effusion of Saturnalian licentiousness. but repugnant to the principles of the highest authority in metaphysical disquisition. Strongly prepossessed with the hypothetical doctrines of his master. it possesses an air of solemnity well adapted to abstruse researches. While Lucretius was engaged in this work. was ascribed by his friends and admirers to http://www. and ignorant of the physical system of the universe. This fatal termination of his life. He is said to have died about the thirtieth year of his age. the materiality of the soul. De Rerum Natura. it instils into the Latin the sonorous and melodious powers of the Greek language. his merit. having lucid intervals. me. a subject which had been treated many ages before by Empedocles. not so much to ingenuity of sentiment. however. By the mixture of obsolete words.htm (52 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . Abstracting from it the rhapsodical nature of this production. given him by his wife Lucilia. The style is elevated.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and the versification in general harmonious. This ode is executed both with spirit and elegance. and discover a lively imagination. a philosopher and poet of Agrigentum. With respect to the Iambics of Catullus. he employed them in the execution of his plan. etc. Amongst the best of his productions. or coarseness of expression. whose principles concerning the eternity of matter. and. we may observe in general. The complaint. at the same time that by the frequent resolution of diphthongs. Lucretius was a zealous partizan of Democritus. as a poet. he affects to maintain with a certainty equal to that of mathematical demonstration. But while we condemn his speculative notions as degrading to human nature. rather than of poetry. soon after it was finished. with regard either to sentiment or point.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and the sect of Epicurus. is a translation of the celebrated ode of Sappho: Ille mi par esse Deo videtur. however. in six books. we must admit that he has prosecuted his visionary hypothesis with uncommon ingenuity. and the non-existence of a future state of rewards and punishments. imperfect. Catullus's epigrams are entitled to little praise. it is. occasioned. he endeavours to deduce from the phenomena of the material world conclusions not only unsupported by legitimate theory. and the last stanza seems to be spurious. as to the indelicate nature of the subject. laid violent hands upon himself. appears to have been magnified beyond its real extent. it has great merit as a poem. and subversive of the most important interests of mankind. in the forty-third year of his age. he fell into a state of insanity. as is supposed.

According to the best information. It was. as a proof that the principles contained in the work had the sanction of his authority. http://www. by C. but as they were not yet completed. But no inference in favour of Lucretius's doctrine can justly be drawn from this circumstance. but he must have utterly disapproved of the conclusions which the author endeavoured to establish. which collected and enforced them in a nervous strain of poetry. might not be averse to the perusal of a production.gutenberg. while it impiously arrogates the support of reason. therefore. The argument. because a period sufficient for mature consideration had elapsed. Sallust was now engaged in historical productions. but their works have totally perished. with whom he was intimately connected. It is said that Cicero revised the poem of Lucretius after the death of the author. so far from confirming the principle of Lucretius. his concern for the banishment of one Memmius. nevertheless. which it exhibited. he composed those valuable works which contain sentiments diametrically repugnant to the visionary system of Epicurus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. has been regarded as the bulwark of atheism— of atheism. they will be noticed in the next division of the review. It can have been only with reference to composition that the poem was submitted to Cicero's revisal: for had he been required to exercise his judgment upon its principles. affords the strongest tacit declaration against their validity. drawn from Cicero's revisal. Lucretius died in the year from the building of Rome 701. a few years after this period. authorized in particular circumstances. Cicero lived several years beyond this period.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. as to destroy the coherency of the system. and would perhaps afford subject for some letters or conversation between them. however. he must undoubtedly have so much mutilated the work. especially as the work was likely to prove interesting to his friend Atticus. equally erroneous and irreconcilable to resignation and fortitude. and confident declamation. He might be gratified with the shew of elaborate research. Suetonius Tranquillus. (70) Cicero. and for the distracted state of the republic. and this circumstance is urged by the abettors of atheism. and in the two last years of his life. when Pompey was the third time consul. though already sufficiently acquainted with the principles of the Epicurean sect. while he laboured under a lingering disease. Many more writers flourished in this period.htm (53 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . the celebrated correspondent of Cicero. which. before Cicero published his own admirable system of philosophy. a catastrophe which the principles of Epicurus. had recourse to the same desperate expedient. both reason and nature disclaim. by refusing all sustenance. Even Atticus. The poem of Lucretius.

tells us nothing more than that he was descended of an equestrian family. and was employed in scattering bribes. His father Caius Octavius was. and soon afterwards placed by Servius Tullius among the patricians. as well as several in Rome. For in the most frequented part of the town. That the family of the Octavii was of the first distinction in Velitrae 106. The first person of the family raised by the suffrages of the people to the magistracy. is rendered evident by many circumstances. Such is the account given (72) by different authors. and had two sons. by C. which have had very different fortunes. the enemy making a sudden attack. however. held all the highest offices of the state. whether from their circumstances or their choice. consecrated to one Octavius. and an altar was to be seen. that in all future times the entrails should be offered to Mars in the same manner. remained in the equestrian order until the father of Augustus. after the lapse of a long interval. both ancient and rich. in the http://www. The great-grandfather of Augustus served as a military tribune in the second Punic war in Sicily. and his grandfather a usurer. but in process of time it transferred itself to the plebeian order. not long since. and offered them half raw upon the altar. he returned victorious.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. D. who being chosen general in a war with some neighbouring people. under the command of Aemilius Pappus. from whom are descended the two branches of the Octavian family. and a rope-maker. he immediately snatched the entrails of the victim from off the fire. Augustus himself.htm (54 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . For Cneius. and grew old in the tranquil enjoyment of an ample patrimony. Mark Antony upbraidingly tells him that his great-grandfather was a freedman of the territory of Thurium 107. by which it was enacted. and his descendants in uninterrupted succession. III. was restored by Julius Caesar to the rank of patricians. from his earliest years. a street named the Octavian. OCTAVIUS CAESAR AUGUSTUS. respecting the ancestors of Augustus by the father's side. of which his father was the first who obtained the rank of senator. Cneius and Caius. was Caius Rufus.gutenberg. II. and the rest of the victim be carried to the Octavii. His grandfather contented himself with bearing the public offices of his own municipality. was admitted into the senate by Tarquinius Priscus. This incident gave rise to a law. Suetonius Tranquillus. marching out to battle. He obtained the quaestorship.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. there was. This is all the information I have any where met with. and. and canvassing for the candidates at elections. This family. (71) I. whilst Caius and his posterity. after which. while he was sacrificing to Mars. a person both of opulence and distinction: for which reason I am surprised at those who say that he was a money-dealer 108.

the relics of the armies of Spartacus and Catiline. By the mother's side he was nearly related to Pompey the Great. But Mark Antony. with his hands all discoloured by the fingering of money. Balbus was. and entreated that (74) he might find favour. in the quarter of the Palatine Hill 111. and as it were the guardian. in gaining the affections of the allies of Rome. His nursery is shewn to this day. and built a little after his death. for he defeated the Bessians and Thracians in a great battle. of a family who were natives of Aricia 109. he conducted himself with equal justice and resolution.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and at another. in pleading before the senators for a lighter sentence. VI. having received from the senate an extraordinary commission for that purpose. by Atia. who then held the proconsulship of Asia with no great reputation. who had possessed themselves of the territory of Thurium. in Aricia. the elder Octavia. For. to imitate the example of his neighbour Octavius. and the street called The Ox-Heads 112. of the ground which the Divine Augustus first touched upon his coming into the world. After his praetorship. These are his words: "Thou art a lump of thy mother's meal. alleged. he obtained by lot the province of Macedonia. that there are extant letters from M. who was in a peculiar manner his." V. and treated the allies of the republic in such a manner. besides his youth and quality. taxes Augustus with being the son not only of a baker. a little before sunrise. for the sake of that deity. and discharged the duties of them with much distinction. treating with contempt Augustus's descent even by the mother's side. by the father's (73) side. sister to Caius Julius Caesar. in his way to which he cut off some banditti. he attained with ease to honourable posts. Augustus was born in the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Caius Antonius 110. in a villa belonging to the family. leaving behind him a daughter. And Cassius of Parma. and after he had borne the office of praetor. upon the ninth of the calends of October [the 23rd September]. upon his being convicted of adultery.gutenberg. a young man of a patrician family. Tullius Cicero. that he was the possessor.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. before he could declare himself a candidate for the consulship. in which he advises and exhorts his brother Quintus. and Julia. Octavia the younger. IV. as it is recorded in the proceedings of the senate. as well as Augustus. by Ancharia. in the suburbs of Velitrae.htm (55 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . he died suddenly. In his government of the province. Suetonius Tranquillus. but a usurer. After quitting Macedonia. and another daughter. Campus Martius. and many of whom had been in the senate. for the consecration of that part of his house in which Augustus was born. an act of the senate was passed. by C. a bake-house. kneaded into some shape. and at one time kept a perfumer's shop. For being bred up in all the affluence of a great estate. where now stands a chapel dedicated to him. when Caius Laetorius. which a money-changer of Nerulum taking from the newest bakehouse of Aricia. http://www. was one of the twenty commissioners appointed by the Julian law to divide the land in Campania among the people. who was the daughter of Marcus Atius Balbus. says that his great grand-father was of African descent. in a letter.

are denominated august. For when some proposed to confer upon him the name of Romulus. having assumed the robe of manhood. before the door of the chamber. a second founder of the city. taken up his lodging in that apartment. who soon conceived an increasing affection for him. as appears from this verse of Ennius: When glorious Rome by august augury was built. and then of Augustus. in the country near Thurium. by whom it is now revered amongst the other tutelary deities in his chamber. soon after he was born. or to try the truth of the report. for when a boy. he was thrown out by some sudden violence. or ab avium gestu. the surname of Thurinus was given him. 114 VIII. signifying augmentation.htm (56 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . Into this place no person presumes to enter. gustuve. which a short while since was confirmed by a remarkable incident. and was found in a state of stupefaction. After the subjugation of Spain. from the flight and feeding of birds. by Mark Antony in his letters. with the coverlid of his bed. to which he makes only this reply: "I am surprised that my former name should be made a subject of reproach. Four years afterwards. pronounced a funeral oration in praise of his grand-mother Julia. because places devoted to religion. while Caesar http://www. VII. and those in which anything (75) is consecrated by augury. he was followed by his nephew. with that name upon it in iron letters. on account of his youth. which I presented to the emperor 113.gutenberg. Upon his uncle's expedition to Spain against the sons of Pompey. that he was also born there. and after being shipwrecked at sea. on account of such indications of character.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. although he took no part in the war. For when a new inhabitant of the house had. a few hours afterwards. and with great devotion. as being. it was resolved that he should rather be called Augustus. I had a small bronze statue of him. He is also often called Thurinus contemptuously. for a long time prevalent. but of more dignity. either from the word auctus. That he was surnamed Thurinus. He lost his father when he was only four years of age. nearly effaced by age. he knew not how. in a manner. his father Octavius had been successful against the fugitive slaves. This activity gave great satisfaction to his uncle. although he was scarcely recovered from a dangerous sickness. in his twelfth year. and. in memory of the birthplace of his family. the former in compliance with the will of his great-uncle. in the course of the night. that such as rashly enter it are seized with great horror and consternation. and travelling with very few attendants through roads that were infested with the enemy." He afterwards assumed the name of Caius Caesar. he was honoured with several military rewards by Caesar in his African triumph. An opinion prevails in the neighbourhood. While he was yet an infant. he at last came up with him. I can affirm upon good foundation. unless upon necessity. and the latter upon a motion of Munatius Plancus in the senate.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. from a belief. or because. by C. and much like a pantry. a surname not only new. either by mere chance. being a very small place. Suetonius Tranquillus.

by distributing among them all the money he could collect. In the mean time. Immediately after his return from Apollonia. the third against Lucius Antonius. and in conjunction with Hirtius and Pansa. but he abandoned the design as rash and premature. And that he might carry into effect his other designs with greater authority. although he was of a patrician family. and even refusing to do him so much as common justice. Perugia. very earnestly dissuaded him from it. Philippi. for nearly twelve years. Having thus given a very short summary of his life. who had http://www. X. by C. to whom he perceived Sylla to be odious. Being now commissioned by the senate to command the troops he had gathered. he resolved to proceed against them by an appeal to the laws in their absence. collecting together a strong military force. and dreading a similar attempt upon himself. and impeach them for the murder. was meditating an expedition against the Dacians and Parthians. he gained over Caesar's veteran soldiers. and his stepfather. returning to Rome. and had not yet been in the senate. and that he was appointed his heir. but the plot being discovered. and confirmed to him by the senate. namely those of Modena. not in order of time. he went over to the party of the nobles. from whom he had expected the greatest assistance. whom he besieged in the town of Modena. and maintaining the state of affairs he had established. a man of consular rank. and the second against Brutus and Cassius. But the consul. for the sake of (76) perspicuity. with the rank of praetor. Mark Antony. those whose province it was to prepare the sports in honour of Caesar's last victory in the civil war. he hesitated for some time whether he should call to his aid the legions stationed in the neighbourhood.gutenberg. The motive which gave rise to all these wars was the opinion he entertained that both his honour and interest were concerned in revenging the murder of his uncle. he undertook it himself.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he engaged some ruffians to murder his antagonist. he took possession of his inheritance. Suetonius Tranquillus. chiefly for endeavouring to drive Decius Brutus. opposing him in his suit. until receiving intelligence that his uncle was murdered. which had been given him by Caesar. the first and last of which were against Antony. but they having foreseen the danger and made their escape. he first held the government in conjunction with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus. At the instigation of persons about him. not daring to do it. IX.htm (57 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . but arranging his acts into distinct classes. unless gratified with a large bribe. I shall prosecute the several parts of it. Sicily. the triumvir's brother. and the fourth against Sextus Pompeius. then with Antony only. out of the province. He was engaged in five civil wars. However. although his mother was apprehensive that such a measure might be attended with danger. he formed the design of taking forcible and unexpected measures against Brutus and Cassius. the son of Cneius Pompeius. where he applied himself to his studies. Marcius Philippus. he was sent before him to Apollonia. and at last in his own hands during a period of four and forty. he declared himself a candidate in the room of a tribune of the people who happened to die at that time.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. From this time. and Actium.

had been received by Marcus Lepidus. and was a spectator of both their deaths: for the father offering his life to save his son. for. in the heat of the battle. "That they fell in the cause of liberty. which they were unable to pay. who begged for their lives. he fined the Nursini in a large sum of money. when Antony fled. was placed in custody. "That will be in the power of the birds. On this account. In the last battle. to carry assistance to Decius Brutus. on a suspicion of having poisoned his wound. the republic having lost its consuls. intoxicated with success. a report was circulated that they both were killed through his means. "he was a mere boy. after his defeat. and treated the most illustrious of the prisoners not only with cruelty. And to this. the actions and sayings of several amongst them. Hirtius being slain in battle. Antony writes." XIII. that Glyco." to avoid the making any suitable acknowledgment either to him or the veteran legions. alleging as an excuse for his conduct. Having entered into a confederacy with Antony and Lepidus. by C. however. that he killed Hirtius." and others threw out. In the first battle he was driven from his camp. and then expelled them from the town.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. for some said. insomuch that he is said to have answered one of them who humbly intreated that at least he might not remain unburied. he sent the head of Brutus 117 to be cast at the foot of Caesar's statue. The death of Pansa was so fully believed to have been caused by undue means. But upon intelligence that Antony.gutenberg. Aquilius Niger adds." Two others. and being accordingly executed. with his own hands. or settle it between themselves by the sword. the other consul. and two days afterwards made his appearance (77) without his general's cloak and his horse. he brought the war at Philippi to an end in two battles. he ordered to cast lots which of them should live. father and son. and amongst http://www. the rest of the prisoners. and Pansa dying a short time afterwards of a wound. deserted from the party of the nobles. although he was at that time weak. and suffering from sickness 116. in the confusion of the battle. in order that. In this war 115.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.htm (58 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . he put an end to the war by two battles in three months. he. for having inscribed upon a monument. Suetonius Tranquillus. And now. but a soldier. and that the rest of the generals and armies had all declared for the senate. erected at the public charge to their countrymen who were slain in the battle of Modena. XI. XII. the son likewise killed himself upon the spot. when the standard-bearer of his legion was severely wounded. that in the former of these he ran away. And the more to testify his regret for having before attached himself to the other faction. without any hesitation. but with abusive language. accepted the consulship. and cut off. "that he ought to be promoted to honours. his surgeon. and carried it a long time. (78) and with some difficulty made his escape to the wing of the army commanded by Antony. it is certain that he performed the part not only of a general. he took the eagle upon his shoulders. he might have the victorious armies entirely at his own command.

But at last.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he nearly fell into the hands of a body of gladiators. the general. who sallied out of the town. At this time he obliged Lucius Antony. at another. XVI. in being violently ejected from their possessions. selected from the rest. to surrender at last. safe and sound. before an altar raised to Julius Caesar. he sentenced a great number of the prisoners to death. by C. being led up in fetters. in consequence of a famine occasioned by Pompey's cutting off the supply of corn by sea. now they had an opportunity. than that his secret enemies. and confiscated their estates. to fly to Perugia. having built a new fleet. by letting the sea into http://www. even in the summer. Caesar ordered him to be removed by an officer. He soon commenced the Sicilian war. might be detected. was the sudden appearance of the man. After this victory. Mark Antony 118 undertook to restore order in the east. but it was protracted by various delays during a long period 122. like victims. by declaring themselves. who were given him for the oar.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. "You must die. The only thing that saved him.gutenberg. them Marcus Favonius. no violence having been offered him. who. with much respect. And whilst he was sacrificing under the walls of Perugia. there are some who relate. which he lost twice by storm. the soldiers flocked together so much enraged. at the public spectacles. with Lucius Antony at their head. that they were not rewarded according to their merit. he might be enabled to fulfil his promises to the veteran soldiers. reviled Octavius in the foulest language. one party complaining of the injustice done them. upon the ides of March [15th April] 121. he formed the Julian harbour at Baiae. and obtained twenty thousand manumitted slaves 123. and his brother's power. after they had saluted Antony. and a rumour being thence spread by his enemies.htm (59 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . dividing between them the offices of the state. while Caesar conducted the veteran soldiers back to Italy. and the other." Some authors write. Nay. or endeavoured to excuse themselves. XV. by famine. although not without having been exposed to great hazards. that he entered upon the war with no other view. But he had the misfortune to please neither the soldiers nor the owners of the lands. that he had (79) put the man to death by torture. presuming upon his own authority as consul. and forced him. For a common soldier having got into the seats of the equestrian order in the theatre. that three hundred of the two orders. Cato's rival. at one time for the purpose of repairing his fleets. making only one reply to all who implored pardon. while patching up a peace. was raising new commotions. both before the war and during its continuance. to which he was forced by the clamours of the people. and that having defeated them. After the taking of Perugia 120. were slaughtered. and settled them in colonies on the lands belonging to the municipalities. 119 XIV. that he narrowly escaped with his life. Suetonius Tranquillus. and those whom fear more than affection kept quiet.

when drawn up in line of battle. as he was travelling on foot through the Locrian territory to Rhegium. and in which he had nominated Cleopatra's children. after the victory. And not long afterwards he defeated him in a naval engagement near Actium. that. This. and with one ship only. Yet upon his being declared an enemy. which was prolonged to so late an hour. Suetonius Tranquillus. he would not suffer the statue of that God to be carried in procession as usual. seeing two of Pompey's vessels passing by that coast. because they had. He likewise spoke favourably in public of the people of Bologna.gutenberg. From Actium he went to the isle of Samoa to winter. Pompey's admirals. gazing at the sky. owing him a grudge for the proscription of Paulus. the father of Aemilius. he was obliged to sleep on board his ship. affecting great superiority. but. and thinking he had now an opportunity of revenging it. he sent to him all his relations and friends. gave occasion for Antony's reproach: "You were not able to take a clear view of the fleet. he suddenly fell into such a profound sleep. he was unexpectedly attacked by Demochares and Apollophanes. often interrupted. who accompanied him. upon the loss of his fleets by storm. as he was making his escape by some bye-ways.htm (60 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:16 PM] . Likewise.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and was very nearly taken prisoner. Having transported part of his army to Sicily. he went down to the shore. for joining in the association with the rest of Italy to support his cause. nor did you get up and let your men see you. whom he had summoned to his aid from Africa. in former times. upon his humble submission. from whom he escaped with great difficulty. and ill cemented by repeated reconciliations. to be opened and read in an assembly of the people. among whom were Caius Sosius and Titus Domitius. which had always been precarious. After the defeat of Pompey. been under the protection of the family of the Antonii. although (80) just as the engagement commenced. and claiming for himself the principal management of affairs in a threatening manner. because he was at the head of twenty legions. he divested him of his command. for. at that time consuls. by C. one of his colleagues 124. as his heirs. On this occasion. but banished him for life to Circeii. which had been left at Rome. The alliance between him and Antony." and at the next Circensian games. I suppose. a slave belonging to Aemilius Paulus. but being alarmed with the accounts of a mutiny amongst the soldiers he had http://www. And to make it known to the world how far Antony had degenerated from patriotic feelings. amongst others. he defeated Pompey betwixt Mylae and Naulochus. Marcus Lepidus. he at last entirely dissolved. attempted to assassinate him. the Lucrine and Avernian lakes. Indeed he scarcely ever ran more or greater risks in any of his wars than in this. and supposing them to be his own. granted him his life.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and having exercised his forces there during the whole winter. until Marcus Agrippa had forced the enemies' ships to sheer off. XVII. but lay stupidly upon your back." Others imputed to him both a saying and an action which were indefensible. he is reported to have said: "I will conquer in spite of Neptune. he caused a will of his. that his friends were obliged to wake him to give the signal. and being on his return for the rest.

in both which a part of his Liburnian squadron was sunk. who insisted on their being rewarded for their service and discharged. selected from the main body of his army sent to Brundisium after the victory. (83) XIX. by way of Asia and Syria. which were discovered. of Varro Muraena. and others subsequently. In his passage thither. after many fruitless supplications for his life. who had fled for his life.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.gutenberg. "I wish to see a king. discharges itself. and established games to be celebrated there every five years." 130 He reduced Egypt into the form of a province and to render it more fertile.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. before they were ripe for execution. begun by themselves. He allowed them to be buried together in the same grave. and when she was supposed to have been bit to death by an asp. by C. Being asked if he wished to see the tombs of the Ptolemies also. he returned to Italy. and then went. At this time he had a desire to see the sarcophagus and body of Alexander the Great. the first between the promontories of Peloponnesus and Aetolia. then that of Marcus Egnatius. Cleopatra's son by Caesar. he made himself master of it in a short time. Such were those of the younger Lepidus. upon its rise. XVIII. whither Antony had fled with Cleopatra. and the rudder broken in pieces. for that purpose. He drove Antony to kill himself. To perpetuate the glory of his victory at Actium. he encountered two violent storms. he paid honours to the memory of that prince. Suetonius Tranquillus. which. and brought up and cherished in a manner suitable to their rank. The eldest of Antony's two sons by Fulvia he commanded to be taken by force from the statue of Julius Caesar.htm (61 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . into which the Nile. he ornamented with naval trophies 131 the spot on which he had pitched his camp. to which he had fled. and he saw his corpse 126. afterwards that of http://www. and scattering flowers upon the body 129. and ordered a mausoleum. were taken out of the cell in which they rested 128. but was retaken. not dead men. The same fate attended Caesario. until the demands of the soldiers were settled. by offering a golden crown. to Egypt. The children which Antony had by Cleopatra he saved. after he had used every effort to obtain conditions of peace. and Fannius Caepio. to be completed. and put him to death. enlarging likewise an old temple of Apollo. and more capable of supplying Rome with corn. just as if they had been his own relations. and the other about the Ceraunian mountains. but which during a long series of years had become nearly choked up with mud. he replied. where laying siege to Alexandria. He afterwards 132 quashed several tumults and insurrections. he built the city of Nicopolis on that part of the coast. as well as several conspiracies against his life. as he pretended. and consecrated it to Neptune and Mars. and after viewing them for some time. he employed his army to scour the canals. He remained only twenty-seven days at Brundisium. by the confession of accomplices. he sent for the Psylli 127 to (82) endeavour to suck out the poison. the spars and rigging of his own ship carried away. Cleopatra he anxiously wished to save for his triumph.

another of Lucius Audasius. a soldier's servant belonging to the army in Illyricum. having found from experience that they cared little for their men when given as hostages. into Gaul. XX. Whether the person was really disordered in the head. and partly by his lieutenants. his grand-daughter's husband. Audasius and Epicadus had formed the design of carrying off to the armies his daughter Julia. from the islands in which they were confined. and of Lucius Paulus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. as also of Asinius Epicadus. He conducted in person only two foreign wars. and settling them in the country bordering on the Rhine. he reduced to submission. that he obliged the chiefs of some barbarous tribes to swear in the temple of Mars the Avenger 140. after Antony's final defeat. proceeding from Rome as far as Ravenna. however. and besides these. the Cantabrian. and at last that of Telephus. once. Suetonius Tranquillus. nor being released from their slavery before the expiration of thirty years. Plautius Rufus. Milan.gutenberg. He also checked the incursions of the Dacians. or advance his own military glory. Even those who engaged most frequently and with the greatest perfidy in their rebellion. and. the Dalmatian. with all Illyricum and Rhaetia 138. or Aquileia. a lady's prompter 134. their women. By the character which he thus acquired. He conquered. an old feeble man. Of some he demanded a new description of hostages. He was wounded in the former of these wars. a Parthinian mongrel 133. the Ubii and Sicambri. Aquitania and Pannonia 137. he never punished more severely than by selling their captives. for he was in danger of his life from the plots and conspiracies of some of the lowest of the people against him. but he always afforded them the means of getting back their hostages whenever they wished it. on the terms (85) of their not serving in any neighbouring country. Dalmatia. partly in person. for virtue and moderation. But he never made war upon any nation without just and necessary cause. he was much hurt in (84) one leg and both arms. who was under prosecution for forgery. Telephus. for no confession was obtained from him by torture. is uncertain. and was so far from being ambitious either to extend the empire. Cantabria 136. wildly dreaming that the government was destined to him by the fates. was found in the night-time standing before his chamber-door. by C. besides the two Alpine nations. having passed the porters unobserved. removing two other tribes who submitted. whilst he was yet but a youth. in some of the wars of Pannonia and Germany. Other nations also. armed with a hunting-dagger. in one battle he received a contusion in the right knee from a stone—and in another. which broke into revolt. and his grandson Agrippa. XXI. he induced even the Indians http://www. or only counterfeited madness. Nay. that they would faithfully observe their engagements. the Vindelici and the Salassii 139. and drove the Germans beyond the river Elbe. or remained at no great distance.htm (62 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by cutting off three of their generals with vast armies. proposed to fall both upon Octavius and the senate. but occasionally visited the army. by the fall of a fridge 135. His other wars he carried on by his lieutenants. and not violate the peace which they had implored.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

he observed the anniversary of this calamity. The temple of Janus Quirinus." This had formerly been resorted to in the Cimbrian and Marsian wars. the standards which they had taken from Marcus Crassus and Mark Antony. introducing some practices entirely new. Suetonius Tranquillus. his lieutenants. "O. and again after that of Sicily. he disbanded it with ignominy. XXII. at Actium. three legions. and offering him hostages besides. but that of Varus threatened the security of the empire itself. and sometimes knocked his head against the door-posts. that he let the hair of his head and beard grow for several months. and would not allow even his lieutenants the liberty to visit their wives. and prolonged the appointments of the prefects in the provinces. that he might send him into the country. we are informed that he was in such consternation at this event. Afterwards. He had also three curule triumphs 142 for his several victories in (86) Dalmatia.gutenberg. except reluctantly. and that of the Roman people. except twice in Germany. and Scythians. In all his wars. Optimus.htm (63 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . The former indeed had in it more of dishonour than disaster. Upon receiving intelligence of this disaster. he closed thrice in a much shorter period. when a contest arose between several pretenders to the crown of that kingdom. being cut off. with the commander. by C. they refused to acknowledge any one who was not chosen by him. The tenth legion becoming mutinous. from the era of the building of the city to his own time. which had been shut twice only. Quintilius Varus! Give me back my legions!" And (87) ever after. he exposed both him and his estate to public sale. to solicit his friendship. to render them incapable of serving in the wars. XXIV. and did the same by some others which petulantly demanded their discharge. having established universal peace both by sea and land. as a day of sorrow and mourning. In short. namely. crying out. he gave orders for keeping a strict watch over the city. he assigned him to a freedman of his own. But upon observing the farmers of the revenue very greedy for the purchase. which had become obsolete. Maximus. and all the auxiliaries. that the allies might be kept in order by experience of persons to whom they were used. and suffer him to retain his freedom. and in the winter season only. after the war of Philippi.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and Alexandria. he never received any signal or ignominious defeat. XXIII. A Roman knight having cut off the thumbs of his two young sons. and reviving others. nations before known to the Romans by report only. restoring at his demand. to prevent any public disturbance. In military affairs he made many alterations. "if he would be pleased to restore the state to more prosperous circumstances. withholding from them http://www. The Parthians readily allowed his claim to Armenia. under his lieutenants Lollius and Varus. by ambassadors. each of which lasted three days. He made a vow to celebrate the great games in honour of Jupiter. He maintained the strictest discipline among the troops. He twice entered the city with the honours of an Ovation 141.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

because they had a right themselves to grant such rewards to whom they pleased. Military rewards. Although he obliged persons of fortune.gutenberg. judging the former epithet to convey the idea of a degree of condescension inconsistent with military discipline. with a sea-green banner. Those who shared in the honours of a triumph. on one. For other misdemeanors he inflicted upon them various kinds of disgrace. or proclamations.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. he distributed more readily than camp or mural crowns. he judged it improper to distinguish by the usual rewards for service. and that of his house. and they received their manumission at once. yet he kept them together under their own standard. Centurions. such as obliging them to stand all day before the praetorium.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Agrippa. the maintenance of order. These he bestowed sparingly. collars. XXV. or under the apprehension of public disturbances during a scarcity of provisions." but as "Soldiers" only.htm (64 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Nor would he suffer them to be otherwise called by his sons or step-sons. and his own majesty. to guard (88) the banks of the river Rhine. both male and female. unmixed with soldiers who were better born. when they were in command. which were reckoned more honourable than the former. on which account he had frequently in his mouth those proverbs: Speude bradeos. and frequently even on common soldiers. sometimes in their tunics only. and fed with barley. as well as common sentinels. He presented M. in any of his military harangues. by C. http://www. Hasten slowly. hae erasus strataelataes. the rewards usually bestowed on those who had served their stated time in the wars. The cohorts which yielded their ground in time of action. although they had attended him in his expeditions. to give up their slaves. such as trappings. The cautious captain's better than the bold. and on the other. and taken part in his victories. or sods of turf. he never employed in his army slaves who had been made freedmen. he never. without partiality. After the conclusion of the civil wars. and without their belts. sometimes to carry poles ten feet long. And 'Asphalaes gar est' ameinon. and other decorations of gold and silver. he decimated. after the naval engagement in the Sicilian war. except upon two occasions. Unless at Rome. addressed them by the title of "Fellow-soldiers. He thought nothing more derogatory to the character of an accomplished general than precipitancy and rashness. in case of incendiary fires. he punished with death. and armed likewise after different fashion. who deserted their posts when on guard. for the security of the colonies bordering upon Illyricum.

after the interval of only one year. could never be compensated by all the fish they might take. or three months. unless the prospect of gain overbalanced the fear of loss. while he was invested with the highest office in the state. Marcus Lepidus made an apology in the senate for their past proceedings. named Cornelius. if ye will not. before the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. he prosecuted it with more determined rigour than either of them. resemble those who fish with a golden hook. if the line should happen to break. for a thirteenth. "This will make him consul. on the other hand.htm (65 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . During ten years he acted as one of the triumvirate for settling the commonwealth. upon the calends of January [1st January]. and to some. but after it was begun. throwing back his cloak. 144 XXVII. by C. that he might successively introduce into the forum. which is done well enough. and gave them hopes of a more mild administration for the future. In his five consulships from the sixth to the eleventh. Suetonius Tranquillus. who was at the head of the chief deputation. the loss of which.gutenberg. his two sons. he continued in office throughout the year. and sending deputies to demand it for him in the name of the army. six. that "a battle or a war ought never to be undertaken. he always declined it. And "That is done fast enough. and the eighth and ninth at Tarragona. He was advanced to public offices before the age at which he was legally qualified for them. his third.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. also. had the presumption to say in the senate-house. and held the same office every year successively until the eleventh. he voluntarily stood for the twelfth. until." said he. When the senate demurred. by the interest and intercession of friends." He was wont to say also. to shew mercy. (89) a centurion. and in his second no more than a few hours. four. and even proscribed Caius Toranius 145. in his curule chair 143. after the proscription was over. in which office he for some time opposed his colleagues in their design of a proscription. who had (90) been formerly the colleague of his father Octavius in the aedileship. during only nine. but upon the fourth in Asia. he alone strongly insisted that no one should be spared. and two years after that. For having sat for a short time in the morning. although the consulship was frequently offered him. and substituted another in his room.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and for life. For. He seized the consulship in the twentieth year of his age. he abdicated the office. after a long interval. because they had now sufficiently crushed their enemies. of a new kind. and shewing the hilt of his sword. his guardian. Caius and Lucius. on their entering public life. From this period. Nor did he enter upon them all at Rome. the fifth in the Isle of Samos. but in the rest. that he http://www." XXVI. declared that the only limit he had fixed to the proscription was. Junius Saturnius adds this farther account of him: that when." His second consulship he filled nine years afterwards. "men who pursue small advantages with no small hazard. For whilst they were often prevailed upon. quartering his legions in a threatening manner near the city. he. not less than seventeen years.

he advanced T. He accepted of the tribunitian power for life. for having concealed his patron at the time he was proscribed. a Roman knight. For as he was one day making an harangue. will stand firm and stable. immediately after he had crushed Antony. The second time was in consequence of a long illness. but the second by himself. that of being celebrated for moulding it into the form best adapted to present circumstances. He also had the supervision of morality and observance of the laws. lest it should be found to be something else. he resolved to keep it in his own hands. in which it was declared in the following terms: "May it be permitted me to have the happiness of establishing the commonwealth on a safe and sound basis. suspecting that it was a sword he had concealed. the first and third time with a colleague. is. he ordered him to be stabbed before his eyes. for the purpose of assassinating him. Suetonius Tranquillus. and might be dangerous to the public to have the government placed again under the control of the people. that Quintus Gallius sought a private conference with him. and delivered them a particular account of the state of the empire. His own account of the matter. the praetor. observing among the soldiers Pinarius. so that. that he therefore put him in prison. first. remembering that he had often charged him with being the obstacle to its restoration.gutenberg. is hard to say. He so terrified with his menaces Tedius Afer. when he sent for the magistrates and the senate to his own house. with his own hands. he caused him to be dragged from his tribunal by centurions and soldiers. whether with the better event or intention. however. and tortured like a slave: and although he made no confession. yet he thrice (91) took a census of the people. And when Quintus Gallius. and died on the spot. plucked out his eyes. XXVIII. and thus enjoy the reward of which I am ambitious.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. I may carry with me the hope that the foundations which I have laid for its future government. ordered him to be put to death. and banished him the city. should be free to act as he pleased. but without the title of censor. as a busy-body and a spy upon him. or by falling into the hands of robbers. that he threw himself from a great height. but afterwards released him. on my leaving the world. by C. for life. and yet not venturing to make a search. repenting of his severity. and was http://www. which was not built in a manner suitable to the grandeur of the empire. but more than once chose a colleague in that office for two lustra 147 successively. for having reflected upon some action of his.htm (66 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . when he perished either in a storm at sea. the consul elect 146. admit some private citizens. and engaged in taking notes." XXIX.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and also published an edict. Afterwards. after he had. The city. In this same office he incurred great odium upon many accounts. Vinius Philopoemen to the equestrian rank. But reflecting at the same time that it would be both hazardous to himself to return to the condition of a private person. however. His good intentions he often affirmed in private discourse. came to compliment him with a double tablet under his cloak. He twice entertained thoughts of restoring the republic 148.

his litter was struck by lightning.htm (67 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . in that place. should lodge the trophies of their triumphs. for instance. and the theatre of Marcellus 156. A great number of public buildings were erected by him. the Court of Freedom by Asinius Pollio. and a law was passed. as far as could be effected by human foresight. by Marcius Philippus. The reason of his building a new forum was the vast increase in the population. that he boasted. He divided the city into regions and districts. He added porticos to it. and the temple of Jupiter Tonans in the Capitol. and that in it those who returned victorious from the wars. that he "found it of brick. He erected the temple of Apollo 152 in that part of his house on the Palatine hill which had been struck with lightning. and examine the rolls of the judges.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He dedicated the temple to Apollo Tonans 154. that causes should be tried. and judges chosen by lot. It was therefore opened for public use before the temple of Mars was completely finished. it was thought necessary to have a third. containing the temple of Mars the Avenger. and the number of causes to be tried in the courts. his wife. 158 (94) XXX. in acknowledgment of his escape from a great danger in his Cantabrian expedition. and several other noble edifices by Marcus Agrippa. a temple of Saturn by Munatius Plancus. the soothsayers declared the God to have chosen. liable to inundations of the Tiber 149. that thence should be despatched all those who were sent into the provinces in the command of armies. the most considerable of which were a forum 151. and. on that account. or repairing and improving the old. according to their means. He appointed a nightly watch to be on their guard against accidents from fire. but left it of marble. He also often exhorted other persons of rank to embellish the city by new buildings. as well as to fires. and when advanced in years. Suetonius Tranquillus. Thus he built the portico and basilica of Lucius and Caius. such as the temple of Hercules and the Muses. (93) used frequently there to hold the senate. and which. and sister. He likewise constructed some public buildings in the name of others. not without reason. which killed the slave who carried a torch before him. In consequence of this recommendation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by C. ordaining that the annual magistrates should take by lot the charge of the former. a theatre by Cornelius Balbus 157. many were raised. a temple of Diana by Lucius Cornificius. with a library of Latin and Greek authors 153. to prevent the frequent inundations. an amphitheatre by Statilius Taurus. The temple of Mars was built in fulfilment of a vow made during the war of Philippi. when.gutenberg. the temple of Apollo on the Palatine hill. he widened http://www. his grandsons. undertaken by him to avenge his father's murder. and the porticos of Livia and Octavia 155." 150 He also rendered (92) it secure for the time to come against such disasters. for which. the two already existing not affording sufficient space. and that the latter should be superintended by wardens chosen out of the people of each neighbourhood. He ordained that the senate should always assemble there when they met to deliberate respecting wars and triumphs. was so much improved under his administration. as he was travelling in the night.

but through negligence was again fallen into confusion 162. August. or destroyed by fire. with jewels and pearls to the amount of fifty millions of sesterces. and in respect of the Secular games. the office of (96) high priest of Jupiter. in the Compitalian festival. On a single occasion. he took upon himself the charge of repairing the Flaminian way as far as Ariminum 160. He accordingly repaired http://www. He ordered the household gods to be decked twice a year with spring and summer flowers 167. with splendid offerings. which had become obsolete. or of no great authority. Temples decayed by time. unless in the company of some elderly relation. with the Secular. because in it he had obtained his first consulship. to be brought in. He increased the number. to ascertain which were genuine. The office of Pontifex Maximus. as well as many others. he committed to the flames. and Compitalian games. issued an order. Suetonius Tranquillus. To render the approaches to the city more commodious. to its former regularity. that no young persons of either sex should appear at any public diversions in the night-time. and especially those of the Vestal Virgins. dignity. by his own name. and many persons made interest that their daughters' names might be omitted in the lists for election. He restored the calendar. and cleansed the bed of the Tiber. but not even those without a strict examination.gutenberg. "If either of my own grand-daughters were old enough. the religious solemnity of the Lupercalia. he deposited in the cell of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This being done. amounting to upwards of two thousand volumes. which had been corrected by Julius Caesar. he replied with an oath. He then caused all prophetical books. rather than September. and revenues of the priests.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and the channel narrowed by the ruins of houses 159.htm (68 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and all his most considerable victories 164. which had in the course of years been almost dammed up with rubbish. he deposited them in two gilt coffers. XXXI. he assumed as soon as he was dead.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in which he was born. and the whole collection. both in Latin and Greek. of which he could (95) not decently deprive Lepidus as long as he lived 161. He prohibited young boys from running in the Lupercalia. sixteen thousand pounds of gold. and upon that occasion. and distributed the repairs of the other roads amongst several persons who had obtained the honour of a triumph. by C. the authors of which were either unknown. he either repaired or rebuilt. Next to the immortal gods. and enriched them. And when." He likewise revived some old religious customs. called the month Sextilis 163. upon the death of one of them. to be defrayed out of the money arising from the spoils of war. he paid the highest honours to the memory of those generals who had raised the Roman state from its low origin to the highest pitch of grandeur. as the augury of public health 166. preserving only the Sibylline oracles. I would have proposed her. a new one was to be taken 165. under the pedestal of the statue of the Palatine Apollo.

in which Caius Caesar had been killed. XXXII. and would sometimes prolong his sittings even into the night 170: if he were indisposed. He corrected many ill practices. his litter was placed before (98) the tribunal. and in different parts of the country. He struck out of the list of criminals the names of those over whom prosecutions had been long impending.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. a conformity to those illustrious examples. and all succeeding princes. or rebuilt the public edifices erected by them. by seeing their enemies humiliated. Places in the city claimed by the public. that is five years younger than had been usual before. where the right was doubtful. He was himself assiduous in his functions as a judge. nor business be neglected by delay. To the three classes of judges then existing. who were called Ducenarii. the houses of correction were subjected to a strict superintendence. all associations. The banditti he quelled by establishing posts of soldiers in suitable stations for the purpose. in both the porticos of his forum. he added a fourth. that the Roman people may require from me. and placing statues of them all. were dissolved. to the detriment of the public. and decided all litigations about trifling sums. Several associations were formed under the specious (97) name of a new college. he was with much difficulty prevailed upon to allow each class of judges a twelve-month's vacation in turn. by C. 169 XXXIII. completely armed. travellers. those only excepted which were of ancient standing. or he administered justice reclining on his couch at home. fronting the palace attached to Pompey's theatre. freemen and slaves without distinction. which banded together for the perpetration of all kinds of villany. he ordered the courts to sit during the thirty days which were spent in celebrating honorary games." He likewise removed the statue of Pompey from the senate-house.gutenberg. and kept to work in the houses of correction 168. in which he made the following declaration: "My design in so doing is. displaying always not only http://www. were forcibly carried off. he should incur the risk of the punishment which he sought to inflict. preserving the former inscriptions. And a great many declining the office. he adjudged to the actual possessors. Bands of robbers showed themselves openly. and recognised by the laws. and placed it under a marble arch. And that crimes might not escape punishment. with triumphal emblems. He chose judges from the age of thirty years and upwards. which. He burnt all the notes of those who had been a long time in arrear with the treasury. Suetonius Tranquillus. and the courts to be shut during the months of November and December. that if any one chose to renew a prosecution. or else originated in the long peace. consisting of persons of inferior order. issuing an edict on the occasion. as being the principal source of vexatious suits and prosecutions. where nothing further was intended by the informers than to gratify their own malice. laying it down as a rule.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. under colour of self-defence.htm (69 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . had either survived the licentious habits of the late civil wars.

That those who http://www. because none were punished in that manner but such as confessed the fact. each senator naming another.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.gutenberg. who. from the extreme penalty of being sewn up in a sack.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "guilty or not guilty. by C. he assigned every year to the praetor of the city. the greatest attention. Having been more severe in his reform of this law than the rest. The first of these scrutinies was left to themselves. these he allowed to retain the privileges of wearing the distinguishing dress. and after having his bosom searched [for secreted daggers]. but extreme lenity. and where provincials were concerned. he found the people utterly averse to submit to it. who evidently appeared guilty of parricide. and increasing the premiums on marriage. such as the sumptuary law. and shewed them partly sitting upon his own lap. and with ten of the stoutest men of senatorial rank. with a coat of mail under his tunic. standing round his chair. and of feasting publicly. whereupon he sent for the children of Germanicus. All appeals in causes between inhabitants of Rome. intimating by his looks and gestures. Suetonius Tranquillus. that relating to adultery and the violation of chastity. The equestrian order clamoured loudly. ignoring the offence of those who should appear to have given their signatures through any deception or mistake. except singly. he limited the time for consummation after espousals. did you?" And when. and likewise that for the encouragement of marriage. at a spectacle in the theatre. all those who had signed it were liable to the penalty of the Cornelian law. to men of consular rank. had been chosen by dint of interest and bribery. and imposed restrictions on divorce.htm (70 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . so that they had the nickname of Orcini among the people 171." but with a third likewise. But finding that the force of the law was eluded. and a sword by his side. to one of whom the business of each province was referred. Some laws he abrogated. who were his friends. for they were now more than a (99) thousand. and partly on their father's. On this occasion he is believed to have taken his seat as he presided. By two separate scrutinies he reduced to their former number and splendour the senate. the law against bribery in elections. To save a culprit. Some he obliged to have the grace of declining the office. which had been swamped by a disorderly crowd. besides allowing an interval of three years after a wife's death. in a trial of a cause about a forged will. and some of them very mean persons. by marrying girls under the age of puberty. XXXIV. he ordered that his colleagues on the tribunal should not only be furnished with the two tablets by which they decided. unless the penalties were abolished or mitigated. occupying the seats at the solemn spectacles. for its total repeal. he is said to have interrogated him thus: "Surely you did not kill your father. that they ought not to think it a grievance to follow the example of that young man. reserved to the senatorial order 173. and he made some new ones. Cordus Cremutius 172 relates that no senator was suffered to approach him. after Caesar's death. and by frequent change of wives. but the last was conducted by himself and Agrippa. XXXV.

he resolved to choose every six (100) months a new council.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He also made several other alterations in the management of public affairs. of the roads. He was unsparing in the reward of military merit. at the altar of that God in whose temple the senate then assembled 174. a triumvirate for the election of the senators. but as he pleased. XXXVII. among which were these following: that the acts of the senate should not be published 176. he permitted them. should pay his devotions. he should have two colleagues instead of one. that the management of the treasury should be transferred from the city-quaestors to the praetors. chosen by lot. and increased the number of praetors. he ordered that every senator. such as surveyors of the public buildings. He also took the votes of the senators upon any subject of importance. might perform their functions under more solemn obligations. He revived the office of censor 177. with whom he might consult previously upon such affairs as he judged proper at any time to lay before the full senate. namely. He likewise required that whenever the consulship was conferred on him. with an offering of frankincense and wine. or those who had already served in the latter office. To augment the number of persons employed in the administration of the state. on the calends and ides. such as the law required to give validity to a decree. and consenting to share it with another. nor in regular order. and another for inspecting the several troops of the equestrian order. and the bed of the Tiber. rather than a mere vote of assent. XXXVI. the praefecture of the city. which had been long disused. for the distribution of corn to the people. That the sons of senators might become early acquainted with the administration of affairs. having granted to above thirty generals the honour of the greater triumph.gutenberg. Suetonius Tranquillus. before he took his seat in the house. besides which. For himself. at the age when http://www.htm (71 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . a certain number only. that every one might hold himself ready to give his opinion. that the proconsuls should have a certain sum assigned them out of the treasury for mules and tents. that the magistrates should not be sent into the provinces immediately after the expiration of their office. should be required to attend. and that in the months of September and October 175. all the senators declaring by acclamation that he abated his high majesty quite enough in not filling the office alone. as often as it was necessary. but his proposal (101) was rejected.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and with less inconvenience. were chosen and approved of. and that their stated meetings should be only twice in the month. he took care to have triamphal decorations voted by the senate for more than that number. and that the decemviri should call together the court of One hundred. which used before to be contracted for by the government with private persons. by C. not according to custom. which had been formerly summoned by those who had filled the office of quaestor. XXXVIII. he devised several new offices. the aqueducts.

and to be present at the debates in the senate-house. and untainted with a mixture of foreign or servile blood. who had themselves. he obliged each of the Roman knights to give an account of his life: in regard to those who fell under his displeasure. With the assistance of ten senators. in which he himself was enrolled. XXXIX. And that all might have an opportunity of acquiring military experience.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he distributed to the freemen of the Fabian and Scaptian tribes. that they should receive their (103) share monthly.gutenberg. He took the census of the Roman people street by street: and that the people might not be too often taken from their business to receive the distribution of corn. he commonly joined two sons of senators in command of each troop of horse. endeavouring. and therefore durst not sit to see the public games in the theatre in the seats allotted to their order. Some he disgraced for borrowing money at low interest. confined to themselves. as had formerly been the practice. Suetonius Tranquillus. with its broad border. after the expiration of their office. if there was not a sufficient number of senatorian candidates. but at their request. or whose parents had ever. As most of the knights had been much reduced in their estates by the civil wars. they were to read on the spot. he continued the former regulation. He revived the former law of elections. to continue in whichsoever of the two orders they pleased. he not only bestowed the freedom of the city with a sparing hand. The mildest mode of reproof was by delivering them tablets 180. coming on foot to answer to their names. it was his intention to deliver tickets three times a year for four months respectively. The most part he only reprimanded. and letting it out again upon usurious profit. he nominated others from the equestrian order. He frequently reviewed the troops of the equestrian order. others had a mark of infamy set against their names. But he did not suffer any one to be obliged by an accuser to dismount while he passed in review. In the election of tribunes of the people. XL. which had been long laid aside. Upon the day of election.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he not only gave them the rank of military tribunes in the legions. by C. some were punished. that they might look for nothing from any of the candidates. When they entered the military service. but not in the same terms. or (102) any way deformed. for fear of the penalty provided by the law in that case. He permitted those who had attained the age of thirty-five years. As for such as were infirm with age. but likewise the command of the auxiliary horse. Considering it of extreme importance to preserve the Roman people pure. but laid http://www. a thousand sesterces each. they took the garb of manhood 178. and desired not to keep their horse any longer. he allowed them to send their horses before them. when the muster roll was called over soon afterwards. reviving the ancient custom of a cavalcade 179.htm (72 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . granting them the liberty. possessed a knight's estate. to suppress the practice of bribery. he enacted. to have the privilege of giving it up. to assume also the distinction of the senatorian robe. the contents of which. that none were liable to it. by various penalties.

He endeavoured also to restore the old habit and dress of the Romans. he would lend it free of interest. upon their complaining of the scarcity and dearness http://www. sometimes four hundred. XLII. some restriction upon the practice of manumitting slaves. "I shall not grant it. and to those who had not so much. in future. who before were not used to receive anything. but offered to release him from payment of taxes. by C. should ever obtain the freedom of the city in any degree. upon his bringing the treasure belonging to the kings of Egypt into the city. or none at all. and doubled the number of the money tickets. or two hundred and fifty sesterces upon which occasions. he exclaimed with indignation. Moreover. Romanos rerum dominos. he extended his bounty even to young boys. for the future. any Roman to be present in the forum or circus unless they took off their short coats. And afterwards. in his Alexandrian triumph. and satisfies me that he has just grounds for the application. When Tiberius interceded with him for the freedom of Rome in behalf of a Greek client of his. he wrote to him for answer. he would frequently let them have it at a very low price. and wore the toga. he made money so plentiful. Suetonius Tranquillus. but generally of different sums. He displayed his munificence to all ranks of the people on various occasions. saying.gutenberg. to such as could give security for the double of what was borrowed. by quibbles respecting the number. Stalk proudly in the toga's graceful robe. condition and difference of those who were to be manumitted.htm (73 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . in an assembly of the people.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. sometimes three hundred. he refused it. he likewise enacted that none who had been put in chains or tortured. a crowd in grey cloaks 181. "I shall sooner suffer some loss in my exchequer.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. for a fixed term." 182 Rome's conquering sons. lords of the wide-spread globe." Not content with interposing many obstacles to either the partial or complete emancipation of slaves. the former standard. He often made donations to the people. than that the citizenship of Rome be rendered too common. unless he comes himself. to be twelve hundred thousand. and upon seeing once. (104) XLI. "See there. gentemque togatem. he ordered. And he gave orders to the ediles not to permit. he reprimanded them very severely. The estate necessary to qualify a senator. he made good the deficiency." And when Livia begged the freedom of the city for a tributary Gaul. that interest fell. and the price of land rose considerably. instead of eight hundred thousand sesterces. as often as large sums of money came into his possession by means of confiscations. In a scarcity of corn. But to show that he was a prince who regarded more the good of his people than their applause. until they arrived at eleven years of age.

upon a promise he had made of a donative. he found many slaves had been emancipated and enrolled amongst the citizens. by players in all languages. by the great plenty of water with which he has supplied the town. because they trust so much to it. he declared that no one should receive anything who was not included in the promise. in which the performers were often youths of the highest rank. variety. he ordered out of the city the troops of slaves brought for sale. where wooden seats were erected for the purpose. and also with a naval fight. as I felt sure that the practice would some time or other be revived by some one ambitious of popular favour. he presented with a gold collar. that the spirit of the young nobles should be displayed in such exercises. and all foreigners. lest. in parties differing in age and station. On one occasion. he issued a proclamation upbraiding them for their scandalous impudence. "I shall now give you nothing. http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Agrippa. Part of the domestic slaves were likewise ordered to be dismissed. and sanctioned by ancient usage. and he gave the rest less than he had promised them. that as much account was taken of husbandmen and traders." But upon their importuning him for one which he had not promised. that they are too lazy to till their lands. excepting physicians and the teachers of the liberal sciences. it might be exposed to depredations. he said. but in the circus likewise." With the same strict firmness. who was lamed by a fall in this diversion. when. in a season of great scarcity.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "My son-in-law. he surpassed all former example. In the number. by robbers taking advantage of the small number of people left at home. "has sufficiently provided for quenching your thirst. plenty was restored." However. for which he excavated the ground near the Tiber. whatever I may have intended to do. acted by a select number of boys. and allowed him and his posterity to bear the surname of Torquati. he treated the people with games upon his own account. Suetonius Tranquillus. During these two entertainments he stationed guards in the city. and combats with wild beasts. Four-and-twenty times. 183 XLIII. When. at last. He entertained the people with wrestlers in the Campus Martius." Upon their demanding a gift which he had promised them. where there is now the grove of the Caesars. as of the idle populace. and upon several stages. but I did not persevere in my design. The same he did not only in the forum and amphitheatre. by C.htm (74 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . he so managed the affair ever afterwards. The performances took place sometimes in the different streets of the city. and magnificence of his public spectacles. His favourite spectacle was the Trojan game. of wine. and in the septa 184: and sometimes he exhibited only the hunting of wild beasts. at the same time telling them. he writes thus "I was much inclined to abolish for ever the practice of allowing the people corn at the public expense." he said.gutenberg. in order that the amount he had set apart might hold out. "I am a man of my word. Caius Nonius Asprenas. In the circus he exhibited chariot and foot races. and three-and-twenty times for such magistrates as were either absent. which it was difficult to remedy. he says. the gladiators (105) belonging to the masters of defence. or not able to afford the expense. thinking (106) that it was a practice both excellent in itself.

in any place whatever. in a crowded theatre. he fell on his back. after an affront which was offered to a senator at Puteoli. ordering that none clothed in black should sit in the centre of the circle 186. the first ever sent to Rome from that nation. was that of a young man named Lucius. if any thing was brought to Rome which was uncommon. He separated the soldiery from the rest of the people. of a good family. at times when there were no public entertainments. In one of his public spectacles. as he did a rhinoceros in the Septa. except from the upper part of the theatre. Sometimes he engaged Roman knights to act upon the stage. Another time. to sit in the orchestra. Thenceforth. to expose it to public view. his grandson. and to their tutors the seats which were nearest it. the only exhibition he made of that kind. And in the games exhibited by his (107) grandsons. for whom. and placed them in the second tier of seats above him. and might gratify curiosity. reserved for them only. and weighed only seventeen pounds. or to fight as gladiators. the joints of his curule chair happening to give way. XLIV. who was not quite two feet in height. by an alarm raised that the theatre was falling. no one would make room. but had a stentorian voice.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and seated himself in that part of the theatre which was thought to be exposed to most danger. he brought the hostages of the Parthians. who likewise broke his leg in the same diversion. which he performed in consequence of a vow. Nor would he allow any women to witness the combats of gladiators. when the people were in such consternation. in consequence of a severe and bitter speech made in the senate by Asinius Pollio. and in any place whatever. in the games celebrated for the opening of the theatre of Marcellus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. but only before the practice was prohibited by a decree of the senate. and obliged to attend the Thensae 185. and assigned to married plebeians their particular rows of seats. But soon afterwards he gave up the exhibition of this game. He corrected the confusion and disorder with which the spectators took their seats at the public games. Suetonius Tranquillus. the whole female sex from seeing the wrestlers: so that in the games which he exhibited upon his accession to the office of high-priest. in which he complained bitterly of the misfortune of Aeserninus. and intimated by proclamation. however. reclining on a litter. He excluded. that in all public spectacles of any sort. although they formerly used to take their places promiscuously with the rest of the spectators.gutenberg. It happened in the Circensian games. He therefore procured a decree of the senate. until the next morning. he deferred producing a pair of combatants which the people called for. the first tier of benches should be left empty for the accommodation of senators. through the middle of the amphitheatre. by C. opposite the praetor's bench. nor of those which were allies of Rome. http://www. failed. He used likewise. To the vestal virgins he granted seats in the theatre.htm (75 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . that he was taken ill. that all his efforts to re-assure them and keep them quiet. the orator. a tiger upon a stage. To the boys he assigned their own benches. and a snake fifty cubits lung in the Comitium. He would not even permit the ambassadors of free nations. he moved from his place. having found that some manumitted slaves had been sent under that character.

gutenberg. of which he made no secret. and tilting at random. admit.htm (76 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and sometimes for whole days. in the games exhibited by others. and a beneficial application of the revenues. without any knowledge of the art. In rights and privileges. from the upper rooms of the houses of his friends or freedmen. whom he used often to match with the Greek champions. upon a complaint against him by the praetor. sometimes from the place appointed for the statues of the gods. When present. He (108) occasionally absented himself from the spectacles for several hours. he ordered him to be whipped through all the three theatres. restricting their jurisdiction entirely to the time of performance and misdemeanours in the theatres. and greatly improved it by public works. but not without first making an apology. to wait upon him at table. the privileges of the wrestlers. not only between combatants who had been trained scientifically. against the time of the http://www. He took particular pleasure in witnessing pugilistic contests. but enlarged. and turning the eyes of the audience upon him. without rewarding the most deserving. Hylas. (109) XLVI. a performer of the highest class. and sitting in company with his wife and children. "his pleasure that no woman should appear in the theatre before five o'clock. he honoured with his patronage all sorts of people who contributed in any way to the success of the public entertainments. and dressed in boy's clothes. Suetonius Tranquillus. which the principal officers and magistrates of the colonies might take at home. and exacted with the utmost rigour the greatest exertions of the wrestlers and gladiators in their several encounters. by C. by inventing a new kind of suffrage. and then banished him. and forward under seal to the city. he often candidly owning it. he rendered it in a measure equal to the city itself. and he never was present at any performance of the Greeks. He generally viewed the Circensian games himself. however. according to their merit. He deprived the magistrates of the power of correcting the stage-players. of no abatement. or from the real pleasure he took in attending those exhibitions. but from Italy also. He went so far in restraining the licentiousness of stage-players. and appointing substitutes to preside in his stead. but even between mobs of the lower classes fighting in streets. had a married woman with her hair cropped. he augmented the population of Italy by planting in it no less than twenty-eight colonies 187. Caesar. He prohibited combats of gladiators where no quarter was given. Having thus regulated the city and its concerns." XLV.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He would. In short. which. an actor of pantomimes. This he manifested frequently by presenting honorary crowns and handsome rewards to the best performers. And Pylades he not only banished from the city. which by an ancient law was allowed them at all times. that upon discovering that Stephanio. especially those of the Latins.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He not only maintained. however. he never attended to anything else either to avoid the reflections which he used to say were commonly made upon his father. and making rescripts during the spectacles. for perusing letters and memorials. he commanded to be scourged in the court of his own house. and in all places. for pointing with his finger at a spectator by whom he was hissed. was open to the public.

of which he had made himself master by the right of conquest. a province. until they arrived at age. determining these according to their rank in the army. which were much in debt. by C. except Africa and Sardinia. Suetonius Tranquillus. until the defeat of Varus. and of children among the lower ranks. The rest he quartered in the neighbourhood of the nearest towns. Yet he never permitted a greater force than three cohorts in the city. he either restored to their former possessors 188.gutenberg. I believe. All the troops throughout the empire he reduced to one fixed model with regard to their pay and their pensions. or recovered their senses. he granted the petitions of all those who requested the honour of doing military service on horseback as knights. a few only excepted. which he did not visit. After forcing Sextus Pompeius to take refuge in those provinces. and another at Ravenna. which could not with ease or safety be entrusted to the government of annual magistrates. or even that of the City.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. treated them all with the same consideration. provided their demands were seconded by the recommendation of the town in which they lived. There is not. and frequently visited most of both kinds in person. elections. To such of them as were minors or lunatics he appointed guardians. and also the Germans. XLVIII. and afterwards there was no occasion or call for such a voyage. but was prevented by continual and violent storms. to occupy the posts in the city. XLVII. he was indeed preparing to cross over from Sicily to them. The more important provinces. he presented the freedom of Latium. XLIX. Between (110) kings of alliance with Rome. he stationed a fleet at Misenum. Some cities in alliance with Rome. they might not be tempted by age or necessities to join the agitators for a revolution. and the sons of many of them he brought up and educated with his own. and partly for his own body-guard. for the protection of the Upper and Lower Seas 189. indeed. in winter and summer camps. Others. but which by their great licentiousness were hastening to ruin. he distributed the legions and auxiliary troops throughout the several provinces. he reserved for his own administration: the rest he distributed by lot amongst the proconsuls: but sometimes he made exchanges. To increase the number of persons of condition.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. A certain number of the forces were selected. he distributed a thousand sesterces a head to such of the lower class as presented him with sons or daughters. and. For the purpose http://www. and rebuilt such as had been destroyed by earthquakes. To those that could produce any instance of their having deserved well of the Roman people. so that after their discharge. he encouraged most intimate union. With respect to the army. the time they had served. which he retained about him till the fall of Antony. and had no (pretorian) camps 190. whom he had amongst his guards. he deprived of their independence. but he dismissed the Spanish guard. Kingdoms. being always ready to promote or favour any proposal of marriage or friendship amongst them. and when he visited the several districts of Italy. he relieved. or conferred upon aliens. and their private means.htm (77 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . as if they were members and parts of the empire.

or epistles. and the other with an easy banishment. that he used to calumniate Caesar. and converted the whole into tripods. I shall let Aelianus know that I have a tongue too. as occasion occurred.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he instituted a military exchequer. In order to obtain the earliest intelligence of what was passing in the provinces. and appropriated new taxes to that object. among other charges exhibited against him. engraved by the hand of Dioscorides. he bent down on one knee. with his toga thrown over his shoulders. who were both plebeians. Although he knew that it had been customary to decree temples in honour of the proconsuls. received into favour. L. when. and at last his own. He was extremely precise in dating his letters. and his breast exposed to view. In sealing letters-patent. "I wish you could make that appear. with an air and tone of passion. written on the spot. which appeared to him the most commodious." Nor did he. and shall speak sharper of him than he ever did of me. he at first used the figure of a sphinx. of Cordova. not to enumerate how many and what persons of the adverse party he pardoned. "that he neither wanted inclination nor courage to stab him.gutenberg. if we can prevent any one from really doing us mischief. Within the limits of the city. either then or afterwards.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. give way to the ardour of youth in this affair. which practice was retained by the succeeding emperors. make any farther inquiry into the affair." In the trial of Aemilius Aelianus. by C. in the name of young Agrippa. complained of the affront with great earnestness. and suffered to rise to the highest eminence in the state. unless in the joint names of himself and Rome. It is enough. He melted down all the silver statues which had been erected to him. he turned round to the accuser. yet he would not permit them to be erected in any of the provinces.htm (78 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Suetonius Tranquillus. in a letter. he positively refused any honour of that kind. and the other declared openly. http://www. and said. of providing a fund always ready to meet their pay and pensions. he returned him an answer in the following terms: "Do not. and afterwards of regular couriers with fast vehicles. putting down exactly the time of the day or night at which they were dispatched. although the former had published. for us. which he consecrated to the Palatine Apollo. rescripts. my dear Tiberius. And when the people importuned him to accept the dictatorship. he established posts. at an entertainment where there was a great deal of company. nor be so indignant that any person should speak ill of me. it was particularly insisted upon. he thought it sufficient to punish Junius Novatus and Cassius Patavinus. Of his clemency and moderation there are abundant and signal instances. And when Tiberius." LII. because the persons who were the bearers of dispatches. For. might then be questioned about the business. begging to be excused. one of them with a fine. consisting at first of young men stationed at moderate distances along the military roads. afterwards the head of Alexander (111) the Great. a very scurrilous letter against him. LI.

"I did not understand you. and was then in banishment. addressing them each by name as they sat. without any prompter." Nor was any one ever molested for his freedom of speech. Suetonius Tranquillus. he maintained with many of them a constant intercourse of mutual civilities. and by his consolatory admonitions diverted him from his purpose. Even when some infamous libels against him were dispersed in the senate-house. as to quit the house in anger. when each. performed at the theatre. some of the members have repeatedly exclaimed: "Surely. in common with people of the higher ranks. those http://www. with whom he had only a slight acquaintance. as he was named. he bade each of them farewell. as applied to him. except in the evening or the night. "Is there no other person more deserving?" he replied. upon his being so much offended at the heat with which the debates were conducted in the senate. He always abhorred the title of Lord 191. During his consulships. he instantly put a stop to their indecent flattery. although it was carried to the extent of insolence. he commonly walked the streets on foot. In the same manner. LIV. while they retained their seats. either in jest or earnest and forbad them the use of all such complimentary expressions to one another. as ill-omened and offensive. who had formerly been Augustus's enemy." And sometimes. receiving the petitions of those who approached him with so much affability.htm (79 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . giving them his company upon occasions of any particular festivity in their families. rode in a close carriage. in the election of a new senate. but at other times. by telling him. He rarely entered any city or town. that. nor did he give himself much trouble to refute them. LV. even by his own children or grand-children." On senate days. a senator. at which he was present. On his speaking in the senate. He admitted to court even plebeians. And when. with joyful acclamations. to avoid giving any person the trouble of complimenting him. in a proclamation. nominated Marcus Lepidus. that he once jocosely rebuked a man.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "You present your memorial with as much hesitation as if you were offering money to an elephant. or departed from it. he has been told by (113) one of the members.gutenberg. in a play. and was incommoded by the crowd at a wedding. "Every man has his own opinion.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. had suddenly lost his sight. but only proposed. for the future. (112) LIII. could I do it with safety. by waving his hand. these words were introduced. chose another. he was neither disturbed. and next day publicly declared his displeasure. and being asked by the latter. and under that privation had resolved to starve himself to death. testified their approbation of them. "O just and gracious lord. he used to pay his respects to the Conscript Fathers only in the house. the senators ought to have liberty of speech on matters of government. "I would contradict you. He would not so much as order an enquiry to be made after the authors. He never afterwards would suffer himself to be addressed in that manner. by C. Being informed that Gallus Terrinius. he paid him a visit. and on his departure." and by another. and frowning sternly." and the whole company." Antistius Labeo. until he became advanced in years.

he took his seat amongst his advocates for several hours. or be exempt from the laws which governed others. of the senate. When his house on the Palatine hill was http://www." said he. and if I do not. He likewise gave his own vote in his tribe. was tried upon a charge of administering poison at the instance of Cassius Severus. He suffered himself to be summoned as a witness upon trials. but to be cross-examined. He likewise appeared for his clients." With the unanimous concurrence. Being provoked by some petulant jests. an old soldier of his. When Asprenas Nonius. he made it a matter of serious complaint. who brought an action for slander. as one of the people. should be called to account. as an offering for his welfare. against any person. and with one accord. How much he was beloved for his worthy conduct in all these respects. an intimate friend of his. He never relieved any one from prosecution but in a single instance. he went round the tribes. it is easy to imagine. in a borrowed name. not presuming to compel the owners of the neighbouring houses to give up their property. which he erected in several streets of the city. (114) He was desirous that his friends should be great and powerful in the state.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. "If they deserve it. therefore. on the calends [first] of January. I say nothing of the decrees of the senate in his honour. yearly. which may seem to have resulted from compulsion or deference. to drop his prosecution. with the candidates of his nomination. and yet he prevented the senate from passing an act. he answered them by a proclamation. and others. but have no exclusive privileges. and giving them applause in a standing position. without adding these words. presented for his acceptance new-year's gifts in the Capitol. to restrain the liberties which were taken with others in people's wills.htm (80 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . which were designed to render him odious. as on behalf of Scutarius. in the case of a man who had given information of the conspiracy of Muraena. as was usual. he consulted the senate for their opinion what was his duty under the circumstances: "For. I may be supposed to screen a guilty man. "I am afraid. as that of Apollo Sandaliarius. Suetonius Tranquillus. In building his Forum. with the utmost patience. and not only to be questioned. lest. while they were yet minors.gutenberg. always celebrated his birth for two days together.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He never recommended his sons to the people. and that he did only by prevailing upon the accuser. and begged the votes of the people in the usual manner. Whenever he attended at the election of magistrates. threw a piece of money into the Curtian lake 192. LVI. though he was not present with which donations he purchased some costly images of the Gods. he restricted himself in the site. by C. LVII. in performance of a vow they had made. Jupiter Tragoedus 193. but without giving him the benefit of speaking to character. who published libels or lampoons. to desert and prejudge a friend. and all ranks of the people. The Roman knights voluntarily. in open court. They likewise. if I should stand by him in the cause." And upon the audience rising on their entering the theatre.

And most of the provinces. and pay their vows. The kings. accidentally destroyed by fire. the veteran soldiers. at their common expense. (for we think we thus most effectually pray for the lasting welfare of the state).gutenberg." Some Italian cities appointed the day upon which he first visited them. by C. individually. who had cured him of a dangerous illness. Caesar Augustus." To this compliment Augustus replied. that their heirs should lead victims to the Capitol. to which they gave the name of Caesarea. in these words (for I give them exactly as I have done those of Messala): "Having now arrived at the summit of my wishes. but with songs. but by commissioning M. they erected a statue near that of Aesculapius. and assuming the toga. his friends and allies. by a deputation from the people. and upon his declining the honour. salute you by the title of FATHER OF YOUR COUNTRY. Suetonius Tranquillus. Some heads of families ordered in their wills. It is also remarked. LVIII. the infliction of punishment was suspended for the time.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. To the physician Antonius Musa 196. in the manner of clients to their patrons. It was announced to him first at Antium. they repeated their offer on his return to Rome. instituted games. but he would (115) accept only of some small portion out of the several sums collected. and all with one consent resolved to finish. to compliment him with it in the following terms: "With hearty wishes for the happiness and prosperity of yourself and your family. and with unanimous consent. what else have I to beg of the Immortal (116) Gods. and refused to take from any one person more than a single denarius 194. the temple of Jupiter Olympius. upon a sudden impulse. when they were crowned with laurel. LX. attended and paid their respects to him daily. and consecrate it to his Genius. in most towns. "Because Augustus still survived. Upon his return home from any of the provinces. with tears in his eyes. Messala. by a general subscription. in agreement with the Roman people. according to the ability of each. The whole body of the people. O Conscript Fathers 195. in a full theatre. The senate soon afterwards adopted the proposal. Having thus given an account of the manner in which he filled his public offices both civil http://www. at Athens. for rebuilding it. the senate. to be celebrated to his honour. but when he was travelling through the provinces. with a tablet carried before them. which had been begun long before. not only at Rome.htm (81 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . every five years. built cities in their respective kingdoms. laid aside the badges of royalty. the judges.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. LXI. contributed. the tribes. besides erecting temples and altars. they attended him not only with joyful acclamations. and even the people. in an unanimous vote. not in the way of acclamation or decree. but the continuance of this your affection for me to the last moments of my life?" LIX. to be thenceforth the beginning of their year. They frequently also left their kingdoms. offered him the title of FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY. that as often as he entered the city.

while yet very young. as he himself writes. He had three grandsons by Agrippa and Julia. and he obliged him to part with his wife at that time pregnant. who had just completed his minority. and his sister Octavia. demanding at the same time the king's daughter in marriage for himself. he married Antony's step-daughter Claudia. He lost his mother in his first consulship. by C. although at that time she was scarcely marriageable. both in peace and war. Soon afterwards he took to wife Scribonia. king of the Getae 201. Agrippa dying also. but miscarried. from her husband Tiberius Nero. that it might http://www. By Scribonia he had a daughter named Julia. and obliged them to speak and act every thing openly before the family. and even spinning. and a pure virgin. and was a mother by one of them. "That he first contracted Julia to his son. indeed. who had before been twice married to men of consular rank 199. he for a long time thought of several matches for Julia in even the equestrian order.htm (82 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . to Marcus Agrippa. but no children by Livia. the daughter of Fulvia by Publius Claudius. and Agrippa. namely. Suetonius Tranquillus. his sister's son. although extremely desirous of issue. and upon a difference arising with his mother-in-law Fulvia. She. He behaved towards them both with the utmost kindness whilst living. and after their decease paid the highest honours to their memory.gutenberg." (118) LXIV. and when they were consuls-elect. his habits at home and among his friends and dependents. but upon his reconciliation with Antony after their first rupture 198. Mark Antony writes. when he was in the fifty-fourth year of his age 197. by the ceremony of purchase 202 from their father. and at last resolved upon selecting Tiberius for his step-son. to offices in the state. and the fortune attending him in those scenes of retirement. He gave his daughter Julia in the first instance to Marcellus. and two grand-daughters. and afterwards to Cotiso. he accustomed them to domestic employments. and had children by her. In bringing up his daughter and grand-daughters. Julia he married to Lucius Paulus. for at that time Agrippa was married to one of the Marcellas. conceived once. being quite tired out. from his youth to the day of his death. and. his sister's grandson. after his death. He was contracted when very young to the daughter of Publius Servilius Isauricus. with the perverseness of her temper. LXIII. though then pregnant. the armies on both sides insisting on a family alliance between them. advanced them. the censor's son. he divorced her untouched. having prevailed with his sister to yield her son-in-law to his wishes. Lucius. I shall now describe his private and domestic life. sent them to visit the provinces and armies.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and his conduct in the government of the empire. Caius and Lucius he adopted at home. Julia and Agrippina. and military.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and who had already brought him a child. and immediately took Livia Drusilla. and she had never any rival in his love and esteem. (117) LXII. and Agrippina to Germanicus. With her likewise he parted 200. Caius.

or riding beside him. stature. Suetonius Tranquillus. in which he told him.gutenberg. by a law passed for the purpose by the Sections 203. Upon any mention of him and the two Julias. all the reply he gave was: "I wish you had all such daughters and wives as she is. and placed a guard of soldiers about him." In her banishment he would not allow her the use of wine. by C. nor ever travelled but with them in a chariot before him. who was equally intractable. and other rudiments of knowledge. a freed-woman and confidant of hers. The two Julias. nor would he suffer her to be waited upon by any male servant. agonos t' apoletai. and he laboured nothing more than to perfect them in the imitation of his hand-writing. that for some time he avoided all company. LXV. that he banished them both. but in the case of his daughter. that he once wrote a letter to Lucius Vinicius. but he soon afterwards discarded Agrippa for his coarse and unruly temper. a handsome young man of a good family. and treated her with less severity. and confined him at Surrentum. not having the heart to be present himself.htm (83 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . for he was not overwhelmed by the loss of Caius and Lucius." He likewise forbad a child. in making a visit to my daughter at Baiae. he transported to an island 205. Caius and Lucius he lost within the space of eighteen months. swimming. he said. It is certain that when one Phoebe. the former dying in Lycia. http://www. Agrippa. But in the midst of all his joy and hopes in his numerous and well-regulated family. and what marks or scars he had about him. his daughter and grand-daughter. and had thoughts of putting her to death. indeed. procuring at the same time an act of the senate for his confinement there during life.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. nor any luxury in dress. Aith' ophelon agamos t' emenai. "I had rather be the father of Phoebe than of Julia. and the latter at Marseilles. and whose folly increased every day. he was so much ashamed of her infamous conduct. He bore the death of his relations with more patience than he did their disgrace. with a heavy sigh. He never supped but he had them sitting at the foot of his couch. His third grandson Agrippa. hanged herself about the same time. without his permission. either freeman or slave. "You have not behaved very modestly. with his step-son Tiberius. or brought up. to be either owned as a relation. abandoned themselves to such courses of lewdness and debauchery. and having received an exact account of his age. He so strictly prohibited them from all converse with strangers. he would say. but could never be prevailed upon to recall her." He usually instructed his grandsons himself in reading. be put down in the diary. his fortune failed him. he stated the facts to the senate in a message read to them by (119) the quaestor. complexion. When the Roman people interposed on her behalf several times with much importunity. of which his grand-daughter Julia was delivered after sentence had passed against her.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he adopted in the forum. At the end of five years he removed her from the island [where she was confined] to the continent 204.

to say nothing of others. some proofs of their reciprocal attachment. and Mecaenas a tattler. nor his joy. and the other. provided that they were (120) of a venial kind. being denounced by his accusers. the former having thrown up all his employments and retired to Mitylene. he forbad his house. not being able to conceal his chagrin. on the other hand. http://www. He was cautious in forming friendships.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. As a patron and master. whom he raised to the consulship." The rest of his friends of all orders flourished during their whole lives. we scarcely find any who fell into disgrace with him. He likewise expected from his friends. being engaged in plotting a rebellion. or of their marriage." said he. if they expressed a grateful sense of his favours. he delivered over to the senate. and others. not only rewarding the virtues and merits of his friends according to their deserts. either immediately. except Salvidienus Rufus. and when his slave. if in their wills they made but a slight. upon the day of their assuming the manly dress. Enceladus. Cosmus. he sometimes complained that Agrippa was hasty. he commended. Would I were wifeless. One of these. but bearing likewise with their faults and vices. For though he was far from coveting their property. And whatever legacies or shares of their property were left him by such as were parents. with interest. on suspicion of some slight coolness. or had childless died! 206 nor did he usually call them by any other name than that of his "three imposthumes or cancers. and Cornelius Gallus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he used to restore to their children. but clung to them with great constancy. his behaviour in general was mild and conciliating. as Licinus. the attachment to his person of those who manifested so much indignation. and a hearty affection for him. LXVII. whom he made prefect of Egypt. but when occasion required it. notwithstanding some occasional lapses. For amongst all his friends. and from jealousy that Marcellus received greater marks of favour. or no very honourable mention of him. and his living in any of the provinces. however. at their deaths as well as during their lives. indeed." LXVI. both of them men of the lowest extraction. and the latter having confidentially imparted to his wife Terentia the discovery of Muraena's conspiracy. When.gutenberg. and sentenced by the senate. by C. for condemnation. was driven to the desperate extremity of laying violent hands upon himself. on account of his ungrateful and malicious temper. he (121) could be severe. "That I alone. in the highest ranks of their several orders. but he shed tears. both in power and wealth. yet he pondered in a melancholy mood over their last words. Gallus. and lamented his unhappy condition.htm (84 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . For. and indeed would never accept of any legacy left him by a stranger. or if they were under age. "cannot be allowed to resent the misconduct of my friends in such a way only as I would wish. He advanced many of his freedmen to posts of honour and great importance.

when the following sentence was recited. Nay. and bringing her again to the entertainment. Lucius Antony. and turned an occurrence of no small hazard into a jest. He broke the legs of his secretary. charges him with pollution by Caesar. and M. and her hair in great disorder: that he had divorced Scribonia. he caused heavy weights to be tied about their necks. had them under sale.gutenberg. Videsne ut cinaedus orbem digito temperet? See with his orb the wanton's finger play! applied the passage to him. Suetonius Tranquillus. in the presence of her husband. thus: "Why are you changed towards me? Because I lie with http://www. Mark Antony. charges him with taking the wife of a man of consular rank from table. (122) LXIX. the whole concourse of the people. beating a drum 209. He put to death Proculus. into a bed-chamber. for taking a bribe of five hundred denarii to discover the contents of one of his letters. but from policy. adding. In his early youth various aspersions of an infamous character were heaped upon him. with earning his adoption from his uncle by prostitution. for maintaining a criminal commerce with other men's wives. and that. When his steward. for resenting too freely the excessive influence which one of his mistresses had gained over him: that his friends were employed to pimp for him. which suddenly attacked them while they were walking together. to give loose to their insolence and rapacity in the province he governed. one of his most favourite freedmen. that he engaged in those intrigues not from lewdness. left him to the mercy of a wild boar. in order to discover more easily the designs of his enemies.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. at some public diversions in the theatre. Antony. that he used to singe his legs with burnt nut-shells. but they allege in excuse for it. And the tutor and other attendants of his son Caius. by C. Diomedes. And before they came to an open rupture. alluding to the Gallic priest of the mother of the gods 208. Thallus. and accordingly obliged both matrons and ripe virgins to strip. for a complete examination of their persons. for a gratification of three hundred thousand sesterces. in the same manner as if Thoranius. with great applause. and had them thrown into a river. is not denied even by his friends. besides the precipitate marriage of Livia. he had submitted to Aulus Hirtius in the same way. through their wives. to make the hair become softer 207. in Spain.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he resented the injury no further than by putting him in fetters. he considered it rather a cowardice than a breach of duty.htm (85 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . because there was no knavery in his steward's conduct. the dealer in slaves. with her ears very red. likewise Mark's brother. had reflected bitterly upon him. he writes to him in a familiar manner. That he was guilty of various acts of adultery. having taken advantage of his sickness and death. LXVIII. Sextus Pompey reproached him with being an effeminate fellow.

Sexque deos vidit Mallia. as well as with being addicted to gaming. or upon whom. you spend your manly vigour?" LXX. Is this a new thing with me.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars." under which title that god was worshipped in some quarter of the city 212. in the city. a queen? She is my wife. or Salvia Titiscenia. during the time of the proscription. and Corinthian vessels.htm (86 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . my dealings are in brass. commonly called the Supper of the Twelve Gods 211. Suetonius Tranquillus. ego Corinthiarius. Dum nova divorum coenat adulteria: Omnia se a terris tunc numina declinarunt: Fugit et auratos Jupiter ipse thronos. Caesar assumed what was Apollo's due. http://www. At the foul sight the gods avert their eyes. or all of them. while he personated Apollo himself. and was imputed to him not only by Antony in his letters. The day after. Rufilla 210. sexque deas Impia dum Phoebi Caesar mendacia ludit. by C. but Apollo the Tormentor. What matters it to you where. He was likewise charged with being excessively fond of fine furniture.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. My father was a silversmith 213.gutenberg. When Mallia late beheld. Twelve mortals ape twelve deities in vain. and at which the guests (123) were dressed in the habit of gods and goddesses. you are not in dalliance with Tertulla. What rendered this supper more obnoxious to public censure. "that the gods had eaten up all the corn. and almost a famine. And from his throne great Jove indignant flies. A private entertainment which he gave. or have I not done so for these nine years? And do you take freedoms with Drusilla only? May health and happiness so attend you. but in the following well-known anonymous verses: Cum primum istorum conduxit mensa choragum. was that it happened at a time when there was a great scarcity. the following line was written upon his statue:— Pater argentarius. in mingled train. afforded subject of much conversation. For. and that Caesar was indeed Apollo. And wine and lust inflamed the motley crew. as when you read this letter. Terentilla. who likewise names all the parties concerned. there was a cry current among the people.

he reserved for himself nothing of the royal treasures but a porcelain cup. and soon afterwards melted down all the vessels of gold. he was in the habit of debauching young girls. or at the game of Even-or-Odd. in which he says. even by his own wife. and. but then I was profusely (125) generous in my play. that he had put some persons upon the list of the proscribed. But this I like better for it will raise my character for generosity to the skies. LXXI. even such as were intended for common use. as is reported. as well as ever afterwards. in the Sicilian war. from all quarters. I should have won about fifty thousand. even when he was advanced in years. and Silvius the father. This evidently appears from a letter under his own hand. but recovering by degrees. but played in public. he paid not the smallest regard. he in the end lost not much. or kept what I gave away. but at other times." http://www. both yesterday and today. Twice having lost a fleet in luckless fight. and not only in the month of December 214. To the observations on his gaming. he put down for every talus a denarius. when. His conduct likewise gave the lie to that of luxurious extravagance in his furniture. "I supped. And as any one threw upon the tali 215 aces or sixes. besides. all which was gained by him who threw a Venus. I lost twenty thousand sesterces for my part. who were procured for him. ludit assidue aleam. but purely for his diversion. at the very time when it was made." In a letter to his daughter.htm (87 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . because it was believed.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and unexpectedly. Suetonius Tranquillus. and upon all days. with the same company. as I commonly am. But his amorous propensities never left him. by C. the following epigram was published:— Postquam bis classe victus naves perdidit. We had." 216 In another letter. upon the taking of Alexandria. To win at last. for had I insisted upon the stakes which I declined. my dear Tiberius. And afterwards. With respect to the charge or imputation of loathsome impurity before-mentioned. Vinicius. whether festivals or not.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he writes thus: "I have sent you two hundred and fifty denarii. We gamed at supper like old fellows. Aliquando ut vincat. Your brother uttered many exclamations at a desperate run of ill-fortune. a pleasant time of it during the festival of Minerva: for we played every day. he games both day and night.gutenberg. in case they were inclined at supper to divert themselves with the Tali. and kept the gaming-board warm. as he grew older. which I gave to every one of my guests. only to obtain the Corinthian vessels in (124) their possession. he says: "We had. he very easily refuted it by the chastity of his life. my dear Tiberius.

and free from suspicion of any kind of vice. but such as was low. which he called his Syracuse or Technophuon 220. above the Ring-maker's Stairs. from some beds and tables still remaining. during forty years 219: for though he was sensible that the city did not agree with his health in the winter. by C. when rewarded with the privilege of citizenship. It is reported that he never lay upon a bed. and Tibur 223. His togas 224 were neither scanty nor full. and some which had been raised at a vast expense by his grand-daughter. in a house which had once been occupied by Calvus the orator. He lived at first near the Roman Forum. He had always clothes and shoes. http://www. for betraying Pompey's fleet. At his table. no way remarkable either for size or ornament. he commonly took up his residence in the house of Mecaenas 221. which was always plentiful and elegant. and also the arms of ancient heroes. Of all the places of retirement from the city. He continued to use the same bed-chamber.gutenberg. In other matters. Suetonius Tranquillus. he levelled to the ground. where he often used to sit for the administration of justice. LXXIII.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. daughter. sister. and things which were curious either for their antiquity or rarity. he (126) chiefly frequented those upon the sea-coast. Praeneste. most of which are scarcely elegant enough for a private family. it appears that he was moderate in his habits. (127) and the clavus was neither remarkably broad or narrow. himself. he nevertheless resided constantly in it during that season. He writes. fit to appear in public. that he never admitted any freedman to his table. such as. He seldom wore any garment but what was made by the hands of his wife. and the rooms without any thing of marble. ready in his bed-chamber for any sudden occasion. both winter and summer. in the porticos of the temple of Hercules. he shut himself up in an apartment at the top of his house. both as to rank and character.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. which were far from being spacious. such as Lanuvium. or the towns nearest the city. and meanly furnished. where he resided in a small house 217 belonging to Hortensius. at Capri. and the islands of Campania 222.htm (88 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the huge limbs of sea-monsters and wild beasts. His frugality in the furniture of his house appears even at this day. but was very scrupulous in the choice of them. He afterwards moved to the Palatine Hill. the piazzas being but small. He had a particular aversion to large and sumptuous palaces. and grand-daughters. or fine paving. except Menas. which some affect to call the bones of giants. he constantly entertained company. His shoes were a little higher than common. Those of his own. as with walks and groves. that he invited to his table a person in whose villa he lodged. If at any time he wished to be perfectly retired. Valerius Messala informs us. LXXIV. or he went to some villa belonging to his freedmen near the city. the pillars of Alban stone 218. he adorned. LXXII. But when he was indisposed. to make him appear taller than he was. not so much with statues and pictures. and secure from interruption. and who had formerly been employed by him as a spy. Julia.

in my carriage. small fishes. or even low performers from the circus. He was by nature extremely sparing in the use of wine. and after the first hour of the night. He ate sparingly (for I must not omit even this).The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. juicy apple. he encouraged to join in the general conversation. before I began to be rubbed with oil. his courtesy was extreme. and to run the chance of loss or gain wits the rest. he used to take a piece of bread dipped in cold water. For those who were silent. He did not wait for supper. Festivals and holidays he usually celebrated very expensively. with tickets on them. The following passages relative to this subject. and other things of that kind. "In returning home from the palace in my litter. LXXVI.htm (89 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and a few raisins.gutenberg." Again. sometimes coins of all sorts. and continued at table after his departure. rakes. LXXV. or some leaves of lettuce. I have transcribed from his letters. Suetonius Tranquillus. and in any place. He used likewise to sell by lot among his guests articles of very unequal value. and introduced buffoons and stage players. even of the ancient kings of Rome and of foreign nations. every one being obliged to buy something. and pictures with their fronts reversed. and had a double meaning 225. He was particularly fond of coarse bread. but took food at any time. for while in the bath. he never exceeded a pint. by the unknown quality of the lot. to enliven the company. "No Jew. sponges. LXXVIII. sometimes nothing but towels. that he used to drink only three times at supper in the camp at Modena. and so. and withdrew early. gold. my dear Tiberius. Cornelius Nepos says. or at most of only six. but scarcely ever drank any in the day-time. and very often itinerant humourists. After a slight repast at noon." Again. he gave the (129) preference to the Rhaetian 229. This sort of traffic (128) went round the whole company." From this great indifference about his diet. so that the company began supper before his arrival. as I have to-day. He often came late to table. disappoint or gratify the expectation of the purchasers. and when he indulged himself the most. but sometimes only with merriment. LXXVII. or if he did. and would not touch a morsel at table with his guests. I only ate two biscuits. sharp. Of all wines. when he had an appetite. or a slice of cucumber. I ate an ounce of bread. ever keeps such strict fast upon the Sabbath 228. he distributed to his company clothes. and commonly used a plain diet. and silver. and with http://www. his stomach rejected it. "I ate a little bread and some small dates. or after they had finished. dressed as he was. and green figs of the sort which bear fruit twice a year 227. His entertainments consisted of three entries. or at any other time when the fancy took him. he used to seek repose 230. he sometimes supped by himself. by C. or talked in whispers. new cheese made of cow's milk 226. or a green. and tweezers. Instead of drinking. which were enigmatical. But if his fare was moderate.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. In the Saturnalia. before his company began.

a small closet. and his hand held before his eyes. He likewise sometimes found the fore-finger of his right hand so weak. in order to guard as much as possible against the inconvenience resulting from it. upon his looking steadfastly at them. He had a weakness in his left hip. and he had an aquiline nose. by C. This. LXXX. His complexion was betwixt brown and fair. He had besides several callosities resembling scars. and then his sleep was usually protracted till after day-break. occasioned by an itching in his body.gutenberg. which he had not before registered. that it was only perceivable upon comparison with some taller person standing by him. his stature but low. and the constant and violent use of the strigil 231 in being rubbed. to use it in writing. insomuch that he often halted on that side. until he had put down in his diary all or most of the remaining transactions of the day. he used to lodge in some apartment near the spot. LXXIX. Very early rising was apt to disagree with him. His teeth were thin set. Suetonius Tranquillus. either when discoursing or silent. was so much concealed by the just proportion of his limbs. in his passage over the Alps. He is said to have been born with many spots upon his breast and belly. If he could not again fall asleep. After supper he commonly withdrew to his study. answering to the figure. his freedman. He was likewise not a little pleased to see people. small and scaly. But in his old age. and so careless about dressing his hair. without somebody to sit by him. through every period of his life. for any civil or religious functions. He would then go to bed. that a (130) Gaul of the first rank declared amongst his friends. he saw very imperfectly with his left eye. His eye-brows met.htm (90 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . but never slept above seven hours at most. In person he was handsome and graceful. If at any time a fit of drowsiness seized him in passing along the streets. as to be restrained from throwing him down a precipice. his litter was set down while he snatched a few moments' sleep. however. his shoes on. his ears were small. and leg. though Julius Marathus. that he was so softened by it. thigh. by several barbers at a time. that when it was benumbed and contracted with cold. His beard he sometimes clipped. but he received much benefit from the use of sand and reeds. belonging to any of his attendants. His countenance. On which account. and inclining to a yellow colour. says he was five feet and nine inches in height. and that not without interruption. his hair a little curled. His eyes were bright and piercing. he was obliged to have recourse to http://www. order. his feet covered. that he usually had it done in great haste. for he would wake three or four times during that time. as if the sun shone in their eyes. and either read or wrote during the operation.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he called for some one to read or tell stories to him. and number of the stars in the constellation of the Bear. under pretence of conferring with him. and he was willing it should be thought that there was something of a divine vigour in them. was so calm and serene. if he was obliged to rise betimes. But he was negligent in his dress. when he had been admitted to approach him. as sometimes happened. where he sat late. lower their countenances. and sometimes shaved.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. until he became drowsy. He never liked to lie awake in the dark.

and took to playing at ball. In summer. warmed either by a fire. he was contented with sitting over a wooden tub. he was relieved from that pain. a shirt. pebbles. Suetonius Tranquillus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.gutenberg. and a person standing by to fan him. and of evil omen. and swathings upon his legs and thighs 234. And if he could go to any place by sea. four tunics. and sweated in a stove. he was obliged to have recourse to sea-water. By all these complaints. and at home. which he called by a Spanish name (132) Dureta. He was likewise subject to fits of sickness at stated times every year. LXXXI.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. a circular piece of horn. he was attacked with an inflation of the midriff. he was protected against the inclemency of the weather by a thick toga. he held in abhorrence. he lay with the doors of his bedchamber open. for their beauty or amusing talk. a flannel stomacher. he gave up riding and other military exercises in the Campus Martius. and when the wind was southerly. or nuts. In the beginning of spring. During the whole course of his life. In the war of Modena. He had occasionally a complaint in the bladder. or the waters of Albula 235. collected from various countries. and such as were in any way deformed. As soon as the civil wars were ended. When. LXXXIV. but soon afterwards used no other exercise than that of going abroad in his litter. he suffered. For amusement he would sometimes angle. never walked in the open air without a broad-brimmed hat on his head. LXXXIII. or walking. and plunging his hands and feet in the water by turns. he preferred that mode of travelling. From early youth he devoted himself with great diligence and application to the study of eloquence. and the other liberal arts. his constitution was so shattered. that he was obliged to undergo a desperate and doubtful method of cure: for warm applications having no effect. after which he was washed with tepid water. LXXXII. He could not bear even the winter's sun.htm (91 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . or play with dice. especially after the conquest of Cantabria. when his liver being injured by a defluxion (131) upon it. But dwarfs. He carefully nourished his health against his many infirmities. He usually travelled in a litter. with a cold in his head. or foot-ball. Towards the end of his walk. as lusus naturae (nature's abortions). that he was two days in going to Praeneste or Tibur. Antonius Musa 232 directed the use of those which were cold. or by being exposed to the heat of the sun. at times. by C. refreshed by a bubbling fountain. wrapped up in a short cloak or cape. avoiding chiefly the free use of the bath. with little boys. notwithstanding the weighty affairs http://www. and particularly Moors and Syrians. and by night: and so slow. for about his birth-day 233 he was commonly a little indisposed. In winter. but upon voiding some stones in his urine. that he could not easily bear either heat or cold. and frequently in a piazza. he would run leaping. upon account of his nerves. he was reduced to such a condition. but he was often rubbed with oil. dangerous fits of sickness.

or to repeat the same conjunction several times." and the "History of his own Life. written. He never addressed the senate. To attain this end. he despised. and his friends saying to him. Those who used affected language. He charges Mark Antony with insanity. But when he had a cold. Suetonius Tranquillus. and by way of sarcasm upon his depraved and fickle taste in the choice of words. by C. And lest his memory should fail him. and bantered by imitating his way of talking. writing rather to make men stare. which he composed almost entirely while he was in the bath. He composed many tracts in prose on various subjects. no larger than the last. In his intercourse with individuals. or retard the reader or hearer. although he was advanced in years. occasion some little obscurity.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. lest. upon subjects of importance he wrote on his tablets all he wished to express. he obliterated the whole. or the army. or adopted obsolete words. He likewise made some attempts at poetry. when omitted. some of which he read occasionally in the circle of his friends. He likewise read over to (133) his friends his "Exhortations to Philosophy. particularly with his friend Mecaenas." 236 LXXXVI. "What is your Ajax doing?" he answered. though he did not want the talent of speaking extempore on the spur of the occasion. LXXXV. but becoming fatigued. who was fond of obsolete and farfetched expressions. he made no scruple to add prepositions to his verbs. and that he might nowhere perplex. but in a premeditated speech. but no farther. Nor did he spare Tiberius. These are all his poetical compositions for though he begun a tragedy with great zest. as far as the Cantabrian war. avoiding frivolous or harsh language. as well as to prevent the loss of time in getting up his speeches. whether Cimber Annius or Veranius Flaccus be more proper for your imitation? Whether you will adopt words which Sallustius Crispus has borrowed from the 'Origines' of Cato? Or do you think that the verbose empty bombast of http://www. it was his general practice to recite them. becoming dissatisfied with the style. he gave the rest to Tiberius to finish.htm (92 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . which he calls disgusting. he is said to have read. He sometimes indulged himself in jesting." which he continued in thirteen books. and declaimed every day." Most of the pages he read himself. Among these was his "Rescript to Brutus respecting Cato. as to an auditory." There is also a book of Epigrams. he sometimes employed a herald to deliver his speeches to the people. he writes to him thus: "And are you yet in doubt. he should say more or less than was proper. but give a grace to the style. in which he was diligently instructed by a master of elocution. which.gutenberg. as well as obsolete words. and even with his wife Livia. of which both the subject and title is "Sicily. He cultivated a style which was neat and chaste. in which he was engaged. "My Ajax has met with a sponge. the people. His chief object was to deliver his thoughts with all possible perspicuity. whom he rallied upon all occasions for his fine phrases 237. There is extant one book written by him in hexameter verse. than to be understood. He delivered himself in a sweet and peculiar tone. though in different ways. as equally faulty. if he spoke extempore.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

and gave it another to translate. upon his observing that he had written ixi for ipsi. he paid particular attention to precepts and examples which might be useful in public or private life. In reading the Greek and Latin authors. being instructed in philology by Sephaerus. "They will pay at the Greek Calends. in which he made considerable proficiency.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. the governors of the provinces. when he means to intimate that some persons would never pay their debts." And when he advised patience in the present posture of affairs. Those he used to extract verbatim. Agrippina. "But you must be particularly careful. as an ignorant." LXXXVII. pullejaceus for pullus. and his sons Dionysius and Nicanor. he never varies. and not customary with him. to Apollonia. he took with him from The City. LXXXVIII. He did not adhere strictly to orthography as laid down by the grammarians. Nor should I have taken notice of it. he never divides his words. With respect to the last two peculiarities. he received into his family Areus the philosopher. enclosed by a bracket. "Let us be content with our Cato. In ordinary conversation. domos for domus in the genitive singular 238. he would say. having had Apollodorus (135) of Pergamus. when he was himself very young. and gave to his domestics. and instead of z. LXXXIX. though much advanced in years. I have likewise remarked this singularity in his hand-writing. he says. to avoid affectation. vacerrosus for cerritus. He was no less fond of the Greek literature. he always expressed what he had to say in Latin. as appears from letters in his own hand-writing. he put b for a.htm (93 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . whom. in his public spectacles. in which. and so forth. it is a vulgar mistake. nor ever ventured to compose in it. he said. and betizare for languere. which is commonly called lachanizare. now and then. aa. When he had occasion to write in cypher. but puts them below the other. or http://www. and had a great taste for the ancient comedy. Suetonius Tranquillus. but seems to have been of the opinion of those who think. c for b. he says." He constantly puts baceolus for stultus. that he sent a successor to a consular lieutenant of a province." To describe anything in haste. by C. He was evidently not unacquainted with the poetry of the Greeks.gutenberg. "It was sooner done than asparagus is cooked. but that it appears strange to me. lest any person should imagine that they were only slips of his pen. which he often brought upon the stage. Likewise simus for sumus. vapide se habere for male. both in writing and speaking. so as to carry the letters which cannot be inserted at the end of a line to the next. he made use of several peculiar expressions. for as to his changing and omitting not only letters but whole syllables. Asiatic orators is fit to be transfused into (134) our language?" And in a letter where he commends the talent of his grand-daughter. that we ought to write as we speak. or send to the commanders of the armies. illiterate fellow. for his master in rhetoric. Afterwards. For if there was occasion for him to deliver his sentiments in that language. that any person should have told us. but he never could speak the Greek tongue readily.

yet. He would hear them read their works with a great deal of patience and good nature. he always. as we have already mentioned. the left instead of the right. on a certain day of the year. because such commonly hung at the gates of great houses. he would retire to some place of concealment in a vault under ground. although he had resolved not to stir out of his tent.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. the magistrates of the city. In consequence of a dream. and http://www.gutenberg. but that the ancients likewise had thought them worthy their attention. A palm-tree 243 which (137) chanced to grow up between some stone's in the court of his house. XC. that boded some disaster. being warned by a dream of one of his friends. and well it was that he did so. If when he commenced a long journey. He had many frivolous and frightful dreams during the spring. his couch was pierced and cut to pieces. which he had dedicated to Jupiter Tonans. Upon his frequently visiting a temple near the Capitol." and those of Rutilius "On the Style of Building. and frequently made them known to the people by his edicts. too. and not only poetry 240 and history. He had so great a dread of thunder and lightning that he always carried about him a seal's skin. He likewise read whole books to the senate. reaching out his hand to receive the dole which they offered him." 239 to shew the people that he was not the first who had promoted those objects. while travelling in the night. for in the enemy's attack. on the supposition of his being in it. He neither slighted his own dreams nor those of other people relating to himself. Suetonius Tranquillus. he changed his mind. and by men of the most eminent abilities: and he enjoined the praetors not to suffer his name to be made too common in the contests amongst orators and poets in the theatres. He was displeased. that anything should be written upon himself. 241 XCI. XCII. At the battle of Philippi. he dreamt that Jupiter Capitolinus complained that his worshippers were taken from him. he had only given him The Thunderer for his porter 242. Some signs and omens he regarded as infallible. by sea or land. when any of them seemed to stand in need of admonition.htm (94 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . having formerly been terrified by a flash of lightning. on account of his being indisposed. however. but in the other parts of the year. by C. begged alms of the people. He was much affected likewise with any thing out of the common course of nature. but orations and dialogues. there happened to fall a mizzling rain. except in a grave manner. He patronised the men of genius of that age in every possible way. they were less frequent and more significative. such as the orations of Quintus Metellus "for the Encouragement of Marriage. He therefore immediately suspended little bells round the summit of the temple.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by way of preservation. he held it to be a good sign of a speedy and happy return. If in the morning his shoe was put on wrong. We have the following account of him respecting his (136) belief in omens and such like. and that upon this he replied. And upon any apprehension of a violent storm. he transplanted into a court where the images of the Household Gods were placed.

and that a serpent immediately crept to her. that a native of that town would some time or other arrive at supreme power. nor to begin any serious business upon the nones 246. For. as usual after the embraces of her husband. in his progress through Egypt. purified herself. that a few months before his birth. relying on which prediction. to their own ruin. as never to go from home the day after the Nundiae 245. to go out of his way to pay a visit to Apis. he not only declined. to decline the use http://www. Since we are upon this subject. in alarm. on the other hand. Suetonius Tranquillus. fell asleep on her couch in the temple. 247 XCIV. the Velletrians both then. and which obliged her. He likewise observed certain days. made war upon the Roman people. during the subsequent part of her life. and beard the argument upon those points himself. avoiding nothing else in it. and several times afterwards. With regard to the religious ceremonies of foreign nations. She awaking upon it. and the good fortune that constantly attended him. which gave hopes of his future greatness. when some of the mysteries of their sacred rites were to be introduced in the pleadings.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (95 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . I find in the theological books of Asclepiades the Mendesian 248. But. which she never after could efface. and that the senate. having been initiated at Athens. the response of the soothsayers was.gutenberg. upon attending at midnight a religious solemnity in honour of Apollo. before and at his birth. of the island of Oenaria [Ischia]. which hung drooping to the ground. A part of the wall of Velletri having in former times been struck with thunder. whose wives were pregnant. but that those amongst them. some decayed branches of an old ilex. as well as the by-standers. there happened at Rome a prodigy. and soon after withdrew. took care that the decree of the senate should not be registered in the treasury. it may not be improper to give an account of the omens. and coming afterwards to hear a cause at Rome. than its unlucky name. but he likewise commended his grandson Caius (138) for not paying his devotions at Jerusalem in his passage through Judaea. recovered themselves upon his arrival. took all possible care to make it thrive in the island of Capri. when the rest of the matrons retired home. he was a strict observer of those which had been established by ancient custom. XCIII. as well as afterwards. Julius Marathus informs us. that Atia. and instantly there appeared upon her body a mark in the form of a serpent. to secure to themselves a chance of that dignity. came to the resolution that no child born that year should be brought up. he dismissed those who sat upon the bench as judges with him. relative to the privileges of the priests of the Attic Ceres. that he made an exchange with the Republic 244 of Naples.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. that the omen had portended the elevation of Augustus. but others he held in no esteem. At last it appeared by the event. by C. for that of Capri. at which he was so delighted. by which was signified that Nature was in travail with a king for the Roman people. as he writes to Tiberius.

with whom till that hour he had not the least acquaintance. into whose bosom he put the public seal of the commonwealth. upon hearing the occasion of his coming so late. for two nights successively after his dedication of the Capitol. Augustus. a circumstance which had never happened to any one but Alexander the Great. the next day he was not to be found. that Jupiter. to be silent. being laid in his cradle by his nurse. having on his head a radiant crown. the senate being engaged in a debate on Catiline's conspiracy. he said he was extremely like the boy he had seen in his dream. mounted upon a chariot decked with laurel. because. that Publius Nigidius. before her delivery. with thunder and a sceptre. that it ascended above the roof of the temple. consulted the oracle in the grove of father Bacchus. by C. and looking at him with admiration.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. The (139) same Atia. As he was dining in a grove at the fourth mile-stone on the Campanian road. who declared that it must be brought up to become the guardian of the state. dreamed that her bowels stretched to the stars. concerning his son. when they poured wine upon the altar.gutenberg. namely. came down most unexpectedly. but it was forbidden by the God. likewise. which he held in his hand. but in his vision the next night. Some give a different account of Catulus's first dream. and after he had been sought for a long time. out of several boys of the order of the nobility who were playing about his altar. and. he ordered the frogs that happened to make a troublesome noise. in consequence of his wife's being in childbirth. with barbarous rites. declared that the world had got a master. an eagle suddenly snatched a piece of bread out of his hand. and reached up to the heavens. upon marching with his army through the deserts of Thrace. and drawn by six pair of milk-white horses. and returned it to him. Upon the day he was born. there burst out so prodigious a flame. was born in the tenth month after. Quintus Catulus had a dream. and there goes a report that frogs never croaked there since that time. and Octavius. When he first began to speak.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Optimus. he received from the priests an answer to the same purpose. and the other insignia of Jupiter. soaring to a prodigious height.htm (96 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Afterwards. and for that reason was thought to be the son of Apollo. upon an estate belonging to the family near the town. it was added. and in a low place. he saw in the bosom of Jupiter Capitolinus. after hovering. it is a well-known fact. upon his sacrificing at the same altars. the same boy. selected one. Suetonius Tranquillus. he was at last discovered upon a lofty tower. The next day. lying with his face towards the rising sun 249. His father Octavius. coming late into the house. Maximus. whom he ordered to be removed. Whilst he was yet an infant. as Caius Drusus relates. when Octavius. dreamt that a sun-beam issued from his wife's womb. meeting Augustus. and expanded through the whole circuit of heaven and earth. upon several noble lads requesting http://www. and the hour of his wife's delivery. The first night he dreamt (140) that Jupiter. of the public baths. And next night he dreamt that he saw his son under a more than human appearance.

and afford room for many nests of wild pigeons which built in it. and was as yet perfectly unknown to most of the company. (141) In his retirement at Apollonia. in cutting down a wood to make room for his camp near Munda 250. was struck by lightning. of him that they might have a guardian. twelve vultures presented themselves. his senatorian tunic becoming loose in the seam on each side. immediately afterwards. whilst he was observing the auguries. Augustus did not choose to make known his nativity. though that species of bird particularly avoids a hard and rough leaf. a circle resembling the rainbow surrounded the body of the sun. that Caesar was chiefly influenced by this prodigy. by C. to declare it. as he was entering the city. Caesar's daughter. happened to light upon a palm-tree. and putting his fingers to the boy's mouth to kiss. would some time or other be subject to him. XCV. Some would have this to forbode. Suetonius Tranquillus.gutenberg. as he was attending Caius Caesar to the Capitol. who first consulted the fates. who had skill http://www. as they had done to Romulus. the tomb of Julia. having great and almost incredible fortunes predicted of him. After the death of Caesar. And when he offered sacrifice. Not long afterwards. under the influence of which he was born. he afterwards applied them to his own. lest his fortunes should be predicted as inferior to those of Agrippa. the livers of all the victims were folded inward in the lower part. and had a whip put into his hands by Jupiter. and paid him adoration. he affirmed that it was the very boy he had seen in his dream. and persisted for some time in the refusal. in a few days. in which he saw a comely youth. When he assumed the manly toga. on a sudden. to whom they were to prefer their requests. happened to be telling some of his friends a dream which he had the preceding night. Marcus Cicero. And immediately upon sight of Augustus. bearing upon it the sign of Capricorn. however. he went with his friend Agrippa to visit Theogenes. It is likewise reported. From the root of this tree there put out immediately a sucker. that he published his horoscope. which. that the order. had pointed to one amongst them. after much importunity. who had been sent for by his uncle Caesar to the sacrifice. Augustus was so confident of the greatness of his destiny. Julius Caesar. but overshadow it. from a mixture of shame and fear.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. grew to such a height as not only to equal. fell at his feet. of which that was the badge of distinction. In his first consulship. to prefer his sister's grandson before all others for his successor. upon his return from Apollonia. a circumstance which was regarded by those present.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (97 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the astrologer. and. let down from heaven by a golden chain. in his gallery on the roof. in a clear and bright sky. Theogenes started up from his seat. who stood at the door of the Capitol. and ordered it to be preserved as an omen of victory. and struck a silver coin. Agrippa. Being persuaded.

the enemy. carrying off the sacred things in a sudden sally. however." and setting out upon his journey. he cried out. which it is usual to make on such occasions. which would be attended with the like event: and it accordingly happened. he went round the coast http://www. upon the authority. which sat upon his tent. would fall upon the heads of those who had got possession of the entrails. XCVIII. He certainly had a presentiment of the issue of all his wars. and struck them to the ground. and his subsequent deification. "Not all the business in the world. he was met by an ass with a fellow driving it. for the succeeding Lustrum. (and it was afterwards regarded as an omen of his death). he went (143) as far as Astura 253. His malady proceeded from diarrhoea. he was assured of success by a Thessalian. but being detained by several persons who applied to him respecting causes they had depending. His death. As he was finishing the census amidst a great crowd of people in the Campus Martius. as an indubitable prognostic of great and wonderful fortune. which was interpreted as a presage that he would live only a hundred days longer.gutenberg. who thence inferred that discord would arise between the three colleagues. signifies. shall detain me at home one moment longer. Being. accordingly. it was agreed amongst the augurs. the first letter of his name. About the same time.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in an inscription upon one of his statues. At Perugia. the letter C denoting that number. an eagle hovered round him several times. in things of that nature. and designing to go with him as far as Beneventum. When the troops of the Triumviri were collected about Bolognia. of which I shall now speak. whence. and that he would be placed amongst the Gods. where it settled upon the name of Agrippa.htm (98 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . therefore. he ordered his colleague Tiberius to put up the vows. as Aesar.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. contrary to his custom. was struck out by lightning. And. he erected a brazen statue to each. by C. who had appeared to him while he was travelling in a bye-road. At Philippi. so it happened. and laid itself at his feet. notwithstanding which. a God 252. After the victory. XCVII. and at the first letter. he put to sea in the night-time. For he declared he would not meddle with what it was probable he should never accomplish. The day before the sea-fight near Sicily. Suetonius Tranquillus. in the Tuscan language. in a temple built upon the spot where he had encamped. beat them both. a fish leaped out of the sea. and was attacked by two crows. as he pretended. Nichon 251. as there was a favourable wind. that all the (142) dangers and misfortunes which had threatened the sacrificer. as he was walking upon the shore. while he was going down to his fleet to engage the enemy. XCVI. in the view of the whole army. and that of the animal. and then directed its course to a neighbouring temple. but the contrary. At Actium. of the Divine Caesar himself. which is the remaining part of the word Caesar. an eagle. The name of the man was Eutychus. Upon observing this. though the tables were ready drawn for it. were intimated by divers manifest prodigies. the sacrifice not presenting any favourable intimations. he ordered fresh victims. about dispatching Tiberius to Illyricum.

he distributed to each of those who attended him.gutenberg. among other gifts. passing over to Naples. and proceeded http://www. Honor'd with torches Masgabas you see. and not only permitted. He gave them likewise an entertainment in his presence. He likewise constantly attended to see the boys perform their exercises. Blazing with lights I see the founder's tomb. Suetonius Tranquillus. The latter replying. and spent four days in that of Capri. And observing from his room a great company of people with torches. he added another: Oras phaessi Masgaban timomenon. "The City of the Do-littles. where he gave himself up entirely to repose and relaxation. he uttered very distinctly this verse. and fell into an extraordinary vein of jesting upon it. Soon afterwards. and the Greeks the Roman dress and language. forty gold pieces. crying out. but required from them the utmost freedom in jesting. he indulged himself in all the ways of amusement he could contrive. victuals.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he used (144) to call Ktistaes. Then turning to Thrasyllus. although at that time greatly disordered in his bowels by the frequent returns of his disease. A favourite of his. he set up a great laugh. assembled at the tomb of this Masgabas. by you enjoy our liberty and our fortunes. clad all in white. and on his hesitating to reply. "By you we live. Ktistou de tumbo. he asked him. And during several days afterwards. of Campania. loaded him with praises and joyful acclamations." At which being greatly pleased. by C. they were excellent verses 257. not to employ the sum given them in any other way.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. as if he had been the planter of the island. one Masgabas 256. requiring from them an assurance on oath. than the purchase of Alexandrian merchandize. just then arrived. he distributed Togae 255 and Pallia. and put the same question to him concerning that likewise. with chaplets upon their heads. He called an island near Capri. a companion of Tiberius. whoever might be the author. what poet he thought was the author of that verse. who knew nothing about the matter. Apragopolis. he sat out the exhibition of the gymnastic games which were performed in his honour every five years. eisoro pyroumenon. and the adjacent islands. the passengers and mariners aboard a ship of Alexandria 254. which he made extempore. by you we sail securely. on condition that the Romans should use the Greek. who reclined on the other side of the table.htm (99 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . who died the year before. that. according to an ancient custom still continued at Capri. and scrambling for fruit. Happening to sail by the bay of Puteoli. In a word." from the indolent life which several of his party led there. and offering incense. and other things which he threw amongst them.

before he breathed his last. if there was any disturbance in the town on his account. he ordered his hair to be combed. that. The senate proceeded with so much zeal in the arrangement of his funeral. concerning Drusus's daughter. when the two Sextus's. In loud applauses to the actor's praise. Pompey and Apuleius. he now and then enquired. being seventy-six years of age. he expired suddenly. of being delirious. sent for Tiberius back again. preceded by the image of Victory which is in the http://www. and had a long discourse with him in private. Ei de pan echei kalos. and paying honour to his memory. wanting only thirty-five days 258. whilst he was inquiring of some persons who were just arrived from Rome. and complained that he was carried away by forty men.htm (100 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . (145) After which. For as often as he heard that any person had died quickly and without pain. upon the fourteenth of the calends of September [the 19th August]. He betrayed but one symptom. Upon the day of his death. or great temple. and deposited it in the vestibule of his own house. He expired in the same room in which his father Octavius had died. to paignio Dote kroton. his disorder increasing. were consuls. some were for having the funeral procession made through the triumphal gate. from Nola to Bovillae 260. he stopped at Nola. the body lay in some basilica. and with these words: "Livia! live mindful of our union. and his shrunk cheeks to be adjusted. If all be right. because of the season of the year. farewell!" dying a very easy death. and in the nighttime. which was this: he was all on a sudden much frightened.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. who carried it to the city. kai pantes umeis meta charas ktupaesate. Then asking his friends who were admitted into the room. he wished for himself and his friends the like euthanasian (an easy death).org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. But on his return. with joy your voices raise. C. with Tiberius to the place intended. "Do ye think that I have acted my part on the stage of life well?" he immediately subjoined. and calling for a mirror. at the ninth hour of the day. of each town. His remains were carried by the magistrates of the municipal 259 towns and colonies. who was in a bad state of health. after which. During the intervals. carried out his corpse. and such as he himself had always wished for. and now. XCIX. Suetonius Tranquillus. But this was rather a presage. than any delirium: for precisely that number of soldiers belonging to the pretorian cohort. by C. he gave no further attention to business of any importance.gutenberg. amidst the kisses of Livia. At Bovillae it was met by the Equestrian Order. having dismissed them all. for that was the word he made use of. amongst several other proposals.

to the pretorian troops a thousand each man. He appointed as his direct heirs. they should lay aside their gold rings. and had been committed to the custody of the Vestal Virgins. Tiberius's son. under the old shops. and Germanicus with his three sons for the residue. his daughter http://www. Another moved. should be called the Augustan age. by Drusus.gutenberg. that he saw his spirit ascend from the funeral pile to heaven. and partly by his freedmen Polybius and Hilarian. in legacies from his friends. were his relations. to the city cohorts five hundred. He had made a will a year and four months before his death. The most distinguished persons of the equestrian order. written partly in his own hand. as well as the will: all these were opened and read in the senate. that his bones should be collected by the priests of the principal colleges. that on the day of the funeral. and others which had been left him. for the payment of which he allowed a twelvemonth. Others proposed. and with their tunics loose.htm (101 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . from his birth to his death. Tiberius's son. He left in legacies to the Roman people forty millions of sesterces. because he was born in the latter. almost the whole of which. he had received. But at last it was judged proper to be moderate in the honours paid to his memory. and deposited them in the mausoleum.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. both of whom he desired to assume his name. failing them. and several of his friends. with his two paternal estates 264. A man of pretorian rank affirmed upon oath. It consisted of two skins of parchment. Suetonius Tranquillus. alleging for this procrastination the scantiness of his estate. bare-footed. The heirs in remainder were Drusus. and Caius Silius. and to the legions and soldiers three hundred each. Tiberius for two (147) thirds of his estate. at which time likewise he gave the groves and walks about it for the use of the people. which several sums he ordered to be paid immediately after his death. in the consulship of Lucius Plancus. Two funeral orations were pronounced in his praise. with three codicils under seal. and others. the sum of fourteen hundred millions. and there burnt. senate-house. but died in the former. For the rest he ordered different times of payment. by C. In the third place.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and the children of highest rank and of both sexes singing the funeral (146) dirge. In some of his bequests he went as far as twenty thousand sesterces. and Livia for the other third. and be inserted in the calendar under that title. One likewise proposed to transfer the name of August to September. for one third. which had been built in his sixth consulship between the Flaminian Way and the bank of the Tiber 262. he had spent in the service of the state. CI. upon the third of the nones of April [the 11th of April]. and declaring that not more than a hundred and fifty millions of sesterces would come to his heirs: notwithstanding that during the twenty preceding years. by Tiberius. He left orders that the two Julias. The body was then carried upon the shoulders of senators into the Campus Martius. one before the temple of Julius. gathered up his relics 261. and the other before the rostra. to the tribes 263 three millions five hundred thousand. by whom it was now produced. and wear rings of iron. having taken due care that the money should be ready in his exchequer. that the whole period of time.

and by the exhibition of public shows. and sometimes largesses.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. members. than the frequent distribution of corn. While he endeavoured to conciliate the affections of the people by lending money to those who stood in need of it. by the admission of improper persons. http://www.gutenberg. With regard to the three codicils before-mentioned. amongst the commonalty: for an occasional scarcity of provisions had always been the chief cause of discontents and tumults in the capital. at the same time that the new emperor. could alone enable him to preserve it. at low interest. to which were added the names of the freedmen and slaves from whom the several accounts might be taken. But nothing contributed more to render the new form of government acceptable to the people. had increased to upwards of four hundred. in the third he had drawn up a concise account of the state of the empire. The tenor of his future conduct was suitable to this auspicious commencement. and in all his behaviour displayed a degree of moderation which prognosticated the most happy effects.htm (102 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . The senate. which. disclaimed every idea of personal superiority. afterwards Augustus. had learned from the fate of Julius the art of preserving supreme power. should not be buried in his tomb 265. by C. he reduced to six hundred. the revenue. during the civil war.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he exercised an arbitrary but legal authority over the conduct of every rank in the state. naturally prudent and politic. with its concomitant train of public calamities. and arrears of taxes. in restoring peace and prosperity to the harassed empire. and to the correction of morals. or without any at all. and. * * * * * * (148) OCTAVIUS CAESAR. He affected to decline public honours. had now attained to the same position in the state which had formerly been occupied by Julius Caesar. the minds of men were become less averse to the prospect of an absolute government. To the interests of the army he likewise paid particular attention. which he intended should be inscribed on brazen plates. by which he could degrade senators and knights. and being invested with the ancient office of censor. and inflict upon all citizens an ignominious sentence for any immoral or indecent behaviour. without arrogating to himself any invidious mark of distinction. if such an emergency should ever occur. the number of troops enrolled. he continued to enjoy it through life with almost uninterrupted tranquillity. Suetonius Tranquillus. in the time of Sylla. in the last resort. and grand-daughter. and though he entered upon it by violence. if anything happened to them. By the long duration of the late civil war. another contained a summary of his acts. in one of them he gave orders about his funeral. to a thousand. and placed in front of his mausoleum. and they were the men who. of which the Romans were remarkably fond. which had for some time been disused. what money there was in the treasury. he was attentive to the preservation of a becoming dignity in the government. It was by the assistance of the legions that he had risen to power.

and the pretorian guards. is perhaps the most important ever agitated in any cabinet. in his opinion. on the contrary. that he should voluntarily relinquish the prize for which he had spilt the best blood of Rome. and the personal danger which (150) he might incur from relinquishing it. finding their situation rendered precarious by such an unexpected occurrence. the love of power. With a view to the attainment of unconstitutional power. consisted with his personal safety. the whole collective wisdom of the ablest men in the empire. and contended for so many years. in respect to its future consequences on society. Either of these motives might have been a sufficient inducement for retaining his authority. But this was a resource which could scarcely be adopted. for the mature discussion of it. there could be little ground to expect. when the subject came into debate. but when they both concurred. who were still far more numerous than those of the other party. nor perhaps. There were two chief motives by which Augustus would naturally be influenced in a deliberation on this important subject. and now. that the restoration of a republican government would have been voted by a great majority of the assembly. either with security to the public quiet. and required. when his end was accomplished. Augustus held a consultation with Agrippa and Mecaenas about restoring the republican form of government. when Agrippa gave his opinion in favour of that measure.gutenberg. yet all history contradicts the supposition of its being endued with any which is unpalatable to the general taste of mankind. he had formerly deserted the cause of the republic when its affairs were in a prosperous situation. Augustus should be sincere in the declaration to abide by the resolution of the council.htm (103 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by C. would have strained every nerve to procure a determination in their own favour. Ever since the final defeat of Antony in the battle of Actium. But to submit this important question to the free and unbiassed decision of a numerous assembly. History relates. The bare agitation of such a point would have excited immediate and strong anxiety for its final result. which is the more probable supposition. while the friends of a republican government. If.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. neither suited the inclination of Augustus. that after the overthrow of Antony. Suetonius Tranquillus. and should incur the suspicion of practising secretly with members for a decision according to his wish. would have readily listened to the secret propositions and intrigues of the republicans for securing their acquiescence to the decision on the popular side. and though there is in the nature of unlimited power an intoxicating quality. it is probable. it is beyond all doubt. he should not be sincere. he would have rendered himself obnoxious to the public odium. and given rise to discontents which might have endangered his future security. (149) The object of this consultation. and Mecaenas opposed it. as they seem to have done upon http://www. the surest protection of Augustus. or with unbiassed judgment in the determination of the question. injurious both to public and private virtue.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. If. namely. he had governed the Roman state with uncontrolled authority.

was permitted. to end his days in quiet retirement. like his great predecessor. and where even the laws might not be sufficient to protect him against the efforts of private resentment. For the restoration of the republican government. The bloody proscription of the Triumvirate no act of amnesty could ever erase from the minds of those who had been deprived by it of their nearest and dearest relations. formally and duly elected. Upon such a charge he might be amenable to the capital laws of his country. By this change of conduct. previously to his abdication of the supreme power. there might arise some desperate avenger. this occasion. and this was a preliminary which doubtless they would have admitted and ratified with unanimous approbation. and it involved a direct implication of treason against the sacred representatives of that government. Though Augustus. it might be contended. therefore. by C. but they may be extended upon the general principles maintained on each side of the question. little doubt can be entertained: but it may be proper to inquire.gutenberg. and amidst the numerous connections of the illustrious men sacrificed on that horrible occasion. and the undisturbed security which Augustus ever afterwards enjoyed. (151) We have hitherto considered this grand consultation as it might be influenced by the passions or prejudices of the emperor: we shall now take a short view of the subject in the light in which it is connected with considerations of a political nature. It therefore appears that he could be exposed to no inevitable danger on this account: but there was another quarter where his person was vulnerable. and joined in the ambitious plans of Antony and Lepidus to usurp amongst themselves the entire dominion of the state. concerning the solidity of which.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. however. their united force was irresistible. and imperfectly delivered. and with public utility. Suetonius Tranquillus.htm (104 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . be stabbed in the senate-house. into the foundation of that personal danger which he dreaded to incur. Augustus. on relinquishing the place of perpetual dictator. rests upon a ground. After all. whose indelible resentment nothing less would satisfy than the blood of the surviving delinquent. so far as relates to the love of power. that from the expulsion of http://www. who in the preceding age had been guilty of equal enormities. as has been already observed. might not.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. The argument. in a few words. he turned his arms against the supporters of a form of government which he had virtually recognized as the legal constitution of Rome. The arguments handed down by history respecting this consultation are few. had formerly sided with the party which had attempted to restore public liberty after the death of Julius Caesar: but he afterwards abandoned the popular cause. the consuls. was a danger which might be fully obviated. he might perish by the sword or the poniard in a less conspicuous situation. affords sufficient proof. on returning to the station of a private citizen. by procuring from the senate and people an act of oblivion. This. that all apprehension of danger to his person was merely chimerical. there seems to have been little danger from this quarter likewise for Sylla.

and the rapine too often practised in time of peace. the private interests of individuals with those of the community: that the habits and prejudices of the Roman people were unalterably attached to the form of government established by so long a prescription. yet she had often experienced such violent shocks from popular tumults or the factions of the great. the great object of all political association: that public virtue. the Roman state. than in those of any individual whose power was permanent. was cherished and protected by no mode of administration so much as by that which connected. and subject to no legal control. and they would never submit. without making every possible effort to recover their liberty: that though despotism. the people would no longer live under a free republic. which was always productive of tyranny: that nothing could preserve the commonwealth from becoming a prey to some daring confederacy. but to the security of general freedom. to the rule of one person.htm (105 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . but the firm and vigorous administration of one person. had flourished and increased with a degree of prosperity unexampled in the annals of humankind: that the republican form of government was not only best adapted to the improvement of national grandeur. as had threatened her with imminent destruction: that a republican government was only accommodated to a people amongst whom the division of property gave to no class of citizens such a degree of pre-eminence as might prove dangerous to public freedom: that there was required in that form of political constitution. the kings to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar. that though Rome had subsisted long and gloriously under a republican form of government. such a form of government was utterly incompatible with the present circumstances of the Romans that by the conquest of so many foreign nations. unlimited and uncontrolled: in fine. yet it was a dangerous experiment to abandon the government of the nation to the contingency of such a variety of characters as usually occurs in the succession of princes. but an aristocratical usurpation. for any length of time. by C. in the strongest bonds of union. on the other.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by the lucrative governments of provinces. that as Rome had been nursed to maturity by the government of six princes successively. so great had been the aggrandizement of particular families in the preceding age. the spoils of the enemy in war. a simplicity (152) of life and strictness of manners which are never observed to accompany a high degree of public prosperity: that in respect of all these considerations. through a period of upwards of four hundred and sixty years. or. from http://www.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. that the interests of the people were more safely entrusted in the hands of annual magistrates elected by themselves. might in some respects be regarded as preferable to a constitution which was occasionally exposed to the inconvenience of faction and popular tumults. Suetonius Tranquillus. upon the whole. by which alone nations could subsist in vigour. so it was only by a similar form of political constitution that she could now be saved from aristocratical tyranny on one hand. In favour of despotic government it might be urged. that though the form of the ancient constitution should still remain inviolate. invested with the whole executive power of the state. and.gutenberg. under a mild and wise prince. with the exception only of a short interval.

htm (106 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and afterwards one of the Marcellas. Though in the highest degree of favour with Augustus. M. who joined with Mecaenas in advising him to retain the imperial power. Agrippina and Julia. The expenses which others would have lavished on that frivolous spectacle. with two daughters. by whom he had children. Caius. still remains. Lucius. however. so strong was the desire of Augustus to be united with him in the closest alliance. the nephew of Augustus. the daughter of the celebrated Atticus. and seem to be the only persons employed by him in a ministerial capacity during his whole reign. the emperor prevailed upon his sister Octavia to resign to him her son-in-law. the nieces of Augustus. he was recalled by the emperor. Agrippa and Mecaenas. he contributed not a little to establish the subsequent power of Augustus. It is related. He died at Rome. one of which. he left the government of the empire to the care of Agrippa. universally lamented. While this lady. where he displayed great valour. He obtained a victory over Sextus Pompey. On whichever side of the question the force of argument may be thought to preponderate. He first married Pomponia.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in the sixty-first year of his age. Cilnius Mecaenas was of Tuscan extraction. C. Suetonius Tranquillus.gutenberg. and Posthumus Agrippa. Agrippa left by Julia three sons. he retired to Mitylene. as being the form of government most suitable to the circumstances of the times. all the partiality of Augustus. for which he refused the honours of a triumph. It is proper in this place to give some account of the two ministers above-mentioned. he never aspired beyond the http://www. In his expeditions afterwards into Gaul and Germany. but rendered himself conspicuous by his military talents. by C. was still living. and his remains were deposited in the tomb which Augustus had prepared for himself. he performed many signal achievements.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. The high degree of favour in which he stood with the emperor was soon after evinced by a farther mark of esteem: for during a visit to the Roman provinces of Greece and Asia. there is reason to believe that Augustus was guided in his resolution more by inclination and prejudice than by reason. after an absence of two years. who composed the cabinet of Augustus at the settlement of his government. and indeed seems to have merited. absolute anarchy. and derived his descent from the ancient kings of that country. (153) whence. he had recourse to that of Virgil. he was likewise a favourite with the people. In consequence of a dispute with Marcellus. he applied to the more laudable purpose of embellishing Rome with magnificent buildings. the Pantheon. and gave him in marriage his own daughter Julia. that hesitating between the opposite opinions of his two counsellors. in which Augustus was absent two years. and in the battles of Philippi and Actium. While this minister enjoyed. Vipsanius Agrippa was of obscure extraction.

urbisne invisere. (154) O decus. ii. in the passages now adduced. Vir.gutenberg. than illustrious in public situation. which must have been attended with extensive patronage. the compliment was compensated by the superior adulation which the poets appropriated to the emperor. obtained through the means of Mecaenas. But whatever foundation there may be for this conjecture. by Virgil. whose deification is more than insinuated. but from the manner in which they address him. It is to be regretted that history has transmitted no particulars of this extraordinary personage. there is the strongest reason to suppose. Terrarumque velis curam. it was understood to refer to the honour of the emperor's patronage. and my guide! O et praesidium et dulce decus meum. et te maximus orbis Auctorem frugum. will render his name for ever celebrated in the annals of learning. and though he might have held the government of extensive provinces by deputies. by C. With respect to his political talents. otherwise. he was content with enjoying the praefecture of the city and Italy. He was of a gay and social disposition. we may presume that he was endowed with no common abilities for that important station. that he was not less amiable and respectable in private life. Ode I. rank of the equestrian order. during the infancy of a new form of government in an extensive empire. incertum est. amongst the Romans. such language to the minister might have excited the jealousy of Augustus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Tuque adeo quem mox quae sint habitura deorum Concilia. In principle he is said to have been of the Epicurean sect. we can only speak from conjecture. My glory and my patron thou! One would be inclined to think. O famae merito pars maxima nostrae. Hor. The liberal patronage which he displayed towards men of genius and talents. my glory. and in his dress and manners to have bordered on effeminacy. that there was a nicety in the sense and application of the word decus. Suetonius Tranquillus. amidst the familiarity of their intercourse. cingens materna tempora myrto: An Deus immensi venias maris. and that. with which we are unacquainted. a situation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Light of my life. but from his being the confidential minister of a prince of so much discernment as Augustus. ac tua nautae Numina sola colant: tibi serviat ultima Thule. Georg. Caesar. http://www. in sublime intimations. however. tempestatumque potentem Accipiat. "O my glory!" is the emphatic expression employed by them both. of whom all we know is derived chiefly from the writings of Virgil and Horace.htm (107 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] .

Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis. by C. they attached a high degree of influence to the charms of poetry. And with maternal myrtle wreathe thy brow. to engage the Muses in the service of the imperial authority. and judging from their own feelings. Before thy altar grateful nations bow. Impressed with these sentiments. 1. and favouring shower. te prosequitur mero Defuso pateris. O'er boundless ocean shall thy power prevail. vi. Horace has elegantly adopted the same strain of compliment. While Tethys dowers thy bride with all her waves. in their opinion. chief where'er thy voice ordain To fix midst gods thy yet unchosen reign— Wilt thou o'er cities fix thy guardian sway. 25. it became an object of importance. and we may presume. To thee the rich libation pours. Carm.htm (108 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . IV. Both he and Mecaenas had a delicate sensibility to the beauties of poetical composition. Sotheby. Geor. Were with her gods by grateful Greece enrolled. Te multa prece.gutenberg.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. 5. appears to have had a farther object than the mere gratification of vanity. (155) The panegyric bestowed upon Augustus by the great poets of that time. Thee placed his household gods among. on which account. Thee her sole lord the world of waters hail. Rule where the sea remotest Thule laves. While earth and all her realms thy nod obey? The world's vast orb shall own thy genial power. likewise http://www. To thee he chants the sacred song. Thou Caesar. and with this view he was desirous of endearing himself to their imagination. fair sun. It was the ambition of this emperor to reign in the hearts as well as over the persons of his subjects. uti Graecia Castoris Et magni memor Herculis. With solemn daily prayer adores So Castor and great Hercules of old. Giver of fruits. we find Mecaenas tampering with Propertius. et Laribus tuum Miscet numen.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. i.

and many of which were celebrated for their extraordinary riches and commerce. upon the demise of Augustus. As one of them. and it received an increase after the consulship of Hirtius and Pansa. maxima rerum 268. made few additions to the empire. Suetonius Tranquillus. As the application to Propertius cannot have taken place until after Augustus had been amply celebrated by the superior abilities of Virgil and Horace. pulcherrima rerum 267. with success. to undertake an heroic poem. The Romans. The idea was. that had supported their own civil establishments with great splendour. The Roman empire. perhaps. towards the support of the government.gutenberg. in conformity to the advice of Augustus. and Rome. (156) actuated likewise with admiration. in the different provinces. with Dacia. prudence justified the adoption of every expedient that might tend to secure a quiet succession to the heir. on the South to the cataracts of the Nile. Even the historians. the investigation is impracticable. the emperor's grandsons by his daughter Julia. was intended to succeed to the government of the empire. and the Roman cabinet indulged the idea of endeavouring to confirm imperial authority by the support of poetical renown. cannot be elucidated without access to the public registers of their governments. by C. but the history of later ages affords examples of its having been adopted. under different forms of government. had attained to a prodigious magnitude. and after this period the Roman dominion was extended over Britain. on the West to the Atlantic Ocean. including the best part of the then known world. however. As a subsidiary resource. but such a problem. Caius and Lucius. and both young. bestow magnificent epithets on the capital of their country. therefore. and in regard to an ancient monarchy. the expedient above mentioned was judged highly plausible. Livy and Tacitus. as far as the Frith of Forth and the Clyde. The succeeding emperors.htm (109 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . subdued Mesopotamia and Armenia. therefore. We can only be assured that the revenue must have been immense. Trajan. novel in the time of Augustus. east of the Euphrates. The tribute paid by the Romans themselves. both civil and military. even with respect to contemporary nations.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he recommended to his successors never to exceed the limits which he had prescribed to its extent. It would be an object of curiosity to ascertain the amount of the Roman revenue in the reign of Augustus. and on the North to the Danube and the Rhine. and elegant panegyric on the emperor served to counteract their influence upon the minds of the people. there seems to be some reason for ascribing Mecaenas's request to a political motive. Lampoons against the government were not uncommon even in the time of Augustus. the deserts of Africa. On the East it stretched to the Euphrates. in the time of Augustus. north of the Danube. which arose from the accumulated contribution of such a number of nations. and Mount Atlas. doubtless. in his testament.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. with every other rising genius in poetry. were supported at their http://www. were not improperly called rerum domini 266. and. was very considerable during the latter ages of the republic. were still living. The establishments. of which Augustus should be the hero.

in promoting public happiness. The science chiefly cultivated at this period was rhetoric. than to enforce their observance. own expense. in the amount of taxes. Suetonius Tranquillus. forsaking the true path of ethic investigation.gutenberg. Augustus exceeded all sovereigns who had hitherto ever swayed the sceptre of imperial dominion. and every kind of financial resources. the nativity of the Saviour of mankind. yet the morals of mankind were little improved by the diffusion of speculative knowledge. an arm which adds much to the public expenditure of maritime nations in modern times. and clearly evinced the social duties to be founded in the unalterable dictates of virtue. The vast treasure accruing from the various taxes centered in Rome. the emperor required but a small naval force. and those of the different academies. which appears to have differed http://www. The commencement of the new aera being the most flourishing period of the Roman empire. The reign of Augustus is distinguished by the most extraordinary event recorded in history. constituted the chief objects of attention amongst those who cultivated moral science in the shades of academical retirement. with half the profusion in which it was lavished in disgracing human nature.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. which has since introduced a new epoch into the chronology of all Christian nations. and violating the rights of mankind. so far from being supported by reason. and the state was burdened with no diplomatic charges. and some of them. but polytheism rather increased than diminished with the advancement of commercial (157) intercourse between the nations of Europe. and other seats of learning. were repugnant to its dictates. and the summum bonum. Asia. while the morals of mankind were little actuated by the exercise of reason alone. rather ingenious than useful. though more intimately connected with reason than the two former.htm (110 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . at Athens. and the whole was at the disposal of the emperor. and. a general view of the state of knowledge and taste at this period. a noble acquisition. though philosophy had been cultivated during several ages. were of a nature too abstract to have any immediate or useful influence on life and manners. The doctrines of the Stoics and Epicureans were. but succeeding inquirers. had it been judiciously employed by his successors. but it was easier to demonstrate the truth of the principles which he maintained. by the exertion of reason through the whole economy of life. in fact. which. Cyrene. Cicero endeavoured to bring back philosophy from speculation to practice. deviated into specious discussions. Socrates had laid an admirable foundation for the improvement of human nature. customs. endeavoured to erect upon the basis of their respective doctrines a system peculiar to themselves. either sacred or profane. without any control.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. pernicious to society. by gratuitously adopting principles. with magnificent declamations on the to kalon. General discussions of truth and probability. We may therefore justly conclude that. Civilization was at this time extended farther over the world than it had ever been in any preceding period. Rome. by C. and Africa. may here not be improper.

htm (111 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . but there is reason to believe. was utterly unknown. that it was little cultivated by the Romans. as a science. It appears from the historian now translated. contracted into the fist. though a part of education in modern times. besides some in verse. navigation was conducted in the day-time by the sun. or speaking copiously upon any subject. and the latter. stands the emperor himself. were in general the standard of practice. and music. the writings of Hippocrates. as well as with many which stood upon no other foundation than the whimsical notions of those who first introduced them. by the observation of certain stars.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Astronomy was long before known in the eastern nations. from a passage in Virgil 269. were cultivated with success.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. as the art of declaiming. The laws of the solar system were still but imperfectly known. Perhaps they were apprehensive. But the chief glory of the period is its literature. as was likewise http://www. In medicine. He wrote Answers to Brutus in relation to Cato. and in the night. Geography was cultivated during the present period by Strabo and Mela. that Augustus was the author of several productions in prose. Suetonius Tranquillus. seems not to have been cultivated amongst the Romans. Exhortations to Philosophy. particularly by Virgil. down to the war of Cantabria. written in hexameter verse. statuary. It is observable that logic. Julius Caesar was chiefly indebted to the scientific knowledge of (158) Sosigenes. when the contrary was proved by Copernicus. a mathematician of Alexandria. Chemistry. The musical instruments of this period were the flute and the lyre. and it is certain. which he continued. and continued until the sixteenth century.gutenberg. under the title of Sicily. with his minister Mecaenas. Painting. In natural philosophy little progress was made. of which we proceed to give some account. that the sun moved round the earth. and they are distinguished from each other by a simile. A book of his. that in the reformation of the calendar. physiology was imperfect. through the elegant taste of Vitruvius. There existed many celebrated tracts on mathematics. lately imported from Egypt. to which may be added the sistrum. and abounded with useless substances. that the former resembles the palm of the hand expanded. considerably from what now passes under the same name. by C. and several of the mechanical powers. It is mentioned by Varro as the reverse of logic. were cultivated. The use of the load-stone not being as yet discovered. Architecture flourished. and other Greek physicians. The more necessary and useful rules of arithmetic were generally known. The object of it was not so much justness of sentiment and propriety of expression. Human anatomy being not yet introduced. and the History of his own Life. and the patronage of the emperor. At the head of the writers of this age. the popular belief. was extant in the time of Suetonius. in thirteen books. particularly that of the lever. but the Materia Medica contained few remedies of approved quality. was universally maintained. might obstruct the cultivation of that which was meant to dilate it. lest a science which concentered the force of argument. but the works of both have almost totally perished. but not with that degree of perfection which they had obtained in the Grecian states. but a strong desire of its improvement was entertained.

The notorious (160) characters and motives of the principal persons concerned in that horrible plot. and explore in its innermost recesses the sentiments and secret motives which actuate the conduct of men. History was cultivated amongst the Romans during the present period. for the purpose of enabling mankind to draw from past events a probable conjecture concerning the future.gutenberg. by C. who likewise introduced the method of enlivening narrative with the occasional aid of rhetorical declamation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. a book of Epigrams. of which no judgment can be formed. This useful kind of narrative was introduced about five hundred years before by Herodotus. but embellish the future productions of the historic Muse. being dissatisfied with the composition. a Treatise on Precious Stones. Octavia and Prometheus. This innovation consisted in an attempt to penetrate the human heart. but. and other productions. enriched not only with various information. the former of whom carried historical narrative to the highest degree of improvement it ever attained among the States of Greece. often indeed fabulous or unauthentic. with uncommon success. was succeeded by Thucydides and Xenophon. a Journal of the Life of Augustus. Whatever the merits of Augustus may have been as an author. yet. By connecting moral effects with their probable internal and external causes. and afforded to the states of Greece a pleasing mixture of entertainment. aided perhaps by the splendid exertion of genius in other departments of literature. we scarcely can suppose the proficiency to have been small. and avoiding the latter of those objects. by the happy modulation of the Ionic dialect. but while we regret the impossibility of such a development. but with the rudiments. a History of (159) Animals. The author of this improvement in history was SALLUST.htm (112 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by knowing the steps which have led either to prosperity or misfortune. Curiosity is strongly interested to discover the literary talents of a man so much distinguished for the esteem and patronage of them in others. but the circumstances of the times. after a long interval. and the simplicity of language. He began a tragedy on the subject of Ajax. where the love and admiration were so great. in conformity to the habits of thinking. who has thence received the appellation of the Father of History. and.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. particularly in his account of the Catilinian conspiracy. is plain and unadorned. accidental. This writer. The plan of Thucydides seems to have continued to be the model of historical narrative to the writers of Rome. to ascertain the best means of promoting the former. it tended to establish a systematic consistency in the concatenation of transactions apparently anomalous. This species of composition is calculated both for information and entertainment. destroyed it. of political wisdom. His style. afforded the most favourable opportunity for exemplifying http://www. or totally independent of each other. it gratified the ear. indirectly interspersed. Mecaenas is said to have written two tragedies. his attachment to learning and eminent writers affords a strong presumption that he was not destitute of taste. but the chief design of it is to record all transactions relative to the public. which promised not only to animate. in an uncultivated age. suggested a new resource.

he is entitled to high commendation. Nay. He composed a History of Rome. In the occasional use of obsolete words. and animated description of characters. according to tradition. joined to the elegant conciseness of style.gutenberg. It seems to be the desire of Sallust to atone for the dissipation of his youth by a total change of conduct. the name of which. he is liable to the charge of affectation. there is a peculiar air of philosophical sentiment. during the late dictatorship of Julius Caesar. and of sentiment which not only exalts human nature. his detail of which is agreeable to the characters of the several speakers: but in detracting. to which was probably added some degree of animosity. CORNELIUS NEPOS was born at Hostilia. the divorced wife of Cicero. on account of their difference in politics. by invidious silence. it is probable that he was of good extraction. and extorted from him a large sum of money. were founded upon documents of unquestionable authority. he incessantly practised the industry which he so warmly recommends. but it is an affectation of language which supports solemnity without exciting disgust. if not the incentives of a resolution to be governed by his example. by C. and (161) received his education at Rome. He had married Terentia. during his administration of Numidia. while the latter. Sallust was born at Amiternum. Sallust. near the banks of the Po. is said to have beat him with stripes. Among his most intimate friends were Cicero and Atticus. of which nothing remains but a few fragments.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. is to this day perpetuated on the spot which they formerly occupied. he exhibits a glaring instance of the partiality which too often debases the narratives of those who record the transactions of their own time. superior to that which is excited in any preceding work of the historical kind. in the country of the Sabines. who detecting the criminal intercourse. the Conspiracy of Catiline. and in laboured exordiums to both his histories. but from his respectable connections early in life. gives to his writings a degree of interest. the daughter of Sylla. which. that from the first moment of his reformation. and the War of Jugurtha. with a biographical account of all the most http://www. in the fifty-first year of his age. it is probable that Sallust was present in the senate during the debate respecting the punishment of the Catilinian conspirators. Excepting the injustice with which Sallust treats Cicero.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by whom Sallust was restored to the senate. whence he had been expelled for licentiousness. is said to have exercised great oppression. and there subsisted between the two husbands a kind of rivalship from that cause. Some authors relate that he composed three books of Chronicles. and bought delightful gardens. with his own. Suetonius Tranquillus. and whoever peruses his exordiums with the attention which they deserve. In both his remaining works. and wife of Milo. from the merits of Cicero on that important occasion. He incurred great scandal by an amour with Fausta. there is reason to infer from the facts which must have been at that time publicly known. He died. but animates to virtuous exertions. and was appointed governor of Numidia. the former. must feel a strong persuasion of the justness of his remarks.htm (113 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . or too faint representation. It seems to be certain. On his return to Rome he built a magnificent house. Of his parentage we meet with no account.

this author may be regarded as one of the best models extant of historical narrative.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but from the multiplicity of his productions. except two Carthaginians. in an age when their names were obnoxious. the work affords numberless proofs. celebrated sovereigns. that we might suspect them to be mutilated. of one hundred and forty books. no account is transmitted. and two Romans. Porcius Cato and T. The great extent of his plan induced him. Pomponius Atticus. under the same emperor. and in an air of majesty (162) pervading the whole composition. than that he was rallied by Augustus as a favourer of Pompey. in matters of testimony. quae exorsus sum. his style perspicuous. are those concise and peculiarly applicable eulogiums. with which he characterises every eminent person mentioned. ut ea explicem. he not only bestowed upon Cicero the tribute of warm approbation. originally. the first decade. by C. as he informs us. tum magnitudo voluminis prohibet. but dared to ascribe. generals.. Of the other hundred and five books. both inclusive.—of him who had written the lives of so many. and writers of antiquity. and he holds a middle and agreeable course between diffuseness and brevity. In a perspicuous arrangement of his subject. we may conclude that it was devoted to literature. tum festinatio. besides the animated speeches frequently interspersed. of which there now remain only thirty-five. twenty-two lives only remain. in the delineation of characters and other objects of description. and that. to justness and aptitude of sentiment. viz.htm (114 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] ." Amongst the beauties which we admire in his writings. dissentient authorities. Suetonius Tranquillus. The language of Cornelius Nepos is pure. to adopt this expedient. did they not contain evident marks of their being completed in miniature. and copious without being redundant. TITUS LIVIUS may be ranked among the most celebrated historians the world has ever produced." 270 Of his numerous biographical works. to the conclusion of the German war conducted by Drusus in the time of the emperor Augustus. there cannot be more convincing evidence. at the close of their life. Of his industry in collating. "Sed plura persequi. and the whole from book twenty-one to book forty-five. nothing more has survived the ravages of time and barbarians than their general contents. Hamilcar and Hannibal. Of the freedom and impartiality with which he treated even of the recent periods of history. and his judgment in deciding upon the preference due to. M. a fluency to which Quintilian gives the expressive appellation of "lactea ubertas. If in any thing the conduct of http://www. His style is splendid without meretricious ornament. which are all of Greeks. He has not observed the same rule with respect to the treatment of every subject. Of his own life. in a full and circumstantial account of transactions. for the account of some of the lives is so short.gutenberg. He composed a history of Rome from the foundation of the city. even to Brutus and Cassius the virtues of consistency and patriotism. This great work consisted.

pacem precibus exposcunt. Mirum. Quirites. in the sentence. et tranquilla lux rediit. but this was the general superstition of the times. from his aspiring disposition. Deinde a paucis initio facto. Fuisse credo tum quoque aliquos. quamque desiderium Romuli apud plebem exercitumque. In general. Fuisse credo. But that they should choose the opportunity of a http://www. as a guard to his person. nec deinde in terris Romulus fuit. it is involved in perplexity. 'Romulus. ut conspectum ejus concioni abstulerit. et perobscura. "His immortalibus editis operibus. etsi satis credebat Patribus. se mihi obvium dedit. and totally to renounce the prejudices of superstitious education. gravis. facta fide immortalitatis. Romanis. Suetonius Tranquillus. qui proximi steterant. Consilio etiam unius hominis addita rei dicitur fides. He might. we may perceive that the historian was not the dupe of credulity. Deo natum. fama. etc. subita coorta tempestate cum magno fragore tonitribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo. Deum. and his account of the exit of Romulus. Romana pubes. the credulity of Livy appears to be rather affected than real. Abi. it is the apparent complacency and reverence with which he every where mentions the popular belief in omens and prodigies. lenitum sit. nuncia. postquam ex tam turbido die serena. regem parentemque urbis Romanae. quamvis magnae rei auctor. parens urbis hujus. et pavor praesens nobilitavit. sedato tandem pavore. sciantque. nullas opes humanas armis Romanis resistere posse. Illam alteram admiratio viri. ut traditur. tamen veluti orbitatis metu icta. by the increase of his power. maestum aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit. qui discerptum regem Patrum manibus taciti arguerent. naturally incur the odium of the patricians.' Haec. in the following passage. inquit. uti volens propitius suam semper sospitet progeniem. manavit enim haec quoque. et infensa Patribus. quum ad exercitum recensendum concionem in campo ad Caprae paludem haberet. and their institution rendered abortive. sublimem raptum procella.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. proinde rem militarem colant. in concionem prodit. quantum illi viro nuncianti haec fidei fuerit. inquit. by C. Coelestes ita velle. ubi vacuam sedem regiam vidit. is the last heroic sacrifice to philosophical scepticism. namque Proculus Julius sollicita civitate desiderio (163) regis. ut contra intueri fas esset.gutenberg. whose importance was diminished. however.htm (115 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . locutus. but seems to be confirmed by his recent appointment of the Celeres. is not only highly probable. may be adduced as an instance in confirmation of this remark. and amidst all the solemnity with which it is related. inquit." 271 Scarcely any incident in ancient history savours more of the (164) marvellous than the account above delivered respecting the first Roman king. That Romulus affected a despotic power.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. ut mea Roma caput orbis terrarum sit. There is more implied than the author thought proper to avow. therefore. sublimis abiit. prima hodierna luce coelo repente delapsus. et ita posteris tradant. Livy violates our sentiments of historical dignity. quam profusus horrore venerabundusque astitissem. salvere universi Romulum jubent. In whatever light this anecdote be viewed. petens precibus.

There is some reason to suspect that both the noise and cloud. and. In the speeches ascribed to particular persons. The whole narrative is strongly marked with circumstances calculated to affect credulity with ideas of national importance. into the features. In delineating characters. military review. With regard to language. or. by C. but of the extraordinary pains with http://www. as could have enveloped Romulus from the eyes of the assembly. and Livy more fulness.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. imply such a noise from some other cause. and it is the more incredible. as it is called. Such a cloud. for his abilities. If Romulus was killed by any pointed or sharp-edged weapon. as a prodigy.gutenberg. the former intended to divert the attention of the spectators. in which. that of Livy by a majestic air of historical. Livy was born at Patavium 272. as the circumstance which favoured the execution of the plot is represented to have been entirely a fortuitous occurrence. relate chiefly to the (165) spelling of some words. and has been charged by Asinius Pollio and others with the provincial dialect of his country. not only of the literary taste which then prevailed over the most extensive of the Roman provinces. to countenance the design. Livy and Sallust being the only two existing rivals in Roman history. and may therefore. these writers are equally elegant and animated. it may not be improper to draw a short comparison between them. appears to be an unnecessary addition where thunder is expressed. and sometimes national. Suetonius Tranquillus. The narrative of both is distinguished by an elevation of style: the elevation of Sallust seems to be often supported by the dignity of assumed virtue. seems not very consistent with the dictates even of common prudence. as writers. The tempest which is said to have happened. if by other means.htm (116 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . why did they not endeavour to trace the fact by this evidence? And if the patricians were really innocent. still the body was equally an object for public observation. a noise or crash. in respect of their principal qualities. and the latter to conceal the transaction. is not a natural concomitant of a thunder-storm. Sallust infuses more expression. his blood might have been discovered on the spot. perhaps. So great was the fame of Livy in his own life-time. were artificial. there is less apparent affectation in Livy than in Sallust. The objections to his Pativinity. that people came from the extremity of Spain and Gaul. without doubt. The word fragor. why did they not urge the examination? But the body. as either to occasion any obscurity or merit reprehension. is not easily reconcilable with our knowledge of that phenomenon. if they actually existed. for the purpose only of beholding so celebrated a historian. importance. was secreted. If the people suspected the patricians to be guilty of murder. This affords a strong proof.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. there is evidently a chasm in the Roman history immediately preceding this transaction and intimately connected with it. there seems to be nothing so peculiar. for the purpose of removing the tyrant by a violent death. to favour the imposture. however. though sometimes so used by the poets. or mist. who was regarded.

coelique vias et sidera monstrent. The eclipse that dims the golden orb of day. and is said to have been buried. Whence rocks the earth. (166) Accipiant. Led by pure zeal. Me vero primum dulces ante omnia Musae. at that time the seat of the liberal arts. but by their industry acquired some territorial possessions. where he applied himself with great assiduity to Greek and Roman literature. From this place he afterwards moved to Naples. denominated. which so great a work must have been propagated. Defectus Solis varios.htm (117 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Suetonius Tranquillus. whence he went to Mediolanum. I consecrate my strain. when the art of printing was unknown. His parents were of moderate condition. by what vast force the main Now bursts its barriers. particularly to the physical and mathematical sciences. the name of this great writer recovered its ancient veneration. ii. now subsides again. Sotheby. rursusque in seipsa residant: Quid tantum Oceano properent se tingere soles Hiberni: vel quae tardis mora noctibus obstet. 1. And changeful labour of the lunar ray. for which he expressed a strong predilection in the second book of his Georgics. requested of the people of Padua. which descended to their son.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. http://www. ye Muses.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Quarum sacra fero ingenti perculsus amore. with a superstition characteristic of that age. as we learn from Pliny the younger. where Livy was born. Heaven and her host in beauteous order rolled. by C. He was born at Andes. Or what delays night's slow-descending shade. In the fifteenth century. to be favoured by them with the hand which had written so admirable a work. seventy years before the Christian aera. 591. Lunaeque labores: Unde tremor terris: qua vi maria alta tumescant Obicibus ruptis. But most beloved. on the revival of learning in Europe.gutenberg. Geor.— The celebrity of VIRGIL has proved the means of ascertaining his birth with more exactness than is common in the biographical memoirs of ancient writers. Why wintry suns in ocean swiftly fade. etc. and Alphonso of Arragon. at whose fane. The first seven years of his life was spent at Cremona. on the 15th of October. Me first accept! And to my search unfold. a village in the neighbourhood of Mantua. now Milan. Novae Athenae.

can ever be well adapted. addressed to Pollio. the idea of which is taken from the Erga kai Hmerai. natural and apposite. and for one of whose sons in particular. and completed in three years. to whom. immediately after their publication. They were held in so great esteem amongst the Romans. perceived that they were written in no common strain of poetry. It may be questioned whether any language which has its provincial dialects. be ours a loftier strain. whom he highly esteemed. The Doric dialect of Theocritus. and desired that the whole eclogue might be recited: which being done. consisting of ten eclogues. The precepts of Hesiod. Cicero. to the use of pastoral poetry. Virgil engaged in bucolic poetry at the request of Asinius Pollio.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Sicilian Muse. the Works and Days of Hesiod. the poet of Ascra. while those of Virgil. are embellished with all the dignity of sublime versification. by C. it is avowedly of a nature superior to that of pastoral subjects: Sicelides Musae.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. in elegant versification. are delivered with all the simplicity of an unlettered cultivator of the fields. into which the author has happily transfused. in respect of agriculture. When. in the twenty-ninth year of his age. as well as to the emperor." Another hope of mighty Rome! 273 Virgil's next work was the Georgics. must ever give to the Sicilian bard a pre-eminence in this species of poetry. Suetonius Tranquillus. he entertained the warmest affection. The work is addressed http://www. written in imitation of the Idyllia or pastoral poems of Theocritus. "Magnae spes altera Romae. But between the productions of the two poets. (167) with Cornelius Gallus. by a proscription of the Triumvirate. intermixed with plain moral reflections. in that state. but is brought to perfection.htm (118 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . we are told. With respect to the fourth eclogue. a poet likewise. through the favour of Asinius Pollio. abstractedly from all consideration of simplicity of sentiment. he has testified his gratitude in beautiful eclogues. therefore. The first production of Virgil was his Bucolics. the lands of Cremona and Mantua were distributed amongst the veteran soldiers. without any mixture of the rusticity of pastoral life. there is no other similarity than that of their common subject. upon hearing some lines of them. Virgil had the good fortune to recover his possessions. There is such an apparent incongruity between the simple ideas of the rural swain and the polished language of the courtier. that it is said they were frequently recited upon the stage for the entertainment of the audience. The greater part of the Bucolics of Virgil may be regarded as poems of a peculiar nature. the deputy of Augustus in those parts. paullo majora canamus. He has celebrated them all in these poems. the native manners and ideas. which were begun.gutenberg. equally precise and important. he exclaimed. that it seems impossible to reconcile them together by the utmost art of composition.

at beholding subjects. polity.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. who was occasionally relieved in the task by his friend Mecaenas. food. the third. and every obstacle to the establishment of the Trojans in the promised land of Hesperia produces fresh sensations of increased admiration and attachment. goats. characters. with greater latitude of application. at whose request it appears to have been undertaken. We may easily conceive the satisfaction enjoyed by the emperor. and substitute the charming episode of Astaeus and Eurydice.htm (119 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . at finding that while he himself had been gathering laurels in the achievements of war. During four days which Augustus passed at Atella. the emphatic sentiments interspersed. by C. he was induced to cancel it. It is said that Virgil had concluded the Georgics with a laboured eulogium on his poetical friend Gallus. The same remark may be made. the fourth is employed on bees. but the latter incurring about this time the displeasure of Augustus. and the remedies of them. of planting. the diseases to which they are liable. just then finished. to refresh himself from fatigue. the precepts were judiciously adapted to the climate of Italy.gutenberg. and of things which are hurtful to cattle. and incidents. It is divided into four books. By the esteem and sympathy excited for the filial piety and misfortunes of Aeneas at the catastrophe of Troy. which was held in great honour amongst the Romans. the beauty of the similes. The Georgics (168) were written at Naples. horses. their proper habitations. in respect of the other subjects. the reader is strongly interested in his subsequent adventures. The first treats of ploughing. http://www. The episodes. our admiration is excited. In this celebrated poem. were read to him by the author. considered merely as didactic. the Georgics.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. of cattle. the elegance of diction. and that an intimation was given of his being afterwards celebrated in a work more congenial to the subject of heroic renown. It is generally supposed that the Aeneid was written at the particular desire of Augustus. to Mecaenas. and the harmony of the versification. and employed the author during a period of seven years. Virgil has happily united the characteristics of the Iliad and Odyssey. who was ambitious of having the Julian family represented as lineal descendants of the Trojan Aeneas. and a variety of other considerations connected with the subject. with the method of making honey. embellished with the most magnificent decorations of poetry. In what relates to agriculture in particular. the second. and must have conveyed much valuable information to those who were desirous of cultivating that important art. But when we examine the Georgics as poetical compositions. that they mutually contribute to the general effect of the whole. in his return to Rome. dogs. sheep. These beautiful poems. when we attend to the elevated style in which they are written. another glorious wreath was prepared by the Muses to adorn his temples. Suetonius Tranquillus. so common in their nature. the animated strain of the whole. and blended them so judiciously together. after the battle of Actium. have the justest claim to utility.

and in arms be known. by C. instead of a prayer.htm (120 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and interesting description. that he may one day be superior in fame to his father. by the advice of Helenus. and pours forth a prayer. where Hector dandles the boy in his arms. which. For sentiment. the episode of Dido is a master-piece in poetry. Sis memor: et te animo repetentem exempla tuorum. Hector. contains. And crown with honours of the conquered field: Thou when thy riper years shall send thee forth To toils of war. Tu facito. addresses his son Ascanius in a beautiful speech. in Homer. There occurs. Immediately before his return to the field of battle. It may be sufficient to mention one instance. nunc te mea dextera bello Defensum dabit. The prophetic rage of the Cumaean Sibyl displays in the strongest colours the enthusiasm of the poet. is admirably accommodated to a different situation. whom he meets with his infant son Astyanax. My son! from my example learn the war In camps to suffer. if she would drive Diomede from the walls of Troy. and wherever he takes a hint from the Grecian bard. suitable to a youth who had nearly attained the period of adult age.gutenberg. while expressive of the strongest paternal affection. carried by a nurse. one of the most beautiful scenes in the Iliad. But Virgil is not more conspicuous for strength of description than propriety of sentiment. mox cum matura adoleverit aetas. In the same manner. The picture of Troy in flames can never be sufficiently (169) admired! The incomparable portrait of Priam. retires into the city. be mindful of my worth. http://www. and vow to her a noble sacrifice. Et pater Aeneas.—Aeneid. It is as follows: Disce. In the sixth book of the Iliad. a noble and emphatic admonition. in the Aeneid. Fortunam ex aliis. passion. having armed himself for the decisive combat with Turnus. while the Greeks are making great slaughter amongst the Trojans. to desire that his mother would offer up prayers to the goddess Pallas. Aeneas. puer. upon this occasion. and in feuds to dare. he prosecutes the idea with a judgment peculiar to himself. all concur to give beauty or grandeur to the poem. For Hector's nephew and Aeneas' son. et avunculus excitet Hector.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. virtutem ex me. xii. verumque laborem. in the character of Anchises. Assert thy birthright. But happier chance than mine attend thy care! This day my hand thy tender age shall shield. he has his last interview with Andromache. Suetonius Tranquillus. et magna inter praemia ducet.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

we know not. allowance ought to be made for the difference of circumstances under which they composed their respective works. and he was therefore indebted for big resources to the vast capacity of his own mind.gutenberg. When the poet came to the words. and the sixth—in the presence of the emperor and his sister Octavia. though born to shine by his own intrinsic powers. Virgil. but perhaps will never be determined to general satisfaction. is a question which has often been agitated.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (121 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the recital of the last book now mentioned. Rivalling. certainly owed much of his excellence to the wonderful merits of Homer. but of perusing the laws of epic poetry. by the care of her attendants. Virgil. and what must have animated him beyond every other consideration. when considerably advanced in it. he sustains their dignity with so uniform a lustre. he condescended to recite three books— the second. Whether the Iliad or the Aeneid be the more perfect composition. on the contrary. she ordered ten sesterces to be given to Virgil for every line relating (171) to that subject. a youth of great hopes. but at length. besides. was intended. His susceptible imagination. in particular. He had likewise not only the advantage of finding a model in the works of Homer. who remarks that ————quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. lived at a period when literature had attained to a high state of improvement. the fourth. For some years.—De Arte Poet. amongst the chief of whom was his friend Horace. Suetonius Tranquillus. who had lately died. Tu Marcellus eris. was (170) impregnated by the Odyssey. E'en sometimes the good Homer naps. and under the patronage of the emperor and his minister Mecaenas. that he composed both his poems in a situation of life extremely unfavourable to the cultivation of poetry. http://www. and warmed with the fire of the Iliad. Homer wrote in an age when mankind had not as yet made any great progress in the exertion of either intellect or imagination. To this we must add. however. After she had recovered from this fit. or rather on some occasions surpassing his glorious predecessor in the characters of heroes and of gods. but the Aeneid. vivid and correct. that they seem indeed more than mortal. In comparing the genius of the two poets. was the employment of Virgil during eleven years. which had been digested by Aristotle. a gratuity which amounted to about two thousand pounds sterling. he wrote both at the desire. alluding to Octavia's son. where he was roused to exertion by the example of several contemporary poets.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and the various observations made on the writings of the Greek bard by critics of acuteness and taste. Virgil. we are informed. the mother fainted. to gratify the latter of whom. composed his poem in a state remote from indigence. by C. the repeated entreaties of Augustus could not extort from him the smallest specimen of the work. In what time Homer composed either of his poems.

on the 22nd of September. His modesty was so great. we are not informed. by the order of Augustus. he left the greater part to Valerius Proculus and his brother. He was subject to complaints of the stomach and throat. a twelfth to Mecaenas. as well as to head-ache. Virgil resolved on retiring into Greece and Asia for three years. that he might devote himself entirely to polishing it. and was desired by his master to write them in the manuscript. with great funeral pomp. an old domestic. and had frequent discharges of blood upwards: but from what part. a fourth to Augustus. 274 He was accordingly interred.htm (122 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and of the Latin poet Ennius. which was very considerable by the liberality of his friends. who was on his return from the East. and that the following distich. by C. http://www. Virgil scrupled not to introduce whole lines of Homer. who. Virgil was of large stature. Of his estate. This restriction is supposed to be the cause that many lines in the Aeneid are imperfect. and he expired a few days after landing at Brundisium. He is said to have been at extraordinary pains in polishing his numbers. where his tomb still exists. which increased during the ensuing voyage. He desired that his body might be carried to Naples. he determined on accompanying the emperor back to Rome. had a dark complexion." On the subject of his modesty. supplied extempore a deficiency in two lines. On such occasions. and his (172) features are said to have been such as expressed no uncommon abilities.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. a town in the neighbourhood of Athens. in consequence of his own request. he was seized with a languor. near the road to Puteoli. In a few instances he has borrowed from Lucretius. Upon a visit to Megara. revised and corrected the Aeneid after his death. But meeting at Athens with Augustus. rura. should be inscribed upon his tomb: Mantua me genuit: Calabri rapuere: tenet nunc Parthenope: cecini pascua. in the fifty-second year of his age. When this immortal work was completed. where he had passed many happy years. the following anecdote is related. it is related. Suetonius Tranquillus. that at Naples they commonly gave him the name of Parthenias. he would read it to some of his friends. He was very temperate both in food and wine. Their instructions from the emperor were. besides legacies to L. within two miles of Naples. many of whose sentences he admired. it was usual with him to consult in particular his freedman and librarian Erotes. and have leisure afterwards to pass the remainder of his life in the cultivation of philosophy. In the composition of the Aeneid. Varius and Plotius Tucca.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but upon no account to make any addition. to expunge whatever they thought improper. and when he was doubtful of any passage. and the command of Augustus. that he might have their opinion. who.gutenberg. written in his last sickness. duces. "the modest man.

mellificatis. ye sheep. Caesar and Jove between them rule the year. and Bathyllus became http://www. oves. Not for yourselves. your cells ye fill. ye beeves. your nests ye build. the verses were claimed by Bathyllus. By order of Augustus. ye bees. ye plough and till. fertis aratra. Sic vos. and Virgil not declaring himself. Having written a distich. redeunt spectacula mane: Divisum imperium cum Jove Caesar habet. Augustus expressing a desire that the lines should be finished. apes.gutenberg. an inquiry was made after the author. Suetonius Tranquillus. nidificatis. you—— repeated four times. another filched the praise. Not for yourselves. non vobis. and Bathyllus proving unequal to the task. All night it rained. a contemptible poet. ye birds. by C. and under them the following line: Hos ego versiculos feci. It was in these words: Nocte pluit tota. tulit alter honorem. but who was liberally rewarded on the occasion. non vobis. aves. non vobis. I wrote the verse. provoked at the falsehood of the impostor. with morn the sports appear. Virgil at last filled up the blanks in this manner: Sic vos. Not for yourselves. Not for yourselves. again wrote the verses on some conspicuous part of the palace. he placed it in the night-time over the gate of the emperor's palace. boves.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Not for yourselves. Sic vos. with the beginning of another line in these words: Sic vos. non vobis. your fleece ye yield. The expedient immediately evinced him to be the author of the distich.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Virgil. vellera fertis. non vobis. Sic vos.htm (123 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . in which he compared Augustus to Jupiter.

According to his own acknowledgment. Torquatus.gutenberg. When he went to the theatre. being seized with timidity. here we meet: Pure spirits these. applied himself to the cultivation of poetry. the world no purer knows. I. Suetonius Tranquillus. quales neque candidiores Terra tulit. on the tenth of December. had they beheld him in the effulgence of epic renown! In the beautiful episode of the Elysian fields. however highly honourable. the theme of public ridicule. in the Aeneid. in the consulship of L. animae. his father was a freedman. and received him with the loudest plaudits. the audience universally rose up at his entrance. HORACE was born at Venusia. where. our joys how great! http://www. Horace followed Brutus. he sent him to Athens to study philosophy. and stole away (173) from them. he blushed. in the quality of a military tribune. and they would. or a dealer in salted meat.htm (124 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . in terms of the most tender affection. Whatever he was. crowded to gaze upon him. Occurrunt. he paid particular attention to the education of his son. by C. a compliment which. The passion would have rebounded upon himself. et gaudia quanta fuerunt! Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. Next rising morn with double joy we greet. where he dexterously introduced a glorious display of their country.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he abandoned the profession of a soldier. by some it is said that he was a collector of the revenue. For none my heart with more affection glows: How oft did we embrace. as they did to Augustus. if the people. Virgil. have idolized him. by his own confession. and by others. to the battle of Philippi. for. 5. When such was the just respect which they paid to the author of the Bucolics and Georgics. how would they have expressed their esteem. From this place. Cotta and L. frequently taking refuge in some shop. Varius. O qui complexus. a fishmonger. and returning to Rome.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In a short time he acquired the friendship of Virgil and Valerius. Virgiliusque. When at any time Virgil came to Rome. or pointed at him with the finger in admiration. Postera lux oritur multo gratissima: namque Plotius et Varius Sinuessae. For Plotius.—Sat. neque queis me sit devinctior alter. whom he mentions in his Satires. in the heat of admiration. after receiving instruction from the best masters in Rome. as was commonly the case. he had touched the most elastic springs of Roman enthusiasm. he would gladly have declined.

but of Augustus. besides his house in town. at the source. in sanity of mind. http://www. Gods. as well as the most popular species of literary production. near the falls of the Anio.htm (125 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Horace. By the two friends above mentioned. it has been generally employed to celebrate the fervours of piety.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and a villa at Tibur. Et pugilem victorem. he declined it.—Hor. of the delicious springs of Castalia. He indulged himself in indolence and social pleasure. her song inspire. iii.gutenberg. lived on a footing of the greatest intimacy. it concentrates in narrow bounds the fire of poetical transport: on which account. as well as Virgil. et equum certamine primnm.—Francis.—Francis. he was recommended to the patronage not only of Mecaenas. Nor did he fail of success: Exegi monumentum aere perennius. that when the emperor offered him the place of his secretary. Warm in expression. from the liberality of Augustus. he was so unambitious of any public employment. For sure no blessing in the power of fate Can be compared. and when his bosom beat high with the raptures of fancy. a cottage on his Sabine farm. De Arte Poet. More durable than brass a monument I've raised. puerosque Deorum. the raptures of love. Satisfied with the luxury which he enjoyed at the first tables in (174) Rome. by C. The Muse to nobler subjects tunes her lyre. but was at the same time much devoted to reading. the Ode appears to have been the most ancient.—Carm. to transplant into the plains of Latium the palm of lyric poetry. who gained the Olympic prize. and the sons of Gods. and it seems to have been ever after his chief ambition.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and to animate warriors to glorious exertions of valour: Musa dedit fidibus Divos. having. Love's pleasing cares. in the ardour of youth. a handsome establishment. in the pursuit of Grecian literature. But as he lived in an elegant manner. the enthusiasm of praise. had. with whom he. and wine's unbounded joys. and short in extent. To friends of such companionable kind. Suetonius Tranquillus. 30. although often incommoded with a fluxion of rheum upon the eyes. drunk largely. he enjoyed. and other countries. and enjoyed a tolerable good state of health. Wrestler and steed. beyond all doubt. et libera vina referre. In Greece. Et juvenum curas.

. among the Greeks. . nine eminent poets. Anacreon. Bacchylides. .The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Misenum Aeoliden. vi. And rouse to dare their fate in honourable arms. all the tender and delicate modulations of the Eastern song. . With breathing brass to kindle fierce alarms. . Ibicus. The greater number of this distinguished class are now known only by name. .—Ibid. by C. no less in the kind of measure which they chiefly or solely employed. et canto vocat in certamina Divos. Of the amorous effusions of the lyre. than in the strength or softness. so happily suited to poetry. . .org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. . .—Dryden There arose in this department. Simonides. They seem all to have differed from one another. . While he moves in the measures of the Greeks with an ease and gracefulness which rivals their own acknowledged excellence. he is inferior to none: in variety of sentiment and http://www. He now provokes the sea-gods from the shore. . . In the artificial construction of the Ode. in the multiplicity of his subjects. Misenus. the animated rapidity or the graceful ease of their various compositions. and Pindar. Stesichorus. Sed tum forte cava dum personat aequora concha Demens. . and the incomparable ode of Sappho: the lyric strains which animated to battle. but the victors in the public games of Greece have their fame perpetuated in the admirable productions of Pindar. by adopting. he has enriched the fund of lyric harmony with a stanza peculiar to himself. . . . . Suetonius Tranquillus. Horace.gutenberg. and given to a language less distinguished for soft inflexions. . In beautiful imagery. renowned The warrior trumpet in the field to sound. Alcman. Martemque accendere cnatu. son of Oeolus. . the beauty or grandeur. . and frequently combining different measures in the same composition. and aiming still at more. Alcaeus. Aeneid. (175) Swollen with applause. quo non praestantior alter Aere ciere viros. Sappho. we yet have examples in the odes of Anacreon. almost all the various measures of the different Greek poets. . . 275 Virgil. has compensated for the dialects of that tongue. have sunk into oblivion. he may justly be regarded as the first of lyric poets. .htm (126 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . viz.

ever poured forth from her vocal groves in solemn adoration. the ancients elevated their heroes to a pitch of sublimity that excites admiration. to fame? What God? whose hallowed name The sportive image of the voice Shall in the shades of Helicon repeat. there is not now extant a more beautiful composition. Indeed. sometimes interrogatory. and it was reserved for a bard. superior to every existing competitor in Greek or Roman poetry. surpasses all that Greece. Or sharp-toned flute. but his transitions are conducted with ease. as he himself acknowledges. The Satires of Horace are far from being remarkable for poetical harmony. according to the plan upon which several of them are written.gutenberg. and which continued during three days and three nights. It was not his object in those compositions. By the force of native genius. Of the praises of gods and heroes. to soothe the ear with the melody of polished numbers. and what is more remarkable.htm (127 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . inspired with nobler sentiments than the Muses could supply. etc. (176) melodious but simple in the service of the altar. but to rally the frailties of the heart. Deathless. on the tuneful lyre. He is elegant without affectation. More concise in mythological attributes than the hymns ascribed to Homer. in variety and grandeur of invocation. called into exertion the most vigorous efforts of his genius. Suetonius Tranquillus. by C. to sing the praises of that Being whose ineffable perfections transcend all human imagination. felicity of expression. this beautiful production. The Carmen Seculare was written at the express desire of Augustus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. An occasion which so much interested the ambition of the poet. will Clio choose to raise. They are frequently colloquial. to convince http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Clio? Quem Deum? cujus recinet jocosa Nomen imago. than the 12th Ode of the first book of Horace: Quem virum aut heroa lyra vel acri Tibia sumes celebrare. performed once in a hundred years. what hero. for the celebration of the Secular Games. whilst all Rome resounded with the mingled effusions of choral addresses to gods and goddesses. Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris. the transitions quick. etc. in the midst of gaiety he is moral. and every subject introduced with propriety. We seldom meet in his Odes with the abrupt apostrophes of passionate excursion. What man. and the apostrophes abrupt. and of festive joy. it could scarcely be otherwise. but to soar beyond which they could derive no aid from mythology. and in pomp of numbers.

and his taste was guided by intuitive perception of moral beauty. Suetonius Tranquillus. as. and thence to put to shame both the vices and follies of mankind.htm (128 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and refined by philosophical reflection. on the side of morality and virtue. he would have followed his patron more closely.—Francis. enlivened with pleasantry. a circumstance which. at his own desire. Horace died in the fifty-seventh year of his age. versate diurna. He was interred. and one or two in the first. surviving his beloved Mecaenas only three weeks. near the tomb of Mecaenas. and judicious observations on life and manners.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he was not able.—— http://www. in justness of principle and extent of application. on account of weakness. and the preceding Roman writers of this class. of which the Greeks furnished no model. Satire is a species of composition. correspondent to the various exertions of genius on subjects of invention and taste. The few instances of indelicacy which occur in his compositions. In the writings of Horace there appears a fund of good sense. supposed to have been written in Mecaenas's last illness. raillery and sarcasm. added to the declaration in an ode 276 to that personage. abounding in moral sentiments. had still not brought it to that degree of perfection which might answer the purpose of moral reform in a polished state of society. he availed himself of the most approved works of Grecian original. This seems to be confirmed by a fact immediately preceding his death. has given rise to a conjecture. they are in general of the familiar kind. He had cultivated his judgment with great application. the understanding by argument. It received the most essential improvement from Horace. by C. a failure which it is probable that he would have taken care to obviate. and propriety.gutenberg. The poem De Arte Poetica comprises a system of criticism. that Horace ended his days by a violent death. and study them by night. (177) That in composing this excellent production. to put his signature to the will. But it is more natural to conclude that he died of excessive grief. The Epistles of this author may be reckoned amongst the most valuable productions of antiquity. had his death been premeditated. we may conclude from the advice which he there recommends: ——————Vos exemplaria Graeca Nocturna versate manu. than to any blameable propensity in the author. to accompany his friend. of happiness and truth. who has dexterously combined wit and argument. Read them by day.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. we may ascribe rather to the manners of the times. aptitude. Make the Greek authors your supreme delight. though they had much improved it from its original rudeness and licentiousness. had he literally adhered to the affirmation contained in the ode. for though he declared Augustus heir to his whole estate. Except those of the second book.

and declaimed with great applause. and no sooner was his father dead. as the epistles. His father intended him for the bar. the emporium of learning. all written either in heroic or pentameter verse. except three.gutenberg. OVID was born of an equestrian family. he discovered an extreme attachment to poetry. had not received his last corrections when he http://www. we are told by himself. which pervades all the amorous productions of this celebrated author. On his return to Rome. in obedience to the desire of his father. and after passing him through the usual course of instruction at Rome. in the consulship of Hirtius and Pansa. a town of the Peligni. such as Penelope to Ulysses. and luscious description. he was sent to Athens. but blended with that lascivious turn of thought. These compositions are nervous. The work is founded upon the traditions and theogony of the ancients. animated and elegant: they discover a high degree of poetic enthusiasm. Sappho to Phaon. It will be sufficient to mention them briefly. etc. The Fasti were divided into twelve books. particularly the Ars Amandi. though not all uniform in versification.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. this valuable work should not have been transmitted entire: but in the part which remains. Dido to Aeneas. at Sulmo. however perfect it may appear. is easy and harmonious. not of choice: for. that. not less extraordinary for the nature of the subject. to complete his education. But this was the effect of paternal authority. as well as the sacrifices on those occasions. His productions. of which only the first six now remain. (178) The Heroides consist of twenty-one Epistles. and on various subjects. are feigned to be written from celebrated women of antiquity. one rising out of another. he entered upon the offices of public life in the forum.htm (129 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . are numerous. to their husbands or lovers. on the 21st of March. from the first of January to the end of June. than for the admirable art with which the whole is conducted. The versification. we are furnished with a beautiful description of the ceremonial transactions in the Roman calendar. Those Ovid has not only so happily arranged. possess the same general character. he devoted himself entirely to the cultivation of that fascinating art. Suetonius Tranquillus. The design of them was to deliver an account of the Roman festivals in every month of the year. renouncing the bar. as to give a natural appearance to the most incredible fictions. which consisted of various detached fables. The elegies on subjects of love.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. his propensity to which was invincible. The most popular production of this poet is his Metamorphoses. that they form a coherent series of narratives. by C. of warmth of passion. on a subject so interesting. from his earliest years. but he describes the different changes with such an imposing plausibility. than. as in all the compositions of this author. all which. or Ars Amatoria. It is to be regretted. This ingenious production. with a description of the rites and ceremonies.

written by Callimachus. and (179) amongst them a tragedy called Medea. on whatever he employs his pen. but it is evident. but after all the efforts of different writers to elucidate the subject. to attempt a solution of the question upon principles more conformable to probability. though his vivacity forsook him. but lascivious in sentiment. after his banishment. are conspicuous through the whole.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but by a quick succession of new ideas. some secret reason. The ostensible reason assigned by Augustus for banishing Ovid. indignation. c. ii. and he rises to a pitch of sublimity.gutenberg. 1. by C. No point in ancient history has excited more variety of conjectures than the banishment of Ovid. It may therefore not be improper.htm (130 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . he exhausts the subject. of which Quintilian expresses a high opinion. Lib. 1— http://www. but when his fancy glows with sentiment. was ordered into banishment. He says in his Tristia. in which. or is animated by objects of grandeur. from various passages in the poet's productions after this period. The Tristia were composed in his exile. and countenanced by historical evidence. and implacable resentment. No poet is more guided in versification by the nature of his subject than Ovid. equally brilliant and apposite. which would not admit of being divulged. Void of obscenity in expression. si ingenio suo temperare quam indulgere maluisset 277. It is an invective against some person who publicly traduced his character at Rome. the author imitates a poem of the same name. Ovidii Medea videtur mihi ostendere quantum vir ille praestare potuerit. A strong sensibility. besides. to examine the foundation of the several conjectures which have been formed. he may be said rather to stimulate immorally the natural passions. It is a peculiarity in the productions of this author. Suetonius Tranquillus. his ideas are expressed with almost colloquial simplicity. Several other productions written by Ovid are now lost. his style is proportionably elevated. In common narrative. the cause of this extraordinary transaction remains involved in obscurity. Lib. was his corrupting the Roman youth by lascivious publications. that there was.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. than to corrupt the imagination. he still retained a genius prolific in versification. that. not with any prolixity that fatigues the attention. often expressed in antitheses. and deprecates in the strongest terms the inexorable displeasure of Augustus. in this place. as well as in many epistles to different persons. In these poems. x. he bewails his unhappy situation. In the Ibis. and if they appear to be utterly imadmissible.

she was removed to the continent. as well as that of his mother Livia. What this was. towards removing from the capital a woman. that. that Ovid had seen something of a very indecent nature. but though frequent applications were made in her behalf by the people. and is not only discredited by its own improbability. 5. in which Augustus was concerned. rests entirely upon conjecture. Suetonius Tranquillus. instead of Julia. Cur aliquid vidi? cur conscia lumina feci? Cur imprudenti cognita culpa mihi est?—Ibid. therefore. who was now forty seven. iii. that it must have been an act of criminality between Augustus and his own daughter Julia. who. is the question. Augustus never could be prevailed upon to permit her return.htm (131 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . whose own interest with the emperor. and had thoughts of putting her to death. carmen et errors. Some authors. It seems. We know not exactly the year in which Augustus sent her into exile. the person http://www. Tiberius. however. if any such application was necessary. and openly profligate after her union with her next husband. 279 De Trist.gutenberg. became a woman of the most infamous character. through his own ignorance and mistake. She was banished to an island on the coast of Campania for five years. to be a fact sufficiently established. and they had not cohabited for many years. either by blood or alliance. but by a yet more forcible argument. But no application from Tiberius or his mother could be necessary. and the severity of her treatment a little mitigated. as he insinuates. He was so much ashamed of her profligacy. * * * * * * (180) Inscia quod crimen viderunt lumina. She was about the same age with Tiberius. that it happened soon after her separation from Tiberius.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. plector: Peccatumque oculos est habuisse meum. suspected of incontinence during her marriage with Agrippa. 278 It appears from another passage in the same work. and. but we may conclude with confidence. This supposition. notwithstanding the strict attention paid to her education by her father. could not fail of being exerted. reflected disgrace upon all with whom she was connected.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Perdiderent cum me duo crimina. It is certain that Julia was at this time in banishment for her scandalous life. by the notoriety of her prostitution. at the expiration of which period. the daughter of Augustus. by C. who. that this inviolable arcanum was something which Ovid had seen. (181) Other writers have conjectured. when we are assured that Augustus even presented to the senate a narrative respecting the infamous behaviour of his daughter. which was read by the quaestor. have gone so far as to suppose. conceiving it to have been of a kind extremely atrocious. that he for a long time declined all company.

we find a difference of three or four years. seems sufficient to exonerate his memory from so odious a charge. Having now refuted. The commencement of Ovid's exile happened in the ninth year of the Christian aera. Suetonius Tranquillus. an observation which fully invalidates the conjecture above-mentioned. which seems to have a greater claim to probability than any that has hitherto been suggested. this crude conjecture may be refuted upon the evidence of chronology. and the death of Mecaenas. the minister. we shall proceed to offer a new conjecture. as he had done in respect of her mother. as that he himself had been more criminal with her than any other man in the empire? Some writers. But the purpose of Ovid's visit appears. to have been http://www. the incident might be regarded as ludicrous. That Ovid knew not of Augustus's being in the place. is beyond all doubt: and Augustus's consciousness (182) of this circumstance. who inherited the vicious disposition of her mother. for the reputation of the illustrious patron of polite learning. therefore. as it is presumed. in the latter part of his life. It was therefore probably with one of those victims that he was discovered by Ovid. have supposed the transaction to be of a nature still more detestable. into a participation of the crime. who were procured for him from all parts. Besides. though in both cases unsuccessfully.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. the opinions of the different commentators on this subject. and the great sensibility which Augustus had discovered with regard to the infamy of his daughter. and this consideration. seen with him by Ovid may have been Julia his grand-daughter. and certainly was more fit to excite the shame than the indignation of Augustus. but by the clandestine management of his consort Livia. Augustus had for many years affected a decency of behaviour. and was on that account likewise banished by Augustus. together with the character of Ovid. naturally be not a little disconcerted at the unseasonable intrusion of the poet. and therefore no argument can be drawn from that source to invalidate the present conjecture. as well as for that of the emperor. and he would. there intervened.gutenberg. joined to the enormity of the supposed crime. while (upon the supposition of incest) she was mistress of so important a secret. not only with the connivance.htm (132 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] .The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. eight years before that period. but allowing the utmost latitude of variation. The epoch of this lady's banishment it is impossible to ascertain. Between this and other calculations. giving a wider scope to conjecture. from his own acknowledgment. that Augustus. Suetonius informs us. But Augustus had shown the same solicitude for her being trained up in virtuous habits. is it possible that he could have sent her into banishment for the infamy of her prostitution. contracted a vicious inclination for the enjoyment of young virgins. Fortunately. from the death of Mecaenas to the banishment of Ovid. would suggest an unfavourable suspicion of the motive which had brought the latter thither. and have even dragged Mecaenas. however. Abstracted from the immorality of the emperor's own conduct. by C. a period of eleven years.

I know I cannot wholly be defended. can be drawn from the order in which the various productions of Ovid are placed in the collection of his works: but reasoning from probability. Suetonius Tranquillus. nunc nocuere seni? 281 http://www. quae juveni mihi non nocitura putavi Scripta parum prudens.gutenberg.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. 280 That many years must have elapsed since its original publication. This passion. we should suppose that the Ars Amandi was written during the period of his youth. Supplicium patitur non nova culpa novum. cum te delicta notantem Praeterii toties jure quietus eques. though of what nature we know not: Non equidem totam possum defendere culpam: Sed partem nostri criminis error habet. 5. Carminaque edideram. he never more could endure. and though by a much younger man he would not have been regarded as any object of jealousy in love. he might be deemed a formidable rival. inflamed the emperor's resentment.htm (133 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . De Trist. (183) Ergo. concurring with that which arose from the interruption or disappointment of gratification. by C. Lib. not entirely free from blame. no ill was then intended. and whose presence. now in his sixty-ninth year. from what had happened. and this seems to be confirmed by the following passage in the second book of the Fasti: Certe ego vos habui faciles in amore ministros. Yet plead 'twas chance. and he resolved on banishing to a distant country a man whom he considered as his rival. No argument to establish the date of publication. Cum lusit numeris prima juventa suis.—Catlin. could find little difficulty in accommodating the ostensible to the secret and real cause of this resolution. therefore. Eleg. yet by Augustus. iii. Augustus having determined on the banishment of Ovid. is evident from the subsequent lines in the second book of the Tristia: Nos quoque jam pridem scripto peccavimus uno. Ovid was at this time turned of fifty.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

the imperial vengeance would reach him even on the shores of the Euxine. there was sufficient hold of the poet's secrecy respecting the fatal transaction.gutenberg. Pro tam mansueto pectore semper agam. in his solemn capacity of censor. especially as this arbitrary punishment of the author could answer no end of public utility. was sensible. it must have passed through several editions in the course of some years: and one of those coinciding with the fatal discovery. and punish the author accordingly.htm (134 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . that Ovid was not sent into banishment destitute of pecuniary provision: Di melius! quorum longe mihi maximus ille. and whose genius. however. had shown himself equally sanguinary. the morals of society. on account of his having written some satirical verses against him. afforded the emperor a specious pretext for the execution of his purpose. Ovid. named Cassius. that. in the same circumstances. If the sensibility of Augustus could not thenceforth admit of any personal intercourse with Ovid. while the obnoxious production remained to affect. http://www. if divulged (184) to the world. with every indulgence which could alleviate so distressful a necessity. of justice. or even of his living within the limits of Italy. It may perhaps be urged. however. and the power of pardoning which the emperor still retained.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. a poet of Parma. that Ovid. it may be asked. It appears. upon a late occasion. by C. he had so long and repeatedly overlooked? The answer is obvious: in a production so popular as we may be assured the Ars Amandi was amongst the Roman youth. which. Huic igitur meritas grates. The gods defend! of whom he's far the chief.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he discovered a forbearance greater than might have been expected from an absolute prince. from a passage in the Ibis. with all its indiscretion. Suetonius Tranquillus. unaccompanied even by the partner of his bed. It will readily be granted. under any one of the four subsequent emperors. who had been his companion for many years. that we cannot justly ascribe it to any other motive than personal resentment. was an act so inconsistent with the usual moderation of Augustus. Augustus. in sending into honourable exile. by the hand of Varus. which. then. Qui nostras inopes noluit esse vias. Augustus would reprobate as a false and infamous libel. if it really ever did essentially affect. who was charged with no actual offence against the laws. there would have been little danger from the example. therefore. when the poet was suddenly driven into exile. The severity exercised on this occasion. would have expiated the incident with his blood. that. considering the predicament in which Augustus stood. which can apply to no other than Augustus. on his part. ubicumque licebit. a man of respectable rank in the state. should he dare to violate the important but tacit injunction. By that recent example. for he put to death. could Augustus now punish a fault. did immortal honour to his country. With what show. in sparing the life of Ovid.

deserved thanks I'll give. as being built on the Palatine hill. and is said. a melancholy period of seven years. and Philetas. where is a lake still called by the natives Ouvidouve Jesero. he passed the remainder of his life. If we might hazard a conjecture respecting the scene of the intrigue which occasioned the banishment of Ovid. the palace.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. What sum the emperor bestowed. like the elegy of the moderns. amidst which he devoted a part of his time to the composition of elegies. His amiable accomplishments procured him the friendship of Messala Corvinus. particularly Callimachus. want relief. Notwithstanding the lascivious writings of Ovid. the second he dismissed on account of her immodest behaviour. though called Palatium. he had the curiosity to follow her. but erroneously. Who lets me not. It consisted of a heroic and pentameter line alternately. In this retirement. had. a town of Bulgaria. to recite their compositions to each other. which he endowed with a public library. Adjoining to this place Augustus had built the temple of Apollo. He might therefore have been in the library. and allotted for the use of poets. as will afterwards appear. who was of mean extraction. and (185) whom he had married when he was very young. for the support of a banishment which he was resolved should be perpetual. was only a small mansion. whom he accompanied in a military expedition to the island of Corcyra. which had formerly belonged to Hortensius. He was three times married: his first wife. it is impossible to ascertain. one of Augustus's freedmen.—— TIBULLUS was descended of an equestrian family. and spying from the window a young female secreting herself in the gardens. the lake of Ovid. as well as to other poets.htm (135 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and the Euxine Pontus. now said to be Baba. For this his favour therefore whilst I live. His house. to have been born on the same day with Ovid. and seems to have been much beloved by them. But an indisposition with which he was seized. towards the mouth of the Ister. the orator. but he had formerly been liberal to Ovid. but. until the present age. and was not. and inhabited by the sovereign. so far as we can find. Where'er I am. it does not appear that he was in his conduct a libertine. Mimnermus. He had a number of respectable friends. though banished. induced him to return to Rome. Elegiac poetry had been cultivated by several Greek writers.gutenberg. usually appropriated to http://www. Suetonius Tranquillus. he divorced. by C. and the third appears to have survived him. who was librarian of the temple.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and a natural aversion to the toils of war. been unknown to the Romans in their own tongue. where he seems to have resigned himself to a life of indolence and pleasure. we should place it in some recess in the emperor's gardens. Ovid was particularly intimate with Hyginus. The place of Ovid's banishment was Tomi 282.

Cum memor anteactos semper dolor admovet annos. His luxuriant imagination collects the most beautiful flowers of nature. but he was afterwards reconciled to his opponent. at the outset of the poem. but employed chiefly in compositions relative to love or friendship. by which he cultivated that simplicity and tenderness. faecundas ad deficientia messes. which constitute the characteristic perfections of the elegiac muse. and agreeable ease of sentiment. http://www. and lived to an advanced age in favour and esteem with Augustus. He was distinguished not only by his military talents. Several of his elegies may be said to have neither middle nor end: yet the transitions are so natural. from the limp in the pentameter line. to be regretted that. His elegies addressed to Messala contain a beautiful amplification of sentiments founded in friendship and esteem. commentators have conjectured that he was deprived of his lands by the same proscription in which those of Virgil had been involved: Cui fuerant flavi ditantes ordine sulci Horrea. the charms of domestic happiness. and the joys of reciprocal love. scarcely any poet surpasses Tibullus. in some instances. he leads his readers imperceptibly through devious paths of pleasure. Cuique pecus denso pascebant agmine colles. we are sensible of no defect in the concatenation which has joined them together. it is not suitable to sublime subjects. the most heterogeneous in their nature. whether the virtues of the patron or the genius of the poet be more conspicuous. et nimium furique lupoque: Nunc desiderium superest: nam cura novatur. From the following passage in the writings of Tibullus. and an expansion of sound. of which. With a dexterity peculiar to himself.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and he displays them with all the delicate attraction of soft and harmonious numbers. In the description of rural scenes. Tibullus betrays that licentiousness of manners which (186) formed too general a characteristic even of this refined age. He seems to have often written without any previous meditation or design. and the gradations so easy. that though we wander through Elysian scenes of fancy. and made himself master of the camp of Octavius at Philippi. though. integrity. To this species of poetry Tibullus restricted his application. indeed. by C.htm (136 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] .The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and patriotism. the peaceful occupations of the field. Valerius Messala Corvinus. in whatever subject he engages. In the civil wars which followed the death of Julius Caesar he joined the republican party. be used upon almost any subject. but by his eloquence. the lamentation of the deceased. and might. they could form no conception. was descended of a very ancient family. It is.gutenberg. however. which require a fulness of expression. Suetonius Tranquillus. Et domino satis. in which it is difficult to say. whom he celebrates.

he observes. and envious fate Did soon my friend Tibullus hence translate. and if.htm (137 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Ovid mentions Tibullus as a writer. Lib. who.—Francis.—Catlin. From this passage we should be justified in placing the death of Tibullus between http://www. several years after that period. we must indeed assign the event to an early period: for Ovid cannot have written the elegy after the forty-third year of his own life. and how long before is uncertain. with heart to know How to enjoy what they bestow. however. was much older than himself. Successor fuit hic tibi. that Tibullus died at the age of some years under thirty. were both of the equestrian order. Epist. In the tenth elegy of the fourth book. Utque ego majores. And I myself was fourth in course of time. there would be no improbability in concluding.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and of congenial dispositions. i. iv. as is said by biographers. 4. El. sic me coluere minores. It is evident. As both Ovid and Tibullus lived at Rome. represents him as opulent.gutenberg. Suetonius Tranquillus. and Propertius him. Were it true. that the fates had allowed little time for the cultivation of his friendship with Tibullus. though his contemporary. De Tristibus. for in the passage above cited of the Tristia. Propertius illi: Quartus ab his serie temporis ipse fui. it is natural to suppose that their acquaintance commenced at an early period. he is spoken of as a young man. Dii tibi divitias dederant. But this seems not very probable. by C. He followed Gallus. when we consider that Horace. artemque fruendi. it was of short duration. Virgilium vidi tantum: nec avara Tibullo Tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae. We know not the age of Tibullus at the time of his death. To thee the gods a fair estate In bounty gave. that biographers have committed a mistake with regard to the birth of this poet. Lib. Galle. after all. but in an elegy written by Ovid upon that occasion. (187) Virgil I only saw.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. 1. that he was born the same day with Ovid.

This place was famous for its herds of white cattle. Or saunter through the silent wood. betook himself http://www. just. nostrorum sermonum candide judex. than that Propertius lost his father at an early age. for the Romans extended the period of youth to the fiftieth year. And where thy sacred streams. Quid nunc te dicam facere in regione Pedana? Scribere quod Cassi Parmensis opuscula vincat. the fortieth and fiftieth year of his age. and rather nearer to the latter period. White herds. i. and on her altars bled. Nothing more is known with certainty. Albius. while at your country seat. 4. saepe tuo perfusi fluorine sacro. brought up there for sacrifice.—Sotheby. Suetonius Tranquillus. Curantem quicquid dignam sapiente bonoque est?—Epist. a town of Umbria.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Do you. An tacitum silvas inter reptare salubres. Horace would scarcely have mentioned him in the manner he does in one of his epistles. and they add. by the order of Octavius. when L.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.—Francis.—Georg. greges. And e'en from Cassius bear the prize. Clitumne. by C. and supposed to be impregnated with that colour by the waters of the river last mentioned. (188) His father is said by some to have been a Roman knight. Musing on what befits the good. That shall in volumed bulk arise. This supposition is in no degree inconsistent with the authority of Ovid. ii. were. for. where he mentions him as a young man. and kind.htm (138 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . et maxima taurus Victima. Antony was starved out of Perasia.gutenberg. candid. Hinc albi. Some rhyming labours meditate. led to the altar of Julius Caesar.—— PROPERTIUS was born at Mevania. and being deprived of a great part of his patrimony. and there slain. Albi. that he was one of those who. seated at the confluence of the Tina and Clitumnus. Clitumnus! flow. and stateliest bulls that oft have led Triumphant Rome. in whom my satires find A critic. Romanos ad templa Deum duxere triumphos. otherwise.

but military talents. but have perished promiscuously amidst the indiscriminate ravages of time. he is moral. written. there is reason to think. but. like Horace. of various merit. without rapture. seems entitled to the preference. and it has been disputed which of them is superior in this department of poetry. who appointed him governor of Egypt." Of all the Latin elegiac poets. Except the fifth elegy. http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. which have left few or no memorials behind them.—— GALLUS was a Roman knight. however. for some time. of accidents. he fell into despair. which is tainted with immodesty. but which. Of his poetry we have only six elegies. Tibullus and Propertius have each written four books of Elegies. His versification. in the person of an old man. for which he was banished. Quintilian has given his suffrage in favour of Tibullus. He often draws his imagery from reading. and will survive to the latest posterity. in the midst of gaiety. but not uniformly harmonious. where his genius soon recommended him to public notice. The stores with which learning supplies him diversify as well as illustrate his subject. which have been happily preserved. distinguished not only for poetical.htm (139 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . his Thyestes was equal to any composition of the Greek tragic poets. he is animated. and his tenderness is seldom marked with a great degree of sensibility. while delicacy every where discovers a taste refined by the habit of reflection. and. and he obtained the patronage of Mecaenas. for the delight and admiration of mankind. were composed at an earlier part of the author's life. more than from the imagination. he received the appellation of "the learned. and of different authors. Many (189) more once existed. so far as poetical merit alone is the object of consideration. and may be placed in competition with any other productions of the elegiac kind. are Varius and Valgius. in great favour with Augustus. For warmth of passion he is not conspicuous. Suetonius Tranquillus. that he not only oppressed the province by extortion. to Rome. From his frequent introduction of historical and mythological subjects into his poems. are highly beautiful. According to Quintilian.gutenberg. the former of whom. and laid violent hands on himself. Amongst the principal authors whose works are lost. It is said. Unable to sustain such a reverse of fortune. Gallus was. is elegant. Such are the celebrated productions of the Augustan age. and abounds less in description than sentiment.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. the others. particularly the first. composed some tragedies. by C. and of barbarians. This is the Gallus in honour of whom Virgil composed his tenth eclogue. but entered into a conspiracy against his benefactor. besides a panegyric upon Augustus. on the subject of old age. who. in general. Propertius has the justest claim to purity of thought and expression.

for poets to recite their compositions in public.htm (140 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . poets in particular.—Epist. ii. Suetonius Tranquillus. The beautiful productions of Greece. produced emulation.—Francis. et calet uno Scribendi studio: pueri patresque severi Fronde comas vincti coenant.gutenberg. having now ceased. imitation. and emulation cherished an extraordinary thirst of fame. Our youth. which baffles all inquiry: but we shall endeavour to develop the various causes which seem to have produced this effect. * * * * * * Now the light people bend to other aims.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. excited them to imitation. which was now only to be obtained by glorious exertions of intellect. a fresh impulse was given to activity in the ambitious pursuit of the laurel. a spirit of enterprise.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. with bays are crowned. 1. Epeat. and the phenomenon is usually ascribed to a fortuitous occurrence. and should the explanation appear satisfactory. in every exertion of the human mind. their ardour. whether from the influence of climate. And rhymes eternal as our feasts go round. The great number of eminent writers. who adorned this age. operating strongly upon their minds. and is avowed both by Virgil http://www. But every desperate blockhead dares to write. et carmina dictant. The thirst of fame above mentioned. our senators. Upon the final termination of the Punic war. A lust of scribbling every breast inflames. was a powerful incentive.—Such was now the rage for poetical composition in the Roman capital. is the parent of excellence. This liberal contention was not a little promoted by the fashion introduced at Rome. as we before observed. if ever they should again be combined. has excited general admiration. The Romans. a practice which seems to have been carried even to a ridiculous excess. which in general was temperate. (190) Scribimus indocti doctique poemata passim. that under similar circumstances. 1. was diverted into the channel of literature.—Hor. which. Verse is the trade of every living wight. and the conquest of Greece. which had hitherto been exercised in military achievements. and. or their mode of living. by C. ii. and the civil commotions which followed. that Horace describes it in the following terms: Mutavit mentem populus levis. it may favour an opinion. were endowed with a lively imagination. a period of equal glory might arise in other ages and nations. when roused amongst a number.

Swift to the noblest heights of fame. and applied much of the subsequent part of the day to correction and improvement. towards the production of such poetry as might live through every age.—Francis. a historian. The former. Even Sallust. both in the composition.—Sotheby. Who tuned with art the Grecian lyre. I.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. if possible.gutenberg. But if you rank me with the choir. Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. when employed upon the Georgics. usually wrote in the morning. ————tentanda via est qua me quoque possim Tollere humo. and Horace. by C. Shall rise thy poet's deathless name. Quad si me lyricis vatibis inseres. will strive o'er earth my flight to raise. brevis est. et quoniam vita ipsa. iterum quae digna legi sint http://www. too. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingenii quam virium opibus gloriam quaerere. But whatever may be the time. in the third book of his Georgics.htm (141 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . announces a resolution of rendering himself celebrated. qua fruimur. victorque virum volitare per ora. we may justly suppose that it was the same in the Aeneid. If this was his regular practice in the Georgics. scruples not to insinuate the same kind of ambition.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. in his introduction to Catiline's Conspiracy. was the extreme attention which the great poets of this period displayed. that he figuratively mentions nine years as an adequate period for that purpose. catch the gale of praise. Suetonius Tranquillus. expresses himself in terms which indicate a similar purpose. than a due attention to this important subject. that licks her cub into form. Yet. memoriam nostri quam maxume longam efficere. 283 Another circumstance of great importance. And Horace. there is no precept which he urges either oftener or more forcibly. And wing'd by victory. (191) Saepe stylum vertas. Virgil. after all this labour. Horace has gone so far in recommending careful correction. in the conclusion of his first Ode. He compared himself to a bear. and the polishing of their works. he intended to devote three years entirely to its farther amendment.

—Francis.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. were the finest productions of human genius. their incentives to emulation were the strongest that could actuate the heart. and polish every line. Suetonius Tranquillus. Art.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and with unwearied patience in polishing their compositions. they attained to that glorious distinction in literature. http://www. as concurring to form the great superiority of the Augustan age. by C. carmen reprehendite. one more is to be subjoined. With ardour. relative to the celebrity of the Augustan age. Nor let the hardy poem hope to live. Where time and full correction don't refine The finished work. De. i.—Francis. therefore. and industry in composing. Having now finished the proposed explanation. invigorated every exertion.—Sat. and the poets who basked in the rays of imperial favour. Scripturus. Would you a reader's just esteem engage? Correct with frequent care the blotted page. This was a principle of the most powerful energy: it fanned the flame of genius. To the several causes above enumerated. The models. as respects the productions of literature. of a nature the most essential: the liberal and unparalleled encouragement given to distinguished talents by the emperor and his minister. and the animating patronage of Mecaenas. experienced a poetic enthusiasm which approached to real inspiration.gutenberg. we shall conclude with recapitulating in a few words the causes of this extraordinary occurrence. x. Poet. ————Vos. atque Perfectum decies non castigavit ad uuguem. which no succeeding age has ever rivalled. then. Sons of Pompilius. quod non Multa dies et multa litura coercuit. which the Romans derived from Grecian poetry. O Pompilius sanguis.htm (142 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . with contempt receive.

perhaps. who was admitted by the senate into the patrician order six years after the expulsion of the Tarquins. After this period. in contempt of the omen threw them overboard. The patrician family of the Claudii (for there was a plebeian family of the same name. when he (194) was ordered by the senate to name a dictator. made a violent attempt to have a free virgin. Claudius Candex first passed the straits of Sicily with a fleet. exhibited characters equally opposed to each other. and then engaging the enemy. under Atta Claudius. by means of his dependants. For both http://www. but rejected by common consent the praenomen of (193) Lucius. in process of time. II. It appears from record. They likewise received from the state. by C. and two ovations. as well as committed acts of delinquency. if they would not eat. as if they should drink at least. (192) I.gutenberg. when. adjudged a slave. no way inferior to the other either in power or dignity) came originally from Regilli. of whom he was enamoured. and a buryingplace for themselves near the capitol 284. one individual had been convicted of robbery.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. They removed thence to Rome soon after the building of the city. a town of the Sabines. his apparitor. likewise. After his defeat. when. and drove the Carthaginians out of the island 287. Appius Caecus dissuaded the senate from agreeing to an alliance with Pyrrhus. Claudius Pulcher. he named Glycias. who reigned jointly with Romulus in the kingdom. or. which in the Sabine language signifies strong and valiant. The women of this family. Claudius Nero cut off Hasdrubal with a vast army upon his arrival in Italy from Spain.htm (143 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . that many of the Claudii have performed signal services to the state. was routed. and endeavoured. which caused the people to secede a second time from the senate 289. Their descendants were distinguished by various praenomina and cognomina 285. they assumed that of Nero.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. making a sort of jest of the public disaster. Amongst other cognomina. seven censorships. as prejudicial to the republic 286. of the two races who bore it. one of the Decemvirs. seven triumphs. the pullets used for taking augury would not eat. TIBERIUS NERO CAESAR. with a great body of their dependants. what is related upon better authority. On the other hand. off the coast of Sicily 291. and another of murder. to make himself master of Italy. before he could form a junction with his brother Hannibal 288. five dictatorships. Claudius Appius Regillanus. Suetonius Tranquillus. the head of the family. To mention the most remarkable only. Claudius Drusus erected a statue of himself wearing a crown at Appii Forum 290. lands beyond the Anio for their followers. under Titus Tatius. the family had the honour of twenty-eight consulships.

htm (144 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . one dictatorship. Salinator and the Drusi. was styled the "Patron of the Senate. to effect the banishment of Cicero. according to custom. Suetonius Tranquillus." left a son. when her brother was resolved to have the honour of a triumph contrary to the will of the people. although they had condemned him to a heavy fine after his first consulship. for their inconstancy in having made him consul a second time. as is reported. because. although plebeian. three triumphs. when her litter was stopped by a great crowd in the streets. by the adoption of his mother's grandfather into it. even in the case of a trial for life by the people. would ever condescend to put on mourning. that not one of them. by killing in single combat Drausus. who. branded all the tribes. that it might not be lawful for any of the tribunes to interfere and forbid it. mounted the chariot with him." and she also. http://www. and was sent to settle some colonies in Gaul. and one younger than himself. being quaestor to Caius Caesar. that Rome might be less thronged. "I wish my brother Pulcher was alive now. which family. while plotting in a sedition of the same description.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Drusus procured for himself and his posterity a new surname. as well as great sticklers for the honour and power of that order. to lose another fleet. she openly exclaimed. But the father of Tiberius Caesar. and was famous for eminent men. have even proceeded to lay hands on the tribunes of the people. when pro-praetor in the province of Gaul. procured himself to be adopted by a plebeian 293. and commander of his fleet in the war of Alexandria. who were both sons of Appius Caecus. by praying to the Goddess with a loud voice. who. when the ship freighted with things sacred to the Idaean Mother of the Gods 292. A Vestal Virgin likewise of the family. contributed greatly to its success. made a (195) distinguished figure. and the office of master of the horse. for his extraordinary services against the Gracchi. at the siege of the Capitol. and some of them in their contests. and so violent and obstinate in their opposition to the plebeians. and by the latter from Appius Pulcher. as well as censor. it is well known. that all the Claudii. was brought to trial by the people for treason. by the former from Tiberius Nero. having had the honour of eight consulships. the gold which was formerly given to the Senones. who. got it off. Salinator. or make any supplication to them for favour.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. particularly. and had not. if I am chaste. the Claudias belonged to it. the enemy's chief. "Follow me. by C. she. He is likewise said to have recovered.gutenberg. 296 IV. He was therefore made one of the high-priests in the room of Publius Scipio 297. indeed both by the father and mother's side. was treacherously murdered by the opposite party. who. and attended him into the Capitol. two censorships. been forced from them by Camillus. stuck fast in the shallows of the Tiber. in his censorship 295. 294 III. were always of the patrician party. who. From this family Tiberius Caesar is descended. His great-great-grandson. He likewise belonged to the family of the Livii." Besides. except Publius Claudius. contrary to the usual practice in the case of women.

in the year following. with whom.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. when he was snatched from his nurse's breast. Suetonius Tranquillus. and others say. After http://www. whence. VI. he proposed a resolution for rewarding those who had killed the tyrant. in the consulship of Hirtius and Pansa. when they were privately hastening to a ship. and. he kept the badges of his office beyond the legal time. erected in a public place in that town. for so it is registered in the calendar. once. he ran the hazard of his life. he went over into Achaia to Mark Antony. and entrusted for some time to the care of the Lacedaemonians. after the battle of Philippi.htm (145 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . upon the sixteenth of the calends of December [16th Nov. he returned to Rome. when the rest of the senators. those of Narbonne and Arles 298. he was born at Rome. that his mother's grandmother was of Fundi. and shewn at Baiae to this day. After the assassination of Caesar. leaving behind him two sons. surrounded the whole party so closely. and amongst the rest. to Perusia 300. although she was then big with child. According to some. with Lucius Munatius Plancus 301. that part of Livia's dress and hair was burnt. when Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was second time consul. for fear of public disturbances. But according to the greatest number of writers. with a clasp. and at the end of the year a disturbance breaking out amongst the triumviri.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he was born the preceding year.gutenberg. brother of the triumvir. and bullae of gold. gave up to him his wife Livia Drusilla. upon his departure thence when travelling by night. Having filled the office of praetor 299. His infancy and childhood were spent in the midst of danger and trouble. are still in existence. and then to Naples. by C. who on the sudden emergency wished to relieve the women of their burden. yet he himself continued firm to the party. and being also prohibited the use of the fasces. and following Lucius Antonius the consul. Tiberius and Drusus Nero. and the public acts. upon a reconciliation soon after brought about amongst the several contending parties. He died not long after. he fled over to Sicily. by a fire which. having in vain invited the slaves to liberty. suddenly bursting out of a wood on all sides. as the enemy rushed into the town. and again. V. who were under the protection of the Claudian family. however. namely. and escaped first to Praeneste. at the request of Augustus. and those too of the best authority. and had before borne him a son. however. a cloak. Being carried through Sicily and Achaia. sister to Sextus Pompey. in the Palatine quarter. were for having the affair buried in oblivion. by some of the company. and twice at Naples nearly betrayed them by his crying. but there is only this trifling foundation for the conjecture. Some have imagined that Tiberius was born at Fundi. by a decree of the senate. and that the image of Good Fortune was. during the consulship of Servilius Isauricus and Antony. But resenting (196) his not being immediately admitted into the presence of Sextus Pompey. from his mother's bosom. in Sicily. though the rest submitted. The presents which were made him (197) by Pompeia.]. for he accompanied his parents everywhere in their flight.

when he had nearly attained the age of manhood. he was obliged to part with her 302. because Gallius had been of the party opposed to Augustus. he lived quietly and happily with Julia. After having by her his son Drusus. before Augustus. But this he did with extreme reluctance. at which he was not present himself. the pledge of their union. by a reward of a hundred thousand sesterces. the same person to whom Cicero has addressed so many epistles. his return to the city. and procured sentence of condemnation against him. who had suffered greatly by an earthquake. At divorcing Agrippina he felt the deepest regret. the second in the amphitheatre.gutenberg. however. who sat as judge at the trials. to make way for marrying Augustus's daughter Julia. He prosecuted Fannius Caepio. he pronounced a funeral oration in praise of his father upon the rostra. being adopted by Marcus Gallius. and in the Trojan games intermixed with the Circensian. and the Thessalians. the daughter of Marcus Agrippa. (198) he looked after her with eyes so passionately expressive of affection. VII. and another for his grandfather Drusus. in memory of his father. he defended the several causes of king Archelaus. When only nine years of age. and afterwards. a Roman knight.htm (146 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and was again pregnant. he spent his youth. He likewise presided at the games celebrated on account of that victory. and upon meeting her afterwards. and implored relief from Rome. he commanded a troop of the biggest boys. rode that on the right. Amidst all this. a senator. he had besides to superintend two departments of the administration. in the following manner: he gave the people an entertainment of gladiators. whilst Marcellus. he attended the chariot of Augustus. All these he performed with great magnificence. the Thyatireans. and that she was a woman of loose character. but soon afterwards declined the use of his name. He likewise exhibited public sports. at the expense of his mother and father-in-law. by C. riding on the lefthand horse.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. that care was taken she should never again come in his sight. and the rest of his life until he succeeded to the government. that after the loss of their son. When he first applied himself to civil affairs.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. which became so violent. After assuming the manly habit. some gladiators who had been honourably discharged. he took possession of the estate. being induced to engage again. At first. in his will. which was then very http://www. He married Agrippina. in his triumph for the victory at Actium. and brought his body to Rome. the Trallians. Suetonius Tranquillus. who had been engaged in a conspiracy with Varro Muraena against Augustus. travelling all the way on foot before it. at different times and in different places: the first in the forum. Octavia's son. he was disgusted with the conduct of Julia. that of supplying the city with corn. for. who was born at Aquileia and died in infancy 303. He lost his brother Drusus in Germany. VIII. besides having the warmest attachment to Agrippina. he never would sleep with her more. He addressed the senate on behalf of the Laodiceans. and Chians. who had made indecent advances to him during the lifetime of her former husband. was the general opinion. and grand-daughter of Caecilius Atticus. but a rupture soon ensued. though she retained his affection.

and desirous of being relieved from the fatigue of business. He made his first campaign. having obtained permission. he was chosen consul a second time. retired to Mitylene. which was then in great disorder. and seated on a tribunal. and (199) the Dalmatians. but riding in a chariot. he transplanted into Gaul forty thousand of the enemy who had submitted. And neither the earnest entreaties of his mother. Surrounded by all this prosperity. After some interval. Marcellus was advanced to public offices. that as Augustus's sons were now grown up to years of maturity. put a crown upon his head. He filled early the principal offices of state. and in the Pannonian wars the Bruci. or in the hope of supporting and improving by absence his authority in the state. whom he neither durst accuse nor divorce. as a military tribune. leaving his wife and son at Rome. he suddenly formed the resolution of withdrawing to a greater distance from Rome 310. and held the tribunitian authority during five years. or in any respect lessen him by his presence. Some are of opinion. but those whom the fear of being obliged to serve in the army had driven to seek refuge in such places. At last. where he restored the kingdom of Armenia to Tigranes. and that of clearing the houses of correction 304 throughout Italy. He afterwards commanded in the several wars against the Rhaetians. for nearly a year. He likewise recovered from the Parthians the standards which they had taken from Crassus. The same reason likewise Tiberius gave afterwards for his retirement. that he was satiated with honours. Upon their persisting in the design of detaining him. he refused to take any sustenance for four days together. and Germans. IX. For these actions. He next governed. X. that he might not seem to stand in the way of his promotion.htm (147 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the province of Gallia Comata. requesting therefore that he might have leave to withdraw. nor the complaint of his father-in-law made even in the senate. that he was deserted by him. but his pretext at this time was. who. Suetonius Tranquillus. he voluntarily relinquished the possession he had long enjoyed of the second place in the government. not only travellers. and the feuds of the chiefs. could prevail upon him to alter his resolution. and consulate 309 almost successively.gutenberg. when M. In the German war.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Vindelicians. by C. in the prime of life and in excellent health. he subdued the nations in the Alps. praetorship 308. as Agrippa had done before him. he entered the city with an ovation. scarce. and is said by some to have been the first that ever was honoured with this distinction. in the Cantabrian war 305.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and the connection with whom became every day more intolerable. Pannonians. It is uncertain whether this was the result of disgust for his wife. and assigned them lands near the banks of the Rhine. on account of the incursions of the barbarians. if the public should have occasion for his service. In the Rhaetian and Vindelician wars. or to prevent that indifference towards him. http://www. which his constant residence in the city might produce. Afterwards he led an army into the East 306. and passed through the quaestorship 307. the masters of which had fallen under the odious suspicion of seizing and keeping confined.

XII. and he was advised to lay aside all concern for his friends. on occasion of a quarrel amongst the wrangling (201) sophists. But his request was denied. When the period of his tribunitian authority expired 313. One instance only is mentioned. near the town. and would easily maintain themselves in possession of the second place in the state. Afterwards he received tidings that his wife Julia had been condemned for her lewdness and adultery. ordered him to be taken to prison. since he was now secure in that respect. and returning the civilities of the Greeks with almost as much complaisance as if he had been upon a level with them. From Ostia. through http://www. withdrawing privately home. whom he was very desirous of seeing. Though he secretly rejoiced at this intelligence. Upon this. Suetonius Tranquillus. and a villa not much larger. and partial in the affair.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. without exchanging a word with those who attended him. but at last he determined to go round them all. as they were come to the age of manhood. and summoning his accuser before his tribunal. and having embraced but very few persons at parting. and that a bill of divorce had been sent to her in his name. according to their several distempers. with difficulty.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and to allow her to retain the presents which he had made her. obtaining.htm (148 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by C. XI. by a public crier. by the authority of Augustus. that he should visit all the sick people in the town. in point of decency. he petitioned that. but this giving rise to a rumour that he stayed with a view to something extraordinary. One morning. and such as were entirely unknown to him.gutenberg. he led entirely a private life. Here contenting himself with a small house. declaring at last that he had no other object in his retirement than to avoid all suspicion of rivalship with Caius and Lucius. he proceeded (200) to Ostia 311. Being a constant attendant upon the schools and lecture-rooms of the professors of the liberal arts. he might be permitted to visit his friends. This being not rightly understood by those about him. he thought it incumbent upon him. and make an apology for the mistake even to the meanest amongst them. having been struck with the pleasantness and healthiness of the island at the time of his landing therein his return from Armenia. some person took the liberty to abuse him as an intruder. in settling the course of his daily excursion. taking his walks sometimes about the Gymnasia 312. Being extremely embarrassed by this unexpected occurrence. and ranged in order. whom he had been so eager to greet. in which he interposed to reconcile them. he halted awhile on receiving intelligence of Augustus's being taken ill. He therefore continued at Rhodes much against his will. in which he appeared to exercise his tribunitian authority. he suddenly returned attended by his officers. journeying along the coast of Campania. he was for some time irresolute how he should act. he happened to say. to interpose in her behalf by frequent letters to Augustus. without any lictor or other attendant. the sick were brought into a public portico. he sailed with the wind almost full against him. notwithstanding the little regard she merited from him. and arrived at Rhodes.

who had been appointed governor of the East. When he was (203) making his first expedition. For crossing over to Samos. but as one suspected and under apprehension. by the insinuations of Marcus Lollius." said the prophet. with great and confident hopes of his future elevation. He returned to Rome after an absence of nearly eight years 315. he at last obtained his request. to (202) tamper with them for a revolt. upon their return to the camp after a furlough.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he found him prepossessed against him. in consequence of various prodigies and predictions. if you desire me.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. retiring into the interior of the country. he renewed his solicitations for leave to return. "He will come in time. on a visit to his step-son Caius. and. was hatched. but without the usual badge of royal dignity. not only as a private person. the title of Augustus's lieutenant. The latter was at that time out of humour with Marcus Lollius. and quitting the Roman habit. Caius thus acquiescing. by C. whether her offspring would be a son. and bring you the head of the exile. or the government of a province. predicted great things of him when he was a mere child. apparently.gutenberg. This jealousy respecting his designs being intimated to him by Augustus. Scribonius. and leading his army through Macedonia into Syria. XIV. "to be even a king. In this condition he continued almost two years. when pregnant with him." for that was the appellation now given him. for no one passed to take command of an army. his companion and director. without touching at Rhodes. by different modes of divination. intended. he begged repeatedly that some person of any of the three Orders might be placed as a spy upon him in every thing he either said or did. and those of her maids. to which an accident somewhat contributed. Suetonius Tranquillus. and therefore easily disposed to be favourable to his father-in-law. but with the consent of his eldest son. amongst others. being anxious to discover. until a fine cock-chicken.htm (149 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Augustus had resolved to determine nothing in the affair. which were very frequent. XIII. took an egg from a hen that was sitting. seconded by the most urgent supplications of his mother. however. the astrologer. he was recalled. Thus alarmed not only by apprehensions. For Livia. becoming daily an object of increasing contempt and odium. "I will sail over to Rhodes immediately." the rule of the Caesars being as yet unknown. which he had entertained from his youth. made use of the Pallium and Crepida 314. mysterious messages to several persons there. He thenceforth lived. by turns. and kept it warm with her own hands. with a large comb. and upon mention being made of him at table one of the company said to Caius. but upon condition that he should take no concern whatever in the administration of affairs. and avoiding the visits of those who sailed that way. to cover his disgrace. He laid aside likewise his usual exercises of riding and arms. But there were fresh reasons for increased anxiety. insomuch that the people of Nismes pulled down all the images and statues of him in their town. the altars which had been formerly consecrated at Philippi by the http://www. his mother. but real danger. He likewise fell under suspicion of sending by some centurions who had been promoted by himself.

for his proficiency in philosophical researches. as he was changing his dress. which proved the most serious of all the foreign wars since the Carthaginian. Soon after. performing only the common offices of civility in private life. and having drawn a lot by which he was desired to throw golden tali into the fountain of Aponus 316. nor manumitted a slave. it was evident that the hope of succession rested upon him alone. after having had an audience of Augustus. near Padua. and a commission given him to settle the affairs of Germany. he never more acted as master of a (204) family. upon Agrippa being discarded and banished. nor so much as received any estate left him by will. good news was coming whereas every thing going wrong before. Tiberius had intended that very moment. were ordered to apply to him likewise in his province. This he conducted during three years. and resigned himself entirely to his ease. he was adopted by Augustus. And though he was several times recalled. He then likewise had a remarkable proof of the skill of Thrasyllus. in the smallest degree. The tribunitian authority was again conferred upon him for five years 318. And the day before he received intelligence of the permission granted him to return. he immediately removed from Pompey's house. and an extreme scarcity of corn. For. he said. the rights which he had lost by it. and the highest numbers came up. nor exercised. when they were walking together. From that day forward. he had taken into his family. to throw him into the sea. and quite contrary to his predictions.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he did so.htm (150 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . For he neither disposed of anything in the way of gift. with fifteen legions and an equal number of auxiliary forces. as he was marching to Illyricum. nothing was omitted that might contribute to the advancement of his grandeur. an eagle. in the Carinae.gutenberg. But Caius and Lucius being both carried off in the space of three years. his brother's son. upon sight of the ship which brought the intelligence. as an impostor. perched on the top of his house. a bird never before seen in that island. when. But on receiving intelligence of an insurrection in Illyricum 319. And those very tali are still to be seen at the bottom of the fountain. fearing lest an enemy so powerful. XVI. Suetonius Tranquillus. victorious legions. on the Esquiline 317. Upon his return to Rome. his tunic appeared to be all on fire. After his adoption. he nevertheless persisted. and one to whom he had too hastily entrusted his secrets. blazed suddenly with spontaneous fires. without reckoning it as a part of his peculium or property held under his father. whom. for an answer to his inquiries. under great difficulties. without any preferment in the government. nor any legacy. the astrologer. he stopped to consult the oracle of Geryon. and much more. by C. The ambassadors of the Parthians. and so http://www. being obliged in the first place to adopt Germanicus. having introduced his son Drusus into the forum. XV.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he went over to superintend the management of that new war. along with their brother Agrippa. A few days before his leaving Rhodes. to the gardens of Mecaenas.

" and others. therefore. reviving many old customs relative to punishing and degrading offenders. He likewise used more cautions than usual. they should apply to him for satisfaction. for sending a few soldiers with one of his freedmen across the river for the purpose of hunting. that in case of any doubt as to the meaning of them.htm (151 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . But. for he at last reduced to complete subjection all Illyricum. would not suffer the waggons to cross the river. he was very near http://www. was decreed him. by C. besides many other great honours. Next year he went again to Germany. He maintained the strictest discipline amongst the troops. to see that they carried nothing but what was allowed or necessary. he was attended by them in procession to the several temples. until he had searched them at the water-side. after he had saluted the people. but Augustus interposed. as well as those upon sudden emergencies. Some proposed that the surname of "Pannonicus. The glory he acquired by these successes received an increase from the conjuncture in which they happened. whereas. with this injunction. trusting." should be conferred on him. he used to follow the dictates of his own judgment. and mounting a tribunal in the Septa. in the midst of victory. sat with Augustus between the two consuls. Macedonia. lying between Italy and the kingdom of Noricum. He postponed his triumph. and often passed the night without a tent. near. he entered the city in a triumphal robe. engaging for him that he would be satisfied with that to which he would succeed at his death. had not the war of Illyricum been previously concluded. XIX. the river Danube. at other times. Suetonius Tranquillus." others that of "Invincible. and considered himself alone as sufficiently qualified for the direction of affairs. Nevertheless. XVII. Thrace. should fall upon the army in their retreat. and his regular orders for the day.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and it was generally believed that the victorious Germans would have joined the Pannonians. as he said. This resolution was attended with good success. XVIII.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. whilst the senate gave their attendance standing. where finding that the defeat of Varus was occasioned by the rashness and negligence of the commander. he thought proper to be guided in everything by the advice of a council of war. he gave in writing. in an omen which had never failed him and his ancestors (206) in all their commands. Having to pass the Rhine. For almost about that very time 320 Quintilius Varus was cut off with three legions in Germany. and stationing himself on the bank of the river. and the Adriatic gulf. Beyond the Rhine. Though it was his desire to leave as little as possible in the power of fortune or accident. even at any hour of the night. crowned with laurel.gutenberg. the lamp failed and went out of itself. yet he always engaged the enemy with more confidence when. of "O Pius. whence. he restricted the whole convoy within certain limits. in his night-watches. because (205) the state was at that time under great affliction for the disaster of Varus and his army. that he took his meals sitting on the bare ground 321. setting a mark of disgrace even upon the commander of a legion. such was his way of living. A triumph.

and was with him in private a whole day. after their private conference. he found Augustus alive indeed. when that was finished he went into Illyricum 325. that upon Tiberius's quitting the room. my most dear. but past all hopes of recovery. being assassinated by some Bructerian. But being hastily recalled during his journey.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. to superintend the solemnity. any one could have behaved more prudently than you have done. which had been erected out of the spoils of the war.gutenberg.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. loaded with rich presents. He likewise dedicated the temple of Concord 323. Farewell. it is generally believed. in gratitude for his having suffered him and his army to retire from a position in which he had so enclosed them. and the only security of the Roman people. and being discovered by his trepidation. I know. He afterwards gave the people a dinner at a thousand tables. in his own and his brother's name. Of such declarations I subjoin the following instances: "Farewell. who mixing with those about him. to be ground by the jaws of such a slow devourer!" Nor am I ignorant of its being reported by some. that Augustus so openly and undisguisedly condemned the sourness of his temper. but that. A law having been not long after carried by the consuls 324 for his being appointed a colleague with Augustus in the administration of the provinces. he judged the latter to preponderate. Before he turned to ascend the Capitol. the Pannonian chief. he would break off any jocular conversation in which he was engaged. After two years. he extols him as a consummate general. and accomplished general. I do not think. and with an army so little disposed for action. he sent to Ravenna. or actuated by the ambitious view of recommending his own memory from a comparison with such a successor. besides thirty sesterces to each man. he returned from Germany to the city. that a prince so extremely circumspect and prudent as he was. attended by his lieutenants. my dear Tiberius. by C." Again. and that he was only prevailed upon by the (207) importunity of his wife to adopt him. Yet I must hold to this opinion. my dear Tiberius. who sat by." Besides. and celebrated the triumph which he had deferred. especially in an affair of so great importance. upon weighing the vices and virtues of Tiberius with each other. upon his coming in. and knelt before his father. that "he adopted him for the public good. those who were in waiting overheard Augustus say. that amidst so many difficulties. XX. and (as I hope to prosper) most gallant man. for whom he had procured the honour of triumphal ornaments 322. did nothing rashly. was put to the torture. and may success attend you. XXI. and confessed his intended crime. All those likewise who were with you. and this the rather since he swore publicly. in several of his letters. that they were entirely at his mercy. in an assembly of the people.htm (152 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . whilst you are warring for me and the Muses 326. "Ah! unhappy Roman people. Bato. and that of Castor and Pollux. acknowledge that this verse is applicable to you:" http://www. that sometimes. he alighted from his chariot. Suetonius Tranquillus. and in taking the census. "The disposition of your summer quarters? In truth.

And the affair was soon buried in silence. Augustus's will was then brought in. as if unable to support himself under his affliction. to prevent any occasion of public disturbance after his decease. Caius and Lucius. "When I hear and read that you are much impaired by the (208) continued fatigues you undergo. and bless you with health both now and ever. 328 Bold from his prudence. It matters nothing whether I be well or no." These http://www. He did not make the death of Augustus public. as it seems. he replied. "I commanded you no such thing. the odium of the act for that time.gutenberg. let Tiberius Caesar be heir to two-thirds of my estate. Unus homo nobis vigilando restituit rem. until he had taken off young Agrippa. epei peri oide noaesai. and those lines of Homer frequently occur to my thoughts:" Toutou d' espomenoio kai ek pyros aithomenoio Ampho nostaesuimen. When the tribune came to inform him that he had executed his command. and you must answer for it to the senate. and read by a freedman. if the gods have any regard for the Roman people. whether Augustus left it in his last moments. The will began thus: "Since my ill-fortune has deprived me of my two sons. Suetonius Tranquillus. gave his speech to his son Drusus to read. Having summoned the senate to meet by virtue of his tribunitian authority. the news prove fatal both to me and your mother." avoiding. "anything happens that requires more than ordinary consideration. it was then a doubt.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "Whenever. if you be not well. or Livia issued it. upon reading a written order for that purpose: respecting which order. XXIII. 327 One man by vigilance restored the state. might fail him. may the gods confound me if my whole frame does not tremble! So I beg you to spare yourself. by C." he says. lest.htm (153 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . I pray heaven preserve you for us. but his very breath of life. in the name of Augustus. but such as were of the senatorian order." XXII. I still. I could ev'n aspire To dare with him the burning rage of fire. the rest owning their hand-writing without doors.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. if we should hear of your being ill. none of the witnesses to it being admitted. or I am out of humour upon any occasion. and whether with the knowledge of Tiberius or not. by Hercules! long for my dear Tiberius. and the Roman people should be in peril for the safety of the empire. he drew a deep sigh. and begun a mournful speech. and wishing that not his voice only. He was slain by a tribune who commanded his guard.

It was Tiberius's apprehension from this quarter. "Either let him accept it. "Others are slow to perform what they promise. by C. during the confusion. but on condition that his http://www. The cause of his long demur was fear of the dangers which threatened him on all hands. a senator of the first distinction." For a slave of Agrippa's. yet he affected. and when he desired a private conference with him. without one or more to assist him. instead of the usual knife. Germanicus 329. when ye may think it reasonable to give some rest to my old age. such as they should judge proper." and a second told him to his face. as if forced to it. and urged. not. and a crafty kind of dissimulation. or decline it at once. without giving hopes of his resigning it some time or other. "I have got a wolf by the ears.gutenberg. Though he made no scruple to assume and exercise immediately the imperial authority. and one cried out. was secretly fomenting a rebellion. though he obstinately refused it. being content. particularly that their pay should be made equal to that of the pretorian guards. who were the security and badge of the supreme power. Lucius Scribonius Libo. since no man could be sufficient for the whole. in the mean time. The exact words he used were these: "Until the time shall come. another while keeping in suspense the senate. he ordered one of lead to be given him. He pretended likewise to be in a bad state of health. however." XXV. that Tiberius was appointed successor more out of necessity than choice. which made him request the senate to assign him some part only in the administration. who commanded them. with taking proper precautions for his own security. Clemens by name. he would not grant his request. or at least of being (210) admitted to be a colleague in the government. and complaining of the miserable and burdensome service imposed upon him. one while sharply reprehending his friends who entreated him to accept it. to refuse it for a long time. Both armies insisted upon high demands. had drawn together a considerable force to revenge his master's death. he got Clemens into his hands by stratagem. and the troops both in Illyricum and Germany were mutinous. as little knowing what a monster the government was. that Germanicus might the more patiently wait in hopes of speedily succeeding him.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (154 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . insomuch that some were out of patience.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. with all possible importunity. by giving orders that he (209) should be attended by the guards. When the mutinies in the armies were suppressed. he accepted the government. words countenanced the suspicion of those who were of opinion. since Augustus could not refrain from prefacing his will in that manner." At last. but you are slow to promise what you actually perform. by a most impudent piece of acting. Suetonius Tranquillus. insomuch that he said. That he might not begin his reign by an act of severity. to take the government on himself. The army in Germany absolutely refused to acknowledge a prince who was not their own choice. he did not call Libo to an account before the senate until his second year. For upon Libo's attending a sacrifice amongst the high-priests. by ambiguous answers. XXIV. when they implored him and threw themselves at his feet.

in one of them adopting persuasion. with the cognomen of FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY. The praenomen likewise of EMPEROR. "We have not so much time upon our hands. and as they walked together. but only amongst the ornaments of houses. which http://www.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and a civic crown in the vestibule of his house. and of the many and great honours offered him. or priests to be appointed for him. He never used the name of AUGUSTUS." 330 by some person. that he stumbled and fell. which were spread against him or his relations. that we ought to involve ourselves in more business. he with difficulty suffered to be honoured with the addition of only a single chariot. he would not accept. both the tongue and the mind ought to be free. he replied. without his permission. by C. He had such an aversion to flattery. and lampoons. He also interposed to prevent the senate from swearing to maintain his acts. scandalous reports. during his absence from the city. He forbad temples. If you once make an opening 331 for such proceedings. either to pay him a civility. Suetonius Tranquillus. If any compliment was paid him. flamens. his behaviour at first was unassuming. that he would never suffer any senator to approach his litter.gutenberg. Nor had he more than three consulships. until the conversation was over. He remained unmoved at all the aspersions. drawn by two horses. under the pretence of leaning upon him. he started from him in such haste. or upon business." There is also on record another sentence used by him in the senate. All private quarrels will be brought before you under that pretence. called his occupations "sacred. laborious. and such as were very moderate." Upon the senate's desiring that some notice might be taken of those offences. another for three months." XXVIII.htm (155 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . instead of "sacred. When another. he accepted but few. excepting those addressed to kings and princes. instead of "authority. and alter what he had said. as he passed the streets in it. (211) And when a man of consular rank. "In a free state. and the persons charged with them. either in conversation or a set speech. and the month of September from being called Tiberius. XXVI. in begging his pardon for some offence he had given him.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. When he was delivered from his apprehensions. in any of his letters. His birth-day. he held him fast by the right hand." and a third had expressed himself thus: "By your authority I have waited upon the senate. although he inherited it. until the ides [fifteenth] of May. you will soon have nothing else to do." and in the other." he obliged them to change their phrases. and a third. which happened to fall at the time of the Plebeian Circensian games. to excite veneration. and October being named after Livia. as likewise the erection of any statues or effigies for him. XXVII. Being once called "lord. attempted to fall at his feet. he desired that he might no more be affronted in that manner. he would not scruple to interrupt and reprimand the party. and this he granted only on condition that they should not be placed amongst the images of the gods. one for a few days. and he did not carry himself much above the level of a private person. son Drusus should be present. declaring.

and if he persists. he went beyond all bounds. addressing the senate in general. to plead his cause before the senate. nobody followed him. when he proposed to the senate. levying and disbanding soldiers. And no wonder. or the whole body of the senate. Suetonius Tranquillus. were laid before the senate. the authority of the consuls remaining so great. "I beseech you. and complained. kind.gutenberg. I shall take care to behave in such a manner. I have always found you good. These things were so much the more remarkable in him. he dismissed his attendants at the door. He likewise introduced a certain show of liberty. were all submitted to the senate. he said: "Conscript Fathers. He never entered the senate-house but unattended." XXIX. I have often said it both now and at other times. and give them the way. if I shall. he could not prevail to have the will of the testator set aside. to the whole body of the people. Again. he did not even make any complaint. as a senator. is far from assuming: "If he speaks otherwise of me. by C. All affairs. to that of making a road. Upon his differing with Quintus Haterius in the senate-house. but reside in it constantly. by preserving to the senate and magistrates their former majesty and power.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. whether of great or small importance. a praetor-elect obtained liberty to depart under the honorary title of a legate at large. he went over to the minority. He compelled the commander of a troop of horse. speak my mind very freely in opposition to you. and still find you so. the erecting or repairing edifices. ought to be a slave to the senate. as to be able to give a good account both of my words and actions. who was accused of robbery attended with violence. because he was indisposed. and being once brought thither in a litter. upon a division of the house. and often to individuals likewise: nor am I sorry that I have said it. that the Trebians might have leave granted them to divert some money which had been left them by will for the purpose of building a new theatre." Afterwards." XXX. and indulgent masters. When some decrees were made contrary to his opinion. the disposal of the legions and auxiliary forces in the provinces. since it was observed that he used to rise up as the consuls approached. And though he thought that no magistrates after their nomination should be allowed to absent themselves from the city. And when." he said. Taxes and monopolies. that a good (212) and useful prince. XXXI. that they could not have their business dispatched by Caesar. to whom they had been sent. in the respect he paid to individuals. public or private. to receive their honours in person. All other things of a public nature were likewise transacted by the magistrates. and in the usual forms. "Pardon me. sir.htm (156 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the appointment of generals for the management of extraordinary wars. because. and the answers to letters from foreign princes. that some ambassadors from Africa applied to them. whom you have invested with so great and absolute power. I shall hate him in my turn. http://www.

He made grievous complaints to the senate. and so dismissed them.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and sent him a message by a servant. that the butchers and other dealers in viands should be subject to an assize. who used to hold public disquisitions. he rescinded some decrees of the senate. he would often. at his solemn feasts. by diminishing the allowances to actors. that any person under prosecution was likely to be acquitted by his interest. either through neglect. (213) XXXII. remind the judges of the laws. either taking his place promiscuously amongst them. Accordingly. and half a boar. he sent for them. which was not subscribed. and from the floor of the court. where they tended to decay. he answered. he likewise took upon himself the correction of public morals.htm (157 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and were partly eaten. on entering office. by C. for not writing to the senate an account of their proceedings. and of their oaths. "It is the part of a good shepherd to shear. have at his tables victuals which had been served up the day before. desired them to subscribe it. he sent him word to come again at the end of seven years. XXXIV. and that three mullets had been sold for thirty thousand sesterces: upon which he proposed that a new sumptuary law should be enacted. and exercised it for a long time with great variety of conduct. (214) or the praetor's bench. And to encourage frugality in the public by his own example.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. or evil custom. or seating himself in a corner of the tribunal. and curtailing the number of gladiators. he would suddenly make his appearance. the grammarian. Diogenes. postponing his admission until the next seventh day. as if they themselves had not a right to bestow them as they judged proper. who. who advised him to load the provinces with taxes. Suetonius Tranquillus. and when the magistrates sat for the administration of justice. fixed by the senate yearly. once refused him admittance upon his coming to hear him out of course. He reprimanded some persons of consular rank in command of armies. so far as not even to permit the sale of any kind of pastry. and for consulting him about the distribution of military rewards. in a speech to the people. having dispatched to him a letter on public business. at Rhodes every sabbath-day. "It has all the same good bits that http://www. He commended a praetor. and the aediles commissioned to restrain eating-houses and taverns. and waiting at his door to be allowed to pay his respects to him. that the price of Corinthian vessels was become enormous. He attended the corpses of some persons of distinction to the funeral pile. revived an old custom of celebrating the memory of his ancestors. and the nature of the charge brought before them. not flay. though generally with a due regard to the public good. his sheep. Diogenes afterwards coming to Rome. At first he only interposed to prevent ill management. He reduced the expense of the plays and public spectacles. If a rumour prevailed. He displayed the same moderation with regard to persons and things of inferior consideration. he frequently offered his service as assessor.gutenberg. affirming." XXXIII. The magistrates of Rhodes. He assumed the sovereignty 332 by slow degrees. and without giving them so much as one harsh word. To some governors.

under the pretence of military service. till then. according to ancient custom. Married women guilty of adultery. and dismissed from the city all the rest of that nation as well as those who were proselytes to that religion 335.htm (158 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the whole had. for repudiating. and all their sacred utensils. he banished the leaders of the parties. to avoid (215) the punishment of the laws. He suppressed all foreign religions.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and promising to renounce their profession. voluntarily subjected themselves to an infamous sentence. divesting themselves of the rights and dignity of matrons. But. He also expelled the astrologers. or in the amphitheatre. had now begun a practice of professing themselves prostitutes. Suetonius Tranquillus. which prohibited their performing on the stage. He discharged a Roman knight from the obligation of an oath he had taken. obliging those who practised that kind of superstition. he returned none after that day. He distributed the Jewish youths. XXXVI. by which they were degraded. a wife whom he had married only the day before. and would not allow new-year's gifts 333 to be presented after the calends [the first] of January was passed. He suppressed with great severity all tumults of the people on their first breaking out. he revoked his decree. and allowed him to divorce her. which. in order that he might afterwards hire a house cheaper in the city. but upon their suing for pardon. Women of ill-fame. and the most profligate young men of the senatorian and equestrian orders. that none for the future might evade by such artifices the intention and efficacy of the law. but being annoyed by the continual interruption to which he was exposed during the whole month. above all things. upon information of his having removed to his gardens before the calends [the first] of July. He stripped a senator of the broad stripes on his robe.gutenberg. and formed a camp at Rome for the pretorian cohorts. XXXVII. he authorised the nearest relations to punish by agreement among themselves. and took every precaution to prevent them. by C. He likewise dismissed another from the office of quaestor. the day after he had been lucky in drawing his lot. and the Egyptian 334 and Jewish rites. and making them with his own hand. XXXV. upon her being caught in criminal intercourse with her sonin-law. he was careful to keep the (216) public peace against robbers." He published an edict against the practice of people's kissing each other when they met. among the provinces noted for an unhealthy climate. never to turn away his wife. under pain of slavery for life. and those who were disaffected to the government. had been quartered in the city. though not prosecuted publicly. burglars. He therefore increased the number of military stations throughout Italy. unless they complied. Some persons having been killed in a quarrel which happened in the theatre. He had been in the habit of returning these offerings four-fold. and the http://www.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to secure themselves against a decree of the senate. by those who had not the opportunity of attending him on the festival. All those he banished. to burn their vestments.

He never set foot outside the gates of Rome. insomuch that he was called jocosely by the name of Callipides. The people of Pollentia having refused to permit the removal of the corpse of a centurion of the first rank from the forum.gutenberg. that he never would return. and ordering provisions for his retinue in the municipia and colonies. for being in a great hurry to go forward. nor would he even employ his lieutenants. and Archelaus the Cappadocian. who is famous in a Greek proverb. The Cyzicenians having committed an outrage upon some Romans. and the magistrates. Some whom he induced to come to him by fair words and promises. and dedicated the capitol at Capua.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. near Terracina 340. and trumpets sounding. he deprived them of the liberty they had obtained for their good services in the Mithridatic war. and that but very seldom. and another from the kingdom of Cottius 337. until they had extorted from his heirs a sum of money for a public exhibition of gladiators. whose kingdom he even reduced into the form of a province. he retired to Capri. but with much reluctance. Princes who were ill-affected towards him. Suetonius Tranquillus. For indeed he never more came to Rome. as Maraboduus the German. and a temple to Augustus at Nola 341. and Drusus at Rome. After he had gone round Campania. players about whom the disturbance had arisen. And both nearly turned out to be true. without ever going against them in person. Thrascypolis the (217) Thracian. XXXVIII. he detached a cohort from the city. he never would permit to return home. which killed several of the guests and attendants. by taking up carriages. XXXIX. he withdrew into Campania 339. at which time opinion and conversation were almost general. Disturbances from foreign enemies he quelled by his lieutenants. and after that period. which he made the pretext of his journey. and having seized the greatest part of the people. He abolished every where the privileges of all places of refuge. and when it was absolutely necessary. from the time he assumed the supreme power. by C. nor could all the entreaties of the people afterwards prevail upon him to recall them 336. more by menaces and remonstrances. went no farther from the city than to some of the neighbouring towns. they were imprisoned for life. XL. of whom Germanicus died in Syria. but he almost hopelessly escaped. At last he suffered vows to be put up for his good journey and safe return. with their arms suddenly displayed. his farthest excursion being to Antium 338. though he often gave out that he would visit the provinces and armies.htm (159 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . during supper a great many huge stones fell from above. than by force of arms.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he kept in subjection. who concealing the cause of their march. entered the town by different gates. for two years together. being http://www. but without ever advancing a cubit. when he was at a villa of his called the Cave. and would die soon. and a few days after leaving it. But after the loss of his two sons. and made preparations for it almost every year. and for a few days.

he abandoned himself to all the vicious propensities which he had long but imperfectly concealed. on account of a disaster at Fidenae 342. He presented Asellius Sabinus with two hundred thousand sesterces. While a young soldier in the camp. for writing a dialogue. and adapted to the secret practice of abominable lewdness. and of which I shall here give a particular account from the beginning. to be "very pleasant companions. on the journey. by C. because it was accessible only by a narrow beach. He likewise suffered Armenia to be seized by the Parthians. of the empire. the oyster and the thrush. But having now the advantage of privacy. and no less danger. that he never filled up the decuriae of the knights. for Claudius. or governors of provinces. he also contrived an apartment containing couches. In his retreat at Capri 344. that. in the way of dispute. who had been disgraced by Augustus. Suetonius Tranquillus. and had declined admitting any persons to his presence.htm (160 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and gave all people free access to him. he had caused it to be proclaimed that no one should address him. to one of whom he immediately gave the province of Syria. never changed any military tribunes or prefects. Moesia by the Dacians and Sarmatians. He preferred a very obscure candidate for the quaestorship. where upwards of twenty thousand persons had been killed by the fall of the amphitheatre. before the most noble competitors. and Gaul to be ravaged by the Germans. and to the other the prefecture of the city. they called him Biberius. during a public spectacle of gladiators. and by a deep sea. in his letters-patent. and kept Spain and Syria for several years without any consular lieutenants. and being remote from the observation of the people of Rome. he so far abandoned all care of the government." He made an appointment to sup with Sestius Gallus. to which he appointed Titus Caesonius Priscus. and reprimanded by himself but a few days before in the senate-house. and that they should be attended at table by naked girls. Mero. he crossed over again to the continent. an amphora of wine at a draught 343. upon condition that he should not recede in the least from his usual method of entertainment. XLII. a Roman knight. he spent a whole night and two days together in feasting and drinking with Pomponius Flaccus and Lucius Piso. and friends fit for all occasions. and was invested with the office of reforming the morality of the people. of a stupendous height. because.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Returning to the island. betwixt the truffle and the fig-pecker.gutenberg. for Tiberius. He likewise instituted a new office to administer to his voluptuousness. (218) greatly delighted with the island. the people of Rome being extremely clamorous for his return. XLI. where he entertained companies of girls and http://www. being on all sides surrounded with rugged cliffs. Caldius.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in pledging him at table. declaring them. only for taking off. he was so remarkable for his excessive inclination to wine. at his departure from the city. and for Nero. But immediately. a lewd and prodigal old fellow. And after he succeeded to the empire. XLIII. so much the more. to the great disgrace.

in his travels and expeditions. in which the artist had represented Atalanta in the act of submitting to Meleager's lust in a most unnatural way. unfinished. Even when she was upon her trial. 347 —————————When a picture. he treated them liberally. XLVII. and stabbed herself. with this proviso. How much he was guilty of a most foul intercourse with women even of the first quality 348. for an (220) abomination not fit to be mentioned or heard. which was acted at the next public sports. and asked her. It is also reported that. he frequently called out to her. he might receive in lieu of it a million of sesterces. but their diet only. and restoring Pompey's Theatre. as also a brother of his who had been playing the flute. that none might want a pattern for the execution of any lewd project that was prescribed him. he gave her up to the common informers. 346 XLIV. that if the subject was offensive to him. for the only things he did undertake. after many years. and assembled from all quarters inventors of unnatural copulations. he was so captivated with the form of a youth who held a censer. but resolutely refusing to comply with his lust. and furnished with the books of Elephantis. openly upbraiding the vile old lecher for his gross obscenity 349. He was so niggardly and covetous. if possible. that. he gave the (221) first six. when. who defiled one another in his presence. whom he called Spintriae. for upbraiding one another with their shame. XLV. Hence there was an allusion to him in a farce. Suetonius Tranquillus. but hung it up in his bed-chamber. Once. he never erected any noble edifice. and became a common topic of ridicule 350: that the old goat———— XLVI. by C. during a sacrifice. During the whole time of his government. painted by Parrhasius. but Greeks. at the instigation of his step-father.gutenberg. and soon afterwards broke the legs of both of them. which last class he called not friends. He likewise contrived recesses in woods and groves for the gratification of lust. who. that he never allowed to his attendants. appeared very plainly by the death of one Mallonia. and the third two. according to their rank. any salary. he left at last. by an abuse of the name of the island. Caprineus. hundred thousand sesterces. went home. and was received with great applause. before the religious rites were well over. But he was still more infamous. the second four. in the disguise of little Pans and Nymphs 345. He had several chambers set round with pictures and statues in the most lascivious attitudes. Nor did he ever entertain the http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. was bequeathed to him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. dividing them into three classes. building the temple of Augustus. "Do you repent?" until she. he not only chose the picture. to inflame by the exhibition the languid appetite. much less credited. So that he was publicly and commonly called. namely. quitting the court. indeed. being brought to his bed. catamites. he took him aside and abused him.htm (161 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . where young persons of both sexes prostituted themselves in caves and hollow rocks.

Suetonius Tranquillus. and Greece. for three years. a man of vast estate. by C. lest any thing of that kind should be requested of him. Spain. and some presents to the legions in Syria. To the former of these he was compelled by the clamours of the people. a man of consular rank. and he was seldom present at those which were given by others. people with public spectacles. and of levying tolls. when. than that they held large sums of ready money as part of their property. was so terrified and worried by his threats and importunities. a hundred millions of sesterces to those who wanted to borrow. And Vonones. of the first distinction in Gaul. that he ordered the Caelian Hill to be called. He displayed only two instances of public munificence. except a thousand denarii a man to the pretorian guards. king of the Parthians. after doubling the legacy left them by Augustus. for not joining the party of Sejanus. extremely rich. that he was obliged to make him his heir. most of the needy senators. XLIX. by the persuasion of Augustus. the Augustan. and the other. and the debtors to pay off at once the same proportion of their debts. excepting Asia. he estimated at so high a rate. XLVIII. a lady of a very noble family. he declared that he should for the future assist none. he never gave any thing. the augur. and on what would be saved by thus getting rid of them. but those who gave the senate full satisfaction as to the cause of their necessity. because they alone had not paid reverence to the effigies of Sejanus among their standards. that against some of them no other charge was preferred.gutenberg. It is certain that Cneius Lentulus. in order to gratify Quirinus. He seldom gave discharges to the veteran soldiers. had brought up four children upon a very small estate. to avoid further demands. In the course of a very short time. some large houses being burnt down upon Mount Caelius.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Nor did he ever relieve the provinces by any act of generosity. likewise. But his benefaction to the sufferers by fire. in the way of rewards or pensions. Syria. grandson to the celebrated orator Quintus Hortensius. and childless. Old immunities. To the soldiery. Having relieved the poverty of a few senators.htm (162 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . was condemned by him. he indemnified the owners. and fled to Antioch with a vast http://www. Upon this. who had been driven out of his dominions by his own subjects. Several persons. who had divorced her twenty years before. in a great scarcity of money. especially after he was obliged to give freedom to the comedian Actius. had their estates confiscated upon such despicably trifling and shameless pretences. he turned his mind to sheer robbery. were taken from several cities and private persons. where some cities had been destroyed by an earthquake. in future. One was an offer to lend gratis. and that Lepida. declined troubling him. The other he did to alleviate in some degree the pressure of the times. and it was found insufficient to remedy the grievance.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Amongst these was Hortalus. the rights of mining. from modesty and shame. when he had ratified a decree of the senate obliging all money-lenders to advance two-thirds of their capital on land. calculating (222) on their deaths from advanced age. who [marrying]. and now charged her with an old design to poison him.

betraying him by the production of a letter to himself. treasure. to the treadmill. L. pretending that he acted according to her own directions. after promising to attend her funeral. as is said. she had recommended the care of her funeral. in which Drusus proposed that Augustus should be forced to restore the public liberty. complaining of the sourness and insolence of Tiberius's temper. claiming the protection of the Roman people. 352 http://www. "That the appointment had been extorted from him by his mother. so that the corpse was in a state of decay and putrefaction before the interment. not even sparing those to whom. Suetonius Tranquillus. Livia. She having frequently urged him to place among the judges a person who had been made free of the city. because Augustus had made no provision for them on her behalf in his will. and these she read. as she had been used to do in the time of her husband. he shewed the same disposition with regard to the rest of his family. In course of time. and such as did not suit her sex. lest it should be thought that he was governed by her counsels. and." especially when he found her present at a fire which broke out near the Temple of Vesta 351. and encouraging the people and soldiers to use their utmost exertions. and was in the habit of adopting. a man of equestrian rank.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. on her death-bed. unless she would allow it to be inscribed on the roll. he sometimes sought. and all long and private conferences with her.gutenberg. Being harassed by his mother. notwithstanding. So far was he from performing any office of kindness or humanity to his wife. and in a short time ruined all her friends and acquaintance. and. He was much offended at the senate. if not the principal reason for his so doing. and when she died. that some considered this incident as one of the causes of his going into seclusion. but condemning one of them. when she was banished. and he then forbad divine honours being paid to her. he deferred his coming for several days. and that for a few hours only.htm (163 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . which." Enraged at this. by her father's order. by a quibble of law. he refused her request. his allies. Livia brought forth from her chapel some letters from Augustus to her. therefore." nor to receive any extraordinary public distinction. by C. he frequently admonished her "not to meddle with weighty affairs. upon this occasion. he frequently avoided (223) seeing her. So much was he offended at these letters having been kept so long. LI. that he forbad her to stir out of the house. or converse with any men. When she fell sick shortly afterwards. and afterwards murdered. He even wronged her of the dowry given her by her father. He afterwards proceeded to an open rupture with her. confined to one town. was treacherously robbed of all his money. he was quite unconcerned about visiting her in her illness. when they proposed to add to his other titles that of the Son of Livia. he saw her but once. and now produced with so much bitterness against him. would not suffer her to be called "the Mother of her Country. as well as Augustus. Nay. In the (224) whole years she lived during his retirement. who claimed an equal share in the government with him. He. He likewise annulled her will. and of her yearly allowance. He first manifested hatred towards his own relations in the case of his brother Drusus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

Hector. He likewise took credit for not having caused her to be strangled and her body cast upon the Gemonian Steps. Suetonius Tranquillus. he ordered her mouth to be forced open. "And I heartily condole with you on the loss of your renowned countryman. At last. after the death of her husband. Nero. Of these. Drusus. almost immediately after the funeral. he banished her to the island of Pandataria 353. Upon her refusing once at supper to taste some fruit which he presented to her. the http://www. He was to offer the fruit. and railed at his most glorious victories as ruinous to the state. (225) LIII.htm (164 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . he commended Nero and Drusus. because you are not empress?" Nor did he ever vouchsafe to speak to her again." This suspicion was afterwards confirmed by the barbarous treatment of his wife and children. It was believed that he took care to have him dispatched by Cneius Piso. Upon her reviling him for it. upon occasion of a great and sudden famine at Rome. his lieutenant in Syria. But she persisting in her resolution. and when she resolved to starve herself to death. he persecuted her memory with the basest aspersions. and an offering of gold to be made to Jupiter Capitolinus on the occasion. and dying soon afterwards. or his adopted son Germanicus." He so much affected to depreciate Germanicus. and frequently shouted in the night: "Give us back our Germanicus. that he spoke of his achievements as utterly insignificant. He entertained no paternal affection either for his own son Drusus. He had by Germanicus three grandsons. The ambassadors from the people of Ilium coming rather late to offer their condolence. and would. and suffered a decree of the senate to pass. The following words therefore were posted up in many places. pretending that she in effect charged him with a design to poison her. LIV. Offended at the vices of the former. and by his son Drusus one. thanking him for his clemency. he declined inviting her to his table. he took her by the hand. having her accused of intending to flee for refuge to the statue of Augustus. complaining upon some occasion with more than ordinary freedom.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. whereas the whole was a contrivance of his own. His daughter-in-law Agrippina. he said to them by way of banter. had they not been contained in a private and confidential dispatch. and addressed her in a Greek verse to this effect: "My dear child. and meat to be crammed down her throat. he caused a centurion to beat out one of her eyes. as if the affair had already faded from his memory. but. he was not much affected at his death. LII. do you think yourself injured.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. who was of a loose disposition and led a dissolute life.gutenberg. by C. resumed his attention to business. and persuaded the senate to put her birth-day amongst the number of unlucky days in the calendar. and Caius. and she to be privately cautioned against eating what would infallibly cause her death. complaining of him also to the senate for going to Alexandria without his knowledge. This person was afterwards tried for the murder. have produced his orders. as was supposed. and prevented the courts from being longer closed. named Tiberius. or to the army. after the loss of his sons.

as counsellors in the administration of public affairs. "Mud mixed with blood. of the most scandalous vices.gutenberg. he required the assistance of twenty of the most eminent persons in the city. by C. which Theodorus of Gadara 355. "What uncouth dialect is that?" he replied. was so rabid with hunger. by affecting http://www. he exposed them to all sorts of accusations. and thereby secure the succession to his own grandson by Drusus. It being his custom to start questions at supper. in the bitterest terms. that he might be furnished with a pretence to destroy them. Upon their being declared enemies by the senate. But when he found that on entering upon the new year they were included in the public vows for his own welfare. scarcely two or three escaped the fury of his savage disposition. Having asked one Zeno. the grammarian." By thus betraying his private feelings towards them. not so much from any real regard for him.htm (165 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and even in the beginning of his administration. at the same time accusing them. two eldest sons of Germanicus. that Nero was driven to a voluntary death by the executioner's shewing him some halters and hooks. as if he had been sent to him by order of the senate. Suetonius Tranquillus. his master in rhetoric. He had advanced this minister to the highest pitch of grandeur. calling him sometimes. he told the senate. used to inquire of his attendants what authors he was then studying. and Drusus in the vaults of the Palatium. His cruel and sullen temper appeared when he was still a boy. LVI. first discovered. distributed money among the people. Besides his old friends and intimate acquaintance." But his disposition shewed itself still more clearly on his attaining the imperial power. to the senate. arising out of what he had been reading in the day. when he was endeavouring to gain the popular favour. "that such honours ought not to be conferred but upon those who had been proved. upon his using some far-fetched phrases. even those with whom he was most pleased. it is said. that it was with difficulty they were collected. as that by his base and sinister contrivances he might ruin the children of Germanicus. He treated with no greater leniency the Greeks in his family. and were of more advanced years. and expressed by a very apposite simile.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Out of all this number. that he attempted to eat the chaff with which his mattress was stuffed. Drusus. and then drove him to the extremity of laying violent hands upon himself. LV." For this answer he banished him to Cinara 354. All the rest he destroyed upon one pretence or another. It is thought by some. he charged them with it in a letter to the senate. he starved them to death. when he chid him. and among them Aelius Sejanus. and finding that Seleucus. and at their being solemnly introduced into the forum. whose fall was attended with the ruin of many others. The relics of both were so scattered. (227) LVII. and so came prepared for his enquiries—he first turned him out of his family. where the Doric dialect is spoken. Nero in the island of Ponza.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and after practising many artifices to provoke (226) them to rail at and abuse him. "The Doric. suspecting that he taunted him with his former residence at Rhodes.

and then be led to execution. for suffering some honours to be decreed to him in the colony where he lived. 357 Asper et immitis. "The laws ought to be put in execution. when one Pompey. or to reflect upon anything that had been either said or done by him. Not long afterwards. quare? non sunt tibi millia centum? Omnia si quaeras. moderation. a person was condemned to death. non tibi. a wag called out to the dead man. or cut in the stone of a ring. "Of a Pompey I shall make a Pompeian of you. Upon a funeral passing by. he ordered that he should receive what was due to him. or change his clothes. Caesar: Incolumi nam te. and anticipated the future. under the pretence of strictness and reformation of manners. or the stews. but more to gratify his own savage disposition.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. The matter was brought before the senate. Fastidit vinum. to carry his head stamped upon the coin.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Non es eques. breviter vis omnia dicam? Dispeream si te mater amare potest. quam bibit ante merum. he threatened to put him in prison." The man being brought before him. into a necessary house. http://www. ferrea semper erunt. persisted in his opposition to something he proposed in the senate. he replied. Adspice felicem sibi. LVIII. Romule. sed reducem. adspice. The party accused being found guilty. that he might deliver the message to his father himself. upon the same day on which they had formerly been decreed to Augustus. Et dic. and condemned. (228) LIX. that the legacies he bequeathed to the people are not yet paid. whether it was his pleasure that the tribunals should take cognizance of accusations of treason.htm (166 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . He was besides guilty of many barbarous actions. Sullam: Et Marium.gutenberg. and told him. About the same time. Roma perit: regnabit sanguine multo. Some person had taken off the head of Augustus from one of his statues. and the ill-fortune of his party. Nec non Antoni civilia bella moventis Nec semel infectas adspice caeda manus. "Tell Augustus. Suetonius Tranquillus. In fine. that it became capital for a man to beat his slave. and because the case was not clear. near the statue of Augustus. si vis. Aurea mutasti Saturni saecula." by a bitter kind of pun playing upon the man's name. the witnesses were put to the torture. which displayed the present calamities of his reign. Some verses were published. a Roman knight. quia jam sit it iste cruorem: Tam bibit hunc avide. et Rhodos exsilium est. by C. and replaced it by another 356." and he did put them in execution most severely. this kind of proceeding was carried so far. when the praetor consulted him.

and by Sylla's crimes. never wanting occasions of one kind or another. and presenting him with a large mullet. and his daughter-in-law. Ad regnum quisquis venit ab exsilio. as having no estate. http://www. Reflect. then those of his grandsons. Soon afterwards. and scourged almost to death. Long suffered'st thou in Rhodes an exile's fate.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. The man. Made such by Marius. Suetonius Tranquillus. his behaviour showed that he was sensible they were too well founded. Instead of wine he thirsted for before. Obdurate wretch! too fierce. (229) LX. however. being terrified at the thought of his having been able to creep upon him from the back of the island. and sure to last with thee. so long as they do but approve my conduct. Alas! Rome's blood in streams will flow. And say. to be laid on his face upon the ground. rather than that they spoke their real sentiments. No more the happy Golden Age we see. he ordered his face to be farther lacerated with its claws. that these satirical verses were drawn forth by the resentment of those who were impatient under the discipline of reformation. he abandoned himself to every species of cruelty.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to serve as a pretext. over such rugged and steep rocks. when he was desirous of privacy. He wallows now in floods of human gore. "Let them hate me. too fell to move The least kind yearnings of a mother's love! No knight thou art. while undergoing the punishment.htm (167 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . expressing his joy that he had not likewise offered him a large crab which he had also taken. and lastly those of Sejanus. ye Romans. A few days after his arrival at Capri. he ordered the man's face to be scrubbed with the fish. by C. He first fell upon the friends and acquaintance of his mother. The Iron's come. he ordered the officer whose duty it was to ride on and examine the road. and he would frequently say.gutenberg. Reflect how Antony's ambitious rage Twice scar'd with horror a distracted age. a fisherman coming up to him unexpectedly. on the dreadful times. At first he would have it understood. In one of his journeys. He put to death one of the pretorian guards. his litter being obstructed by some bushes. a centurion of the first cohorts. for having stolen a peacock out of his orchard. LXI." 358 At length. When banish'd miscreants rule this world below.

were forced to live. "Carnulius has escaped me. he was suddenly asked aloud by a dwarf who stood by amongst the buffoons. Those who were desirous to die. was taken. The wounds were bound up.gutenberg. For he thought death so slight a punishment. and for those who were sentenced to death." A man of consular rank writes in his annals. who was under a prosecution for treason. not excepting holidays. one of the accused. Of many who were condemned. "You are not yet restored to favour. when he began to suspect Sejanus. were carried. or those appropriated to the worship of the gods. who were thrown into prison. though they had been well received some years before. which they were certain would ensue. and read in the hearing of Augustus. "I have punished Sejanus. as supplied with occasions of gratifying his savage temper. and all offences were capital. after he was taken off. LXII. why Paconius." In calling over his prisoners. Not a day passed without the punishment of some person or other. Others took poison in the senate house. but debarred from all company and conversation. Considerable rewards were voted for the prosecutors. and a historian 359." one of these he put to death. after whose death he became cruel in the extreme. In one day. and afterwards strangled. he exclaimed. according to an ancient custom. twenty were treated in this manner. Many persons. Those who were put to death. though without any ill intention. Some were tried even on New-Year's-Day. Suetonius Tranquillus. and sometimes for the witnesses also. Tiberius immediately reprimanded him for his pertness. it was not lawful to strangle virgins. Though in a short memoir which he composed of his own life. to proceed without delay to the punishment of Paconius. when summoned to trial. had killed himself. and their writings suppressed. by C.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (168 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and then dragged into the Tiber. when he wanted them. and amongst them women and boys. Exasperated by information he received respecting the death of his son Drusus. the young girls were first deflowered by the executioner. From this it appeared. half-dead. It would be tedious to relate all the numerous instances of his cruelty: suffice it to give a few examples. who was under prosecution. stabbed themselves at home. and another. even speaking (230) a few words. and all who had not expired. for calling Brutus and Cassius "the last of the Romans. that at table.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. the relations were forbid to put on mourning. and panting for life. but wrote to the senate a few days after. lived so long. he had the effrontery to write. Because. to avoid the distress and ignominy of a public condemnation. that upon hearing that Carnulius. where he himself was present with a large company. Some. because I found him bent upon the destruction of the children of my son Germanicus. their wives and children shared the same fate. in their different kinds. when one of them requested the favour of a speedy death. without exception. were not only denied the solace of study. to prison. The information of any person. he replied." The two authors were immediately called to account. A poet was charged with abusing Agamemnon. were thrown down the Gemonian stairs. he carried http://www. that he had not been so much instigated by Sejanus.

but kept them until several years after. from a precipice into the sea. in hopes of longer life. yet they were not to be found in it. as well as odium and detestation. to be thrown. as a party concerned in the enquiry. For though they were sealed up in a box. he abandoned the design. until it was returned to the temple. Had not death prevented him. but being terrified by the divine authority of the (232) Praenestine Lots 362. Among various kinds of torture invented by him. After Sejanus had plotted against him. is evident from many indications. he commanded him to be put to death. with a guard to hinder all who met them on the road. and whom he had by a friendly letter invited to Rome. he spared no one from torture and death. More than one person of consular rank. He forbade the soothsayers to be consulted in private.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. his cruelty still farther. thus tormenting them at once by the tightness of the ligature. LXV. and travellers. He never removed his daughter-in-law. The place of execution is still shown at Capri. while they still remained present with him. and without some witnesses being present. was arrived. There a party of soldiers belonging to the fleet waited for them. that he might not publish the injury done him. Suetonius Tranquillus.htm (169 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and carried to home. where he ordered those who were condemned to die. and he frequently gave them orders.gutenberg. one was. by C. from stopping to gaze at them. appointed governors of provinces. "Happy Priam. it is believed that he would have destroyed many more: and not have spared even the rest of his grandchildren: for he was jealous of Caius. prevailed with him to defer some of his cruelties. for he used often to say.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. when he nominated their successors. he never ventured to dismiss to their respective destinations. This conjecture is indeed highly probable. after long and exquisite tortures. they bore the title of their office. and then to tie up their members with harp-strings. upon being informed that the person in whose house he had lodged at Rhodes. though he saw that his birth-day was solemnly kept by http://www. Amidst these enormities. and Thrasyllus. but in fetters and in a covered litter. He was so entirely occupied with the examination of this affair. and hated Tiberius as having been conceived in adultery. he ordered him immediately to be put to the torture. lest they should have any life left in them. or grandsons 363. In the meantime. and broke their bones with poles and oars. to induce people to drink a large quantity of wine. He imagined that he had died of a disease occasioned (231) by his intemperance. after their condemnation. for whole days together. He attempted to suppress the oracles in the neighbourhood of the city. that. but finding that he had been poisoned by the contrivance of his wife Livilla 360 and Sejanus. who survived all his children!" 361 LXIII. and the stoppage of their urine. which they took care to have executed by their deputies and assistants. before his eyes. LXIV. designedly. in how much fear and apprehension. he lived. Upon finding his mistake. to any place. as some say.

heaped upon him the most opprobrious language in his presence. lest he should afterwards. from his skill in the science of divination. To the extreme anxiety of mind which he now experienced. out of shame. in which he upbraids him with his parricides. while Sejanus little expected it. for the signals which he had ordered to be made if any thing occurred. at the beginning of his reign. indeed. may be justly inferred from the http://www. to his greater shame. he had absolutely refused the title of the "Father of his Country. whom he still kept in confinement at Rome. Then. and divine honours paid to golden images of him in every quarter. under the pretext of doing him honour. he was upon the (233) watch. which begun thus: "What to write to you.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. lest the messengers should be tardy. to be set at liberty. in a letter to the senate. Drusus. and that for this reason. and apprehensive of an insurrection. he suddenly. Conscript Fathers. among other things. he took upon him for that purpose. LXVII. At last. insomuch that he never once stirred out of the Villa Jovis for nine months after. and perceived long before what misery and infamy would at last come upon him. charged him with treason. and advises him to satisfy the furious rage of his own people.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars." Some are of opinion that he had a foreknowledge of those things. he ordered his grandson. he acknowledged his extreme misery. Even when he had quite foiled the conspiracy of Sejanus. or by hand-bills scattered in the senators' seats in the theatre. in which. LXVI. there is to be subjoined a letter from Artabanus.htm (170 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . to head the troops. and if occasion required. by C. if I can tell. murders. with a guard of soldiers. that he accomplished his death. which. to remove him from about his person. or how to write. and publish it himself. and the prospect of the tribunitian authority. he had the mortification to find superadded the most poignant reproaches from all quarters. cowardice." Still distrustful. by putting an end to his life without delay.gutenberg. at other times he would disregard what was said. he begged them "to send one of the consuls. however. Suetonius Tranquillus. to conduct himself. or what not to write at this time. be found unequal to such extraordinary honours. the public. although then absent from the city. These produced different effects: sometimes he wished. and lewdness. Those who were condemned to die. He had likewise ships in readiness to transport him to any of the legions to which he might consider it expedient to make his escape. Meanwhile. in an abject and pitiful address to the senate. yet it was with difficulty at last. into their presence. and more by artifice than his imperial power. which he had so justly excited. This. long after his preceding consulship. he was still haunted as much as ever with fears and apprehensions. In the first place. being quite weary of himself. a poor solitary old man. having flattered him with the hope of an alliance by marriage with one of his own kindred. he made him his colleague in his fifth consulship. to have all smothered and concealed. from the summit of a lofty cliff. To this accumulation of scandal and open sarcasm." and the proposal of the senate to swear to his acts. may all the gods and goddesses pour upon my head a more terrible vengeance than that under which I feel myself daily sinking. king of the Parthians.

but it was often full of pimples. being repulsive habits and signs of arrogance. so long as I retain my senses. He used his left hand more readily and with more force than his right. a venerable man. to whom he had paid much respect in his own early years. and my entire affection for you. and his joints were so strong. of a stature somewhat above the common size. speeches which he made upon both those occasions. and usually accompanied with a slight gesticulation of his fingers. the senate ought to beware of binding themselves to the acts of (234) any person whatever. In person he was large and robust. He was of a fair complexion." He enjoyed a good state of health. so that he was thought to speak better extempore. almost during the whole period of his rule. and wore his hair so long behind. (235) LXX. broad in the shoulders and chest. being for the most part silent: when he spoke to those about him. but they soon grew dim again. he affected to imitate Messala Corvinus 364." LXVIII. because it is supposed that the leaf of that tree is never touched by the lightning. which were large. and wound the head of a boy. But he rendered his style obscure by excessive affectation and abstruseness. Suetonius Tranquillus. Yet he was extremely afraid of lightning. which was observed to be a mark of distinction affected by the family.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In his Latin style. the title of Father will add no honour to me. for your rashness in conferring it upon me. both Greek and Latin. were remarked by Augustus. In regard to the gods. which proceeded from no viciousness of mind. though. and matters of religion. which heaven prevent by putting a period to my days. All which. and when the sky was in a disturbed state. under the title of "A Lamentation upon http://www. and proportionable in the rest of his frame.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he treated it himself according to his own discretion.htm (171 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by C. and shall never change my conduct. His eyes. without interruption. He had a handsome face. it was very slowly. who might by some accident or other be induced to alter them." And again: "If ye should at any time entertain a jealousy of my conduct. for a short time only. and immediately after awaking from sleep. rather than I should live to see such an alteration in your opinion of me. but to avoid giving a bad precedent to posterity. He applied himself with great diligence to the liberal arts. he discovered much indifference. sound apple through with his finger. that he could bore a fresh. or even a young man. without any medical assistance. being greatly addicted to astrology. declaring that "they were natural defects. from the thirtieth year of his age. or inconstancy in altering your opinion of me. He composed likewise a lyric ode. and in the dark. than in a premeditated discourse. He walked with his neck stiff and upright: generally with a frowning countenance. as when he says. who often endeavoured to excuse them to the senate and people. always wore a laurel crown on his head. that it covered his neck. and fully persuaded that all things were governed by fate. LXIX. "I shall ever be the same. but be a reproach to you.gutenberg. with a fillip. had a wonderful faculty of seeing in the night-time.

as far as the seventh mile-stone from the city. and Parthenius 365. not even in his entertainments.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. having only taken a view of the walls at a distance." and also some Greek poems. the death of Lucius Caesar. These poets he greatly admired. inquiring even into its trifling details in a ridiculous manner. with such questions as these: "Who was Hecuba's mother? What name did Achilles assume among the virgins? What was it that the Sirens used to sing?" And the first day that he entered the senate-house. he proposed to have it changed. yet he did not use it everywhere. for some time. and upon going to feed it with his own hand. Rhianus. For what reason he did not disembark in his first excursion. in imitation of Euphorion. he was deterred from entering the city by a prodigy. partly from an ungovernable appetite. with javelins. if no proper one could be found. he much affected. Being immediately seized with a pain in the side. He was in the habit of diverting himself with a snake. which was let loose in the arena. twice only he made an effort to visit Rome. His principal study. except in Latin. a class of men which.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. On this account. A soldier (236) who was examined as a witness upon a trial. he relapsed into a worse condition than he was before. he would not allow to reply. but recovering a little. and other gratifications. he made an offering of frankincense and wine. upon the death of his son. but he immediately returned. He held out. Suetonius Tranquillus. is uncertain. after the death of Augustus. During the whole time of his seclusion at Capri. and that a Latin word should be substituted in its room. On this account. but encountered. and placed their works and statues in the public libraries. but chiefly he avoided it in the senate-house. to keep off all who should offer to come to meet him. the word emblaema (emblem) was read. however. in imitation of Minos. a wild boar.htm (172 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] .gutenberg. insomuch that having occasion to employ the word monopolium (monopoly). The second time he travelled on the Appian Way 367. he first begged pardon for being obliged to adopt a foreign word. which they addressed to him. he fell ill at Astura 368. but without any music. and sailing as far as Misenum 370. or. most of the learned men of the time vied with each other in publishing observations upon them. as if he intended to pay respect at once to his father's memory and to the gods. went on to Circeii 369. And to obviate any suspicion of his being in a bad state of health. in a decree of the senate. LXXII. returning in all haste to Campania. for he used to try the grammarians. he found it devoured by ants: from which he was advised to beware of the fury of the mob. Though he was ready and conversant with the Greek tongue. was the history of the fabulous ages. amongst the eminent authors of antiquity. Once he came in a galley as far as the gardens near the Naumachia. as I have already observed. but placed guards along the banks of the Tiber. omitted nothing (237) in his usual mode of life. http://www. And when. however. he was not only present at the sports in the camp. in Greek 366. and catching cold upon his over-heating himself in the exercise. by C. without entering it. but in the last. to express the thing by circumlocution. LXXI. according to custom.

some crying out.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he had brought a full-sized statue of the Timenian Apollo from Syracuse. upon looking over the acts of the senate. supposing he did it to feel his pulse. in the seventy-eighth year of his age 371. Suetonius Tranquillus. but amongst the wicked. and the increasing violence of his disorder. a work of exquisite art. with his left hand clenched.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. (238) and no one answering the call. "That finding himself dying. and without stirring. Upon his last birth-day. and assured him "that his statue could not be erected by him. and partly to conceal his condition. allow him no abode in death. at a villa formerly belonging to Lucullus. the common mother of mankind. that when they first heard the news. but his strength failing him.gutenberg. on his recovering from a swoon. But being detained by storms." Others threatened his body with the hook and the Gemonian stairs. he fell down at a short distance from his bed. not daring to attempt any thing until he found himself in a place of security. the Pharos at Capri was thrown down by an earthquake. when. upon asking for food. "May the earth. which were brought in to warm his apartment. he complained in a great rage that he was treated with contempt. and held it a while. LXXIII. Nor did he omit his usual custom of taking his station in the centre of the apartment. he died shortly afterwards. but put it again upon his finger." for he had only written cursorily that they had been denounced by an informer. and the twenty-third of his reign. on his rising from table. desired him to stay and resume his place. but he dreamt that the god appeared to him in the night. he took his signet ring off his finger. finding. which had been taken from him in the fit. a lictor standing by him. without being brought to a hearing. their indignation at his former cruelty being increased by a recent atrocity. upon the seventeenth of the calends of April (16th March). And at Misenum. it was denied him. burst out into a flame again towards evening.htm (173 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by C. It had been http://www. and lay for some time. he called for his ring. in the consulship of Cneius Acerronius Proculus and Caius Pontius Niger. and continued the entertainment longer than usual. and resolved at all hazards to return to Capri. some embers and live coals. LXXV. while he took leave of each of the party by name. took his hand to kiss it. he rose. The people were so much elated at his death. as if he would deliver it to somebody." others exclaiming. they ran up and down the city." LXXIV. Others report. upon which Tiberius. Meanwhile. Seneca writes. and the infernal gods. Some think that a slow-consuming poison was given him by Caius 372. and continued burning very brightly for several hours. For Charicles. Others say that during the interval of the intermittent fever with which he happened to be seized. that he was stifled by a pillow thrown upon him 373. "that some person under prosecution had been discharged." A few days before he died. "Away with Tiberius to the Tiber. a physician. having obtained leave of absence. went out. intending to place it in the library of the new temple 374. and after being quite cold. when suddenly summoning his attendants.

their guards. however. LXXVI. a woman venerable by years. and to the magistrates of the several quarters of the city.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. there was reason to expect. and the relict of the late emperor. As soon as his corpse was begun to be moved from Misenum. and in consequence of which the unhappy men implored a reprieve. and the mild and prosperous administration of Augustus. provided by an act of the senate. who had long been familiar with the councils of Augustus. brought to Rome. Now this fell on the very day when the news of Tiberius's death arrived. to all the soldiers. many cried out for its being carried to Atella 375. since his cruelty continued in use even after he was dead. he was acquainted with his method of government. His temper was haughty and reserved: Augustus had often apologised for the ungraciousness of his manners. He appointed his two grandsons. duplicates of his will. during forty-four years. Suetonius Tranquillus. Livia. He gave likewise many legacies. Tiberius.gutenberg. joint heirs to his estate. and though he had not openly discovered any propensity to vice. and from her high rank. and there was no one else to whom application could be made on their behalf. He had made about two years before.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He was disobedient to his mother. he would render the model of his own. by C. abstracted from any concern with public affairs. for the most part. that few were now living who had been born under the ancient constitution of the Romans. and burnt with the usual ceremony. and both were witnessed by some persons of very mean rank. Caius by Germanicus. but there were others of a tendency disadvantageous to his views. It was. the other was to inherit the whole. was of mature age. and threw them down the Gemonian stairs. there had elapsed so long a period from the overthrow of the republic by Julius Caesar. too. and upon the death of one of them. that the execution of condemned criminals should always be deferred until the tenth day after the sentence. yet. and Tiberius by Drusus. as well as uncommon affability. amongst which were bequests to the Vestal Virgins. having been brought up in the family of Augustus. he enjoyed none http://www. one written by his own hand. * * * * * * At the death of Augustus. as Caius had not yet arrived. which. and the other by that of one of his freedmen. the adopted son of the former sovereign. had by this time reconciled the minds of the people to a despotic government. but. was still living. for mercy's sake. and being half burnt there (239) in the amphitheatre. strangled them. Such were the circumstances in favour of Tiberius's succession at the demise of Augustus. and though he had hitherto lived.htm (174 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and each one of the people of Rome. his mother. apprehensive of violating the law. possessed an extensive influence amongst all classes of the people. This roused the people to a still greater abhorrence of the tyrant's memory.

inconsistency. and dissimulation. which was increased not only by a strong suspicion. in the eighty-sixth year of her age. as was supposed. at the time that he intimated an invincible reluctance to accept it. whose confidence she abused. Germanicus. attached to the son the partiality entertained for his parents. and with the approbation of the Augurs. That an obstruction was apprehended to Tiberius's succession from this quarter. an unbounded ascendancy over the emperor. Tiberius and Drusus. had expressed a design of recalling him. but Livia retained.htm (175 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . but a general surmise. of appointing him his successor. Though. or the support of the army. the emotions of ambition to displace him. he divorced his wife Scribonia. is left by Tacitus undetermined. while http://www. and if consanguinity was to be the rule of succession. his deceitful insinuation of bodily infirmities. artfully prompting the senate to give him the charge of the government. seems to have still rendered him distrustful of the succession. Caius and Lucius. his absolutely declining it in perpetuity. without interruption. Livia Drusilla. is put beyond all doubt. and his own dissimulation. to make way for the succession of Tiberius. that "she was an Ulysses in a woman's dress. Drusus Calidianus and married Tiberius Claudius Nero. or at least from the former. form altogether a scene of the most insidious policy." Octavius first saw her as she fled from the danger which threatened her husband. To these considerations it is to be added. by whom she had two sons. yet the consciousness of his own want of pretensions to the Roman throne.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. the grandson of Augustus by Julia. his right was indisputably preferable to that of an adopted son. which he could have no difficulty in obtaining. celebrated (241) his nuptials with Livia. though she was notorious for her profligacy. There ensued from this marriage no issue. was dispatched by an order from Livia and Tiberius conjointly. but. Many. that his elder brothers. without the voice of the people. The father of young Agrippa had been greatly beloved by the Romans. can be imputed only to the influence of his mother. whether with her own inclination or not. with the view. the real inclination of the senate. mother of the emperor. and repress in his adopted son. had ever been regarded by them with peculiar sympathy and tenderness. but fixing no time for an abdication. yet affecting a total indifference. Augustus had sent this youth into exile a few years before. whom she survived fifteen years. that he might allay in the senate all apprehensions of any great duration of his power. therefore. and the fate of his mother. and the relict of Augustus. Ardently solicitous to attain the object. and though she was then pregnant. with hints likewise of approaching old age. who had espoused the cause of Antony. until young Agrippa should be removed. Suetonius Tranquillus. and that he should have quietly obtained it. that Postumus Agrippa.gutenberg.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by this act. She was the daughter of L. Julia. who. by C. In this period died. of those qualities which usually conciliate popularity. To pave the way for this union. he resolved to marry her. was living. The conduct of this lady seems to justify the remark of Caligula. though much desired by both parties. towards the close (240) of his life. had been violently taken off. it is generally agreed. when we find that the death of Augustus was industriously kept secret. there remained no rival to Tiberius.

in the hope. Suetonius Tranquillus. he mentions him as great and accomplished in the superlative degree. who had been his governor. have seldom been equalled. http://www. The plan which she devised for this purpose. upon an expedition against the Persians. where he had obtained some appointment. would procure for Tiberius. but in reality instigated by Livia.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. She appears to have entertained a predominant ambition of giving an heir to the Roman empire. but Livia and Tiberius. she suspended her project. The cool yet sanguinary policy. so imposing had been the manners and address of this deceitful courtier. and when the grandsons of the emperor were risen to the years of manhood. Postumus Agrippa. From the hand of this traitor. incurred the displeasure of his grandfather in the same way as Lucius. or met him in the East. the uxorious husband little suspected that he was cherishing in his bosom a viper who was to prove the destruction of his house. The true character of this person had escaped the keen discernment of Horace. so litious language against his grandfather. Lucius. either accompanied him thither from Rome. with which she prosecuted her design. maxime Lolli. and Lollius. the second son of Julia. of which he died some time after. the eldest of Augustus's grandsons. as it is said. a stratagem which. who promoted Lollius to the consulship. (242) for using. by C.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In the seventh year of his exile Augustus proposed to recall him. This promising youth was sent to Armenia.gutenberg. through the means of adoption. the young prince received a fatal blow. perhaps. While the sons of Julia were yet young. Caesar Agrippa. when executed. and while there was still a possibility that she herself might have issue by Augustus. perhaps under the pretext of exercising the authority of a preceptor. she resolved on accomplishing that end in the person of Tiberius. as was before observed. and the patient perseverance of resolution. by his rapacity in this station. but. The first object devoted to destruction was C. where he remained a prisoner until he was put to death by the order either of Livia alone. was to exterminate all the male offspring of Augustus by his daughter Julia. he afterwards incurred the emperor's displeasure. the eventual succession to the empire. and made him governor of a province. as well as the sagacity of the emperor. put in practice the expedient of having him immediately assassinated. The manner of Caius's death seems to have been carefully kept from the knowledge of Augustus. the third son. and was confined at Surrentum. dreading the consequences of his being restored to the emperor's favour. she began to carry into execution what she long had meditated. liberrime Lolli. who was married to Agrippa. or in conjunction with Tiberius. but when the natural term of her constitution had put a period to her hopes of progeny.htm (176 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the eldest son by her former husband. that accident or disease might operate in its favour. was banished into Campania. for in two epistles addressed to Lollius. and had been adopted by him. and since it could not be done by any fruit of her marriage with Augustus.

to accept this mark of their partiality. to repress the seditions of the Armenians. that crowns of oak. Suetonius Tranquillus. as well as of humanity. One of the first victims in the sanguinary reign of the present emperor. he was employed in a war in Germany. near Antioch. served only to render him an object of jealousy to Tiberius. she introduced amongst the Romans the horrible practice of domestic murder. with the title of emperor in the East. by whose order he was secretly poisoned at Daphne. that she who scruple not to lay violent hands upon those young men. and all ranks of the people entertained an opinion. and she transmitted to succeeding ages a pernicious example. but with the recital http://www. But the (243) fame which he acquired. had formerly practised every artifice that could operate towards rendering them obnoxious to the emperor. Upon the conclusion of this expedition. Such was the catastrophe. and prosecuted the war with success. in which he was equally successful. he was sent. 376 His obsequies were celebrated. and reason justifies the inference. another on the banks of the Rhine. by whom he was extremely beloved. and that an effigy of him in ivory should be drawn upon a chariot.gutenberg. and as soon as intelligence of that event arrived.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and a third upon Mount Amanus in Syria. however. the soldiers. at the expense of every moral obligation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. To the disgrace of her sex. Refusing. The news of Germanicus's death was received at Rome with universal lamentation.htm (177 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . The love and gratitude of the Romans decreed many honours to his memory. of all the grandsons of Augustus. But in the ingratitude of Tiberius. by C. At the death of his grandfather Augustus. Triumphal arches were erected. he persevered in allegiance to the government of his uncle. Tiberius's own brother. one at Rome. was Germanicus. It was ordered. not with the display of images and funeral pomp. the son of Drusus. of a temper different from that of Tiberius. and who had been adopted by his uncle himself. she at last experienced a just retribution for the crimes in which she had trained him to procure the succession to the empire. had he survived Tiberius. through the means of Livia. would feel little restraint upon her mind against corrupting his daughter. preceding the ceremonies of the Circensian games. where he greatly distinguished himself by his military achievements. that. this amiable and meritorious prince would have been held in the highest esteem. little known before the times when the thirst or intoxication of unlimited power had vitiated the social affections. he would have restored the freedom of the republic. should be placed upon curule chairs in the hall pertaining to the priests of Augustus. however undutiful and reprehensible in a son towards a parent. unanimously saluted him emperor. Under any sovereign. We may even ascribe to her dark intrigues the dissolute conduct of Julia for the woman who could secretly act as procuress to her own husband. by which immoderate ambition might be gratified. with inscriptions of his achievements. when such an effect might contribute to answer the purpose which she had in view. in allusion to his victories. in the thirty-fourth year of his age. that his name should be sung in a solemn procession of the Salii. and that he died for his services to the republic.

in the pursuit of which he was overtaken by that fate which he merited still more by his cruelties than his perfidy to Tiberius. and banished her to the island of Pandataria. that he had. and the vicinity of Daphne to Babylon. impatient of attaining its object. that when she accused Piso. therefore. Piso. and.htm (178 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . by C. many compared his fate to that of Alexander the Great. and the son of a Roman knight. He married Agrippina. seeming continually to reproach him with his guilt. the grandson of Augustus. and not only charged them with seditious designs. This lady. Caius. But it was not sufficient to gratify this sanguinary tyrant. unable to bear up against the public odium incurred by that transaction. on account of his vicious disposition. had his ambitious temper. he resolved to appoint his successor on the throne. after whose http://www.gutenberg. the minister in the present reign. for some time. as is related. who. a comparison might be made in favour of his memory. to provoke the resentment of Nero and Drusus against him. and having. devoured part of his bed. who had accompanied her husband into the east. and amidst the toils of war. by whom he had nine children. From a resemblance in his personal accomplishments. as well as military talents.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to which their tender years were ill adapted. carried his ashes to Italy. she was not ignorant of the person by whom the perpetrator of the murder had been instigated. where she died some time afterwards of famine. if possible. and her presence. in the lower part of the Palatium. and a translation of Aratus into Latin verse. and accused his murderer. found leisure to cultivate the arts of literary genius. where. By a sentence of the senate. He was sensible. he resolved to rid himself of a person become so obnoxious to his sight. that. he procured them both to be declared open enemies to their country. that Ovid had formerly been in respect of Augustus. After endeavouring in vain. Nero he banished to the island of Pontia. some epigrams. he miserably perished by famine. imitated with success. after suffering for nine days the violence of hunger. Sejanus. his age. by various artifices. which manifested the extreme servility of that assembly. the daughter of M. but with vices of a nature the most scandalous. He was celebrated for humanity and benevolence. after his own death. Agrippina was now nearly in the same predicament with regard to Tiberius. when the Romans should be governed by a sovereign yet more vicious and more tyrannical. he had recourse to false accusation. cut off both Germanicus and his wife Agrippina: the distinguished merits and popularity of that prince were yet to be revenged upon his children. allowed him to wear the mask for a longer period. The remaining son. Agrippa. Suetonius Tranquillus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. without any cause. He composed two comedies in Greek. he might have gained the imperial diadem. the manner of his death. This man was a native of Volsinium in Tuscany. He had first insinuated himself into the favour of Caius Caesar. like his unfortunate mother. the hypocrisy of his master. of his praises and the virtues which rendered him illustrious. and accordingly he (244) set himself to invent a pretext for their destruction. than himself. and Drusus was doomed to the same fate. laid violent hands upon himself.

Suetonius Tranquillus. With this view. as soon as he should arrive at the sovereignty. through the means of an eunuch named Lygdus. death he courted the friendship of Tiberius. the stains of vice disgrace The fairest honours of the noblest race. to whom she had borne several children. Strength to the mind and vigour to the heart: When morals fail. and things being not yet ripe for an immediate revolt. he insinuates indirectly a salutary admonition to the cultivation of the civil virtues: Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam. Conveying inward. he had the presumption to seduce Livia. under various pretences. he endeavoured to secure in his interest every lady of distinguished connections. was to gain the attachment of the senate. and the officers of the army. and these he soon sacrificed to his ambition.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by order of her and Sejanus.—Ode iv. the eldest of this progeny. by giving secretly to each of them a promise of marriage. Upon the death of Drusus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Drusus was the son of Tiberius by Vipsania. wondrous aid impart. by C. but appears to have been dissolute in his morals. but the emperor still refusing his consent. Drusus. He displayed great intrepidity during the war in the provinces of Illyricum and Pannonia. Dedecorant bene nata culpae. and she consented to marry her adulterer upon the death of her husband. The object which he next pursued. Sejanus thought nothing so favourable for the prosecution of his designs as the absence of Tiberius from the capital. the mind of Sejanus was more than ever inflamed by the united.—Francis. Sejanus openly avowed a desire of marrying the widowed princess.gutenberg. which he improved to the best advantage. For this purpose. Rectique cultus pectora roborant: Utcunque defecere mores. and obtained in a short time his entire confidence. passions of love and ambition. and now furious. one of Agrippa's (245) daughters. but Tiberius opposing this measure. Yet sage instructions to refine the soul And raise the genius. The chief obstacles in his way were the sons and grandsons of Tiberius. was destined by him to destruction.htm (179 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . with a new kind of policy. besides whom. and while the poet celebrates the military courage of the prince. and at the same time recommending Germanicus to the senate as his successor in the empire. having in a fit of passion struck the favourite. Horace is said to have written the Ode in praise of Drusus at the desire of Augustus. who was soon after poisoned. He therefore urged his demand with increased importunity. 4. as they purely roll. the wife of Drusus. under the pretence of relieving his http://www.

from his earliest years. as to have him introduced in a ridiculous light upon the stage. they were first deflowered by the executioner. than the audacious minister was deserted by his adherents. when. without any imputed guilt. A great number of houses on Mount Caelius were destroyed by fire. who had by this time retired to Capri. and butchered in the presence of their parents. Fathers were constrained by violence to witness the death of their own children. he publicly declared himself sovereign of the Roman empire. and the intoxication of power. about twenty thousand persons were either greatly hurt. a moroseness of disposition. master from the cares of government. virgins. he indemnified the most considerable sufferers for the loss they had sustained. which counterfeited the appearance of austere virtue. The only act of munificence displayed by Tiberius during his reign. his indignation was immediately excited. and even the tears of a mother. The emperor. Suetonius Tranquillus. and http://www. who. and afterwards strangled. precipitated him into measures which soon effected his destruction.htm (180 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . erected for the purpose of exhibiting public shows. or crushed to death in the rains. indolent and luxurious. was upon the occasion of those fires. This mandate no sooner arrived. and with a confidence founded upon an authority exercised for several years. but in general averse to society. and by the fall of a temporary building at Fidenae. approved of the proposal. having first imbrued his hands in the blood of his own relations. Innocent children were condemned to death. as if an atrocious addition to cruelty could sanction the exercise of it. occasioned by accident. By another fire which afterwards broke out. and that Tiberius. were sacrificed to a similar destiny. were punished as a capital offence. and strangled in prison the same day. to qualify the severity of his government. but there being an ancient custom of not strangling females in that situation. Affable on a few occasions. added to the horrors of the reign. and retired into Campania. He even went so far in degrading the emperor. Through the whole of his life. Advice of Sejanus's proceedings was soon carried to the emperor at Capri. he was in a short time after seized without resistance. proceeded to exercise them upon the public with indiscriminate fury. As if entirely emancipated from the control of a master. he indulged. leaving to his ambitious minister the whole direction of the empire. but a natural impetuosity of temper. Human nature recoils with horror at the cruelties of this execrable tyrant. at the execution of her child. Some extraordinary calamities. Had Sejanus now been governed by common prudence and moderation. he persuaded him to retire to a distance from Rome.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by C. with the numerous buildings on Mount Aventine. he sent orders for accusing Sejanus (246) before the senate.gutenberg. Tiberius seems to have conducted himself with a uniform repugnance to nature. was only the dependent prince of that tributary island. he might have attained to the accomplishment of all his wishes. Neither age nor sex afforded any exemption from his insatiable thirst for blood.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. a part of the Circus was destroyed.

gold and silver should lose their value. by the establishment of this invention. tended to a general diminution of the efforts of genius for some time. while the banishment of Ovid. Suetonius Tranquillus. when it is common to reform from juvenile indiscretions. and the gates of the palace were shut against all who cultivated the elegant pursuits of the Muses. But none of these has been transmitted to posterity: and if we should form an opinion of them upon the principle of Catullus. of the tyrant who now occupied the throne. of a kind the most unnatural and most detestable. Rhianus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. it is probable.htm (181 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . until at last political necessity absolved him likewise from this restraint.gutenberg.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. as will appear from the following account of them. Genius no longer found a patron either in the emperor or his minister. The prodigious fame of the writers of the Augustan age. It is doubtful whether such a change might not have happened in some degree. by repressing emulation. he launched forth into excesses.—— VELLEIUS PATERCULUS was born of an equestrian family in Campania. Panders. and that the shop and tools of the artist were destroyed. These checks being both removed. and literature languished during the present reign. that the art of making glass malleable was actually discovered under the reign of Tiberius. as the only fit companions. assassins. The gloom which darkened the Roman capital during this melancholy period. There now existed no circumstance to counterbalance these disadvantages. he still felt. Pliny relates. he was actuated by a slavish fear of Sejanus. a filial awe upon his mind: and after her death. with some Greek poems in imitation of Euphorion. there is little reason to regret that they have perished. wretches stained with every crime. shed a baleful influence on the progress of science throughout the empire. during her life. Considering the vicious passions which had ever brooded in his heart. that even this emperor had a taste for the liberal arts. but though utterly destitute of reverence or affection for his mother. for censuring the character of Agamemnon. either from sentiment or authority. Dion adds. in the decline of life. We are informed. operated towards the farther discouragement of poetical exertions. by C. even had the government of Tiberius been equally mild with that of his predecessor. however. were the constant attendants. and served as a http://www. lest. catamites. (247) he rioted without any control. and that he composed a lyric poem upon the death of Lucius Caesar. that the author of the discovery was put to death. it may seem surprising that he restrained himself within the bounds of decency during so many years after his accession. in the same proportion as it had flourished in the preceding. and of prose writers the number is inconsiderable. We meet with no poetical production in this reign. and the capital punishment of a subsequent poet. that to be a good poet one ought to be a good man. and Parthenius.

The grace. Candid. In treating of the family of Augustus. he is not equally parsimonious. Paterculus is justly liable to the imputation of partiality. risks the imputation of hyperbole. in nine books. and. and concise as well as elegant in style. but we learn nothing more concerning him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but is sometimes deficient in that purity of language which might be expected in the age of Tiberius.htm (182 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . we cannot entertain any high opinion of the independent spirit of Valerius Maximus. and an expressive description of characters. Such an expedient would have only provoked the severest resentment from his jealousy. which he incurs still more in the latter period of his history. on some occasions. however.—— VALERIUS MAXIMUS was descended of a Patrician family. Suetonius Tranquillus. His transitions from one subject to another are often performed with gracefulness. He composed an Epitome of the History of Greece and Rome. by C. He intimates a design of giving a more full account of the civil war which followed the death of Julius Caesar. that the compliment was paid after the death of Sejanus. and has left an account. moral. of the memorable apophthegms and actions of eminent persons.—— PHAEDRUS was a native of Thrace. who could submit to flatter a tyrant. What inducement the author had to this dedication. to whom the work is addressed. political. from the conquest of Perseus to the seventeenth year of the reign of Tiberius. improving his talents by reading. if we except his invectives against Pompey. but this. and where he offers any remarks. military tribune under Tiberius. and was brought to Rome as a slave. Rapid in the narrative. they generally show the author to be a man of judgment and observation. reconcile us to the compliment. enlivened occasionally with anecdotes. first of the Romans. addressed to Marcus Vinicius. he shows little propensity to censure. has not been transmitted to posterity. and the apparent sincerity with which it is bestowed.gutenberg. He afterwards betook himself to writing. The subjects are of various kinds. and afterwards of foreign nations. It is written in two books. this production exhibits a pleasing epitome of ancient transactions. if he ever accomplished it. we know not. with that of other nations of remote antiquity: but of this work there only remain fragments of the history of Greece and Rome. than that for some time he followed a military life under Sextus Pompey. This author concludes his history with a prayer for the prosperity of the Roman empire. ranged into distinct classes. but decided in his judgment of motives and actions.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. in the zenith of infamy and detestation. but as it is evident from a passage in the ninth book. by the praise which is lavished on Tiberius and his minister Sejanus. where. he obtained (249) http://www. of conveying to Tiberius. who had (248) the office of consul. and natural. but in awarding praise. Valerius Maximus is chargeable with no affectation of style. and consequently in the most shameful period of Tiberius's reign. an admonition to reform his conduct. in his expeditions in Gaul and Germany. But we cannot ascribe the cause to any delicate artifice. He had the good fortune to come into the service of Augustus. indirectly.

like Phaedrus. afford an unfavourable specimen of his elegance and correctness as a writer. De Medicina. and has written eight books. the last in that of Trajan. all remarkable for their (250) gluttony. commentaries on Virgil.. he found that there remained no more of his estate than http://www. In justness of remark. There were three Romans of the name of Apicius.htm (183 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . To the writers of this reign we must add APICIUS COELIUS. a freedman of Augustus. a persecution from Sejanus. and whatever he admits into his system. Suetonius Tranquillus. but of those several treatises no fragments now remain. has occasionally adopted particular doctrines from each of them. who. or. Celsus. though industrious. It remained in obscurity until two hundred years ago. a sum equal to 484. he translated into Iambic verse the Fables of Aesop.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. with a treatise on agriculture. Phaedrus underwent. in force of argument. conveying moral sentiments with unaffected ease and impressive energy. in the art of composition. and. but confirms by its practical utility. by C. than for purity and elegance of style. for some time. in the Greek and Roman authors.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. sexcenties sestertium. Empirics. and military affairs. he seems not to have improved himself so much as his companion. the first of whom deviated less than the others from the plan of Hippocrates. wasted on luxurious living. viz. He wrote. It appears that Celsus likewise wrote on agriculture.gutenberg. The work of Phaedrus is one of the latest which have been brought to light since the revival of learning. he not only establishes by the most rational observations. according to others. and was made one of his freedmen. and Methodists. however. and are not less conspicuous for precision and simplicity of thought. but they were in general irreconcilable to each other. if genuine. the Dogmatists.—— HYGINUS is said to have been a native of Alexandria. in precision and perspicuity. His remaining works are much mutilated. conscious of his own delinquency. and the intermediate Apicius under the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Upon examining the state of his affairs. The first lived in the time of the Republic. He was. They are divided into five books. and some other productions now lost. suspected that he was obliquely satirised in the commendations bestowed on virtue by the poet. In the reign of Tiberius. the favour of the emperor.375 pounds sterling. rhetoric. who has left a book De Re Coquinaria [of Cookery]. CELSUS was a physician in the time of Tiberius. The professors of Medicine were at that time divided into three sects. a work called Poeticon Astronomicon. the lives of eminent men. with great judgment. as well as in elegance of expression. but. when it was discovered in a library at Rheims. as Seneca informs us. under the title of Fables. a Spaniard. in respect both of their opinions and practice. This man. he deservedly occupies the most distinguished rank amongst the medical writers of antiquity. in which he has collected and digested into order all that is valuable on the subject. a mythological history.

was. and a foaming at the mouth. Soon afterwards he defeated the enemy. Suetonius Tranquillus. upon the news of Augustus's death. he narrowly escaped being torn to pieces by the people. and offered to place him at the head of the state. 382 II. he restored order among the legions. and immediately upon the expiration of that office. both by word and deed. centies sestertium. whether his regard to filial duty. when his corpse was burnt. CAIUS CAESAR CALIGULA. a handsome person. before he could enter upon his office he was obliged to set out suddenly for the east. after he had conquered the king of Armenia. upon his return to Rome. he ended his days by poison. which seeming to him too small to live upon.gutenberg. after his adoption by Tiberius. in the thirty-fourth year of his age 381. preferred to the quaestorship 377 five years before he had attained the legal age. This person. (251) I. that Germanicus possessed all the noblest endowments of body and mind in a higher degree than had ever before fallen to the lot of any man. his uncle. Having been sent to the army in Germany. that when tainted by poison. to the consulship 378. by C. that he was taken off by the contrivance of Tiberius. was most conspicuous. its nature being such.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. the father of Caius Caesar. as it is supposed. where. loaded Germanicus. that (252) he must either offend the father or the son. of a lingering distemper. for which. Germanicus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. it is indestructible by fire. obstinately refused to acknowledge Tiberius as emperor 379. or the firmness of his resolution. It is generally agreed.. 3s. 4d. In which affair it is difficult to say. even during his sickness. http://www. and through the means of Cneius Piso. with the most unbounded and scurrilous abuse. and made no secret of his position being such. 80. For besides the livid spots which appeared all over his body. who. not without the suspicion of being poisoned. and reduced Cappadocia into the form of a province. and son of Drusus and the younger Antonia. Being then made consul for the second time 380.729l. the heart was found entire among the bones. III. and was condemned to death by the senate. he died at Antioch. who was about the same time prefect of Syria. and obtained the honours of a triumph.htm (184 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . It was a prevailing opinion.

He pleaded causes. he often engaged and slew an enemy in single combat. In battle. whoever they were. or to attend him at his departure. both Greek and Roman. they displayed still greater and stronger proofs of their extraordinary attachment to him. and that the king of kings 383 forbore his exercise of hunting and feasting with his nobles. IV. in token of their extreme sorrow.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. flocked as far as the twentieth milestone to attend his entrance. Among other fruits of his studies. under a mound of earth. according to ancient custom.gutenberg. that. in his travels. and for a long time severely harassed his dependents. as to captivate the affections of all about him. amongst the Parthians. the crowds of those who went to meet him upon his coming to any place.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. whether he should not appoint him his successor. both men and women. The slenderness of his legs did not correspond with the symmetry and beauty of his person in other respects. and rank. until he found himself attacked by magical charms and imprecations. http://www.htm (185 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . which. as if they had been mourning for some very near and common friend. and a behaviour so engaging. and that upon his return from Germany. V. if any thing untoward should befall him. of the tombs of illustrious men. It is even said that barbarous nations. at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him. by C. to the scattered relics of the legionaries slain under Varus. He was so extremely popular. he never would be attended by his lictors. and those in hostilities against us. Suetonius Tranquillus. and afterwards. and to exhort his servants to avenge his death. and new-born infants exposed. that some petty kings shaved their beards and their wives' heads. that Augustus (to say nothing of his other relations) being a long time in doubt. he never showed the smallest resentment. the household gods. were so prodigious. however. He reaped the fruit of his noble qualities in abundance. of every age. or on what account soever they bore him enmity. notwithstanding the order that only two should go. but this defect was at length corrected by his habit of riding after meals. being so much esteemed and beloved by his friends. He was so extremely mild and gentle to his enemies. that many authors tell us. stones were thrown at the temples. all agreed to a cessation of arms. Whenever he heard. he made offerings over them to the infernal deities. he left behind him some Greek comedies. and even then the only steps he took was to renounce all friendship with him. Both at home and abroad he always conducted himself in a manner the most unassuming. the altars of the gods demolished. At the time of his death. extraordinary courage. both those engaged in intestine wars. and was the first to put his hand to the work of collecting and bringing them to the place of burial. and that all the people of Rome. that he was sometimes in danger of his life. sex. thrown into the streets. even after he had the honour of a triumph. He gave a common grave. all the cohorts of the pretorian guards marched out to meet him. On entering any free and confederate town. great proficiency in eloquence and other branches of learning. besides a singular humanity. although Piso rescinded his decrees. after he had quelled the mutiny in the army there. in some cases. The day on which he died.

Tiberius was roused from out of his sleep with the noise of the people congratulating one another. Cneius Lentulus Gaetulicus 385 says that he was born at Tibur. salvus est Germanicus. and it continued during the holidays in the month of December. Caius Caesar was born on the day before the calends [31st August] of September. by C. and the endearment of his memory. But when certain intelligence of his death arrived. as a proof of it. The rest survived their father. a report. Augustus also placed another statue of him in his bed-chamber.gutenberg. In castris natus. the daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. upon which the people flocked with torches (254) and victims to the Capitol. that he was recovered. Livia set up in the temple of Venus in the Capitol. Drusus. and Caius Caesar.htm (186 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . above Confluentes 386. and used to kiss it as often as he entered the apartment. in the country of the Treviri. all people supposing. the mourning of the people could neither be assuaged by consolation. and another a few years after. Germanicus married Agrippina. at the time his father and Caius Fonteius Capito were consuls 384." Some verses which were published in his reign. is equivalent to a cessation of all business in a time of public mourning with us. Rome is safe. upon the first news of his sickness. in the character of a Cupid. is rendered uncertain from the number of places which are said to have given him birth. Salva Roma. VI. the city was thrown into great consternation and grief. and he alleges. intimate that he was born in the winter quarters of the legions. patriis nutritius in armis. and singing about the streets. two of whom died in their infancy. Nero. salva patria. whose effigy. who were born in three successive years. But where he was born. and Livilla. in the evening. The atrocities of the subsequent times contributed much to the glory of Germanicus. Drusilla. without any certain author. Pliny the younger.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by whom he had nine children. VII. that they almost broke open the doors. which broke out soon afterwards. VIII. when suddenly. At Rome. were declared public enemies. a sprightly boy. that altars are there shown with this inscription: "For Agrippina's child-birth. Jam designati principis omen erat. and as many sons. was spread. nor restrained by edicts. waiting impatiently for farther intelligence. at the accusation of Tiberius. at a village called Ambiatinus. three daughters. Suetonius Tranquillus. and with reason. our country safe. Agrippina. for our Germanicus is safe. http://www. and were in such haste to pay the vows they had made for his recovery. Nero and Drusus. that the fear and awe of him had laid a restraint upon the cruelty of Tiberius.

And rule the empire with Augustan fame. upon his growing weary of the city. especially as he always preferred Antium to every other place of retirement. because Agrippina was delivered of two daughters in that country. I also send with him a physician of mine. http://www. with your child Caius. is called puerperium. without regard to sex. until they observed that he was sent away to a neighbouring city 389." I imagine it is sufficiently evident that Caius could not be born at a place to which he was carried from The City when almost two years old. at the expiration of his consulship. For they persisted in it. He writes as follows: "I gave orders yesterday for Talarius and Asellius to set out on their journey towards you. at last. The same considerations must likewise invalidate the evidence of the verses. was sent into Gaul. because. and says that he advanced this false assertion with the more assurance. my dear Agrippina. about the same Caius (for there was then no other child of hers living under that name). and entertained for it all that fondness which is commonly attached to one's native soil. when the mere sight of him appeased their fury. is that of the acts. Nor will the inscription upon the altar serve to establish Pliny's opinion. upon the fifteenth of the calends of June [18th May]. by C. and take what care you can to (256) come safe and well to your Germanicus. the year before the birth of Caius. IX. for the writers of Augustus's history all agree. and the public register. if the gods permit. The only authority. Suetonius Tranquillus. that Germanicus. as the ancients were used to call girls puerae. Born in the camp. It is said. and the rather. I find in the public registers that he was born at Antium. after the birth of Caius. Pliny charges Gaetulicus as guilty of an arrant forgery. and I wrote to Germanicus that he may retain him if he pleases. he designed to have transferred thither the seat of empire. and train'd in every toil Which taught his sire the haughtiest foes to foil. a few months before his death. that. therefore. too. upon which we can depend in this matter. Destin'd he seem'd by fate to raise his name. he having been brought up among them in the dress of a common soldier.htm (187 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . There is also extant a letter written by Augustus. to his granddaughter Agrippina. How much his education amongst them recommended him to their favour and affection. was sufficiently apparent in the mutiny upon the death of Augustus. merely to soothe the vanity of a conceited young prince. by giving him the lustre of being born in a city sacred to Hercules. because the author is unknown. they began to relent.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.gutenberg. and any child-birth.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to secure him against all danger. Germanicus had a son of the same name born at Tibur. Dates clearly prove that Pliny is mistaken. and boys puelli. Then. It was to the jokes of the soldiers in the camp that he owed the name of Caligula 388. concerning whose amiable childhood and premature death I have already spoken 387. Farewell. though it had risen to a great height.

when she was banished. the daughter of Marcus Silanus. earnestly deprecated the odium to which such a proceeding would expose them. stopping the chariot in which he was conveyed. upon Junia's dying in child-bed. before he could be inaugurated he was advanced to the pontificate. He was then transferred to the family of his grandmother. many insidious artifices were practised. but by a written obligation under his hand. X. All these levities Tiberius readily connived at. to which he bound himself. and.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. But he could not even then conceal his natural disposition to cruelty and lewdness. he engaged in a criminal commerce with Ennia Naevia. and that. and afterwards. Sejanus being suspected. but without receiving any of the honours which had been paid to his brothers on a similar (257) occasion. which the sagacious old man so well understood. the wife (258) of Macro. he pronounced a funeral oration in the Rostra. Having by her means insinuated himself into Macro's favour. with his great-grandmother. than if nothing had befallen them. he lived first with his mother. before the breath was out of his body. Livia Augusta. and a Phaeton for all the world." 393 XII. and great capacity. and soon afterwards taken off. as it was now left destitute of support. and shaved his beard. though then only a boy. The situation of the court likewise was at this time favourable to his fortunes. and ordered his ring to be taken from him. and. squeezing him by the http://www. He affected to take no more notice of the ill-treatment of his relations. Being then chosen augur in the room of his brother Drusus. after her decease. promising to marry her if he became emperor." XI.htm (188 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . at that time prefect of the pretorian cohorts. not only by an oath. by C. in praise of whom. "There never was a better servant. He likewise attended his father in his expedition to Syria. disguised in a periwig and a long coat. a man of the highest rank. in hopes that they might perhaps correct the roughness of his temper. he seemed utterly insensible of them. He delighted in witnessing the infliction of punishments. and frequented taverns and bawdy-houses in the night-time. but by his circumspection he avoided falling into the snare 390. While he remained in that island. Antonia. that it was justly said of him. Not long afterwards. After his return. and that he was rearing a hydra 392 for the people of Rome. he in one and the same day assumed the manly habit. and he was by degrees flattered with the hope of succeeding Tiberius in the empire. Suetonius Tranquillus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. some are of opinion that he attempted to poison Tiberius.gutenberg. with no small commendation of his dutiful behaviour. because he seemed to hold it fast. and behaved with such obsequiousness to his grandfather 391 and all about him. that he often said. he caused a pillow to be thrown upon him 394. he married Junia Claudilla. being called by Tiberius to Capri. nor a worse master. in the twentieth year of his age. "That Caius was destined to be the ruin of himself and all mankind. to extort from him complaints against Tiberius. With regard to his own sufferings. and was passionately addicted to the theatrical arts of singing and dancing. In order more effectually to secure this object.

and others to lay them down. when he was asleep. the people hung about the Palatium all night long. who broke into the senate-house. Tiberius's will was set aside. solicited his friendship. and people. was added an uncommon regard by foreign nations. of all mankind. and retired. Having thus secured the imperial power. afterwards. and to the whole people of Rome. for he had long been the object of expectation and desire to the greater part of the provincials and soldiers." XIII. to risk their lives in the combats of the amphitheatre. for his recovery. therefore. yet he frankly declared that he had formerly entertained such a design. the whole government and administration of affairs was placed in his hands. and buried him with the http://www. Immediately on his entering the city. in public handbills. One of his freedmen crying out at this horrid barbarity. that. throat. and calling him. came to hold a conference with his consular lieutenant. a speech in praise of Tiberius. his father. coheir with him. he would frequently boast. but being seized with a fit of compassion. at the same time. king of the Parthians. vows were made for his safe return. with floods of tears. from their affection for the memory of Germanicus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by those of "their star. besides other auspicious names. victims." XIV. and following the corpse of Tiberius. and compassion for the family almost entirely destroyed. above a hundred and sixty thousand victims are said to have been offered in sacrifice. a few days afterwards. And when he fell ill. so much to the joy and satisfaction of the public. though he did not acknowledge his having a hand in the death of Tiberius. every person emulously testifying their care and concern for his safety. Upon his moving from Misenum. and as a proof of his affection for his relations.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.gutenberg. who had always manifested hatred and contempt for Tiberius. as some authors relate that. I may venture to say. Caligula himself inflamed this devotion. in transports of joy. although he was in mourning. with a poniard." "their chick. Even Artabanus." "their pretty puppet. it having left his (259) other grandson 395. 397 XV. threw it away. he had entered the chamber of Tiberius. These circumstances are far from being improbable. Upon his going. durst not make any inquiries. to revenge the death of his mother and brothers. who had known him when a child. or attempt revenge. then a minor. he fulfilled by his elevation the wish of the Roman people." and "bantling. with prodigious crowds of people everywhere attending him. he had to walk amidst altars. Suetonius Tranquillus. and passing the Euphrates. with his own hand. "That. though aware of his intention. the Roman standards. and that Tiberius. paid the highest honours to the eagles. To this extraordinary love entertained for him by his countrymen. and lighted torches. by practising all the arts of popularity. by the joint acclamations of the senate. by C. some vowed.htm (189 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . in less than three months after. After he had delivered. to the nearest islands on the coast of Campania 396. and the images of the Caesars. he was immediately crucified.

The writings of Titus Labienus. all the honours which had been ever conferred on the empress Livia. he performed the voyage in a very tempestuous season. A memorial which was offered him relative to his own security. publicly depriving of his horse every knight who lay under the stigma of any thing base and dishonourable." He published accounts of the proceedings of the government—a practice which had been introduced by Augustus." As for his sisters. By a single decree of the senate. (260) at noon-day.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. He made a very strict and exact review of the Roman knights. by C. calling loudly on the gods to witness that he had not read or handled them. he permitted to be drawn from obscurity. but conducted it with moderation. and conferred upon him the title of "Prince of the Youths. and. into the mausoleum 400. he brought the records of their trials into the forum. but discontinued by Tiberius 405. He granted the magistrates a full and free jurisdiction. those panderers to unnatural lusts 404. they were borne by persons of the first distinction in the equestrian order. and a chariot with her image to be included in the procession 401. he took for his colleague in the consulship. He approached their remains with profound veneration." With the like popularity he restored all those who had been condemned and banished. and universally read. To lighten the http://www. and deposited them in the urns with his own hands. His uncle. on the day he took upon him the manly habit. and Cassius Severus. and there burnt them. The Spintriae." XVI. and thence up the Tiber to Rome.htm (190 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Antonia. as he had intended. with an ensign flying in the stern of the galley. declaring. Tiberius 402. utmost pomp. to testify the great regard he had for their memory. to bring thence the ashes of his mother and brother. which had been suppressed by an act of the senate. but passing over the names of those knights who were only guilty of venial faults. Having brought them in grand solemnity to Ostia 399. He appointed yearly offerings to be solemnly and publicly celebrated to their memory. he ordered these words to be added to the oaths of allegiance to himself: "Nor will I hold myself or my own children more dear than I do Caius and his sisters:" 403 and commanded all resolutions proposed by the consuls in the senate to be prefaced thus: "May what we are going to do. and granted an act of indemnity against all impeachments and past offences. Cordus Cremutius. on two biers. without any appeal to himself. "that he had done nothing to make any one his enemy:" and said. He adopted his brother. he would not receive. at the same time. he heaped upon his grandmother. prove fortunate and happy to Caius Caesar and his sisters. he banished from the city. Claudius.gutenberg. in honour of his father. To relieve the informers and witnesses against his mother and brothers from all apprehension. who till then continued in the equestrian order. "he had no ears for informers. besides Circensian games to that of his mother. in calling over the list of the order. The month of September he called Germanicus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "that it would be for his own advantage to have the transactions of former times delivered to posterity. he immediately hastened over to Pandataria and the Pontian islands 398. being prevailed upon not to throw them (261) into the sea. observing.

Upon this occasion. http://www. labours of the judges. from the calends of January for thirty days. the third 410. To make a perpetual addition to the public joy for ever. until the ides [the 13th] of January. amongst other honours. due to the government in all auctions throughout Italy. but sometimes gave a commission to magistrates or friends to supply his place. he added to the Saturnalia 412 one day. It was likewise ordained. He frequently entertained the people with stageplays (263) of various kinds. He paid very honourably. of both sexes. a golden shield was decreed to him. new founded. and distributed to every man a basket of bread with other victuals. He likewise gave various things to be scrambled for among the people. it was impossible for him to know that his colleague had died a little before the beginning of the new year. and without any dispute. XVIII. with the senate attending. 407 XVII. He held the consulship four times. upon a fixed day. and when he restored their kingdoms to any princes. as in the case of Antiochus of Comagene. as some are of opinion. the first 408. To prove to the world that he was ready to encourage good examples of every kind.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He made up to many their losses sustained by fire. He attempted likewise to restore to the people their ancient right of voting in the choice of magistrates 406. He exhibited some combats of gladiators. which he called Juvenalis [the juvenile feast]. when he caused the whole city to be lighted. In the latter. He did not always preside in person upon those occasions. until the seventh of the same ides [7th January]. the legacies left by Tiberius in his will. and the youth of the nobility. with which he intermingled troops of the best pugilists from Campania and Africa. He remitted the hundredth penny. and to the women and children purple scarfs. not. Suetonius Tranquillus. with their wives and children. and the fourth [411]. by C. Of these. from arrogance or neglect of rules. for not discovering a crime committed by her patron. or in the Septa. The third he assumed by his sole authority at Lyons. he presented to the men forensic garments. where the confiscation would have amounted to a hundred millions of sesterces. in token of the city's being at that time. he added a fifth class to the former four. but because. he likewise allowed them all the arrears of the taxes and revenues which had accrued in the interval. and as often gave a splendid feast to the senate and the equestrian order. from the calends [the first] of July for two months: the second 409. For all these acts of beneficence. that the day on which he succeeded to the empire should be called Palilia.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. though she had been put to exquisite torture for that purpose. which the colleges of priests were to carry annually. as it were. the two last he held successively.gutenberg. and in several parts of the city. and sometimes by night.htm (191 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . celebrating the praise of his virtues in (262) songs. He twice distributed to the people a bounty of three hundred sesterces a man. which Tiberius had annulled. as likewise those left by the will of Livia Augusta. into the Capitol. at that distance. though it had been set aside. he gave to a freed-woman eighty thousand sesterces. either in the amphitheatre of Taurus 413.

that this bridge was designed by Caius. when I was a boy. who was doing the same. To a senator. the day following. the first day mounted on a horse richly caparisoned. Grecian games at Syracuse. wearing on his head a crown of oak leaves. and Attic plays at Lyons in Gaul besides a contest for pre-eminence in the Grecian and Roman eloquence. and none drove in the chariot races who were not of the senatorian order. however. Others. standing in a chariot. This bridge he crossed and recrossed for two days together. one of the Parthian hostages. by C. the Circus being overspread with vermilion and chrysolite. thought that he did it to strike terror in Germany and Britain. I know. drawn by two high-bred horses. XIX. who was seated opposite to him. and in a cloak made of cloth of gold. Thrasyllus the astrologer had assured him. Suetonius Tranquillus. or plunged over head and ears into the nearest river. armed with a battle-axe. and was enjoying himself by eating heartily. Most people. unless they preferred to be beaten with a rod. which is somewhat narrower than the distance betwixt Baiae and Puteoli. in the habit of a charioteer. having with him a young boy. of about three miles and a half in length. Darius by name. He invented besides a new kind of spectacle. But for myself. and spreading earth upon them to form a viaduct.gutenberg. are of opinion. or the Trojan exhibition. a Spanish buckler and a sword. and a (264) party of his friends in cars of Gaulish make 417.htm (192 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . to the astonishment of the world. upon his viewing from the Gelotiana 414 the preparations in the Circus. For some of these he suddenly gave the signal. with a cohort of the pretorian guards attending him. who. in imitation of Xerxes.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. which he was upon the point of invading. I heard my grandfather say 418. He likewise exhibited a great number of Circensian games from morning until night. in which we are told that such as were baffled bestowed rewards upon the best performers. Some of these games were celebrated with peculiar circumstances. he sent his own share to a Roman knight. were forced to blot out what they had written with a sponge or their tongue. intermixed with the hunting of wild beasts from Africa. "That Caius would no more be emperor. such as had never been heard of before. For he made a bridge. He likewise exhibited public diversions in Sicily. laid a bridge over the Hellespont. he sent an appointment of praetor-extraordinary. when. mooring them in two rows by their anchors. http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and were obliged to compose speeches in their praise: but that those who performed the worst. after the fashion of the Appian Way 416. than he would ride on horseback across the gulf of Baiae. and rather inclined to pitch upon his grandson. collecting trading vessels from all quarters. was this." XX. he was asked to do so by a few persons in the neighbouring galleries. from Baiae to the mole of Puteoli 415. that the reason assigned by some courtiers who were in habits of the greatest intimacy with him. when Tiberius was in some anxiety about the nomination of a successor. by the fame of some prodigious work.

who came to the city to pay him court. He completed the works which were left unfinished by Tiberius. On nights when the moon was full. and in railing language. He assumed a variety of titles. one king. from imperial to regal. with choicest victims. bespeaks him rather a monster than a man. he repaired. which had fallen to decay by length of time. likewise. and an amphitheatre near the Septa 421. which was daily dressed in garments corresponding with those he wore himself. and another turning his ear to him: sometimes he spoke aloud. and put on his own. the exact image of himself. he exclaimed. the Father of the Armies. some of whom saluted him by the name of Jupiter Latialis. such as "Dutiful. The walls of Syracuse. XXI. For he was overheard to threaten http://www. The most opulent persons in the city offered themselves as candidates for the honour of being his priests. or the veneration paid them. namely. eis basileus. for cutting through the isthmus in Achaia 422. turkey and pheasant hens. and change the form of government. above all. conversing together at supper.gutenberg. but being told that he far exceeded the grandeur of kings and princes. one while whispering to him. Having continued part of the Palatium as far as the Forum. and the theatre (265) of Pompey 419. and the other remained as he left it. Let there be but one prince. He ordered all the images of the gods. the aqueduct from the neighbourhood of Tibur 420. Eis koiranos eto. In the daytime he talked in private to Jupiter Capitolinus. finishing the temple of the Didymaean Apollo at Miletus. by C. about their illustrious descent.htm (193 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . of which works. and even sent a centurion of the first rank to measure out the work. XXII. and building a town on a ridge of the Alps. in honour of his own divinity. he began to arrogate to himself a divine majesty. to be brought from Greece. each sacrificed on their respective days. as he likewise did the temples of the gods. he often stationed himself between the twin brothers. he was in the constant habit of inviting her to his embraces and his bed. which were famous either for their beauty." Upon hearing some kings. but. He also instituted a temple and priests. What remains to be said of him. that he might take the heads off. the temple of Augustus. and the temple of Castor and Pollux being converted into a kind of vestibule to his house. In his temple stood a statue of gold. and so presented himself to be worshipped by all votaries. He formed plans for rebuilding the palace of Polycrates at Samos." "The Child of the Camp." "The (266) Pious. He was strongly inclined to assume the diadem.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Thus far we have spoken of him as a prince. The victims were flamingos. among which was that of Jupiter Olympius. and purchased it successively at an immense price. Suetonius Tranquillus." and "The Greatest and Best Caesar. He began. peacocks. bustards.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. guineafowls. one was completed by his successor Claudius.

hae ego se. Drusilla. XXIV. he only saved him for a laughing-stock. he forbad his victories at Actium. whilst his wife reclined above him. He said that his mother was the fruit of an incestuous commerce. He lived in the habit of incest with all his sisters. and descended. As for his successor Claudius. The pretext he alleged for these murders was. but witnessed the burning from his private apartment. he laid the foundations of a new palace in the very court of the Capitol. either in prose or verse. were the cause of her death. that Aufidius Lurco held high offices at Rome.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. was suddenly dispatched by a military tribune sent by his order for that purpose. by which he joined the Palatium to the Capitol. to kill himself. XXIII. but some think he also gave her poison. as of mean birth. and at table." and had the indecency to reflect upon her in a letter to the senate. the god thus: Hae em' anaeir'. by the mother's side. or I'll— (267) until being at last prevailed upon by the entreaties of the god. he refused to grant it.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and on the coast of Sicily. to take up his abode with him. Indignities of this kind. that the latter had not followed him upon his putting to sea in stormy weather. the prefect of the pretorian guards. but stayed behind with the view of seizing the city. from a grandfather who was only one of the municipal magistrates of Fondi. by cutting his throat with a razor. And not content with this vile reflection upon the memory of Augustus. (268) which was continually growing worse. when much company was present. 423 Raise thou me up. unless Macro.htm (194 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] .gutenberg. smelt of an antidote. He was unwilling to be thought or called the grandson of Agrippa. before he had assumed the robe of manhood. He called his grandmother Livia Augusta "Ulysses in a woman's dress. and Tiberius had merely taken a medicine for an habitual cough. he placed each of them in turns below him. were present. as he said. who had no expectation of any violence. and he was offended if any one. he said. that he deflowered one of them. whereas it is certain. from the public records. His brother Tiberius. Suetonius Tranquillus. and the disagreeableness of a voyage. by C. Nor did he pay the smallest respect to her memory after her death. that he might be still nearer. his father-in-law. as usual. because of the obscurity of his birth. http://www. He forced Silanus. The other. maintained by Augustus with his daughter Julia. and ill usage. His grandmother Antonia desiring a private conference with him. whereas Silanus was only afraid of being sea-sick. Afterwards. if he should perish. It is believed. he built a bridge over the temple of the Deified Augustus. affirming that they had been most pernicious and fatal to the Roman people. ranked him amongst the Caesars. to be celebrated. which he had taken to prevent his being poisoned by him.

in matters of the greatest importance. from the City. or sup with his parents. and kept her constantly as if she were his lawful wife. or children. he sent a messenger to Piso.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. declaring himself her husband. Being inconsolable under his affliction. he acted with greater infamy. he honoured her with the title of wife. setting forth the occasion of their consecration.gutenberg." and that he immediately carried her off. and in the night-time. because it was thought. Nor did he only divulge their own hand-writing relative to the affair. and then suddenly returned without shaving his beard." The rest of his sisters he did not treat with so much fondness or regard. by C. interdicting her from having ever afterwards any commerce with man. dressed in a military cloak. he suddenly called from the province where she was with her husband. in repudiating them. In a fit of sickness. Whether in the marriage of his wives. swear any otherwise. with whom they were educated together. who was neither handsome nor young. who was married to a man of consular rank in command of an army. with shield and helmet. He named it Julia Drusilla. than "By the divinity of Drusilla. but a wanton of unbounded lasciviousness. "That he had got a wife as Romulus and Augustus had done. but within a few days divorced her. XXV. but frequently prostituted them to his catamites. with an inscription. upon mention being made that her grandmother was formerly very beautiful. he went hastily. in one and the same day. during which it was capital for any person to laugh. and privy to that conspiracy against him. he ordered the bride to be carried to his own house. and riding by his side. He considered her as his http://www." 424 Lollia Paulina. going through Campania to Syracuse. he ordered a public mourning for her. He loved with a most passionate and constant affection Caesonia. Her he would frequently exhibit to the soldiers. After her death. but he soon afterwards parted with her. He therefore the more readily condemned them in the case of Aemilius Lepidus. and married her. and father of the child of which she was delivered. which he procured by base and lewd means. or trimming his hair.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and carrying it round the temples of all the goddesses. in these words: "Do not be too fond with my wife. he took her from him. (269) Some say. laid it on the lap of Minerva. he by his will appointed her heiress both of his estate and the empire. and was besides the mother of three daughters by another man. but likewise consecrated to Mars the Avenger three swords which had been prepared to stab him. importing. When she was afterwards married to Cassius Longinus. it is difficult to say. To his friends he even showed her naked. and was even caught in her embraces by his grandmother Antonia. a man of consular rank. After she had a child. as guilty of adultery. and two years after banished her. Being at the wedding of Caius Piso with Livia Orestilla. to whom he recommended the care of bringing up and instructing her.htm (195 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . Next day he published a proclamation. wife. Nor did he ever afterwards. not even in the assemblies of the people or before the soldiers. who sat opposite to him. that being invited to the wedding-supper. use the bath. that upon her divorce she returned to the embraces of her former husband. or retaining them. Suetonius Tranquillus.

In this tumult. he scourged severely. and decent house-keepers. having first stripped off his clothes. decrepit with age. A quaestor who was said to be concerned in a conspiracy against him. that she would attack with her nails the face and eyes of the children at play with her. withdrawing at the same time the usual apparatus for the entertainment.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. and the republic was three days without any one in that high office. XXVI. to occasion disputes between the people and the knights. Sometimes shutting up the public granaries. Being disturbed by the noise of people taking their places at midnight in the circus. and presenting wild beasts almost pined to death. above twenty Roman knights were squeezed to death." 428 Of one person who had http://www. and upon inspecting them in a row. that they might stand the more firm. to add to all this an account of the manner in which he treated his relations and friends. that the seats assigned to the knights might be all occupied by the mob. Some who had borne the (270) highest offices in the government. king Juba's son. When flesh was only to be had at a high price for feeding his wild beasts reserved for the spectacles. he suffered to run by his litter in their togas for several miles together. He evinced the savage barbarity of his temper chiefly by the following indications. as Ptolemy. he displaced them. The consuls having forgotten to give public notice of his birth-day. own child for no better reason than her savage temper. and Ennia likewise 426. Others of them. It would be of little importance.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.gutenberg. he would order the curtains. and spread them under the feet of the soldiers employed in the work. When stage-plays were acted. he drove them all away with clubs. which covered the amphitheatre. sometimes at his feet.htm (196 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . the most sorry gladiators. which was such even in her infancy. by C. he distributed the money-tickets sooner than usual. In the spectacles of gladiators. for their alliance and eminent services. with napkins. without troubling himself to examine their cases he ordered them to be dragged away. after he had privately put them to death. XXVII. all of whom. as they were to have free admission. he would oblige the people to starve for a while. he nevertheless continued to send for. from "bald-pate to bald-pate. Nor was he more mild or respectful in his behaviour towards the senate. with as many matrons. while he stood in the middle of the portico. he rewarded with violent deaths. as well as disgusting. when the sun was violently hot. with a great crowd besides. and after a few days pretended that they had laid violent hands upon themselves. and forbad any person to be let out. sometimes. as if they were still alive. who were remarkable for some bodily infirmity. to be drawn aside 427. and fit only to work the machinery. his cousin (for he was the grandson of Mark Antony by his daughter Selene) 425. sometimes at the head of his couch. The other orders likewise he treated with the same insolence and violence. by whose assistance he had obtained the empire. he ordered that criminals should be given them (271) to be devoured. and to attend him at supper. and especially Macro himself.

XXIX. as if it was a small matter to pay no regard to it. nor would he allow him to desist until he came off conqueror. "See then an antidote against Caesar!" And when he banished his sisters. he delivered. remanded him to the arena. stab him with their styles. to have his leave of absence http://www. fall upon him as he entered the senate-house. piled up in a heap before him. to work in repairing the high-ways. that Tiberius might die." Upon his grandmother Antonia's giving him some advice. "I was always praying the gods for what has happened. how he used to spend his time. Another he invited to his table immediately after he had witnessed the spectacle. Nor was he satisfied. in the centre of the arena of the amphitheatre. whom he recalled after a long exile. made a vow for his recovery to combat with a gladiator. He burned alive. therefore. until he saw the limbs and bowels of the man. He aggravated his barbarous actions by language equally outrageous. or tying them by the neck and heels. with garlands and fillets. he condemned them to the mines." said he. Being very desirous to have a senator torn to pieces. He compelled parents to be present at the execution of their sons. that those he had himself banished also (272) prayed for his death. he employed some persons to call him a public enemy. Asking a certain person. crying out that he was innocent. he said to her.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He ordered the overseer of the spectacles and wild beasts to be scourged in fetters. who had vowed to give his life for the same cause. but likewise swords. Another. the writer of a farce. in the manner of beasts carried to slaughter. who were to drive him through the streets. Nor were these severities merely inflicted for crimes of great enormity. and to one who excused himself on account of indisposition. who had been exposed to the wild beasts." When about to murder his brother. and deliver him to the rest to tear asunder. but for making remarks on his public games. or saw them asunder. and did not put him to death until he was disgusted with the stench of his putrefied brain. for some witty verse. until he was thrown headlong from the ramparts. or for not having sworn by the Genius of the emperor. with flattery. he said. to boys. having shrunk from the sacrifice. he called him back. he sent orders round the islands 429 to have them all put to death. adorned as a victim. whither he had gone for his health. "that I commend or approve so much. that he had not only islands at command. he sent his own litter. whom he suspected of taking antidotes against poison. A Roman knight. by branding them in the face with hot irons. which had a double meaning. by C. as my adiatrepsia (inflexible rigour). XXVIII. "There is nothing in my nature. Suetonius Tranquillus. and having had his tongue cut out.htm (197 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and after many entreaties. would shut them up in cages. he exacted its performance. calling on him to fulfil his vow. after they had been dragged through the streets. One of pretorian rank having sent several times from Anticyra 430. he told them in a menacing tone. "Remember that all things are lawful for me.gutenberg. he replied. and you be emperor. After disfiguring many persons of honourable rank. in his own presence." Concluding. and coolly challenged him to jest and be merry. during several days successively. or to fight with wild beasts.

" And having condemned several Gauls and Greeks at one time. Even in the midst of his diversions. and cursed all those who had borne the sight of it. 432 I scorn their hatred. killed all the conquerors. He used also to complain aloud of the state of the times. was denounced. and found no benefit. who was an adept in the art of beheading. "I have conquered Gallograecia. for. and this he called "clearing his accounts. "I wish the Roman people had but one neck. http://www. he wished for some terrible slaughter of his troops. by C.gutenberg. fighting in a company. conflagrations." Having punished one person for another. producing the memorials which he had pretended to burn. while the reign of Augustus had been made memorable to posterity by the disaster of Varus 436. yielded without a struggle to the same number of opponents. never forsook him. both in his language and actions. he said." 431 XXX. his was likely to pass into oblivion. and that of Tiberius by the fall of the theatre at Fidenae 437. since it was impossible to question the veracity of such a number of accusers 433. while gaming or feasting.htm (198 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] ." 434 When Tetrinius. this savage ferocity. Being incensed at the people's applauding a party at the Circensian games in opposition to him. the highwayman. he said his persecutors too were all Tetrinius's. adding these words "Bleeding is necessary for one that has taken hellebore so long. prolonged. He generally prolonged the sufferings of his victims by causing them to be inflicted by slight and frequently repeated strokes. from an uninterrupted series of prosperity. This he lamented in a proclamation as a most cruel butchery. and excusing the cruelty of Tiberius as necessary. Suetonius Tranquillus. And. because it was not rendered remarkable by any public (274) calamities. and being ordered to be slain. or an earthquake. one of them taking up his lance again. Oderint dum metuant. Persons were often put to the torture in his presence.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he exclaimed in triumph. if they do but fear me. at times. He continually reproached the whole equestrian order. a famine. he exclaimed. XXXII. He would often inveigh against all the senators without exception. and fighting as gladiators. A soldier. he ordered him to be put to death.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. this being his well-known and constant order: (273) "Strike so that he may feel himself die. and informers against his mother and brothers. by mistaking his name. "he deserved it quite as much. whilst he was dining or carousing." He had frequently in his mouth these words of the tragedian. a pestilence." It was his custom every tenth day to sign the lists of prisoners appointed for execution. XXXI. Five Retiarii 435. as devoting themselves to nothing but acting on the stage. as clients of Sejanus. in tunics.

A gladiator who was practising with him. he invited a number of people to come to him from the shore. And. threw them headlong into the sea. "may not I do what Plato has done before me. that it was impossible to set them up again with their inscriptions entire. now and then commending his voice. signifying the cause of his punishment. he delivered him immediately to an executioner.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "So beautiful a throat must be cut whenever I please. In his behaviour towards men of almost all ages." He often talked of the lawyers as if he intended to abolish their profession. censuring one of them as "a man of no genius and very little learning. Among many other jests. At Rome. used at such times to take off the heads of prisoners. He had thoughts too of suppressing Homer's poems: "For why. which of them he thought was biggest? Upon his demurring about it. had got hold of the rudders of the ships. the tragedian. to save themselves. "but that. respectfully asking him the occasion." and the other as "a verbose and careless historian. who were brought in for that purpose. he would say. XXXIV. and voluntarily threw himself at his feet. "By Hercules!" he would say.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He so demolished and dispersed the statues of several illustrious persons. instead of the animal. he. thrusting down with poles and oars those who." and now and then he would threaten to put his dear Caesonia to the torture. Suetonius Tranquillus. for want of room. as being well modulated even when he was venting his grief. he lashed him most severely. upon a single nod of mine. whilst he entreated for mercy. as already mentioned 438. clad in the habit of the Popae 439. and then ran about with a palm branch in his hand. who excluded him from his commonwealth?" 440 He was likewise very near banishing the writings and the busts of Virgil and Livy from all libraries. you might both have your throats cut. at last. he forbad any statue whatever to be erected without his knowledge and leave. When a victim was to be offered upon an altar. otherwise than by referring to me!" http://www. with orders to cut off his hands. and a label. he discovered a degree of jealousy and malignity equal to that of his cruelty and pride. he stabbed with a poniard. "I shall put it out of their power to answer any questions in law.htm (199 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and holding the axe aloft for a while. At Puteoli. with them hanging from his neck before his breast. he asked Apelles.gutenberg. and upon the consuls. he fell suddenly into a violent fit of laughter. a slave having stolen some thin plates of silver with which the couches were inlaid. in a public feast. and lead him round the guests. slaughtered an officer who attended to cut up the sacrifice. from the court of the Capitol into the Campus Martius. after the manner of those who are victorious in the games." said he. this was one: As he stood by the statue of Jupiter. and then suddenly. by C. that he might discover why he loved her so passionately. As often as he kissed the neck of his wife or mistress. which had been removed by Augustus." (275) XXXIII. for the future." replied he. And at a sumptuous entertainment. "Nothing. at the dedication of the bridge which he planned. who reclined next to him.

to be led clothed in rags up and down the streets of the city. that Caligula rose in such haste from his seat. He took from the noblest persons in the city the ancient marks of distinction used by their families. The Rex Nemorensis 443 having many years enjoyed the honour of the priesthood. and in a short time return with marks of recent disorder about them. whose excellency in any kind he did not envy. the prostitute. recounting the charms or defects of her person and behaviour in private. whom he invited from his kingdom. and as they passed by the couch on which he reclined at table. He used commonly to invite them with their husbands to supper. As often as he met with handsome men. who." XXXVI. Besides his incest with his sisters. and to have engaged with them in the practice of mutual pollution. There was no man of so abject or mean condition. or to my own majesty here present amongst them. Afterwards. and ordered it to be registered in the public acts. to be then butchered. commanded him forthwith to be bound. was applauded so vehemently. for no other reason. having been victorious in an exhibition. and received with great honours. belonging to that ancient family. to make them appear ridiculous. as often as he was in the humour. He would then commend or disparage her in the presence of the company. http://www. or that of others. was called the Colossal. and his notorious passion for Pyrallis. Ptolemy.gutenberg. pay greater respect to a gladiator for a trifle. he would quit the room. who had fine heads of hair. bawled aloud in public that he had been exhausted by him in that abominable act.htm (200 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . a young man of a consular family. who fought in a chariot 444. full of indignation. and afterwards with another completely armed. mentioned before. by C. and if any one from modesty held down her face. One Porius. and in his joy given freedom to a slave. and matched with a gladiator in light armour. than to princes admitted amongst the gods. and upon his worsting them both. he raised it up with his hand.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. from Cincinnatus the curl of (276) hair 442. XXXV. examine them very closely. To some he sent a divorce in the name of their absent husbands. and for certain hostages. by the splendour of his purple robe. there was hardly any lady of distinction with whom he did not make free. (277) and crying out. he tumbled down the steps. an actor in pantomimes. after being exhibited in that plight to the women. send for her he liked best. he suddenly put to death. Him he ordered to be dragged from his seat in the arena. There was one Esius Proculus. Suetonius Tranquillus. as the collar from Torquatus 441. "A people who are masters of the world. He is said to have been inflamed with an unnatural passion for Marcus Lepidus Mnester. treading upon the hem of his toga. he procured a still stronger antagonist to oppose him. He never had the least regard either to the chastity of his own person. the surname of Great.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. the son of a centurion of the first rank. Valerius Catullus. for his great stature and fine proportions. and. that. and from Cneius Pompey. he attracted the eyes of all the spectators. at a public exhibition. he would order the back of their heads to be shaved. but because he observed that upon entering the theatre. like those who traffic in slaves.

after the Liburnian fashion. that could be invented. XXXVII.htm (201 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and in the case of parents with their children. He also set aside the wills of all others. he said. When the grants of the Divine Julius and Augustus were produced to him. for that none beyond that degree ought to be considered as posterity. had by any means whatever increased their property. XXXVIII. quitting the tribunal. he only said. moles were formed in the deep and adverse sea 446. that he was very sorry they were obsolete and out of date. He also charged all those with making false returns. Accordingly. unless they were sons. The public becoming terrified at this proceeding. He used to try such causes himself. and taxation. feasting (278) amidst dancing and concerts of music. In building his palaces and villas. He built two ships with ten banks of oars. in defiance of all reason. drinking pearls of immense value dissolved in vinegar. and supplied with a great variety of vines and other fruit-trees. often saying. "that a man ought either to be a good economist or an emperor. washing in precious unguents. within less than a year.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. In the devices of his profuse expenditure. he was now appointed joint-heir with their friends. he surpassed all the prodigals that ever lived. plains raised to the height of mountains with a vast mass of earth. with strange dishes and suppers. he spent enormous sums. Suetonius Tranquillus. and the sails were of various parti-colours. and saloons. there was nothing he desired to effect so much. Those who lived any considerable time after making such a will. if from the beginning of Tiberius's reign they had not left either that prince or himself their heir. confiscation. that they designed at their death to leave Caesar their heir. In these he would sail in the day-time along the coast of Campania. and the whole treasures which had been amassed by Tiberius Caesar." Besides. during several days successively. inventing a new kind of bath. as testimonies of their base ingratitude. He annulled the wills of all who had been centurions of the first rank. and the tops of mountains levelled by digging. he had recourse to plundering the people. galleries. by every mode of false accusation. as what was considered impossible. if any person only pretended to say. They were fitted up with ample baths. the poops of which blazed with jewels.gutenberg. and accordingly he sent many of them poisoned cakes. were only making game of him. and serving up for his guests loaves and other victuals modelled in gold. and being in want of money. fixing previously the sum he proposed to raise during the sitting. for the least remissness was a capital offence. and. after the taking of the census. by C. and all these were to be executed with incredible speed. although their ancestors had acquired it for themselves and their posterity. he condemned by a single sentence forty http://www.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. who. Not to mention particulars. Impatient of the least delay. He declared that no one had any right to the freedom of Rome. by persons unknown to him. rocks of the hardest stone cut away. Having therefore quite exhausted these funds. amounting to two thousand seven hundred millions of sesterces. from the top of the Julian Basilica 445. he scattered money to a prodigious amount among the people. both warm and cold. after he had secured it.

Caius called out to the auctioneer. by centurions and tribunes of the pretorian guards. against whom there were different charges. and from the gains of common prostitutes. by C. he was so much delighted with his gains. but the act by which they were levied never submitted to public inspection." (280) XL. He levied new taxes. and many who had suits at law in progress. pretending to take the nods for tokens of assent.gutenberg. There is a well-known story told of Aponius Saturninus. These taxes being imposed. he sent him some bauble. with the horses and mules belonging to the bakers. at prodigious prices. Sometimes he would rail at the bidders for being niggardly. that he sent to Rome for all the furniture of the old palace 448. XLI. because they could not make their appearance in due time according to their recognizances. and such as were never before known. he being in total ignorance of what was doing. and "that he should sup with Caesar upon his own invitation. There was a clause in the law. and that marriage itself should not be exempted. and even freedmen belonging to his sisters. and ask them "if they were not ashamed to be richer than he was?" at another. he would affect to be sorry that the property of princes should be passing into the hands of private persons. slaves. and accordingly the salesman went on. for which he told him he must pay two hundred thousand sesterces. and raised the prices so high. pressing for its conveyance all the carriages let to hire in the city. Suetonius Tranquillus. boasting to Caesonia when she awoke. the remains of the apparatus used in the public spectacles. that some of the purchasers were ruined. Having also sold in Gaul all the clothes. Out of the daily wages of the porters. (279) persons. and he was much pleased to find that honour valued at so high a rate. and such as were convicted of compromising litigations. as the same person was sitting at the sale. who happening to fall asleep as he sat on a bench at the sale. "how much business he had dispatched while she was taking her mid-day sleep.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. what they received for one favour granted. the fortieth part of the sum in dispute. he received an eighth. no description of property or persons being exempted from some kind of tax or other. until thirteen gladiators were knocked down to him at the sum of nine millions of sesterces 447." He exposed to sale by auction. because their profit was enormous. not to overlook the praetorian personage who nodded to him so often. In the sale of this furniture. furniture. at first by the publicans. XXXIX. and exacted such biddings. He had found out that a rich provincial had given two hundred thousand sesterces to his chamberlains for an underhand invitation to his table.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. For all eatables brought into the city. so that they often wanted bread at Rome. but afterwards. were made liable to a penalty. and bled themselves to death. that all bawds who kept women for prostitution or sale. a certain excise was exacted: for all law-suits or trials in whatever court. great grievances were experienced from the want of sufficient knowledge of the http://www. every artifice of fraud and imposition was employed. after their condemnation. The day following.htm (202 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . should be liable to pay. lost their causes.

the old as well as the young. and then not from any set purpose. he boasted that he had never made a better throw in his life. in order to show himself an active general.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He likewise gave public notice. XLII. and accordingly stood in the vestibule of his house. and the burdens to which he was subjected. Collecting supplies of all kinds. he ordered them immediately to be seized. Being recommended to recruit a body of Batavians. to pack their standards on horses or mules. He sent likewise his nomenclators about the forums and courts. he cashiered the lieutenants who came up late with the auxiliary forces from http://www. but it was written in a very small hand. clerks attending to take down their names in public. which. and severe disciplinarian. that the pretorian cohorts were obliged. At length. and observing two rich Roman knights passing by. to his brothel. rolled his whole body in gold over and over again. furnished suitably to the dignity of the place. not only as an emperor. and then laying himself down. being seized with an invincible desire of feeling money. such as never had been assembled upon the like occasion. Another method of raising money. that he would receive new-year's gifts on the calends of January following.gutenberg. who attended him. and sprinkled with water to lay the dust. Leaving once the management of his play to his partner in the game. he resolved upon an expedition into Germany. he published the law. in great glee. to clutch the presents which people of all ranks threw down before him by handfuls and lapfuls. he turned to considerable account. law. XLIII. At last. he made a general collection for her maintenance and fortune. and auxiliary forces from all quarters. Suetonius Tranquillus. At other times.htm (203 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and made every where new levies with the utmost rigour. to see the grove and river of Clitumnus 449. XLIV. To leave no sort of gain untried. as persons who contributed to the emperor's revenue. taking off his slippers.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. contrary to custom. with a number of cells. but a father. and posted up in a corner. Only once in his life did he take an active part in military affairs. and he was ready to lend his customers money upon interest. so that no one could make a copy of it. was gaming. to come and satisfy their lusts. he would march so slow and luxuriously. in which married women and free-born youths were ready for the reception of visitors. and pursued it sometimes with so much haste and precipitation. and so follow him. complaining of his (281) poverty. he opened brothels in the Palatium. by C. and their estates confiscated. but during his journey to Mevania. Immediately he drew together several legions. After the birth of his daughter. that he was carried in a litter by eight men. he set forward on his march. Then returning. to invite people of all ages. which he thought not below his notice. On arriving at the camp. by the help of lying and perjury. on the urgent demands of the Roman people. ordering the roads to be swept by the people of the neighbouring towns. he stepped into the court. he repeatedly walked over great heaps of gold coin spread upon the spacious floor.

he ordered a few Germans of his guard to be carried over and placed in concealment on the other side of the Rhine. and enjoying themselves at their villas. and stars represented on them. and sharers of his victory with crowns of a new form.htm (204 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and save yourselves for better days. alleging against them their age and infirmity. as if they had run away. that an enemy was advancing with great impetuosity. as if the whole island had been surrendered to him. Suetonius Tranquillus. brought them back in fetters. whilst their emperor was fighting. he drew up his army upon the shore of the ocean. and privately sent off. but he presented the companions. a British king. he reduced the bounty due to those who had served out their time to the sum of six thousand sesterces. At last. Bear up. in their armour. This being accordingly done. the son of Cunobeline. et vosmet rebus servate secundis. by C.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. where lopping branches from the trees. he ordered them to sit down as they were. who had now served their legal time in the wars.gutenberg. and while no one could imagine what he intended to do. and exposing himself to the greatest dangers. as if resolved to make war in earnest. pursued them with the cavalry. and a party of the pretorian knights. "For revelling and frequenting the diversions of the circus and theatre. Upon his again sitting down to table. Again. 1. and the folds http://www. Soon after this. and which he called Exploratoriae. and under a new name. he immediately threw himself. with his friends. some hostages were by his order taken from the school. In reviewing the army. In the mean time. there being no hostilities. Though he only received the submission of Adminius. and coming up with them. on a sudden commanded them to gather up the sea shells. upon notice of which he immediately rose from table. and fill their helmets. he dispatched magnificent letters to Rome. yet. with his balistae and other engines of war. upbraiding those who did not follow him. XLV. and word to be brought him after dinner.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and some whose time would have expired in a few days." XLVI. he reprimanded the senate and people of Rome in a very severe proclamation. and railing at the covetous disposition (282) of the rest of them. came over to him with a small body of troops 450. who being driven from his native country by his father. into the adjoining wood. with timorousness and cowardice. having the sun.—Aen. animating them in the words of that well-known verse of Virgil: (283) Durate. moon. different quarters. and not to deliver the letters but to the consuls in the temple of Mars. he returned by torch-light. and in the presence of a full assembly of the senators. he deprived of their companies most of the centurions of the first rank. and forming trophies of them. it being reported to him that the troops were all reassembled. ordering the bearers to proceed in their carriages directly up to the forum and the senate-house. proceeding to an extravagant pitch of ostentation likewise in this military comedy.

htm (205 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:17 PM] . and then surrounded them with armed horse. Though he was with great difficulty dissuaded from this rash attempt.gutenberg. upon which. suspecting that violence was intended. to be conveyed to Rome a great part of the way by land. at as small expense as possible. by C. Before he left the province. he formed a design of the most horrid cruelty—to massacre the legions which had mutinied upon the death of Augustus. but for those only who wish for me. ye are rich. "Go your ways. but on a scale such as had never been seen before. for the direction of ships at sea. Within four months from this period he was slain. whom he publicly threatened.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he raised a lofty tower. and let it grow long. with some of the chiefs. He issued likewise this proclamation: "I am coming. since they had full power over the property of every one. and reserved them to appear in the procession. and while he http://www. for seizing and detaining by force his father. and wrote to his comptrollers in the city. XLIX. yet neither the most urgent entreaties nor representations could prevent him from persisting in the design of decimating these legions. were making off. he picked out the men of greatest stature in all Gaul. in the camp. He replied to them. Germanicus. as if he had surpassed the most eminent examples of generosity. He ordered likewise the gallies in which he had entered the ocean. he ordered lights to be burnt in the night-time. Amongst other pretexts of offence. he complained that he was defrauded of a triumph." As a monument of his success. "to make proper preparations for a triumph against (284) his arrival. of their dress with them. he quitted the assembly as fast as he could. besides the prisoners and deserters from the barbarian armies. I will come. upon pain of death. then an infant. to arm in their own defence. for I shall no longer treat the senate as their fellow-citizen or prince. "and be merry: go. and himself. the equestrian order and the people. and either abandoning or deferring his triumph. "I will come. and then promising the soldiers a donative of a hundred denarii 452 a man. Suetonius Tranquillus. but to learn the German language. without so much as their swords. he ordered them to assemble unarmed. bending now all his fury against the senate. to divert the general attention from the clamour excited by his disgraceful conduct. In making preparations for his triumph." XLVII. entreating him to hasten his return. obliging them not only to dye their hair yellow. as at Pharos 451. and immediately marched for Rome." XLVIII. though he had just before forbidden. their commander. any honour to be decreed him. In his march he was waited upon by deputies from the senatorian order." said he. and this with me." He forbad any of the senators to come to meet him. he entered the city in ovation on his birthday. But finding that many of them. such as he said were fittest to grace a triumph. calling them "the spoils of the ocean due to the Capitol and the Palatium.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Accordingly. after he had perpetrated enormous crimes." striking at the same time the hilt of his sword. and assume the names commonly used in that country. which was justly his due.

They both contained private marks. his hair thin. as he was passing by. he endured fatigue tolerably well.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. And though in words he was very valiant against the barbarians. The other parts of his body were much covered with hair.htm (206 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . to the falling sickness. For he. When he arrived at the age of manhood. This is placed beyond all question. an excessive confidence and the most abject timidity. among other things. being subject. and the names of those who were devoted to death. and cast dead by the tide upon the neighbouring shores. I think. having first cut off the flower of the equestrian and senatorian orders. which was naturally hideous and frightful. He had entertained a design of removing to Antium. walked in the longest porticos about the house. and afterwards to Alexandria. ill-shaped. LI. very justly be ascribed two faults which he had. he ran away suddenly in the night from Messini. by two books which were found in his cabinet (285) under different titles. surrounded by a strong body of his troops. He was tall. for he seldom had more than three or four hours' rest in a night. when a boy. was want of sleep. if an enemy were to appear. It is believed that his wife Caesonia administered to him a love potion which threw him into a frenzy. and wrap up his head in his cloak at the slightest storm of thunder and lightning. In his visit to Sicily. forming it before a mirror into the most horrible contortions. of a pale complexion. he was liable to a faintness. and if it was violent. terrified by the smoke and rumbling at the summit of Mount Aetna. L. namely. of a nature directly repugnant one to the other. he got up and hid himself under his bed. but disturbed by strange dreams. fancying. Being therefore often weary with lying awake so long. and the other. are said to have so infected the waters. at others. "There would be no small consternation amongst us. that a form representing the ocean spoke to him. Suetonius Tranquillus. To this crazy constitution of his mind may. after ridiculing many strange objects which that country affords. invoked and looked out for the approach of day. His countenance. yet upon passing a narrow defile in Germany in his light car. He was crazy both in body and mind. by C. his neck and legs very slender. On this account. his brows broad and knit. He was not insensible of the disorder of his mind. of still greater. and from time to time. during which he remained incapable of any effort. some one happening to say.gutenberg. and sometimes had thoughts of retiring to clear his brain 453. that the fish were poisoned. and even then his sleep was not sound. he purposely rendered more so. and rode towards the bridges in great haste. his eyes and temples hollow. There was also found a large chest." he immediately mounted his horse. who affected so (286) much to despise the gods. but still. was ready to shut his eyes. or so much as to name a goat. it was reckoned a capital crime for any person to look down from above. What most of all disordered him. the dagger. one being called the sword. but finding them blocked up with camp-followers http://www. and the crown of the head bald. was meditating the execution. filled with a variety of poisons which being afterwards thrown into the sea by order of Claudius. occasionally. if possible.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. sometimes he sat up in his bed.

by proclamation. Hence it was. even before his expedition. taken out of his coffin. Suetonius Tranquillus. He often appeared abroad in a short coat of stout cloth. or properly civic. that he was heard at a great distance. upon hearing that the Germans were again in rebellion. shoes. and his voice so strong. "wrote only detached essays. charioteering. in a fit of terror occasioned by the news brought him of the defeat of his army. to invent the story intended to pacify the troops who mutinied at his death. he did not wear what was either national. With regard to the liberal sciences. or a caduceus. who were impeached before the senate. http://www. according to his success in speaking. in a tunic with sleeves. he was in such a hurry. he should still have in reserve the transmarine provinces 456. he practised with the weapons used in war. there was an abundant flow of words and periods. that he caused himself to be carried in men's hands over the heads of the crowd. and all the rest of his dress. that it occurred to his assassins. when he was moved to anger. his action was vehement. as the Senones 455 formerly did. such as fencing." holding a loose and smooth style in such contempt. and sometimes the breast-plate of Alexander the Great. that he had laid violent hands upon himself. In speaking. who was then much admired. I suppose.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. holding in his hand a thunderbolt. and with bracelets upon his arms. a trident.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. that he could not refrain in the theatre from singing with the tragedians. and drove the chariot in circuses built in several places. LII. Soon afterwards. inviting the equestrian order. richly embroidered and blazing with jewels. by C. and in his perorations. and employed himself in composing accusations or vindications of eminent persons. and equipped a fleet. he threatened to draw "the sword of his lucubration. He also zealously applied himself to the practice of several other arts of different kinds. to hear him. singing. as the Cimbri 454 had done. or of the city. In the fashion of his clothes. that if the enemy should prove victorious. and gave his vote for or against the party accused. he appeared in the habit of Venus. sometimes in the sort of shoes used by the light-armed soldiers.gutenberg. or peculiar to the male sex. he was little conversant in philology. and possess themselves of the heights of the Alps. When winding up an harangue. and baggage-waggons." He often wrote answers to the speeches of successful orators. He was so extremely fond of singing and dancing. marks of distinction belonging to the gods only." and that "his language was nothing but sand without lime. or in the sock used by women. that he said Seneca. comforting himself with this consideration. he prepared to quit Rome. too.htm (207 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and dancing. at other times in the crepidae or buskins. He wore very commonly the triumphal ornaments. being indeed in point of enunciation tolerably elegant and ready. In the first of these. LIV. and commonly with a golden beard fixed to his chin. sometimes all in silks and (287) habited like a woman. Sometimes. or appropriate to mere mortals. but applied himself with assiduity to the study of eloquence. 457 LIII.

he made a present of two millions of sesterces to one Cythicus. was thought to be intended for no other reason. because. never learnt to swim. by C. In this frantic and savage career. At a certain revel. he sent him. having been named. LV. Sometimes. the pantomimic actor. Those for whom he once conceived a regard. and fine furniture. For thus it was certainly named with his own hand in a list of other poisons. Summoning once to the Palatium. that the repose of his horse Incitatus 462 might not be disturbed. One Columbus coming off with victory in a combat. he favoured even to madness. with a retinue of slaves. either by way of applause or correction. and the prefects of the pretorian guards. It is even said that he intended to make him consul. at last two men concerted a plan together. besides a marble stable. he used to send his soldiers to enjoin silence in the (289) neighbourhood. (288) he danced in the night." He made some gladiators captains of his German guards.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He deprived the gladiators called Mirmillones of some of their arms. three men of consular rank. Suetonius Tranquillus. he ordered some poison to be infused in the wound. "That he would http://www. A Roman knight once making some bustle. that he supped and lodged for some time constantly in the stable where their horses were kept. publicly in the theatre.htm (208 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . The letter was comprised in these words: "Do neither good nor harm to the bearer. and carry a letter from him to king Ptolemy in Mauritania. and others postponed for want of opportunity. The day before the Circensian games. an ivory manger. than to take the opportunity afforded by the licentiousness of the season. but one or two conspiracies being discovered. and if any person made the least noise while he was dancing. an order to depart forthwith for Ostia 460.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and then suddenly came bursting out. and imitating the gestures of the actors. and declaring.gutenberg. purple housings. he placed them on the proscenium of the stage. for the reception of such as were invited in the horse's name to sup with him. as concerned in one conspiracy against him. to make his first appearance upon the stage. though falsely. For he had immediately endeavoured to render them obnoxious to the soldiery. not without the privity of some of the greatest favourites amongst his freedmen. LVI. they perceived that they were suspected and become objects of his hatred. and accomplished their purpose. he appointed a house. but being slightly wounded. who feared the words from the message. he would order him to be dragged from his seat. dressed in a mantle and tunic reaching down to his heels. in the second watch of the night 458. For this favourite animal. drawing his sword. which he thence called Columbinum. also. and a jewelled frontlet. he retired. and scourged him with his own hand. by a centurion. He was so extravagantly fond of the party of charioteers whose colours were green 461. He used to kiss Mnester. Yet he who had acquired such dexterity in other exercises. with a loud noise of flutes and castanets 459. numbers had formed designs for cutting him off. Having danced out a song. A night exhibition which he had ordered the day he was slain. a driver of a chariot.

In the vaulted passage through which he had to pass. and he stopped to see and http://www. The conspirators having resolved to fall upon him as he returned at noon from the Palatine games.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h." The oracle of Fortune at Antium likewise forewarned him of Cassius. made the whole stage flow with blood. assured him. running out in a hurry. being. were some boys of noble extraction. suddenly burst out into such a violent fit of laughter. in which the fables of the infernal regions were to be represented by Egyptians and Ethiopians. A spectacle had been purposed to be performed that night. who said that he was commanded in a dream to sacrifice a bull to Jupiter. in which the principal actor. the latter would give "Priapus. and had been often reproached by Caius for effeminacy. by the advice of his friends. he fell headlong upon the earth. When this accident happened. not considering that Chaerea bore also that name. claimed the part of making the onset. and falling. the workmen took to their heels. were likewise considered as ominous presages of that event. tribune of the pretorian guards. Some things which happened the very day of his death. On the ninth of the calends of February [24th January]. which he had ordered to be taken down and brought to Rome. the astrologer. as had happened before on that day. His approaching fate was indicated by many prodigies. LVII. "That death would unavoidably and speedily befall him. Cassius Chaerea. was slain. and the other they regarded as a sign. Sylla. that. And in the piece called Laureolus. The day preceding his death he dreamt that he was standing in heaven near the throne of Jupiter. the machines employed in the work giving way. the king of Macedon. on which account he had given orders for putting to death Cassius Longinus. LVIII.htm (209 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and about the seventh hour of the day. performed in a play. and setting them all mutually at variance. This Chaerea was now an elderly man." or "Venus. who had been brought from Asia to act upon the stage. several of the inferior actors vying with each other to give the best specimen of their art. The statue of Jupiter at Olympia. the apartment of the chief porter of the Palatium. the pantomimic actor. by C.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.gutenberg. and only a little before it. consulted by him respecting his nativity. Whilst he was at sacrifice." and ever after he was continually accusing them to one another. vomited blood. And Mnester. after hesitating whether he should rise to dinner. The Capitol at Capua was (290) struck with lightning upon the ides of March [15th March] as was also. Some construed the latter into a presage that the master of the place was in danger from his own guards. as his stomach was disordered by what he had eaten the day before. there came up a man named Cassius. would offer him his hand to kiss." and if on any occasion he returned thanks. at last. which the tragedian Neoptolemus had formerly acted at the games in which Philip. making with his fingers an obscene gesture. at that time proconsul of Asia. he came forth. at Rome. When he came for the watchword. he was bespattered with the blood of a flamingo. Suetonius Tranquillus. who giving him a push with the great toe of his right foot. that an illustrious person would be cut off. kill himself if they thought him worthy of death. waiting for him in a private corridor.

ten months. (291) two different accounts are given. the litter bearers came running in with their poles to his assistance. the rest dispatched him with thirty wounds. and level their temples with the ground. Chaerea came behind him. being stabbed by a centurion. his German body guards.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. His wife Caesonia was killed with him. that the consuls assembled them at first not in the usual place of meeting. Of the miserable condition of those times. who killed some of the assassins. It was afterwards disinterred by his sisters. "Be it so!" and then. LX. burnt to ashes. clove one of his jaws with a blow. who had the praenomen of Caius. on their return from banishment. * * * * * * http://www. It was particularly remarked on this occasion. "Take this:" that then a tribune. and that Caius gave him "Jupiter. speak to them. whilst he was speaking to the boys. ran him through the breast.gutenberg. When his death was made public. died by the sword. immediately afterwards. The senators were so unanimous in their resolution to assert the liberty of their country. and that not a night passed without some terrible alarm or other in the house where he was slain. crying out that he was still alive 463.htm (210 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . His body was carried privately into the Lamian Gardens 464. and buried. that all the Caesars." Some likewise ran their swords through his privy parts. Before this was done. that the crowd being kept at a distance by some centurions who were in the plot. but in the Capitol. Others say. from the Caius Caesar who was slain in the times of Cinna. Respecting what followed. with the view of discovering how they stood affected towards him. People entertained a suspicion that a report of his being killed had been contrived and spread by himself. Sabinus came. "Strike again. As he lay on the ground. that. where it was half burnt upon a pile hastily raised. He lived twenty-nine years. because it was named after Julius Caesar. Some proposed to abolish the memory of the Caesars. for the word. another of the conspirators. until it was destroyed by fire. LIX. first crying out. and also some senators who had no concern in the affair. and. by C. and gave him a heavy blow on the neck with his sword. Upon the first bustle. and made them act immediately. Some say. on his looking round. he would have gone back. Suetonius Tranquillus. Nor had the conspirators fixed upon any one to succeed him. and eight days. it was not immediately credited. by name Cornelius Sabinus. and reigned three years. according to custom. it is well known that the keepers of the gardens were greatly disturbed by apparitions. any person (292) may easily form an estimate from the following circumstances. and his daughter had her brains knocked out against a wall. and had not the leader of the party said that he was suffering from cold.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars." upon which Chaerea cried out. For the word agreed upon among them all was. and then had some earth carelessly thrown over it.

there is reason to think. but from what he mentions towards the close of the preceding chapter. it is evident that Caligula was forward to seize the reins of government. a great chasm in the Annals of Tacitus. that Caligula's vicious disposition was already known. Amongst the people. such as rolling himself over heaps of gold. there never had been any period so favourable for a counter-revolution as the present crisis.gutenberg. the astonishing mixture of imbecility and presumption. Since the commencement of the imperial dominion. and his design of making him consul. which he afterwards evinced. who were flattered with the delusive expectation of receiving a prince who should adorn the throne with the amiable virtues of Germanicus. his treatment of his horse Incitatus. and to the populace in the capital. and was generally known to be of a character which (293) disgraced his illustrious descent. the remembrance of Germanicus' virtues cherished for his family an attachment which was probably. He had lost both his parents at an early period of life. and restore the ancient liberty of the republic. Unfortunately. whether weakness of understanding. though he rivalled him in his vices. He seems to have discovered from his earliest years an innate depravity of mind. It is difficult to say. however. increased by its misfortunes. in order that it might prove a foil to his own memory. he was far from imitating in his dissimulation. and they were anxious to see revived in the son the popularity of the father. There existed now no Livia. If such was really the object. as well as his views in training the person who should succeed him on the throne. either by the http://www. however. rather than to correct and improve them. and from Tiberius' own character. whom. were more conspicuous in the character of Caligula. upon the death of Tiberius. nor was there any other person allied to the family of Germanicus. it was indeed prosecuted with success.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. precludes all information from that historian respecting the reign of Caligula. at this period.htm (211 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . whose countenance or intrigues could promote the views of Caligula. that his accession afforded joy to the soldiers. to influence the minds of the senate and people in respect of the government. The commencement. it is surprising that no effort was made at this juncture to shake off the despotism which had been so intolerable in the last reign. had never performed even the smallest service to his country. which was undoubtedly much increased by defect of education. by C. of his reign was such as by no means prognosticated its subsequent transition. The sudden change of his conduct. Considering. in spite of all these circumstances. that if any attention whatever was paid to the education of Caligula. He himself was now only in the twenty-fifth year of his age. such was the destiny of Rome. it was directed to vitiate all his faculties and passions. who had known him in his childhood. was totally inexperienced in the administration of public affairs. Yet. Suetonius Tranquillus. seem to justify a suspicion that his brain had actually been affected. of moral turpitude and frantic extravagance.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and that it had even been an inducement with Tiberius to procure his succession. as well as the people in the provinces. or corruption of morals.

by which the mental faculties. (294) The profusion of this emperor. or love-potions. and the people believed that they operated upon the mind by a mysterious and sympathetic power. besides the current revenue of the empire. the effects would probably have been the same.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. the sum of 21. That this was really the case with Caligula. This reign was of too short duration to afford any new productions in literature. not only from the falling sickness. after exciting violent. and those too on the necessaries of life. during his short reign of three years and ten months. Suetonius Tranquillus. and occasioned nervous disorders. This circumstance explains the whole mystery. by C. said to have been given him by his wife Caesonia. is unexampled in history. that no insurrection was attempted. Philtres. though vested in the hands of so weak and despicable a sovereign.gutenberg.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.875 pounds sterling. beyond a doubt. which. but temporary effects. Polite learning never could flourish under an emperor who entertained a design of destroying the writings of Virgil and Livy. or otherwise. according to Pliny. potion. had it been extended to a much longer period. that their effects were produced entirely by the action of their physical qualities upon the organs of the body. seems probable. It is fortunate that these. 465 http://www. enfeebled the constitution. which. To supply the extravagance of future years. It is. in less than one year. and it was necessary towards their successful operation. that the parties should sleep together. he expended. which had been left by Tiberius at his death. nor any extensive conspiracy formed. as they were called. yet such was still the dread of imperial power. however. They were usually made of the satyrion. as well as the corporeal. might be injured. They were generally given by women to their husbands at bed-time. but the obnoxious emperor fell at last a sacrifice to a few centurions of his own guard. The philtres were nothing more than medicines of a stimulating quality.796. was a provocative. new and exorbitant taxes were imposed upon the people. to be in danger of perishing through the frenzy of this capricious barbarian. but. In the midst of profound peace. TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS CAESAR. were frequent in those times. were too widely diffused over the world. There existed now amongst the Romans every motive that could excite a general indignation against the government. to which he was subject. and too carefully preserved. but from the habitual wakefulness of which he complained. and other valuable productions of antiquity. without any extraordinary charges either civil or military.htm (212 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] .

This Drusus. He likewise often declared that he would. Nor did he desist from pursuing them.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and because he made no haste to comply with the order. and recalled him. however. for. which thence obtained the name of "The Unlucky Camp. of more than human size. the army erected a monument. having married Augustus when she was pregnant. commanded in the Rhaetian and German wars. and persons deputed from the several cities of Gaul performed religious rites. in the Latin tongue. by C. Nine months for common births the fates decree. and. took him off by poison. reduce the term to three. the father of Claudius Caesar. and returning again to Germany. decreed for him a triumphal arch of marble. restore the ancient government. But." His corpse was carried to Rome by the principal persons of the several municipalities and colonies upon the road. he gained from the enemy the Spolia Opima 468. during the time of his being quaestor and praetor. was within three months afterwards delivered of Drusus. in the summer encampment. and the triumphal ornaments. who had at first the praenomen of Decimus. and buried in the Campus Martius. Suetonius Tranquillus. Livia. and encountered them in single combat. After his praetorship. For these achievements he had the honour of an ovation. more than because I think it http://www. he immediately entered on the office of consul. The following verse. In this account. This I mention. some time or other. appeared to him. and gave the cognomen of Germanicus to him and his posterity. died of disease. and frequently marked out the German chiefs in the midst of their army. which to this day are called by his name. annually. He made likewise some prodigious trenches beyond the Rhine 467. and was the first of all the Roman generals who navigated the Northern Ocean 466. and drove them far back into the depths of the desert. among various other honours. upon a certain day. but afterwards that of Nero. (295) I. being met and received by the recorders of each place. until an apparition. in the form of a barbarian woman. I suppose. with trophies. to march in solemn procession. if possible. was immediately in every one's mouth: Tois eutychousi kai primaena paidia. besides his victories. In him the civil and military virtues were equally displayed. and it was suspected that he was begotten in adultery by his father-in-law. round which the soldiers used.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.htm (213 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . for the great. He overthrew the enemy in several battles. at the utmost hazard of his life. some have ventured to affirm that Augustus was jealous of him. The senate likewise. In honour of his (296) memory.gutenberg. forbad him to proceed any farther. that I may not be guilty of any omission. in the Appian Way.

He had by the younger Antonia several children. with great assiduity to the study of the liberal sciences. since Augustus loved him so much when living. which he gave the people. upon the first of August 469. jointly with his brother. very briefly and severely. He was. who. But never. Antonia. He applied himself. his great-uncle. he presided. To exhibit the opinion. as he once declared in the senate. that he always." And not satisfied with inscribing upon his tomb an epitaph in verse composed by himself. either true or probable. His mother. in his wills. and frequently published specimens of his skill in each of them. it was in writing. was afflicted with a variety of obstinate disorders. made him joint-heir with his sons. I have here subjoined some extracts from the letters of that emperor. without the usual ceremony. to that degree. Germanicus. and to grant himself as honourable an exit out of this world as they had given him. from an early age. or by messengers. Livilla. When he assumed the manly habit. and Fabius Africanus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. http://www. he assumed the cognomen of Germanicus. at the spectacle of gladiators. Suetonius Tranquillus. in the consulship of Julius Antonius. and during almost the whole of his minority. he was carried in a litter. that he prayed the gods "to make his Caesars like him. and even after the expiration of his minority. III. never thought sufficiently qualified for any public or private employment. she said. to the Capitol. Livilla. or afford any hope of arriving at distinction thereafter. frequently called him "an abortion of a man. and Claudius. the very day upon which an altar was first dedicated there to Augustus. always treated him with the utmost contempt.gutenberg. upon hearing that he was about to be created emperor. He was named Tiberius Claudius Drusus. but soon afterwards. but never finished. very rarely spoke to him. he was. who was selected for his governor. extolled him in a speech to the people.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and for some time after he attained the age of manhood. under the direction of a pedagogue. at midnight. "was a barbarous wretch. muffled up in a pallium—a new fashion. by nature." On account of this crazy constitution of body and mind. however. and when she did admonish him upon any occasion." And when she would upbraid any one with dulness. His sister." His grandmother.htm (214 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . entertained concerning him by Augustus. therefore. insomuch that his mind and body being greatly impaired. both favourable and otherwise. (297) upon the adoption of his elder brother into the Julian family. during a long time. but left behind him only three. Claudius was born at Lyons. and formerly superintendent of the mule-drivers. he complains in a certain memoir. He was left an infant by his father. Claudius. "He was a greater fool than her son. namely. could he attain to any public post in the government. even after his arrival at years of maturity. he wrote likewise the history of his life in prose. on purpose to correct him severely on every trifling occasion. Augusta. that had been only begun. II. by C. with all his endeavours. openly and loudly expressed her indignation that the Roman people should experience a fate so severe and so much below their grandeur. and upon his decease. in honour of his father's memory.

my dear Livia. and deficient both in body and mind. which is ready enough to make such things the subject of mirth and derision. and. in the first instance. according (298) to your desire. Nor do I like that he should go to the Alban Mount 471. You may. I cannot imagine. that he may not sup alone with his friends Sulpicius and Athenodorus. and gait might be proper for his imitation: Atuchei panu en tois spoudaiois lian. without settling. if we are always to be debating upon every occasion of this kind. whether he be really capable of public offices or not. that we may not be always in suspense between hope and fear. whose manners. should please me. He will be there exposed to view in the very front of the theatre. left him invested with no other honour than that of the Augural priesthood. or be at Rome during the Latin festivals. as to what must be done with your grandson. we ought to (299) settle this affair once for all. every day during your absence. http://www. We are both agreed in this. quite right in his intellects 470. came to a resolution upon the subject. for a sixth part of his estate only. In my opinion. that he may do nothing to make the people stare and laugh at him. my dear Livia. naming him amongst the heirs of the third degree. In things of consequence he sadly fails. if I am not astonished. to supper. IV. he writes as follows: "I shall invite: the youth. why should we hesitate to promote him by the same steps and degrees we did his brother? But if we find him below par. Suetonius Tranquillus. why is he not made prefect of the city? Thus. I wish the poor creature was more cautious and attentive in the choice of some one. For we never shall be easy. For if he be capable of attending his brother to the mount. with a legacy of no more than eight hundred thousand sesterces. by C. if you think proper.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. who were but distantly allied to his family. after this. in the games of Mars. he says. once for all. Where his mind does not run astray. I am not against his superintending the feast of the priests. "I have had some conversation with Tiberius. accordingly." In a third letter. he discovers a noble disposition." There is no doubt but Augustus. we must beware of giving occasion for him and ourselves to be laughed at by the world. that. you have my thoughts upon the matter. With regard to what you consult me about at the present moment. that the declamation of your grandson. if he will suffer himself to be governed by his kinsman.gutenberg. we ought to determine what course to take with him. air. so to speak. "Let me die. should be able to declaim so clearly and properly." In another letter. For if he be really sound and. But I do not approve of his witnessing the Circensian games from the Pulvinar. for how he who talks so ill. at the games of Mars. Tiberius. Tiberius. my dear Livia. Silanus's son.htm (215 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . give your kinsman Antonia this part of my letter to read. Tiberius.

The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. for a third part of his estate. repealed. and when he pressed for a legitimate appointment. wishing him all happiness. he named him in his will. by which means. living in great privacy. on those occasions. When he indulged himself with sleep after eating." Upon this. to commence at the expiration of the fourth year. and a second time to congratulate him upon the death of Sejanus. the emperor wrote word back. amongst his other relations. Caius 473. Notwithstanding this sort of life. This decree was. Claudius also was admitted to public offices. his brother's son. and put off their cloaks. who were chosen by lot. The equestrian (300) order twice made choice of him to intercede on their behalf. Tiberius granted him the honorary appendages of the consulship. leaving him besides a legacy of two millions of sesterces. VI. Tiberius insisting to have him excused on account of his imbecility.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. amongst his third heirs. V. complimented with the acclamations of the people. But at his death. Still he was subjected to many slights. The senate likewise decreed. A second consulship was also allotted him. Upon his requesting some office in the state. which was a common practice with him. where he passed his time in the lowest society. When he entered the theatre. the company used to throw olive-stones and dates at him. an eagle which was flying that way. heavy fellow. that it should be rebuilt at the public charge. that "he sent him forty gold pieces for his expenses. however. sometimes under the title of the emperor's uncle. and expressly recommending him to the armies.gutenberg. by C. or a villa which he had near the city. and that he should have the privilege of giving his vote amongst the men of consular rank. VIII. once to obtain from the consuls the favour of bearing on their shoulders the corpse of Augustus to Rome. he resigned himself entirely to an indolent life. and sometimes under that of Germanicus's brother. At last. besides his former character of a dull. as the representative of Caius. another while in Campania. upon his advancement to the empire. he was obliged to walk round the room some time before he could get a place at table. And the buffoons who attended would wake him. one while in his gardens. as if it were only http://www. being always. the senate and people of Rome. Suetonius Tranquillus. He sometimes presided at the public spectacles. VII. and soon afterwards. endeavouring to gain the affections of the public by all the arts of popularity. and promising to make good his loss at his own expense. he acquired that of a drunkard and gamester. laying aside all hope of advancement. and held the consulship jointly with his nephew for two months. As he was entering the Forum for the first time with the fasces. that he should be added to the number of the Augustal college of priests.htm (216 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . when his house was burnt down. during the festivals of the Saturnalia and Sigillaria. alighted upon his right shoulder. much respect was shown him both in public and private. If at any time he came in late to supper. they used to rise.

he was under the necessity of exposing to sale his whole estate. spying his feet. he came at last to the empire in the fiftieth year of his age 475. but in no great hopes of the succession. for.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by a tribune of the people. From this period. in his consulship. he was very near being deprived of his office. that he might. by a very surprising turn of fortune. Sometimes they would put slippers upon his hands. He then conducted him to his fellow-soldiers. who were all in a great rage. as if the poor innocent was being carried to execution. by an order of the prefects. upon awaking. as well as the rest. and afterwards he was continually harassed with informations against him by one or other. to the senate-house. and he being sent for likewise. being called upon after the rest. he retired into an apartment called the Hermaeum 476. and saluted him by the title of emperor. having been too remiss in providing and erecting the statues of Caius's brothers. he was reduced to such straits in his private affairs. where he hid himself behind the hangings of (302) the door. he was in danger of his life. and irresolute what they should do. in jest. being sent with some other deputies into Germany 474. prevented from approaching Caius by the conspirators. Having spent the greater part of his life under these and the like circumstances. A charge for the forgery of a will was also allowed to be prosecuted. http://www. on purpose to disgrace him. in his travelling dress. Being. recovered somewhat from his fright. the people who met him lamenting his situation. as he lay snoring. Suetonius Tranquillus.htm (217 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he threw himself in a great fright at his feet. X. They put him into a litter. and desirous to discover who he was. sometimes even by his own domestics. with a cane or a whip. though he had only signed it as a witness. that he was thrown into a river. that in order to discharge his bond to the treasury. Nero and Drusus. and soon afterwards.gutenberg. and as the slaves of the palace had all fled. had possessed themselves of the Forum and Capitol. that his uncle was sent to him. At last. IX. rub his face with them. terrified by the report of Caius being slain. For the consuls. as if he was a boy who wanted a governor. Being received within the ramparts 477. A common soldier. with the senate and civic troops." The day afterwards. he voted in the senate always the last of the members of consular rank.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. to congratulate the emperor upon the occasion. sad and trembling. He was not only exposed to contempt. took their turns in carrying him on their shoulders. Caius being greatly enraged. under the pretext of his desiring to be private. and brought him into the camp. who happened to pass that way. pulled him out. returned answer. he continued all night with the sentries on guard. when immediately recognizing him. but sometimes likewise to considerable danger: first. who dispersed the crowd. to give his advice upon the present juncture of affairs. and cannot possibly come. and loudly complaining. Some even say. with the determination to assert the public liberty. he crept into an adjoining balcony. by C. "I am under constraint. being obliged to pay eight millions of sesterces on entering upon a new office of priesthood. When the conspiracy of Lepidus and Gaetulicus was discovered.

notwithstanding it was that of his own accession to the empire. he suffered the soldiers assembled under arms to swear allegiance to him. to which.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. as had been appointed for Augustus 479. "That he the more earnestly insisted upon the observation of his father Drusus's birth-day. with a chariot in the Circensian procession drawn by elephants. a chariot to be drawn through the circus. to be exhibited in the public diversions at Naples 482. and because he understood that they had also planned his own death. He celebrated the marriage of his daughter and the birth-day of a grandson with great privacy. "By Augustus. declaring by a proclamation. but which had been neglected 483. Suetonius Tranquillus. because it was likewise that of his grandfather Antony. declining the title of emperor." He completed the marble arch near Pompey's theatre.gutenberg. he showed a great regard. To the memory of his brother 481. Accordingly. he was sparing and modest. And though he cancelled all the acts of Caius. and awarded the crown for it. Nor did he omit to make honourable and grateful mention of Mark Antony. and public offerings to the shades of his parents. He http://www. Besides which. upon his birth-day. to be reckoned amongst the festivals. Having thus established himself in power. His most solemn and usual oath was. and (304) also that they would be pleased to bestow upon his procurators judicial authority in the provinces 485. He recalled none of those who had been banished. 478 XI. by C. He now turned (303) his thoughts towards paying respect to the memory of his relations. and this he faithfully observed. in which a revolution in the state had been canvassed.htm (218 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . both as an example. with the exception only of putting to death a few tribunes and centurions concerned in the conspiracy against Caius. at home. he passed an act of perpetual oblivion and pardon for every thing said or done during that time. and refusing all excessive honours.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. upon all occasions. with the title of Augusta. he instituted Circensian games for his father. the senate being dilatory in their proceedings. promising them fifteen thousand sesterces a man. He asked of the consuls likewise the privilege of holding fairs upon his private estate. without a decree of the senate: and requested of them permission for the prefect of the military tribunes and pretorian guards to attend him in the senate-house 484. naming Claudius. his first object was to abolish all remembrance of the two preceding days." He prevailed upon the senate to decree divine honours to his grandmother Livia. for his mother. and worn out by divisions amongst themselves. and. which had been refused by his grandmother 480. he being the first of the Caesars who purchased the submission of the soldiers with money. he gave a Greek comedy. while the people who surrounded the senate-house shouted that they would have one master. according to the sentence of the judges in that solemnity. to be celebrated every year. yet he forbad the day of his assassination. XII. But with regard to his own aggrandisement. which had formerly been decreed by the senate in honour of Tiberius.

The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he wrought himself so much into the favour and affection of the public. before the judges of private causes. and sometimes upon the public festivals of ancient institution. formed a conspiracy against him. nor the standards pulled out of the ground. because. even upon such days as were solemnly observed as days of rejoicing in his family. he held the office afterwards four times. Conspiracies. and the senate as parricides. he granted them the indulgence of a second trial. as one of their assessors. were formed against him. And when they gave public spectacles. the first two successively 487. XIV. after an interval of four years each 488. on his way home. upon his being chosen in the room of a consul who died. frequently assisted the magistrates in the trial of causes. When the tribunes of the people came to him while he was on the tribunal.gutenberg. Furius Camillus Scribonianus. A low fellow was found with a poniard about him. to meet their new emperor. at midnight. according to his sentiments of justice and equity. which had never been done by any of the emperors before him. the legions which he had seduced from their oath of fidelity relinquishing their purpose. the people never ceased cursing the soldiers for traitors. by this conduct. but overruled the rigour or lenity of many of their enactments. and condemned them to be exposed to wild beasts. 489 http://www. upon his going to Ostia. on account of the crowd. In a short time. not only by individuals separately. and the other as he was sacrificing in the temple of Mars.htm (219 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . who assured them that he was alive.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. one of them intending to attack him as he came out of the theatre. and not far from the city. XIII. a report was spread in the city that he had been waylaid and slain. and at last his government was disturbed with a civil war. and salute them both by words and gestures. he could not hear them unless they stood. but was reduced in (305) the space of five days. Two men of the equestrian order were discovered waiting for him in the streets. but the following. that when. For where persons lost their suits by insisting upon more than appeared to be their due. For when orders were given them to march. Gallus Asinius and Statilius Corvinus. Pollio and Messala 486. the others for two. and the third. he constantly attended the courts for the administration of justice. but by a faction. by C. were brought by the magistrates upon the rostra. his lieutenant in Dalmatia. the eagles could not be decorated. however. he excused himself. near his chamber. and presently after several others. Whether he was consul or out of office. grandsons of the two orators. or by his friends. upon an alarm occasioned by ill omens. Suetonius Tranquillus. until one or two persons. in which they engaged many of his freedmen and slaves. he would rise up with the rest of the spectators. And with regard to such as were convicted of any great delinquency. the last for six months. or a divine interposition. armed with a tuck and a huntsman's dagger. broke into rebellion. whether it was by accident. he even exceeded the punishment appointed by law. Besides his former consulship. Nor did he always adhere strictly to the letter of the laws.

in a particular cause. and a frivolous dispute arising between the advocates in the cause. with such violence as to wound him severely in the cheek. as he was quitting the tribunal." 491 By this he so much forfeited the good opinion of the world.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. concealing the reason for some time: at last. without inquiring whether their absence was occasioned by their own fault. But in hearing and determining causes. he answered. he ordered to plead the cause himself immediately before him. A woman refusing to acknowledge her own son. with a Spanish sword and a block. had answered to his name. observing that common strumpets were summoned against him and allowed to give evidence. who was prosecuted by an impotent device of his enemies on a false charge of abominable obscenity with women. that the advocates used to abuse his patience so grossly. and sometimes frivolous. that. An anecdote is related of him. by C. he insisted that an executioner should be immediately sent for. "You are an old fool." Another thanking him for suffering a person who was prosecuted to make his defence by counsel. and threw his style. he obliged her to confess the truth. that he was everywhere and openly despised. he struck off the name of one who. to make him stay. and that he ought to have his hand cut off. Some obscure Greek. being at one time circumspect and sagacious. A person being prosecuted for falsely assuming the freedom of Rome. in which he called out. and believed to be true. but would seize him by the lap of his coat. and like one out of his mind. "I think that is a sufficient excuse. as too eager for the office. concealing the privilege his children gave him to be excused from serving.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. upbraided Claudius in very harsh and severe terms with his folly and cruelty." 493 It is certain that a Roman knight. and there being no clear proof on either side. in his face.htm (220 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . In correcting the roll of judges. and some books which he had in his hands. and sometimes catch him by the heels. to show his impartiality. is not incredible. but alleged that the affair did not properly come under the (306) emperor's cognizance. http://www. He was much inclined to determine causes in favour of the parties who appeared. but that of the ordinary judges. who was a litigant. A person making an excuse for the non-appearance of a witness whom he had sent for from the provinces. On proclamation of a man's being convicted of forgery. or by real necessity. against those who did not. had an altercation with him. Another who was summoned before him in a cause of his own." to which Claudius replied. That such behaviour. added. however strange. "And yet it is no more than what is usual. after several interrogatories were put to him on the subject. whether he ought to make his appearance in the Roman or Grecian dress. will appear from this anecdote. XV. and show in a case of his own. Suetonius Tranquillus." I have likewise heard some old men say 492. he exhibited a strange inconsistency of temper. he commanded him to change his clothes several times according to the character he assumed in the accusation or defence. he delivered his sentence in writing thus: "I am in favour of those who have spoken the truth. at another inconsiderate and rash. declared it was impossible for him to appear.gutenberg. how equitable a judge he would prove in that of other persons. that they would not only (307) call him back. "The man is dead. by ordering her to marry the young man 490.

laid his bosom bare. and with a strange variety of humour and conduct. that. He published twenty proclamations in one day. plated with silver. The triumphal ornaments decreed him by the senate. XVI. which was exposed for sale in the Sigillaria 497. For this purpose. at the request of his friends. or at least more cautiously. "for. upon the http://www. he passed over. namely. than the sap of the yew-tree. in one of which he advised the people. however. "Let the blot. found them generally innocent. to have their casks well secured at the bung with pitch:" and in another. through the negligence of the persons employed to inquire into their characters. he had taken off a mark of infamy which he had set upon one knight's name. Having tried to brand with disgrace several others. "that nothing would sooner cure the bite of a viper. and was therefore resolved to have the honour of a real triumph. who was infamous for debauching youths and for adultery. but was twice very near being wrecked by the boisterous wind called Circius 499. he considered as beneath the imperial dignity. But this also he administered very unequally. and was then chafing (309) with rage. those whom he charged with living in celibacy. He undertook only one expedition. by C. "why must I know what mistress you keep?" When. without any mark of disgrace. parents. although he only went after Ptolemy to Alexandria for the purpose of securing payment of a debt 496. observing." He not only struck out of the list of judges. The following incidents were remarkable in his censorship. he selected Britain. only because his father spoke of him in the highest terms.gutenberg. he only admonished "to indulge his youthful inclinations more sparingly. only because he was ignorant of the Latin language.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. or estate." 495 adding. (308) and one likewise. and of very sumptuous workmanship. he said. but likewise deprived of the freedom of Rome. Nor in this review did he suffer any one to give an account of his conduct by an advocate. One of the knights who was charged with stabbing himself. remain. because the Romans would not give up some deserters. he told them. and for a reason entirely new. Suetonius Tranquillus. which had never been attempted by any one since Julius Caesar 498. He likewise assumed the censorship 494. with want of children. and that was of short duration. In his review of the knights. an illustrious man of the highest provincial rank in Greece. he. a profligate young man. "Since the vintage was very plentiful." said he. for going out of Italy without his license. Accordingly. but obliged each man to speak for himself in the best way he could. to show that there was not the least mark of violence upon his body. for having in his province been the familiar companion of a king. in former times. He disgraced many.htm (221 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . to his own greater shame. which had been discontinued since the time that Paulus and Plancus had jointly held it.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and in affluent circumstances. Rabirius Posthumus had been prosecuted for treason. to be purchased. proving themselves to be husbands. and some that little expected it. "his father is his proper censor. He ordered a car. he set sail from Ostia." Another." XVII. and broken in pieces before his eyes.

the rest followed on foot. he encouraged them to do their utmost. He paid particular attention to the care of the city. as it were. but as often abandoned on account of the difficulty of its execution. XX. During a scarcity of provisions. XIX. without battle or bloodshed. he fixed upon the pediment of his house in the Palatium. even in the winter. wearing the robe with the broad stripes. followed his chariot in a covered litter 503. He brought to the city the cool and plentiful springs of the http://www. and to have it well supplied with provisions. to their assistance. and granted great privileges to those who built ships for that traffic. rode behind. The principal were an aqueduct. he not only (310) gave leave to governors of provinces to come to Rome. although he knew that Augustus had refused to comply with the repeated application of the Marsians for one of these. who so abused him. and near the islands called Stoechades 500. he was stopped in the middle of the Forum by the mob. he caused the magistrates to summon the people out of all the streets in the city. Among the spoils taken from the enemy.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Placing bags of money before him. because this was the second time of his obtaining that honour. Messalina. he thence passed over to Britain. that he would reward every one on the spot. and part of the island submitting to him. conquered the Ocean. coast of Liguria.gutenberg. and that the other had been several times intended by Julius Caesar. which lasted some time. which. he passed two nights in the Diribitorium 505. according to their exertions. a naval crown. to one who had only the privilege of Latium. and the harbour of Ostia. in a robe embroidered with palm leaves. and. in token of his having passed. his wife. were very useful.htm (222 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he returned to Rome in less than six months from the time of his departure. that he had some (311) difficulty in escaping into the palace by a back door. Having marched by land from Marseilles to Gessoriacum 501. which had been begun by Caius. by indemnifying them against any loss that might befall them by storms at sea. Crassus Frugi was mounted upon a horse richly caparisoned. and to women the rights which by law belonged to those who had four children: which enactments are in force to this day. to witness which. Suetonius Tranquillus. Those who had attained the honour of triumphal ornaments in the same war. He completed some important public works. XVIII. and triumphed in the most solemn manner 502. by C. and had it suspended near the civic crown which was there before.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. the freedom of the city. declaring. and the soldiers and gladiators not being in sufficient numbers to extinguish it. He proposed to the merchants a sure profit. within a few days after his arrival. though not numerous. A dreadful fire happening in the Aemiliana 504. occasioned by bad crops for several successive years. To a citizen of Rome he gave an exemption from the penalty of the Papia-Poppaean law 506. an emissary for the discharge of the waters of the Fucine lake 507. at the same time pelting him with fragments of bread. but even to some of the exiles. He therefore used all possible means to bring provisions to the city.

though he himself says in his history. nor ever would again. and drag them by the horns to the ground. he sunk the vessel in which the great obelisk 510 had been brought from Egypt 511. and even the prefect at the head of them. and gilded goals. "That they had been omitted before the age of Augustus. sometimes exhibiting a hunt of wild beasts. he exhibited there the Trojan game.gutenberg. and again brought them to their regular period. which were encountered by a troop of pretorian knights. one of which is called Caeruleus. when he invited people in the usual form. He formed the harbour at Ostia. XXI. who drive fierce bulls round the circus. and assigned proper places for the senators. He likewise (313) exhibited the secular games 514. while all the people kept their seats in profound silence 513. and then coming down through the centre of the circle. with (312) a mole protecting. having first paid his devotions. with their tribunes. partly by cutting through. the entrance of the port 509." 515 The crier was therefore ridiculed. were now again brought upon the stage.htm (223 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . He embellished the Circus Maximus with marble barriers. and partly by tunnelling. To secure the foundation of this mole. and entertained them with a great variety of public magnificent spectacles. and the other Curtius and Albudinus. but some of new invention. and was rebuilt by him. by C. "to games which no person had ever before seen." when many were still living who had already seen them.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and others revived from ancient models. and distributed them into many magnificent reservoirs. on condition of their having a grant of the land laid dry. in deep water. He often distributed largesses of corn and money among the people. not only such as were usual. in a stone canal. The canal from the Fucine lake was undertaken as much for the sake of profit. in the temple above. as for the honour of the enterprise. Suetonius Tranquillus. He likewise frequently celebrated the Circensian games in the Vatican 516. besides Thessalian horse. Claudian water. thirty thousand men being constantly employed in the work for eleven years 508. he presided upon a tribunal erected for him in the orchestra. He gave exhibitions of gladiators in several places. which before were of common stone 517 and wood. who had calculated the years with great exactness. leap upon their backs when they have exhausted their fury. on which lights were burnt to direct mariners in the night. In the games which he presented at the dedication of Pompey's theatre 512. for there were parties who offered to drain it at their own expense. and of various kinds. one yearly on the anniversary http://www. Besides the chariot-races.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. who were used to sit promiscuously with the other spectators. which had been burnt down. and exhibited in places where nothing of the kind had been ever before attempted. and some of the performers who had formerly acted in them. and built upon piles a very lofty tower. and in the accustomed places. a mountain. and wild beasts from Africa. as likewise the river of the New Anio. by carrying out circular piers on the right and on the left. With great difficulty he completed a canal three miles in length. in imitation of the Pharos at Alexandria. giving out that Augustus had anticipated the regular period. after every five courses.

But the combatants on board the fleets crying out." Nor did he lend himself to any kind of public diversion with more freedom and hilarity. sometimes calling them his "masters." with a mixture of insipid. and appoint holidays for sacred rites. "that he invited them to a late supper. he exhibited upon it a naval fight. he recited in the presence of the people." He likewise represented in the Campus Martius. He would earnestly invite the company to be merry. "He would give them one when he could catch it. noble emperor! We. and some regulations he introduced which were entirely new. which he called Sportula. leaping from his seat. who repeated them after him. and well-timed. when the people called for Palumbus 519. he hesitated for a time. and the surrender of the British kings 520. persuaded them to engage. on the intercession of his four sons. insomuch that he would hold out his left hand." The following was well-intended. count upon his fingers aloud the gold pieces presented to those who came off conquerors. and (314) joined by the common people. When an earthquake (315) happened in the city. And upon the sight of any ominous bird in the City or Capitol. because when he was going to present it. to remind the people. amidst great applause. XXII. he never failed to summon the people together by the praetor. and the condition of all orders of the people at home and abroad.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. At last. http://www. In appointing new priests for the several colleges. and in the same place. of three banks of oars. This spectacle represented an engagement between the fleets of Sicily and Rhodes. Thus. and partly by threats. the administration of affairs both civil and military. consisting each of twelve ships of war. and running along the shore of the lake with tottering steps. since they had before them an example how useful they had been in procuring favour and security for a gladiator. or the usual apparatus. he made no appointments without being sworn." they all refused to fight. Suetonius Tranquillus. spared a gladiator.htm (224 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . who are about to peril our lives. partly by fair words. With regard to religious ceremonies. the words of which. The signal for the encounter was given by a silver Triton. Immediately before he drew off the waters from the Fucine lake. he.gutenberg. others which had been laid aside he revived. he informed the people by proclamation. "how much it behoved them to get children. "Health attend you. and without ceremony. by C. some practices he corrected. he issued an order for a supplication. Upon this." and he replying. far-fetched jests. whether he should not destroy them all with fire and sword. presiding in his general's cloak. he said. another in the Septa as usual. having. raised by machinery from the middle of the lake. as if by that response he had meant to excuse them.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by virtue of his office of high priest. he sent a billet immediately round the theatre. of his accession in the pretorian camp 518. all workmen and slaves being first ordered to withdraw. another out of the common way. salute you. got up in haste. "Health attend you too. the assault and sacking of a town. and of a few days' continuance only. after an exhortation from the rostra. but without any hunting. the result of his foul excesses.

he used to sit between the two consuls upon the seats of the tribunes. Suetonius Tranquillus. he reinstated them in the charge of the treasury. that there is extant a letter unanimously addressed to him by all the legions. should be debarred from coming into the City. in order to prevent their seeking occasion to engage in unnecessary wars. he made permanent. He reserved to himself the power of granting license to travel out of Italy. or those who had formerly filled that office. going to meet him at his entering the city. in which he took the left side. giving him the post of honour. Instead of the expense which the college of quaestors was obliged to incur in paving the high-ways. whose sittings had been formerly divided between the summer and winter months. and with so little reserve. and in the city only. he informed the public. and in other cases. persons manumitted were not called freedmen. upon his conquest of the Chauci. it seems. but only their sons who were free-born. He allowed Gabinius Secundus. to assume the cognomen of Chaucius. that his ancestor Appius Caecus. yet he gave the "broad hem" to the son of a freedman. which used to be granted annually by special commission to certain magistrates. that in the times of Appius. Although he had in the beginning of his reign declared. From those who declined the senatorian dignity. or any part of Italy. begging him "to grant his consular lieutenants the triumphal ornaments at the time of their appointment to commands. He ordered that." He decreed to Aulus Plautius the honour of an ovation 522. of incurring censure by such an act. The courts of judicature. and that those who were banished from any province by the chief magistrate. who was betrothed to his daughter. since it was taken from them. for the dispatch of business.gutenberg. a German tribe. and walking with him in the procession to the Capitol. he took away the equestrian. He gave the triumphal ornaments to Silanus. and back. which. by C.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and extended to the provincial judges likewise. He altered a clause added by Tiberius to the Papia-Poppaean law 521. which inferred that men of sixty years of age were incapable of begetting children. he bestowed them on so many. which before had belonged to the senate. he ordered them to give the people an exhibition of gladiators. XXIV. on condition that he should be adopted by a Roman knight. the censor. though he was under age.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. orphans might have guardians appointed them by the consuls. XXIII. 523 http://www. however. out of the ordinary course of proceeding. He inflicted on certain persons a new sort of banishment.htm (225 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . The jurisdiction in matters of trust. He likewise granted the consular ornaments to his Ducenarian procurators. to sit the whole year round. and relieving them of the provinces of Ostia and [Cisalpine] Gaul. for he was ignorant. When any affair of importance came before the senate. had been managed by the praetors. that he would admit no man into the senate who was not the great-grandson of a Roman citizen. Being afraid. and a long while afterwards. he ordered. had elected the sons of freedmen into (316) the senate. by forbidding them to depart further than three miles from Rome.

they said. never more to return. Suetonius Tranquillus. though they were a sort of soldiers. who were called Supernumeraries. He prohibited foreigners from adopting Roman names. he reduced to their former condition of (317) slavery. by C. forbidding all travellers to pass through the towns of Italy any otherwise than on foot.gutenberg. or in a litter or chair 525. and were complained of by them. they took upon themselves to cross over into the same seats. Those who falsely pretended to the freedom of Rome. For. reciting upon the occasion a letter in Greek. He confiscated the estates of all freedmen who presumed to take upon themselves the equestrian rank. and another at Ostia. having been seated in the rows of benches which were common to the people. and that if any one chose to kill at once. as a punishment for their fatal dissensions. to be in readiness against any accidents from fire. if they should recover. Some persons having exposed their sick slaves. but restored to the Rhodians their freedom. On the other hand. After having the command of a cohort. he beheaded on the Esquiline. upon their repenting of their former misdemeanors. being induced to grant them favours by their frank and honourable conduct. He likewise ordered the temple of http://www. He procured an act of the senate to prohibit all soldiers from attending senators at their houses.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he should be liable for murder. and kept in reserve. because of the tediousness of their cure. (318) from the senate and people of Rome to king Seleucus 527. that he would always give judgment against the freedmen. in the way of respect and compliment. and subsequently received the commission of tribune of a legion. a slave. he declared all who were so exposed perfectly free. on which they promised him their friendship and alliance. of merit or rank. He banished from Rome all the Jews. in any suit at law which the masters might happen to have with them. rather than expose. they were promoted to a wing of auxiliary horse. solemnized with such horrid cruelties.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He raised a body of militia. He allowed the ambassadors of the Germans to sit at the public spectacles in the seats assigned to the senators. as being. yet received pay. no way inferior to the others. He deprived the Lycians of their liberties. provided that he would grant their kinsmen the Iliensians immunity from all burdens. and declared to their advocates. His military organization of the equestrian order was this. He published a proclamation. He gave up to the senate the provinces of Achaia and Macedonia. in a languishing condition. which had only been forbidden the citizens of Rome during the reign of Augustus. Such of them as were ungrateful to their patrons.htm (226 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . XXV. on observing the Parthian and Armenian ambassadors sitting among the senators. who. He quartered a cohort of soldiers at Puteoli. The religious rites of the Druids. who were continually making disturbances at the instigation of one Chrestus 528. on the island of Aesculapius 524. as being the founders of the Roman race. especially those which belonged to families 526. to their former servitude. he utterly abolished among the Gauls 529. in point either. which Tiberius had transferred to his own administration. he attempted (319) to transfer the Eleusinian mysteries from Attica to Rome 530. He exonerated for ever the people of Ilium from the payment of taxes.

" He was. he put her to death. the grand-daughter of Augustus. the daughter of Barbatus Messala. the daughter of a man of consular rank. whom at first he called Germanicus. XXVI. Only a few days before. Antonia. Drusus and Claudia. and afterwards to Livia Medullina. she had even gone so far as to marry in his own absence Caius Silius. because her parents had incurred the displeasure of Augustus. In less than twenty-four hours after this. and caught in his mouth. he was directed not so much by his own judgment. who had the cognomen of Camilla.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and the form of words used by the heralds in former times.htm (227 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . When summoning his pretorians to his presence. and he lost the latter by sickness on the day fixed for their nuptials. as a measure highly conducive to the public interest. and also a son. and was descended from the old dictator Camillus. Venus Erycina in Sicily. however. when he was very young. to follow the example. for scandalous lewdness. and by Messalina. He concluded treaties with foreign princes in the forum. who took advantage of the kisses and endearments which their near relationship admitted. and soon afterwards. for the most part acting in conformity to what their interests or fancies dictated. which until that time had been considered incestuous. he got some one to propose at the next meeting of the senate. however. and indeed the greater part of his administration. which was old and in a ruinous condition. but afterwards Britannicus.gutenberg. he had betrothed him to one of Sejanus's daughters 532. in the presence of the augurs. excepting one freedman. he being choked with a pear. for he began immediately to think of another wife. whom he had formerly divorced: he thought also of Lollia Paulina. But he divorced them both. as by the influence of his wives and freedmen. who had been married to Caius Caesar. and that in future liberty should be given for such marriages. He lost Drusus at Pompeii. he made to them this declaration: "As I have been so unhappy in my unions. and the suspicion of murder. The former he divorced while still a virgin. But in these and other things. Octavia. with the sacrifice of a sow. by Paetina. at the solemnization of whose nuptials both he and Agrippina attended. (320) the daughter of his brother Germanicus. he married her 531. and even of taking back Paetina. which in his play he tossed into the air. No person was found. I give you leave to stab me. and a centurion of the first rank. He next married Plautia Urgulanilla. Aelia Paetina. by C. that they should oblige the emperor to marry Agrippina. XXVII. to inflame his desires. After them he took in marriage Valeria Messalina.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. his cousin. and I am therefore surprised that http://www. He was twice married at a very early age. Suetonius Tranquillus. But finding that. upon some trifling causes of disgust. besides her other shameful debaucheries. first to Aemilia Lepida. unable to persist in this resolution. the settlement of her dower being formally signed. and Urgulanilla. He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla. But being ensnared by the arts of Agrippina. Paetina. I am resolved to continue in future unmarried. whose father had enjoyed the honour of a triumph. and if I should not. to be repaired at the expense of the Roman people.

" XXIX. or their caprice. by C. was stabbed in the http://www. he ordered to be thrown naked at her mother's door. he adopted Nero. and had often the honour of walking between the two consuls. Suetonius Tranquillus. by decree of the senate. Claudia. were in high favour with him. whom he not only preferred to commands both of cohorts and troops. by his wives. without any positive proof of the crimes with which they were charged. Being entirely governed by these freedmen. or the command of armies. (322) their passions. in truth. but to the government of the province of Judaea. and good wishes on his behalf. and. he put to death Appius Silanus. that. that "It would be full enough. obtaining his signature to fictitious appointments. holding him in his arms before their ranks. and plundering the public. the daughter of Boter his freedman.htm (228 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . Not to enter into minute details relative to the revocation of grants. and Pallas 538. He also cut off Cneius Pompey. the reversal of judicial decisions. In this class was likewise Polybius. Narcissus. he presented with the pointless spear. and would likewise show him to the people in the theatre. So much did he indulge them in amassing wealth. Of his (321) sons-in-law. and afterwards to Faustus Sylla 534. XXVIII. his secretary. pardoned or punished. He distributed offices. with great reason.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and he became. to whom he granted the privilege of being carried in a litter within the city. Next to him. upon his complaining. and was sure to receive their acclamations. and for the most part. Britannicus was born upon the twentieth day of his reign. who was. who assisted him in his studies. of the lowness of his exchequer. He often earnestly commended him to the soldiers. But above all others. and Lucius Silanus. He not only allowed them to receive. or so much as permitting them to make any defence. but put them to death. setting him upon his lap. but also to be decorated with the quaestorian and praetorian ensigns of honour. in favour was Felix 536. in his British triumph. the husband of his eldest daughter. the greatest favourite was the eunuch Posides. or the bare-faced alteration of them after signing. after she had been contracted to Silanus. He married Antonia to Cneius Pompey the Great 533. the daughters of Drusus and Germanicus. in consequence of his elevation. and in his second consulship.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Another favourite was Harpocras. the comptroller of his accounts. immense presents. some one said. or being sensible of what he did. and of holding public spectacles for the entertainment of the people. He not only dismissed from his favour both Pompey and Silanus. Octavia to his step-son Nero 535. once.gutenberg. who was betrothed to the younger Pompey. the father of his son-in-law. Amongst his freedmen. both youths of very noble parentage. as I have already said. if those two freedmen of his would but take him into partnership with them. some authors should say he lost his life by the treachery of Sejanus. or holding him out whilst he was still very young. if not equal. classing him among the military men. whom. according as it suited their interests. he was a tool to others. rather than a prince. without knowing. the husband of three queens 537. though she was born five months before his divorce. and the two Julias.

yet." because his freedmen. should actually sign the writings relative to her dowry. as he was http://www. One day. that very often six hundred guests sat down together. that the soldiers did nothing more than their duty.htm (229 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . for he was tall. he invited him again the next day. Though his health was very infirm during the former part of his life. as it is pretended. induced. XXXIII. One of his guests having been suspected of purloining a golden cup. he enjoyed a good state of health. But it is beyond all belief. both when he assumed state. according to an ancient custom. Suetonius Tranquillus. however trifling. He condemned to death five and thirty senators. He was always ready to eat and drink at any time or in any place. and generally when there was such ample room. In a fit of this complaint. for then he foamed at the mouth. But his knees were feeble. after he became emperor.gutenberg. but served him with a porcelain jug. "he had ordered no such thing. had nearly cost him his life.].org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by the design of diverting from himself and transferring upon another the danger which some omens seemed to threaten him. he said he had thoughts of killing himself. and he had a full neck. XXXII. so that his gait was ungainly. It is said. Silanus was obliged to quit the office of praetor upon the fourth of the calends of January [29th Dec. and told him that he had executed his order. had said. He was outrageous in his laughter. except only that he was subject to a pain of the stomach. sat at the feet of the couches. His grey looks became him well. but not slender. and still more so in his wrath. he had a majestic and graceful appearance. at the marriage of Messalina with the adulterous Silius. it seems. too. act of unnatural lewdness with a favourite paramour. At a feast he gave on the banks of the canal for draining the Fucine Lake. and had a tremulous motion (323) of the head at all times. XXXI. with those of several of the nobility. and when he was taking diversion. in dispatching the emperor's enemies without waiting for a warrant. he declared. that he himself. who was one of the number. and discharged from his nostrils. the very same on which Claudius and Agrippina were married. but particularly when he was engaged in any business. and to kill himself on new year's day 539 following. and above three hundred Roman knights." upon hearing of a person whose modesty. and failed him in walking. XXX. that when a centurion brought him word of the execution of a man of consular rank. that he intended to publish an edict. when under restraint. Either standing or sitting. the water at its discharge rushing out with such violence. with so little attention to what he did. He also stammered in his speech. "allowing to all people the liberty of giving vent at table to any distension occasioned by flatulence. he narrowly escaped being drowned. that it overflowed the conduit. He gave entertainments as frequent as they were splendid. At supper he had always his own children. but that he approved of it. by C.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but especially when he lay asleep. who.

Suetonius Tranquillus. and published a book upon the subject. being desirous of seeing an example of the old way of putting malefactors to death. and went to partake of the feast with the priests. yet he durst not venture himself at an entertainment without being attended by a guard of spearmen. or criminal punished for parricide. dismissing the people to dinner. Upon composing himself to rest. upon slight or sudden occasions. so that the advocates often found it difficult to wake him. and besides those who were devoted to that sanguinary fate. When any person was to be put to the torture. and at noon. continued sitting himself. and waited for his coming until night. lying upon his back with his mouth open. He was fond of gaming. In any exhibition of gladiators. To this desperate kind of encounter he forced one of his nomenclators. He set no bounds to his libidinous intercourse with women. In the beginning of his reign. his sleep was short. that he might see their faces in the agonies of death. he ordered them to be butchered.htm (230 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . for instance. presented either by himself or others. if any of the combatants chanced to fall. as has been already observed. as.gutenberg. that the game was not disturbed by the motion of the carriage. a feather was put down his throat. and people of that sort. though they raised their voices for that purpose.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. XXXIV. When he was at Tibur. to make him throw up the contents of his stomach. and made soldiers wait upon him at table instead of servants. having the tables so fitted. hearing causes in the Forum of Augustus. XXXV. if a machine. and then he would immediately fall asleep. especially the Retiarii. While in this condition. he was impatient for the execution. and the combatants who appeared on the stage at noon. and he usually awoke before midnight. or any piece of work in which they had been employed about the theatre did not answer the purpose for which it had been intended. he would match others with the beasts. but never betrayed any unnatural desires for the other sex. even encumbered as he was by wearing the toga. he sent for one from Rome. by C. he smelt the dinner which was preparing for the Salii 540. He scarcely ever left the table until he had thoroughly crammed himself and drank to intoxication. though he much affected a modest and humble appearance. whereupon he quitted (324) the tribunal. He even used to play as he rode in his chariot. He never visited a sick http://www. But the characteristics most predominant in him were fear and distrust. some were immediately bound to a stake for the purpose. the carpenters and their (326) assistants. He would therefore come to the theatre by break of day. Two gladiators happening to kill each other. and would have it performed in his own presence. and that.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he immediately ordered some little knives to be made of their swords for his own use. His cruel and sanguinary disposition was exhibited upon great as well as trifling occasions. but he would sometimes sleep in the daytime. when he was upon the tribunal. even. but there being no executioner to be had at the place. in the temple of Mars adjoining. He took great pleasure in seeing men engage with wild beasts.

that he was prevailed upon to excuse women. and told him that he had dreamt that Appius Silanus had murdered him. indeed. desiring him to resign the government. and induce him to take precautions for his safety. At other times. in which they had their several parts assigned them. And when. and the bed and bedding thoroughly examined. received orders the preceding day to be there at that time. he was hurried away to execution. When Camillus formed his plot against him. her partner in adultery. A man engaged in a litigation before his tribunal. and told him he had dreamt that he saw him murdered. not so much on account of her infamous conduct. and summoned together the principal men of the city. he was immediately ordered to be prosecuted and put to death. to the camp.gutenberg. The day following. and with tears and dismal exclamations. nor was it until after a long time. that Appius was come. he had some thoughts of complying with it. and threatening letter. and. believing that she aspired to share with Silius. Upon receiving this requisition. or suffer their attendants or writing-masters to retain their cases for pens and styles. that Appius Silanus was got rid of in the same manner. Claudius related http://www. petulant. person. pointed to him as the man he had seen in his dream. drew him aside. XXXVI. Suetonius Tranquillus. when his adversary came to deliver his plea to the emperor. and a very shameful manner. not doubting but his timidity might be worked upon without a war. boys. and girls from such rude handling. as if he had been taken in the act.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by C.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he wrote to him a scurrilous. The empress. the imperial dignity.htm (231 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . all persons who came to pay their court to him were strictly searched by officers appointed for that purpose. upon this. a man armed with a dagger was discovered near him while he was sacrificing. to consult with them on the subject. whereupon. Narcissus therefore burst into his lord's chamber before daylight. he having. by a contrivance betwixt Messalina and Narcissus. We are informed. he was so much alarmed. asking all the way he went. the plaintiff. as if the truth of the dream was sufficiently confirmed by his appearance at that juncture. affecting great surprise. that he was safe no where. lamented that such was his condition. as from apprehension of danger. Presently afterwards. No suspicion was too trifling. and meditate revenge. as I have before related. and betake himself to a life of privacy. "if the empire were indeed safely his?" XXXVII. Having heard some loose reports of conspiracies formed against him. to throw him into a panic. He smothered his ardent love for Messalina. and shortly afterwards. and for a long time afterwards he abstained from appearing in public. that he thought of immediately abdicating the government. no person on whom it rested too contemptible. declared she had the like dream for several nights successively. pretending to have discovered the murderer. having saluted him. and with much difficulty. he instantly ordered the heralds to convoke the senate. apparently in great fright. as it had been agreed on. word was brought. until the chamber had been first searched. (326) Upon this occasion he ran in a great fright.

his meteoria and ablepsia. he enquired. or http://www. because in his aedileship he had fined some tenants of his." the design of which was to show "that nobody ever counterfeited folly. the former only because he had treated him with rudeness while he was in a private station. Some people who addressed him unseasonably in public. he wrote to Rome that he had been treated as a private person. for a short time afterwards. and sent to reprimand them as sluggish fellows for not making greater haste. when he had a son of his own arrived at years of maturity. that he had only feigned imbecility in the reign of Caius. my nursling. and to game with him. and ordered his steward. a book was published under the title of Moron anastasis. "My daughter. to be whipped. "Why the empress did not come?" Many of those whom he had condemned to death.htm (232 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he ordered the day after to be invited to his table. He could not. or. the whole affair to the senate." XXXIX. Amongst other things. by C. for selling cooked victuals contrary to law. people admired in him his indifference and unconcern. to express it in Greek. who interfered. he excused himself in both instances by a proclamation. in terms which might expose them to the public resentment. without a hearing." XL. Placing himself at table a little after Messalina's death. and so inattentive to circumstances. On this account. or at (328) what time.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. assuring the public that "the former should be short and harmless. and that in a way which had the appearance of making them (327) satisfaction. however. XXXVIII. Sensible of his being subject to passion and resentment.gutenberg. He did not scruple to speak of his own absurdities. because otherwise it would have been impossible for him to have escaped and arrived at the station he had then attained. that it was believed he never reflected who he himself was. and the other. he pushed away with his own hand. or amongst whom. and although they were innocent. and declared in some short speeches which he published. as if there was little cause for censure in his adopting a son-in-law." And when he was going to adopt Nero. gain credit for this assertion. yet immediately afterwards he pardoned them. born and brought up upon my lap. and acknowledged his great obligation to his freedmen for watching over him even in his sleep. He frequently appeared so careless in what he said. he took from the aediles the jurisdiction they had over cooks'-shops. "that no one had ever been admitted by adoption into the Claudian family.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. or begging pardon for some injury he had done them. Suetonius Tranquillus. he continually gave out in public. He likewise banished a person who had been secretary to a quaestor." After severely reprimanding the people of Ostia for not sending some boats to meet him upon his entering the mouth of the Tiber. he was perpetually calling her. When he was meditating his incestuous marriage with Agrippina. "The Resurrection of Fools. and the latter never without good cause. likewise. and even a senator who had filled the office of praetor.

" besides many other familiar sentences. who can live without a bit of meat?" And mentioned the great plenty of old taverns. also. but on his elevation to imperial power he had little difficulty in introducing them into common use. "A Defence of Cicero against the Books of Asinius Gallus. who was not deficient either in eloquence or learning. as having applied himself very closely to the liberal sciences. he spoke. asserting upon http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus." 543 which exhibited a considerable degree of learning. For after he had begun. XLII. by the breaking of several benches from the weight of a very fat man. he flew into a rage at them. He published a book to recommend them while he was yet only a private person." in eight books. He besides invented three new letters. concerning the former period. but do not touch me. he could not forbear bursting out into violent fits of laughter.htm (233 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . because he found he could not speak with freedom. at the remembrance of the accident. "Speak. but in no bad style. By the encouragement of Titus Livius 542. from which he himself used formerly to have his wine. but of the latter.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars." said he. and a due regard to truth. but afterwards he took a later period. likewise. and began at the conclusion of the civil wars. he attempted at an early age the composition of a history. he read it over with much difficulty. but she always considered me as her master. very seasonably. "This woman was my mother's freedwoman and dresser. "I ask you. surely I am. to hear and give their judgment upon it. he gave this: "His father. and with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus. "There is no reason why I should oblige you: if any one else is free to act as he pleases. one and forty. He applied himself with no less attention to the study of Grecian literature. and inscriptions upon buildings. he cried out. registers. he wrote several things (329) which he was careful to have recited to his friends by a reader. He commenced his history from the death of the dictator Caesar. XLI. In a debate in the senate relative to the butchers and vintners." The following expressions he had in his mouth every day. and having called together a numerous auditory. and said. he said.gutenberg. Among other reasons for his supporting a certain person who was candidate for the quaestorship. and even when order was restored. and this I say. having been often taken to task both by his mother and grandmother. Of the earlier history he left only two books. "once gave me. much more of an emperor. as highly necessary. and these letters are still extant in a variety of books. a great laugh was raised amongst the company. He compiled likewise the "History of his Own Life. full of absurdities. and at all hours and seasons: "What! do you take me for a Theogonius?" 541 And in Greek lalei kai mae thingane." Upon his bringing a woman as a witness in some cause before the senate. in what place. below the dignity of a private person. and frequently interrupting himself. because there are some still in my family that do not look upon me as such. a draught of cold water when I was sick. by C. After he became emperor." The people of Ostia addressing him in open court with a petition. and added them to the former alphabet 544.

another museum was founded at Alexandria. and its surpassing excellency. 'Tis time to strike when wrong demands the blow. Soon afterwards he made his will. accused by her own guilty conscience. his Tuscan history should be read over in one of these. Andr' epamynastai. he gave some manifest indications that he repented of his marriage with Agrippina.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. It is agreed that he was taken off by poison. twenty books on Tuscan affairs. that the Roman people may at last have a real Caesar. a woman accused of adultery. A stranger once holding a discourse both in Greek and Latin. and eight on the Carthaginian. The accounts http://www. and by whom administered. "Since you are skilled in both our tongues. he scarcely ever gave to the tribune on guard. (330) according to custom." Often. that. To conclude. namely. he said. Some authors say that it was given him as he was feasting with the priests in the Capitol." In the senate he often made long replies to ambassadors in that language. upon certain days in every year." 545 XLIV. he addressed him thus. in consequence of which. as well as by informers. in mushrooms.—He who has wounded will also heal. "o trosas kai iasetai.gutenberg. and had it signed by all the magistrates as witnesses. he added. and express a desire "that he might grow apace. but they did not escape punishment. on account of our common studies. a dish of which he was very fond 546.htm (234 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . "I have a particular attachment to that province. when he happened to meet Britannicus. Towards the close of his life. he would embrace him tenderly. and his adoption of Nero. But he was prevented from proceeding further by Agrippina. of a variety of crimes. On the tribunal he frequently quoted the verses of Homer. For some of his freedmen noticing with approbation his having condemned. by the eunuch Halotus. at his own table. as in a school. Others say (331) by Agrippina.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he wrote some histories likewise in Greek. "I do so." and receive from him an account of all his actions: using the Greek phrase. the day before. his taster. When at any time he had taken vengeance on an enemy or a conspirator. any other than this. he remarked. "It has been my misfortune to have wives who have been unfaithful to my bed. XLIII. ote tis proteros chalepaenae. Suetonius Tranquillus. and his Carthaginian in the other. by C. each history being read through by persons who took it in turn. but where." And recommending Achaia to the favour of the senate. all occasions his love of that language. in addition to the old one." And intending to give him the manly habit. because his stature would allow of it. and called after his name. who. remains in uncertainty. while he was yet under age and a tender youth. and it was ordered. came for the word.

but had another dose given him. or in a clyster. At the last assembly of the senate in which he made his appearance. but he promised them a largess of fifteen thousand sesterces a man. It appears from several circumstances. By an accident the most fortuitous. which perhaps was exhausted. and afterwards. was racked with pain through the night. in a debate of two days. in the hour of military insolence. that at first he fell into a sound sleep. his food rising. vows were made for his recovery. and he was ranked amongst the gods. His death was kept secret until everything was settled relative to his successor. Accordingly. The chief presages of his death were. "That he was now arrived at the last stage of mortal existence. His funeral was celebrated with the customary imperial pomp. And in the last cause he heard from the tribunal. he threw up the whole. he could not immediately reward the services of his electors with a pecuniary gratification. but restored by Vespasian. Not yet in possession of the public treasury. whether in water-gruel. gave time to the caprice of the soldiers to interpose in the settlement of the government. others. and the death of most of the magistrates of all ranks that year. Some relate that he instantly became speechless.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Suetonius Tranquillus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and with earnest entreaties commended to the fathers the care of their tender years. upwards of a hundred and forty pounds sterling. and made no secret of it. and the indecision of the senate. a man devoid of all pretensions to personal merit. was nominated by the soldiers as successor to the Roman throne. in the consulship of Asinius Marcellus and Acilius Aviola. by C. He died upon the third of the ides of October [13th October]. This honour was taken from him by Nero. XLVI. the appearance of a comet. by which they should proceed upon the assassination of that tyrant. this man. under pretence of refreshment after his exhaustion. * * * * * * The violent death of Caligula afforded the Romans a fresh opportunity to have asserted the liberty of their country. as if designed to relieve his bowels.gutenberg. For when he nominated the consuls. he earnestly exhorted his two sons to unity with each other. as it was pretended. so weak in understanding as to be the common sport of the emperor's household. is likewise uncertain. but the conspirators had concerted no plan. his father Drusus's monument being struck by lightning.htm (235 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and an object of contempt even to his own kindred. and as we meet with no account http://www. that he was sensible of his approaching dissolution. he repeatedly declared in open court. XLV." whilst all who heard it shrunk at hearing these ominous words. and comedians were called to amuse him. he appointed no one to fill the office beyond the month in which he died. on so sudden an emergency. of what followed likewise differ. by his own desire. in the sixty-fourth year of his age. and the fourteenth of his reign 547. and died about day-break.

yet he was now seized with a desire to enjoy a triumph. through many succeeding ages. is not surprising. The extreme cruelty. and though he had hitherto lived apparently unambitious of public honours. which had been exercised during the last two reigns. http://www. in consequence of which many of them were familiarly acquainted with him. convulsed the Roman empire. This transaction laid the foundation of that military despotism. and who. from the government of a single person than any other class of Roman citizens. and for that of Claudius in particular. under a tyrannical prince. afforded a further motive for relinquishing all attempts in favour of liberty. They had likewise ever been remarkably fond of stage-plays and public shows. it was evident that there was still a strong party for restoring the ancient form of government. his vanity could only be gratified by invading a foreign country. were the only people by whose assistance they ever could effect the restitution of public freedom. it appears that the populace of Rome were extremely clamorous for the government of a single person. They had therefore less to fear. Suetonius Tranquillus. and this circumstance likewise increased their hope of deriving some advantage from his accession. when we consider that the senate was totally unprovided with resources of every kind for asserting the independence of the nation by arms. would exert their utmost efforts to procure his appointment to the throne. accompanied with great ostentation. were always the least exposed to oppression. we may justly conclude that the promise was soon after fulfilled. who interrupted their deliberations. Exclusive of all these considerations. That they were in the end overawed by the clamour of the multitude. persons of mean extraction. of any subsequent discontents in the army. From the debate in the senate having continued during (333) two days. and donations of bread and other victuals. from their obscure situation. ever since the overthrow of the republic. as they might be severely revenged upon themselves by the subsequent emperor: and it was a degree of moderation in Claudius. the preceding emperor had frequently gratified them. had lost both the influence and authority which they formerly enjoyed. This partiality for a monarchical government proceeded from two causes. and more to hope. Besides the interposition of the soldiers upon this occasion. As there existed no war. which. it is highly probable that the populace were instigated in favour of Claudius by the artifices of his freedmen. To this may be added. that he began his government with an act of amnesty respecting the public transactions which ensued upon the death of Caligula. as well as with scrambles. Claudius. The commonalty. by whom he was afterwards entirely governed. likewise. with which. and the commonalty.htm (236 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] .gutenberg. in which he might perform some military achievement. With regard to the partiality for Claudius.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. that the senate. at the time of his accession.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. upon such an occasion. by the total reduction of their political importance. it may be accounted for partly from the low habits of life to which he had been addicted. was fifty years of age. by C. which palliates the injustice of his cause.

but meeting with a violent storm in the Mediterranean. Either Britain. had long since been forgotten. by C. and returning to Rome. and upon his arrival in the Roman capital. celebrated with great pomp the triumph. not only as more convenient.gutenberg. and sent him to Rome. he landed at Marseilles. after an absence of six months. therefore. The fame of the British prince had by this time spread over the provinces of Gaul and Italy. The ceremonial of his entrance was conducted with great solemnity.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. became the object of such an enterprize. Next followed the brothers of the vanquished prince. With a manly gait and an undaunted countenance.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In what part he debarked. a sudden attempt upon the island could not fail to be attended with success. the natives. where the emperor was seated. Suetonius Tranquillus. under the command of Caractacus. and penetrated a considerable way into the country. until Ostorius Scapula was sent over to prosecute the war. who inhabited the banks of the Severn. maintained an obstinate resistance. at a great distance from the capital. Regni. he marched up to the tribunal. an able general. who defeated the natives in several engagements. But not so Caractacus himself. and addressed him in the following terms: "If to my high birth and distinguished rank. I had added the virtues of moderation. he might attempt to extend still further the limits of the empire. and behind them was ranged the whole body of the people. or some nation on the continent. from its vicinity to the maritime province of Gaul. and the former was chosen. upwards of eighty years before. respecting the protection afforded to some persons of that nation. at the mouth of (334) the Tiber. but on account of a remonstrance lately presented by the Britons to the court of Rome. with his wife and daughter. Rome had http://www. Accordingly. the people flocked from all quarters to behold him. the Cantii. but it seems to have been at some place on the south-east coast of the island. and having defeated Caractacus in a great battle. a warlike tribe. the pretorian troops were drawn up in martial array: the emperor and his court took their station in front of the lines. is uncertain. under the command of Aulus Plautius. Claudius set sail from Ostia. expressing by their supplicating looks and gestures the fears with which they were actuated. He immediately received the submission of several British states. and proceeding thence to Boulogne in Picardy. and Trinobantes. who had fled thither to elude the laws of their country. amongst which there was no general confederacy for mutual defence. Preparations for the emperor's voyage now being made. who inhabited those parts. Considering the state of Britain at that time. passed over into Britain. The procession commenced with the different trophies which had been taken from the Britons during the progress of the war.htm (237 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . where. an army was sent over. divided as it was into a number of principalities. Atrebates. contrary to the advice contained in the testament of Augustus. and little progress was made by the Roman arms. in chains. and where the alarm excited by the invasion of Julius Caesar. made him prisoner. On a plain adjoining the Roman camp. In the interior parts of Britain. for which he had undertaken the expedition. He penetrated into the country of the Silures.

beheld me rather as a friend than a captive. descended from illustrious ancestors. she obliged C. To cruelty in the prosecution of her purposes. to divorce his wife. and even in the public streets of the capital. The most extraordinary character in the present reign was that of Valeria Messalina. and had by him a son and a daughter. by C. the adulterous parties ascended the nuptial couch in the presence of the astonished spectators. that he returned in a short time to his own country.gutenberg. Claudius granted him his liberty. Great as was the facility of Claudius's temper in respect of her former behaviour. she could not summon the http://www. Suetonius Tranquillus. She was married to Claudius. and you will derive no honour from the transaction. must men therefore implicitly resign themselves to subjection? I opposed for a long time the progress of your arms. would continue to render him illustrious through life. as he did likewise to the other royal captives. the daughter of Valerius Messala Barbatus. but it is probable. not meant to be consummated. who sat upon a bench at a little distance. the ceremony of marriage was actually performed between them. to which she invited a large company. she added the most abandoned incontinence. and horses. The reverse of my fortune to you is glorious.htm (238 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and had I acted otherwise. where his former valour. As if her conduct was already not sufficiently scandalous. Terror now operating upon her mind in conjunction with remorse. and the magnanimity. and Messalina was ordered into the emperor's presence. and governing many nations. and can it be any wonder that I was unwilling to lose them? Because Rome aspires to universal dominion. my fate will soon be forgotten. and lest the whole should be regarded as a frolic. even amidst the irretrievable ruin of his fortunes. she next persuaded him to marry her. Not confining her licentiousness within the limits of the palace. and during an excursion which the emperor made to Ostia. I possessed extraordinary riches. she prostituted her person in the common stews. Preserve my life." Immediately upon this speech. Not contented with this indulgence to her criminal passion. Silius was condemned to death for the adultery which he had perpetrated with reluctance. that she might procure his company entirely to herself. walking towards Agrippina.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. History has preserved no account of Caractacus after this period. and as soon as their chains were taken off. which he had displayed at Rome. or I of a brave resistance? I am now in your (335) power: if you are determined to take revenge. They all returned their thanks in a manner the most grateful to the emperor. and to me humiliating. and I shall remain to the latest ages a monument of your clemency. where she committed the most shameful excesses. and you would not have rejected an alliance with a prince. he could not overlook so flagrant a violation both of public decency and the laws of the country. The occasion was celebrated with a magnificent supper. I had arms. would either you have had the glory of conquest. Silius.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and men. they repeated to her the same fervent declarations of gratitude and esteem. a man of consular rank. to answer for her conduct.

and urged her to the act which alone could put a period to her infamy and wretchedness. yet he seems to have exclusively enjoyed this distinction during his own reign. Besides history. They had before been the slaves of their masters. from the time of Livy the historian. and of whom a great satirist. It has been already observed. In the extremity of her distress. a class of retainers which enjoyed a great share of favour and confidence with their patrons in those times. Of the esteem in which they were often held. VI. As it was common for them to be taught the more useful parts of education in the families of their masters. and plunging his sword into her body. Marrying Vipsania after she had been divorced by Tiberius. Et lassata viris. written in the most familiar and affectionate strain of friendship. but retired into the gardens of Lucullus. then living. by C. in which learning was at a low ebb.htm (239 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . Thus perished a woman. that Claudius was entirely governed by his freedmen. we should not readily imagine that he was endowed with any taste for literary composition. and in arbitrary governments. to whom that illustrious Roman addresses several epistles. we meet with an instance in Tiro. or by order of the tyrant. and might even be competent to the superior departments of the state.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and had obtained their freedom as a reward for their faithful and attentive services. resolution to support such an interview. recessit. and to meditate the entreaties by which she should endeavour to soothe the resentment (336) of her husband. the freedman of Cicero. Again she made an effort. necdum satiata. Asinius Gallus was the son of Asinius Pollio. perhaps without a hyperbole. they were usually well qualified for the management of domestic concerns. This appears to be the only tribute of esteem or approbation paid to the character of Cicero. she attempted to lay violent hands upon herself. there to indulge at last the compunction which she felt for her crimes. the orator. to the extinction of the race of the Caesars. has said. was present upon the occasion. she instantly expired. http://www. but her courage was not equal to the emergency. where public affairs were directed more by the will of the sovereign or his ministers. he gave the preference to the former. especially in those times when negotiations and treaties with foreign princes seldom or never occurred. Suetonius informs us that he wrote a Defence of Cicero against the Charges of Asinius Gallus. the scandal of whose lewdness resounded throughout the empire. Her mother. with more filial partiality than justice. Lepida. Suetonius Tranquillus. and died of famine. but again her resolution abandoned her. Sat. when a tribune burst into the gardens. From the character generally given of Claudius before his elevation to the throne. who had not spoken with her for some years before. in which. either voluntarily. He wrote a comparison between his father and Cicero. than by refined suggestions of policy.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.—Juvenal.gutenberg. he incurred the displeasure of that emperor.

being offended with the high priests for electing another than himself in the room of his father. at a remote period. that of Cneius. resembling that of brass. of whom we have this tradition: —As he was returning out of the country to Rome. he made a progress through the province. which was supposed to be contrary both to the omens and the laws. by turns. to a bright colour. who desired him to announce to the senate and people a victory. having conquered the Allobroges and the Arverni 553. In his consulship 552. This family had the honour of seven consulships 548. to show that Nero so far degenerated from the noble qualities of his ancestors. Afterwards.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. his great-grandfather's grandfather. during his praetorship 554. For the first. when he was http://www. NERO CLAUDIUS CAESAR. when he was tribune of the people. Two celebrated families. three persons in succession sometimes adhering to one of them. obtained the (338) transfer of the right of election from the colleges of the priests to the people. and then they were changed alternately. for they had generally red beards. with no other praenomina 551 than those of Cneius and Lucius. one triumph 549. and third of the Aenobarbi had the praenomen of Lucius. (337) I. mounted upon an elephant. The Aenobarbi derive both their extraction and their cognomen from one Lucius Domitius. should be called to account before the senate for his administration of that office. Suetonius Tranquillus. and again the three following. and being admitted into the patrician order. as if those alone had been transmitted to him by his descent.gutenberg. one.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. therefore. and two censorships 550. in a sort of triumphal pomp. they assumed with singular irregularity. "It was no wonder he had a brazen beard. of which no certain intelligence had yet reached the city.htm (240 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . however. while those who came after were called. he was met by two young men of a most august appearance. by C. sprung from the race of the Domitii. with a body of soldiers attending him. the Calvini and Aenobarbi. second. and the other. proposed that Cneius Caesar. successively. Lucius. which was black. Cneius Domitius. they stroked his cheeks. and a heart of lead. which mark of distinction descended to his posterity. who had a face of iron. To begin. These. It appears to me proper to give a short account of several of the family. that he retained only their vices. upon the expiration of his consulship." His son. II. To prove that they were more than mortals. Of this person the orator Licinius Crassus said. they continued the use of the same cognomen. and thus changed his hair. Cneius.

named Domitius. either to accept or refuse it. given him only a gentle dose of the poison. he went to Marseilles. When he was aedile. which was then besieged. He left a son. he was the only man who was restored to his country. where having.htm (241 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he was made prisoner at Corsinium. and cruelty. At last. when the party had everywhere been defeated. to give him the way. he went over to Augustus 557. But he was a man of great arrogance. In despair of his fortunes. prodigality. but not daring. on account of a sudden indisposition with which he was seized. not only kept together the fleet.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He gave hunts of wild beasts. and in his praetorship. and gave freedom to his physician for having. and offered the chief command by those who were ashamed of Cleopatra. the command of which had been given him some time before. by his presence. immediately repenting. For Antony gave out. he was condemned. as also a show of gladiators. he was appointed lieutenant under the same Antony. that he was induced to change sides by his impatience to be with his mistress. but with such barbarity. 558 IV. who was afterwards well known as the nominal purchaser of the family property left by Augustus's will 559. and. he tried to deprive Cneius of the command of the army. that. amongst others who were concerned in the death of Caesar 556. but even increased it. who was. Servilia Nais. and having been. appointed his successor. with great prudence and wisdom. in the beginning of the civil war. although innocent. after their death. the best of the family. both in the Circus and in all the wards of the city. after privately reprimanding him. he was the only one who proposed that they should be treated as enemies. When the civil war again broke out. Suetonius Tranquillus. to no purpose. not without an aspersion cast upon his memory. When Cneius Pompey was consulting with his friends in what manner he should conduct himself towards those who were neuter and took no part in the contest. he went over to Brutus and Cassius. animated the people to hold out. he suddenly deserted them. he voluntarily surrendered it to (339) Mark Antony. but was so terrified at the thoughts of death. Of all those who were condemned by the law above-mentioned. consul himself 555.gutenberg.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He was a man of little constancy. he took a vomit to throw it up again. he had recourse to poison. and filled the highest offices. III. by intrigue and cabal. http://www. the censor. that Augustus. Upon this. Being set at liberty. by C. he obliged Lucius Plancus. was obliged to restrain him by a public edict. than he was afterwards for the triumphal ornaments which he obtained in the German war. By the Pedian law. considering it as a piece of service for which the latter owed him no small obligations. and died a few days after. without doubt. This Cneius had a son. and at last was slain in the battle of Pharsalia. he made Roman knights and married women act on the stage. his near relations. and of a sullen temper. and no less famous in his youth for his dexterity in chariot-driving. and consulship.

when emperor. it was said that they were frightened by a serpent. Upon his mother's recall from banishment. and pernicious to the public. for the future. a dancing-master and a barber. By the elder Antonia he had Nero's father. could ever be produced of him and Agrippina. he gave his: and this not seriously. he lived with his aunt Lepida." Another manifest prognostic of his future infelicity occurred upon his lustration day 563. because Claudius at that time was a mere laughing-stock at the palace. he agreed to sanction a law. Agrippina treating it with contempt. Being dismissed for this from Caesar's society. At Rome.htm (242 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . of which he never got possession. was regarded as an ill presage. on purpose. nine months after the death of Tiberius 562. He was likewise so fraudulent. and incest with his sister Lepida. during his praetorship. that he not only cheated some silversmiths 560 of the price of goods he had bought of them. adopted Nero. that it was reported. "That nothing but what was detestable. for. Domitius. for refusing to drink as much as he ordered him. Nero. V. in respect to his future fortune. he struck out the eye of a Roman knight in the Forum. and died of a dropsy. he not only recovered his father's estate. but. Crispus Passienus. He lost his father when he was three years old. Claudius's wife. Nero was born at Antium. adulteries. just as the sun rose. "That. the daughter of Germanicus. upon the eighteenth of the calends of January [15th December]. from the circumstances of his nativity. he was advanced to such favour. the prizes should be immediately paid. (340) over a poor boy. His sister. in a village upon the Appian road. assassins were employed by Messalina. whilst he was taking his noon-day repose. While many fearful conjectures.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. VI. In addition to the story. jeering him for the complaints made by the leaders of the several parties. which crept from under his cushion. at Pyrgi 561. and ran away. and drove his chariot. so that its beams touched him before they could well reach the earth. he did not mend his habits. a man of execrable character in every part of his life. defrauded the owners of chariots in the Circensian games of the prizes due to them for their victory. as Britannicus's rival. whom he had by Agrippina. who (341) afterwards. After Claudius came to the empire. were formed by different persons. he was prosecuted for treason. but only in jest.gutenberg." A little before the death of Tiberius. Claudius. by C. but was enriched with the additional inheritance of that of his step-father. a saying of his father. in a very necessitous condition. under the care of two tutors. who told his friends who were congratulating him upon the occasion.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. His mother being soon after banished. Suetonius Tranquillus. he suddenly whipped his horses. only for some free language in a dispute between them. to strangle him. For Caius Caesar being requested by his sister to give the child what name he thought proper—looking at his uncle. being left heir to a third part of his estate. The tale was occasioned by finding on his http://www. During his attendance upon Caius Caesar in the East. through Nero's powerful interest with the emperor. Caius. but escaped in the timely change of affairs. leaving behind him his son. the whole being seized by his co-heir. crushing him to pieces. he killed a freedman of his own.

in Latin. he married Octavia. before he arrived at the age of puberty. IX. by his mother's order. and for the Rhodians and people of Ilium.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Before Claudius. that no earlier time of the day was judged proper. after which he went to return thanks to his father in the senate. inclosed in a bracelet of gold. to his mother. in the time of his extremity. VII. at the time he was consul. who had been made a senator. as is usual in that case. he gave a largess to the people and a donative to the soldiers: for the pretorian cohorts. whom he buried with the utmost pomp and magnificence. in honour of Claudius. He had the jurisdiction of praefect of the city. from aversion to her memory. Nero soon verified his dream. thence. "The (343) Best http://www. he appointed a solemn procession under arms. he was adopted by Claudius. on account of his youth. and as soon as that event was made public. that he was giving a lesson to Caius Caesar 566. but trials of importance. near the pillow. and placed under the tuition of Annaeus Seneca 565. pronouncing the funeral oration himself. and then had him enrolled amongst the gods. at the age of manhood. Soon afterwards. during the Latin festival. he was unanimously saluted by the soldiers as their emperor.htm (243 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . during which the most celebrated advocates brought before him. On his introduction into the Forum. for the first time. of all the immense honours which were heaped upon him. This amulet. and exhibited the Circensian games.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. VIII. notwithstanding his adoption. and then carried in a litter to the camp. couch. in vain. both public and private. he appeared in court as a witness against her. betraying the cruelty of his disposition in every way he could. he laid aside. as usual. and marched at the head of them with a shield in his hand. For he attempted to persuade his father that his brother. because the latter had (342) saluted him. he performed his part in the Trojan play with a degree of firmness which gained him great applause. who persecuted the accused. He began his reign with an ostentation of dutiful regard to the memory of Claudius. he went out to the cohort on guard between the hours of six and seven. that Seneca dreamt the night after. When he was yet a mere boy. for the omens were so disastrous. but he sought for it again. during the celebration of the Circensian games 564. He paid likewise the highest honours to the memory of his father Domitius. In the eleventh year of his age. He left the management of affairs. refusing none but the title of FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY. He was seventeen years of age at the death of that prince 567. by the name of Aenobarbus. It is said. Suetonius Tranquillus. was brought to trial. not short and trifling causes. the skin of a snake. Lepida. Britannicus. was nothing but a changeling. in Greek. after making a short speech to the troops. The word which he gave the first day of his reign to the tribune on guard. he wore for some time upon his right arm. notwithstanding they had instructions from Claudius himself to the contrary. by C. likewise.gutenberg. into the senate-house. at last. and hunting of wild beasts. where he continued until the evening. to gratify his mother. was. he made a speech for the Bolognese. On the steps before the palace gate. When his aunt. which.

which. by C." and omitted no opportunity of showing his generosity. When called upon to subscribe the sentence. and lands. the furniture of the house. Suetonius Tranquillus. gold. The more burthensome taxes he either entirely took off. and had races performed by chariots drawn each by four camels. likewise. and recited verses of his own composing." said he. To the noblest of the senators who were much reduced in their circumstances. and obliged several of the richest centurions of the first rank to transfer their residence to that place. In the Circensian games. he replied to them. A Roman play. "The Fire. not only at home. composed by Afranius. at last. and an exhibition of gladiators. beasts of burden. Every day during the solemnity. clemency. silver. but in the theatre. "It will be time enough to do so when I shall have deserved it. and complaisance." He continually saluted people of the several orders by name. (344) XI. he assigned the equestrian order seats apart from the rest of the people.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. "I wish. according to custom. The rewards appointed for informers by the Papian law. ships. stage-plays." He admitted the common people to see him perform his exercises in the Campus Martius. pictures.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. as the Juvenal and Circensian games. was burnt down in the theatre. he declared. performed. were. as the plot of the play required. "that he designed to govern according to the model of Augustus. without a prompter. and distributed to the people four hundred sesterces a man. "I had never learnt to read and write.htm (244 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . in some cases as much as five hundred thousand sesterces. He frequently declaimed in public. after being written in gold letters. were offered as prizes in a lottery. so much to the joy of all the people. mounted on an elephant. slaves. consecrated to Jupiter Capitolinus. that public prayers were appointed to be put up to the gods upon that account. many thousand articles of all descriptions were thrown amongst the people to scramble for. He settled a colony at Antium. such as fowls of different kinds. In the games which he instituted for the eternal duration of the empire. he reduced to a fourth part. many of the senatorian and equestrian order. wild beasts that had been tamed. of a criminal condemned to die. It was entitled. and therefore ordered to be called Maximi. and the verses which had been publicly read. In the Juvenal. of both sexes. clothes. and to keep to themselves. A distinguished Roman knight descended on the stage by a rope. where he likewise made a noble harbour at a prodigious expense. When the senate returned him their thanks for his good government. He presented the people with a great number and variety of spectacles." and afterwards he frequently appeared with her in the streets of Rome in her litter. and to the pretorian cohorts a monthly allowance of corn gratis. pearls. http://www. he even admitted senators and aged matrons to perform parts. in which he placed the veteran soldiers belonging to the guards. gems. 568 X. was brought upon the stage. or diminished. lots of houses. he granted annual allowances. To establish still further his character." and in it the performers were allowed to carry off.gutenberg. tickets for corn. of Mothers.

org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. with huge fishes swimming in it. amidst the military standards and ensigns. and which he called Neronia. and bespattered him with blood. He invited the Vestal Virgins to see the (346) wrestlers perform. Icarus. to act as gladiators. He presented the public with the representation of a naval fight. This personage. He was the first who instituted 571. The crown for the best performer on the harp. At this time he went down into the orchestra amongst the senators. being likewise awarded to him by the judges. wrestling. on a stage made shelving for the purpose. a trial of skill in the three several exercises of music. which he presented in the Septa. he furnished the senate and the equestrian order with oil. to each of whom. During this diversion. as many of the spectators believed. XIII. at Olympia. and for various other services in the theatre. These games he beheld from the front of the proscenium. he ordered that none should be slain. about the temples in the forum. to be performed at Rome every five years. the priestesses of Ceres are allowed the privilege of witnessing that exhibition. he invited to Rome by very liberal promises. because. performed by certain youths. In the gymnastic exercises. upon sea-water. and ordered it to be carried to the statue of Augustus. he shaved his beard for the first time 573. at first through some narrow apertures. but they unanimously yielded to him. in imitation of the Greeks. the solemn entrance of Tiridates 574 into the city deserves to be mentioned. by C. but afterwards with the Podium 570 quite open. he devoutly saluted it. and six hundred Roman knights. He secured four hundred senators. From the same orders. consecrated it to Jupiter Capitolinus. who sat with the praetors. Amongst the spectacles presented by him. he granted the freedom of Rome. The http://www. not even the condemned criminals employed in the combats. which he exhibited in a wooden amphitheatre. concealed within a wooden statue of a cow. chosen by lot. after the performance was over. and putting it up in a casket of gold studded with pearls of great price. For he very seldom presided in the games. he took the first opportunity which occurred. Suetonius Tranquillus. who was king of Armenia. in a triumphal dress. XII. he engaged persons to encounter wild beasts. for which several persons of the greatest merit contended. upon his first attempt to fly. and horse-racing. fell on the stage close to (345) the emperor's pavilion. a bull covered Pasiphae. and received the crown for the best performance in Latin prose and verse. several cohorts being drawn up under arms. Upon the dedication of his bath 572 and gymnasium. but used to view them reclining on a couch. built within a year in the district of the Campus Martius 569. and kissed him. while he was seated on a curule chair on the rostra. he permitted him to throw himself at his feet. but quickly raised him with his right hand. as also with the Pyrrhic dance. He appointed as judges of the trial men of consular rank. while they were preparing the great sacrifice of an ox. But being prevented by unfavourable weather from showing him to the people upon the day fixed by proclamation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.htm (245 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] .gutenberg. In the show of gladiators. amongst whom were some of unbroken fortunes and unblemished reputation. Upon Tiridates advancing towards him.

as though there now existed no war throughout the Roman empire. the second and last for six. and these he built at his own expense. Public suppers were limited to the Sportulae 576.htm (246 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . whose office it properly was. where. took the turban from his head. and those who had been admitted by former princes. at the king's request. which he sent to the senate on certain occasions.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and sending his laurel crown to the Capitol. after renewing his obeisance. He likewise inflicted punishments on the Christians. he scarcely ever gave his decision on the pleadings before the next day. (347) he pronounced sentence from the tribunal according to his own view of the case. and one of the two consuls dying a little before the first of January. He likewise designed to extend the city walls as far as Ostia. Being then greeted by universal acclamation with the title of Emperor. the king was conducted to the theatre. except pulse and herbs. And instead of the quaestors. he substituted no one in his place. For a long time he would not admit the sons of freedmen into the senate. ordering piazzas to be erected before all houses. and the third for four. he did not debate the matter openly with them. both in the streets and detached.gutenberg. but silently and privately reading over their opinions. He devised a new style of building in the city. by C. emperor then. for preventing it from spreading. but to dispatch them in order as they stood. the two intermediate ones he held successively. When he withdrew to consult his assessors. http://www. Nero shut the temple of the twofaced Janus. Many severe regulations and new orders were made in his time. he excluded from all public offices. who was consul for one day only. disliking what had been formerly done for Caninius Rebilus on such an occasion. To supernumerary candidates he gave command in the legions. Nero seated him on his right hand. and bestowed them without regard to military service. He filled the consulship four times 575: the first for two months. A sumptuary law was enacted. and replaced it by a crown. and victualling-houses restrained from selling any dressed victuals. and bring the sea from thence by a canal into the old city. Suetonius Tranquillus. which they gave separately in writing. to give facilities from their terraces. as if it was the opinion of the majority.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. to comfort them under the delay of their hopes. His manner of hearing causes was not to allow any adjournment. In the administration of justice. After this ceremony. He allowed the triumphal honours only to those who were of quaestorian rank. but the others after an interval of some years between them. whereas before they sold all kinds of meat. he frequently ordered that the addresses. XVI. should be read by the consuls. The consulship he commonly conferred for six months. a sort of people who held a new and impious 577 superstition. and then in writing. in case of fire. whilst a person of pretorian rank proclaimed in Latin the words in which the prince addressed the emperor as a suppliant. XIV. and to some of the equestrian order. XV.

when he attempted to rise.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. In Achaia. having made a speech encouraging his pretorians to set about the work. All (349) that he did was to reduce the kingdom of Pontus. he sent for Terpnus. should be presented blank to those who were to sign them as witnesses. of which I shall now give an account. For while he was making the circuit of the temples. which was to be gratuitous. and that all appeals from the judges should be made to the senate. and. the charges for it being paid out of the public treasury. Twice only he undertook any foreign expeditions. upon the death of Cottius. On the contrary. in order to separate them from the scandalous and criminal part of his conduct. and in part highly commendable. the two first pages. and also the Alps 579. who had long assumed a licence to stroll about. which he called the phalanx of Alexander the Great. XVII.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and the other to Achaia. into the form of a province. The partisans of the rival theatrical performers were banished. the skirt of his robe stuck fast. It was likewise ordained that clients should pay their advocates a certain reasonable fee. that causes. as well as the actors themselves. and carried off a basket full of earth upon his shoulders. he was instructed in music. by C. on a signal given by sound of trumpet. Among the other liberal arts which he was taught in his youth. and was only restrained from so doing by the fear of appearing to detract from the glory of his father 578. Sitting with him for several http://www.gutenberg. It was likewise provided that in wills. forming a new legion out of his late levies in Italy. and established for themselves a kind of prescriptive right to cheat and thieve. XX. XIX. should insert any legacy for himself. who flourished at that time with the highest reputation. and he was instantly seized with such a dimness in his eyes.htm (247 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . but he abandoned the prosecution of the former on the very day fixed for his departure. and the ordinary tribunals. He made preparations for an expedition to the Pass of the Caspian mountains 581. These transactions. with only the testator's name upon them. he attempted to make a cut through the Isthmus 580. a performer upon the harp 582. in part unexceptionable. that he could not see a yard before him. one to Alexandria. should be transferred to the forum. He never entertained the least ambition or hope of augmenting and extending the frontiers of the empire. having seated himself in that of Vesta. which was ceded to him by Polemon. XVIII. and then sealed. run through three times with a thread. he first broke ground with a spade. of having writings bored. (348) He forbad the revels of the charioteers. but nothing for the court. of men all six feet high. by being deterred both by ill omens. a method was then first invented. and the hazard of the voyage. making a jest of it. Suetonius Tranquillus. I have brought into one view. To prevent forgery. the cognizance of which before belonged to the judges of the exchequer. and immediately after (350) his advancement to the empire. and that no one who wrote a will for another. he had thoughts of withdrawing the troops from Britain.

being extremely proud of his singing. a man of consular rank. until the next year. it was his custom to go from the bath to the theatre. he ordered the games called Neronia to be celebrated before the time fixed for their return. XXI. At the same time. and although the theatre quivered with the sudden shock of an earthquake. he sent for more of the like singers from Alexandria. called bombi.htm (248 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . clear his stomach and bowels by vomits and clysters. and for several days together. with rings upon their left hands. on purpose to learn various kinds of applause. "that he would gratify those who desired it at the gardens. and with all his heart. and were remarkable for their fine heads of hair. as he sang and played after supper. and several of his intimate friends. and continued it until nearly ten o'clock. But that being too long. that he intended to sing the story of Niobe. and followed by the military tribunes. He played and sung in the same place several times. Nor did he omit any of those expedients which artists in music adopt." Accordingly. he made his first public appearance at Naples. He instantly ordered his name to be entered upon the list of musicians who proposed to contend. took his turn. Encouraged by his proficiency. he commanded Cluvius Rufus. whenever he performed. he promised them in Greek 583. and forbear the eating of fruits. and made the usual prelude. which they were to practise in his favour. he would give them a tune which would make their ears tingle. he was desirous of appearing upon the stage. All now becoming importunate to hear "his heavenly voice. They were (351) divided into several parties.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by C. He would lie upon his back with a sheet of lead upon his breast. he began by degrees to practise upon the instrument himself. but deferred the disposal of the crown. Impatient of retirement. This he accordingly did. amidst a crowded assembly of the people. frequently repeating amongst his friends a Greek proverb to this effect: "that no one had any regard for music which they never heard. days following. "that after he had drank a little. until late at night. though his voice was naturally neither loud nor clear. Suetonius Tranquillus. or food prejudicial to the voice. and after dining in the orchestra. The leaders of these bands had salaries of forty thousand sesterces allowed them." Being highly pleased with the songs that were sung in his praise by some Alexandrians belonging to the fleet just arrived at Naples 584. imbrices.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. to proclaim in the theatre. and the remaining part of the solemnity. he chose young men of the equestrian order. taking only now and then a little respite to refresh his voice. until he had finished the piece of music he had begun. After he had taken his station." But the soldiers then on guard seconding the voice of the people. and having thrown his lot into the urn among the rest.gutenberg. he did not desist. At Rome also. and were extremely well dressed. attended by the prefects of the pretorian cohorts bearing his harp. and entered. and testae 585. he could not refrain from http://www. that he might have more frequent opportunities of performing. he promised to comply with their request immediately. for the preservation and improvement of their voices." he informed them. and above five thousand robust young fellows from the common people.

the case of a charioteer of the green party. Amongst the rest. notwithstanding it was prohibited him. Upon this. amidst crowds of slaves and other rabble. and were the only good judges of him and his attainments. he brought within the compass of one. as also of the heroines and goddesses. he pretended that he was talking of Hector. Lamenting once. Nor did he conceal his desire to have the number of the prizes doubled. at first privately." and "Hercules Mad. he said. upon a table. Having made his first experiment in the gardens. Suetonius Tranquillus. Being requested by some of them to sing at supper. principally for this purpose. made of ivory. it is said that a young sentinel." In the last tragedy. He likewise sang tragedies in a mask. who was dragged round the circus at the tail of his chariot.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. when http://www." Without delay he commenced his journey. among his fellowpupils. Not satisfied with exhibiting various specimens of his skill in those arts at Rome. he sung "Canace in Labour. XXII. so that nobody ever doubted of his presence on any particular day. (352) exhibited his first musical performance before the altar of Jupiter Cassius. and prodigiously applauded. At Olympia. as the fable of the play required.htm (249 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and some he ordered to be celebrated a second time in the same year. being formed into a resemblance of his own face. but even invited them to his table. so that the races being increased accordingly. likewise. even in the spectacles presented to the people by private persons. had resolved to send him the crowns belonging to those who bore away the prize. but at last openly. He attended at all the lesser exhibitions in the circus. XXIII. He afterwards appeared at the celebration of all public games in Greece: for such as fell in different years. and being reprimanded by his tutor for it. the visors of the heroes and gods. he appointed a public performance in music: and that he might meet with no interruption in this employment. in which solemn trials of musical skill used to be publicly held." "Oedipus (352) Blinded. often appearing as a public performer during the interval. and his constant talk was of the Circensian races. In the beginning of his reign. he went over to Achaia. and on his arrival at Cassiope 587. he took a fancy for driving the chariot himself. by C. posted at the entrance of the stage. and that even publicly. whilst one of his freedmen dropped the napkin in the place where the magistrates used to give the signal. contrary to custom. and was offered by one of the praetors. "the Greeks were the only people who has an ear for music. and that of any woman he was in love with.gutenberg. ran to his assistance." 586 "Orestes the Murderer of his Mother. the leaders of parties refusing now to bring out their companies for any time less than the whole day. the diversion continued until a late hour. He had from his childhood an extravagant passion for horses. seeing him in a prison dress and bound with fetters. he at length performed in the view of all the people. he used to amuse himself daily with chariots drawn by four horses. He made no scruple of exhibiting on the stage. These he accepted so graciously. in the Circus Maximus. as has been already said. that he not only gave the deputies who brought them an immediate audience.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. no less than a million of sesterces for his services. The several cities.

The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. before he reached the goal. Many of the spectators being quite wearied with hearing and applauding him." Upon their encouraging him to have a good heart. upon meeting them. and at the Olympic games with no fewer than ten. he adhered so strictly to the rules. On his departure. by C. and could not regain his assurance. In these contests. he ordered all their statues and pictures to be pulled down. he had reflected upon Mithridates for that innovation. is scarcely to be believed. and with how much awe of the judges. and was obliged to give up. With what extreme anxiety he engaged in these contests. but not entirely free from anxiety. telling them. but could not retain his seat. "he had done all things that were necessary. he was in a great fright. he always proclaimed it himself. As if his adversaries had been on a level with himself. during the solemnity of the Isthmian games. and conferred upon the judges in the several games the freedom of Rome." During the time of his musical performance. but was crowned notwithstanding. yet you ought rather to advise and hope that I may come back with a character worthy of Nero. in a poem of his. When the prize was adjudged to him. nobody was allowed to stir out of the theatre upon any account. if they were better performers than himself. though. until an actor who stood by swore he was certain it had not been observed in the midst of the acclamations and exultations of the people. All these favours he proclaimed himself with his own voice. with what keen desire to bear away the prize.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. were carried out for their funeral. XXV. that affairs at Rome required his presence. He always addressed the judges with the most profound reverence before he began. he declared the whole province a free country. Having. He drove the chariot with various numbers of horses. (354) that he never durst spit.htm (250 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he was again replaced. nor wipe the sweat from his forehead in any other way than with his sleeve. insomuch. he wrote to him in these words: "Though now all your hopes and wishes are for my speedy return. because the town gates were shut. XXIV. he went off with more assurance. that it is said some women with child were delivered there. ought to exclude from their judgment things merely accidental. by way of preparation. because he had commenced his career as a http://www. Being thrown out of his chariot. and thrown into the common sewers. Suetonius Tranquillus. On his return from Greece. dropped his sceptre. however necessary. That no memory or the least monument might remain of any other victor in the sacred Grecian games. and even entered the lists with the heralds. and saying that he was suspicious of them. in the performance of a tragedy. from the middle of the Stadium. slipped privately over the walls. lest he should be set aside for the miscarriage.gutenberg. he would watch them narrowly. defame them privately. and not quickly recovering it. or counterfeiting themselves dead. rail at them in very scurrilous language. and that they. as wise and skilful men. and sometimes. with large sums of money. arriving at Naples. interpreting the silence and modesty of some of them into sourness and ill-nature. dragged away with hooks. but that the issue of the approaching trial was in the hand of fortune. he was informed by his freedman Helius. or bribe them.

according to the practice of those who were victorious in the sacred Grecian games. In the same manner he entered Antium. having on his head the crown won at Olympia. avarice. When they came to blows. and in what plays or musical performances. Nor did he ever do any thing either in jest or earnest. but. the world was of opinion that they were the faults of his nature. placing himself upon the upper part of the proscenium. to the Palatine hill and the temple of Apollo. and birds.htm (251 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . or with some person to deliver his speeches for him. and to apply a handkerchief to his mouth when he did. which was not void of mischief. and not of his age. whilst a train followed him with loud acclamations. or avowed (356) open enmity to many. by C. without a voice-master standing by him to caution him against overstraining his vocal organs. and even his life. and had his likeness stamped upon the coin in the same dress. as if prompted to them only by the folly of youth. and caused statues of himself to be erected in the attire of a harper. he practised at first with reserve and in private. and Rome. for the preservation of his voice. from whom. that. about his beds. chaplets. even then. but also encouraged them. for handling his wife indecently. and stones and pieces http://www. and the soldiers of his triumph. He suspended the sacred crowns in his chamber. he never again ventured abroad at that time of night." Having then caused an arch of the Circus Maximus 588 to be taken down. and ramble about the streets in sport. XXVI. he often ran the hazard of losing his eyes. After it was dark. Alba. and sweetmeats scattered abroad. whilst the streets were strewed with saffron. He offered his friendship. being beaten almost to death by a senator. according as they were lavish or sparing in giving him their applause. He used to beat those he met coming home from supper. In the scuffles which took place on those occasions. he was so far from abating any thing of his application to music.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He made his entry into the city riding in the same chariot in which Augustus had triumphed. if they made any resistance. as also through the Velabrum 589 and the forum. lewdness. After this adventure.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Petulancy. establishing an auction at home for selling his booty. Suetonius Tranquillus. he made his entrance in a chariot drawn by white horses through a breach in the city-wall. that "they (355) were the emperor's attendants. victims were slain. public performer in that city. where he not only witnessed the quarrels which arose on account of the performances. luxury.gutenberg. when he thought fit to make his appearance amongst them. he used to enter the taverns disguised in a cap or a wig. with inscriptions denoting the places where they had been won. After this period. would wound them. and. He broke open and robbed shops. in a purple tunic. and a cloak embroidered with golden stars. without some tribunes following him at a little distance. he passed through the breach. and throw them into the common sewer. and cruelty. Everywhere as he marched along. and in his right hand that which was given him at the Parthian games: the rest being carried in a procession before him. In the day-time he would be carried to the theatre incognito in a litter. crying out. he never addressed the soldiers but by messages.

and at another something more in roses. in the Naumachia. As often as he went down the Tiber to Ostia. the rose-coloured nuptial veil. having suborned some men of consular rank to swear that she was of royal descent. and govern in every thing. for fear that this haughty and overbearing woman should.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. like bawds and hostesses. by C. or the Circus Maximus. he had him conducted like a bride to his own house. being waited upon at table by common prostitutes of the town. covered with the skin of a wild beast. or in the Campus Martius. he at last invented an extraordinary kind of diversion. and then assail with violence the private parts both of men and women. but was deterred by her enemies. he laid aside his jocular amusements. he threw them plentifully amongst the people. who. a Vestal Virgin. especially after he had introduced amongst his concubines a strumpet. He gelded the boy Sporus. to be let out of a den in the arena. before which stood matrons. His revels were prolonged from mid-day to midnight. by her compliance. and treated him as his wife 591. his freedwoman. with the sluices shut. by such as were cooled with snow. were erected along the shore and river banks. and a numerous company at the wedding. without the least attempt to conceal them. and afterwards at Rome through the Sigillaria 592. That he entertained an incestuous passion for his mother 593. He even went so far as to marry him. who was reported to have a strong resemblance to Agrippina 594. or coasted through the gulf of Baiae. Besides the abuse of free-born lads. Suetonius Tranquillus. in the summer time. dressed in the rich attire of an empress." This Sporus he carried about with him in a litter round the solemn assemblies and fairs of Greece. was universally believed. allured him to land. It was jocularly observed by some person. with all the usual formalities of a marriage settlement.gutenberg. kissing him from time to time as they rode together. "that it would have been well for mankind. get him entirely into her power. booths furnished as brothels and eating-houses. His vices gaining strength by degrees. XXVII. XXVIII. and. while he was frequently refreshed by warm baths. When the ceremony was over.———— XXIX. He was upon the point of marrying Acte 590.htm (252 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . that (358) after he had defiled every part of his person with some unnatural pollution. while they were bound to stakes. of broken benches began to fly about. After he had vented his furious passion upon them. and once even broke a praetor's head. It was also his custom to invite (357) himself to supper with his friends. at one of which was expended no less than four millions of sesterces in chaplets. had such a wife fallen to the lot of his father Domitius. and endeavoured to transform him into a woman.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and the debauch of married women. and Syrian strumpets and glee-girls. He prostituted his own chastity to such a degree. and all disguise. he committed a rape upon Rubria. he finished the play in the embraces of http://www. breaking out into enormous crimes. which was. He often supped in public.

beyond all bounds. and mounted upon horses in splendid trappings. and extolling those as truly noble and generous souls. upon no account more. It is said. he forgave all other crimes. In nothing was he more prodigal than in his buildings. the mules being all shod with silver. regarding all those as sordid wretches who kept their expenses within due bounds. and were cunning enough to keep it secret. He (359) has been known to stake four hundred thousand sesterces on a throw of the dice. and Spicillus a gladiator. He enriched the usurer Cercopithecus Panerotes with estates both in town and country. while they contained pipes which (360) shed unguents upon the guests. He completed his palace by continuing it from the Palatine to the Esquiline hill. and gave him a funeral. no man in the world to be chaste. imitating the cries and shrieks of young virgins. were made to revolve. XXXI. the estates and houses of men who had received the honour of a triumph. that it had triple porticos a mile in length. after it was burnt down and rebuilt. and compartments of the ceilings. it may be sufficient to say thus much: the porch was so high that there stood in it a colossal statue of himself a hundred and twenty feet in height. calling the building at first only "The Passage. with bracelets on their arms. He praised and admired his uncle Caius 596. I have been informed from numerous sources. Within its area were corn fields. with a numerous train of footmen. Accordingly. that he firmly believed. surrounded with buildings which had the appearance of a city. and a lake like a sea. a sum almost incredible. or any part of his person undefiled." but. presented him with upwards of a million 597. and troops of Mazacans 599. than for squandering in a short time the vast treasure left him by Tiberius. who lavished away and wasted all they possessed. The supper rooms were vaulted. his freedman Doryphorus 595.gutenberg. therefore. and adorned with jewels and mother of pearl. and scatter flowers. In other parts it was entirely overlaid with gold. and the space included in it was so ample. who frankly owned their unnatural lewdness. drawn by silken cords of purple and scarlet. inlaid with ivory. To those. Suetonius Tranquillus." 600 Of its dimensions and furniture. when they are ravished. by C. to whom he was married in the same way that Sporus had been married to himself. and at his departure. He spent upon Tiridates eight hundred thousand sesterces a day. He never wore the same garment twice. vineyards. It was his custom to fish with a golden net.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and the drivers dressed in scarlet jackets of the finest Canusian cloth 598.htm (253 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . The chief banqueting room http://www. He likewise bestowed upon Menecrates the harper. He thought there was no other use of riches and money than to squander them away profusely. "The Golden House. XXX. pastures. in pomp and magnificence little inferior to that of princes. that he never travelled with less than a thousand baggage-carts. and woods. both wild and tame. containing a vast number of animals of various kinds.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. but that most men concealed that vice. he was himself extravagant and profuse.

should be confiscated. without sufficient reason. was circular. that ships might pass from one to the other. which he designed to have continued from Misenum to the Avernian lake. This. and it was intended to be of breadth sufficient to permit ships with five banks of oars to pass each other. he resolved upon supplying his necessities by means of false accusations and plunder. in imitation of the motion of the celestial bodies. upon her flight from Tyre. "that he had now a dwelling fit for a man. he ordered all prisoners. and also a canal from Avernum to Ostia. without a sea voyage. and might with a little labour be recovered." At last he rifled many temples of the rich offerings with which they were stored. that if any freedman. but by the sudden hopes given him of an immense hidden treasure.htm (254 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . of his estate should be brought into the exchequer at his decease: also that the estates of all such persons as had not in their wills been mindful of their prince.gutenberg. and that the lawyers who had drawn or dictated such wills. The baths were supplied with water from the sea and the Albula. in every part of the empire. and not only stripped of her clothes. he pointed her out to his procurators. In the first place. http://www. and revolved perpetually. the half. and that even those who were convicted of the most heinous crimes. Having forbad any one to use the colours of amethyst and Tyrian purple. bore the name of the family to which he belonged. Upon the dedication of this magnificent house after it was finished. for want of money. Suetonius Tranquillus. He was encouraged to all this wild and enormous profusion. XXXII. upon which she was immediately dragged out of her seat. that he was obliged to defer paying his troops. which queen Dido. and the rewards due to the veterans. should be condemned to work at them. by C. night and day. It is said. a Roman knight pretended to assure him. "You know what I want. and reduced to such difficulties. observing a married lady dressed in the purple which he had prohibited." He commenced making a pond for the reception of all the hot streams from Baiae. on the pretext that his edict had been violated. that all words and actions. instead of three fourths. and then shut up all the merchants' shops. and melted down all the gold and silver statues. to be brought to Italy. that. he ordered. not only by the great revenue of the empire. in a conduit. should be liable to a fine. The length of the proposed canal was one hundred and sixty miles. and amongst them those of the penates 601. upon which any informer could ground a prosecution. upon good grounds. and let us take care that nobody has any thing he can call his own. as he was playing and singing in the theatre.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in lieu of any other sentence. should be deemed treason. He ordained likewise. he privately sent a person to sell a few ounces of them upon the day of the Nundinae.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He demanded an equivalent for the crowns which the cities of (361) Greece had at any time offered him in the solemn games. For the execution of these designs. which Galba afterwards restored. but her property. But being disappointed in his expectations of this resource. was still hid there in some deep caverns. all he said in approval of it was. He never nominated a person to any office without saying to him. enclosed in galleries. had brought with her to Africa.

he sent for the woman. he contrived machinery. one while charging him with folly. and to disturb her in her retirement from town with the most scurrilous and abusive language. and upon her alleging in excuse. took from her the guard of Roman and German soldiers. But being terrified with her menaces and violent spirit. "that I am afraid of the Julian law. XXXIV. This he tried upon a kid: but the animal lingering for five hours before it expired. while he was at supper with him. banished her from the palace and from his society. employing persons to harass her when at Rome with law-suits. to be instructed in her trade. he deprived her of all honour and power. he resolved upon her destruction. during violent storms of rain. that he endeavoured to expose her to public resentment. which dying immediately. He traduced his memory both by word and deed in the grossest manner. in a mean and hurried way. by which the floor http://www. mushrooms as food fit for the gods. He began the practice of parricide and murder with Claudius himself. by C. following her about by land and sea. and to reprimand him with the freedom of a parent. (363) that she had previously secured herself by antidotes. He enclosed the place where his body was burnt with only a low wall of rough masonry. in his own chamber and before his eyes. and thrice attempted it by poison. Nor did he make any secret of it. and beat her with his own hand. that she had given Britannicus but a gentle mixture in order to prevent suspicion. and retire to Rhodes. another while with cruelty. and treated as null many of his decrees and ordinances. to which. Suetonius Tranquillus. in a Greek proverb. as made by a doting old blockhead. he gave the poison to a pig. charging her with administering an antidote instead of poison. He attempted to poison (362) Britannicus. XXXIII. who had been a witness against some persons guilty of like practices. that he had ceased morari 602 amongst men. His mother being used to make strict inquiry into what he said or did. he said. He buried him the following day. Finding. however. that it was only a fit of the falling sickness." said he. he was so much offended. he commanded the potion to be brought into the eating-room and given to Britannicus. But the poison she gave him. working more slowly than he expected. because Claudius had been poisoned with them. He employed for this purpose a woman named Locusta. "Think you. The prince had no sooner tasted it than he sunk on the floor. he was subject. Soon afterwards. he ordered her to go to work again." and obliged her to prepare.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. as quick and strong a dose as possible.htm (255 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and only causing a purge. placing some disciples with her.gutenberg. pronouncing the first syllable long. and rewarded her with a great estate in land. as from apprehension of what might ensue from the respect which the people entertained for his father's memory. He gave Locusta a pardon. but used afterwards to commend. pretending to the guests. by frequently pretending a resolution to quit the government.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and when she had done. as much out of envy because he had a sweeter voice. Nero meanwhile. for although he was not the contriver of his death. he was privy to the plot. For he used to say by way of jest. and persecuted her in every way he could contrive.

under colour of a pretended reconciliation. to celebrate with him the festival of Minerva. but in such manner that it might appear to be done accidentally. waiting with great anxiety to learn the issue of his project. kissed her breasts. to avoid punishment for her intended crime. Accordingly. said to him: "May I but live to see the day when this is shaved for the first time 605. and. he paid her a visit. he wrote her an extremely affectionate letter. instead of the old ship which had conveyed her to Baiae. his next stratagem was to construct a ship which could be easily shivered. at the initiation of which. He seized upon her estate before she had expired. being then advanced in years. This design miscarrying likewise.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. or by the deck above her cabin crushing her in its fall. Nay. under pretence of his having been employed by his mother to assassinate him. still more horrible. she had laid violent hands upon herself. he attempted by magical rites to bring up her ghost from below. He attended her to the vessel in a very cheerful mood. suppressing her will. He then commanded the freedman to be seized and put in chains. however. and people. at the same time ordering her to be put to death. upon her freedman. by falling foul of it. and commended other points. by C. and I shall then die contented. being obliged to keep her bed in consequence of a complaint in her bowels. and ordered the physicians to give her more violent purgatives. and she. as that he went to view her corpse. to shatter to pieces the ship in which she had come. the senate. growing thirsty during the survey. for the more convenient opportunity of executing the plot in the night. that he would have his beard immediately taken off. after which he sat up very late in the night. He had given private orders to the captains of the galleys which were to attend her.htm (256 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and at her return for Bauli 603. he privately dropped a poniard by him. saying. and giving out. and soften her rage against him. and that. to those about him. that she was safe and well. in the tenderness of affection. in hopes of destroying her either by drowning. He prolonged the entertainment.—not knowing what course to take. are related on good authority. he called for drink. Yet he was never afterwards able to bear the stings of his own conscience for this atrocious act. Lucius Agerinus bringing word. he durst not attend the celebration of the Eleusinian mysteries. and persecuted with the whips (364) and burning torches of the Furies. he offered that which he had contrived for her destruction. When he was in Greece." He turned. impious and wicked persons are warned by the voice of the herald from approaching the rites 604. made a jest of it. that he might enjoy the whole himself. pointed out some blemishes. he had been guilty of that of his aunt. stroking his downy chin. Other circumstances. at parting with her. for.gutenberg. that. He frequently affirmed that he was haunted by his mother's ghost. and handling her limbs.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. But receiving information that every thing had fallen out contrary to his wish. inviting her to Baiae. and that she had saved herself by swimming. through the little caution used by those who were in the secret. over her bed-chamber might be made to fall upon her while she was asleep in the night. although encouraged by the congratulatory addresses of the army. with great joy. Besides the murder of his mother. Suetonius Tranquillus. http://www.

" pretending that he had been his mothers paramour." Soon afterwards. when all those who were put to the torture positively denied their knowledge of it. and then ordered him to be executed. when he was procurator of Egypt. and had been his governors. he suborned his pedagogue. he solemnly swore. Claudia Augusta. He first compelled him to submit to his unnatural lust. upon his desiring leave to retire. and received the honour of a triumph. Under pretence of her being engaged in a plot against him. and being censured by his friends for it. for presuming. "Let my mother bestow her kisses on my successor thus defiled. but. who was then consul. nevertheless.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus.gutenberg. he made several attempts. amongst whom was young Aulus Plautinus. XXXVI. upon a charge of adultery. and then divorced her for barrenness. his preceptor. He had by her a daughter.htm (257 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he destroyed all who were allied to him either by blood or marriage. who had formerly not only promoted (366) his adoption. he also banished her 607. a remedy for a swelling in his throat. Atticus Vestinus. besides Octavia. disapproving of the divorce. who refused to marry him after the death of Poppaea. A blazing star. crying out. that he had secretly intrigued with and debauched her. he sent him poison. and who had been married before to a Roman knight: and. But the people. There was no person at all connected with him who escaped his deadly and unjust cruelty. which is vulgarly supposed to portend destruction to kings and princes. Nor did he proceed with less cruelty against those who were not of his family. His step-son. He married Poppaea twelve days after the divorce of Octavia 608. he put to death Antonia. whose father had borne the office of quaestor. XXXV. though a minor. Rufinus Crispinus. and making severe comments upon it. the pretorian prefect. though. He had. his nurse's son.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. To obtain possession of her. and offering to surrender his estate. by C. he ordered to be drowned in the sea. "that there was no foundation for his suspicions. but in vain. two other wives: Poppaea Sabina. Poppaea's son. by his own slaves. while he was fishing. great-grand-daughter of Taurus 606 who was twice consul. but were also instrumental to his advancement to the empire. and that he would perish himself sooner than hurt him. to wash in the baths which had been constructed in expectation of his own coming. Seneca. Statilia Messalina. appeared above http://www. killed her with a kick which he gave her when she was big with child. only because she found fault with him for returning late from driving his chariot. because he was reported to act frequently amongst his play-fellows the part of a general or an emperor. and by her encouraged to aspire to the empire. In the same way. He soon became disgusted with Octavia. so impudent and false. he took off by poison given them in their meat or drink. he put to death her husband. who died an infant. and entertained a great affection for her. that. Anicetus. and ceased from having any intercourse with her. to affirm. At last he (365) put her to death. and in bad health." Having promised Burrhus. "She ought to be satisfied with having the rank and appendages of his wife. Some old rich freedmen of Claudius. to strangle her. he forced to kill himself 609. Claudius's daughter. He banished Tuscus. after her. he replied.

XXXVII. and others not suffered to seek their daily bread. It is certain that he never gave or vouchsafed to allow any one the customary kiss. at Beneventum. with their tutors. either on entering or departing. that he kept amongst the busts of his ancestors that of Caius Cassius. He allowed but one hour to those whom he obliged to kill themselves. and so avert the danger foreboded to their own persons. the horizon several nights successively 610. There was at that time an Egyptian of a most voracious appetite. because he had some plausible pretence for carrying it into execution. To mention only a few: Salvidienus Orfitus was accused of letting (367) out three taverns attached to his house in the Forum to some cities for the use of their deputies at Rome. The conspirators were brought to their trials loaded with triple fetters. to prevent delay. and. the other was that of Vinicius 612. without distinction or quarter. amidst the assembled multitude. as it was impossible in any other way than by death to relieve a person rendered infamous by crimes of the greatest enormity. uttered a prayer. an astrologer. were banished the city. and put the provinces and armies into the hands of the Roman knights and his own freedmen. but would entirely extirpate that order. and looked like a schoolmaster. or any thing else that was given him." without taking the smallest notice of the senate. was. Being elated with his great success in the perpetration of crimes.htm (258 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . The charge against Cassius Longinus. From this period he butchered. a lawyer who had lost his sight. Some ingenuously confessed the charge. others avowed that they thought the design against his life an act of favour for which he was obliged to them. And at the inauguration of a work. or even returned a salute. that princes were used to expiate such omens by the sacrifice of illustrious persons. were all poisoned together at one dinner. The children of those who had been condemned. who would digest raw flesh. that the emperor was extremely desirous of furnishing him with living men to tear and devour. all whom his caprice suggested as objects for his cruelty. The only charge objected against Paetus Thrasea was. the former and more dangerous of which was that formed by Piso 611. he. and discovered at Rome. by C. that he had a melancholy cast of features. It was credibly reported. who was concerned in the death of Julius Caesar. and afterwards either poisoned or starved to death. by bringing it on the heads of their chief men." for so he called bleeding them to death. He was the more encouraged to this.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. It is asserted that some of them. "that no prince before himself ever knew the extent of his power. he sent them physicians "to cure them immediately. the cut through the Isthmus 613. that "the undertaking might prove fortunate for himself and the Roman people. http://www.gutenberg." He threw out strong intimations that he would not even spare the senators who survived. and the slaves who carried their satchels. from the discovery of two conspiracies against him. He felt great anxiety on account of this phenomenon. he declared. if they lingered beyond that time. and being informed by one Babilus. and upon the most frivolous pretences. with a loud voice. Suetonius Tranquillus. he resolved on the destruction of the principal nobility in Rome.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

Somebody in conversation saying— Emou thanontos gaia michthaeto pyri When I am dead let fire devour the world— "Nay. and "being greatly delighted. particularly remarkable. and even then still decorated with the spoils of war. than those who assailed him with invective and lampoons. where. as appeared from the registers in the temple of Libitina. everything that was remarkable and worthy to be seen which time had spared 614. "let it be while I am living" [emou xontos]. in Armenia. To turn this calamity to his own advantage by plunder and rapine. "with the beautiful effects of the conflagration. he promised to remove the bodies of those who had perished in the fire. it was strange. Many things of that kind were posted up about the city. Suetonius Tranquillus. Amidst all these disasters." as he said. He spared.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. nor the capital of his country. Such were a pestilence.htm (259 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . the walls being built of stone. they were battered as if with machines of war. by C. were laid in ashes. a shameful discomfiture of the army of the East. as well as the temples of the gods. until he had exhausted the means both of the provinces and private persons. During six days and seven nights this terrible devastation continued. There being near his Golden House some granaries. the people being obliged to fly to the tombs and monuments for lodging and shelter. and the narrow and winding streets.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h." he sung a poem on the ruin of Troy.gutenberg. suffering no one to meddle with the remains of their property. moreover. there died no less than thirty thousand persons. but exacted contributions on account of the loss. which had been vowed and dedicated by the kings of Rome. and. and (368) torches in their hands. or otherwise published. he set the city on fire so openly. treating no class of persons with more gentleness. that many of consular rank caught his own household servants on their property with tow. indeed. But he not only received. the site of which he exceedingly coveted. in the tragic dress he used on the stage. that he bore nothing more patiently than the scurrilous language and railing abuse which was in every one's mouth. pretending to be disgusted with the old buildings. Meanwhile. And he acted accordingly: for. by which. were added some proceeding from misfortune. and set on fire. a great disaster in Britain 615. This fire he beheld from a tower in the house of Mecaenas. within the space of one autumn. both in Greek http://www. and afterwards in the Punic and Gallic wars: in short. XXXVIII." said he. a vast number of stately buildings. and clear the rubbish at his own expense. To these terrible and shameful calamities brought upon the people by their prince. neither the people of Rome. the houses of generals celebrated in former times. where two of the principal towns belonging to the Romans were plundered. and a (369) dreadful havoc made both amongst our troops and allies. and it was with great difficulty that Syria was retained. but durst not meddle with them. XXXIX. the legions were obliged to pass under the yoke.

" And Datus. All Rome will be one house: to Veii fly.gutenberg. wise and great. To save himself. Isidorus. dum cornua Parthus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Neron. took off his loving mother. idian maeter apekteinen. His arrows o'er the plain the Parthian wings: Ours call the tuneful Paean. 619 (370) But he neither made any inquiry after the authors. worst of all the crew. Suetonius Tranquillus. Dum tendit citharam noster. maetroktonai.htm (260 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . said to him aloud. Quirites. 618 Roma domus fiet: Vejos migrate. "You sing the misfortunes of Nauplius well. the god who shoots afar. the other. would he allow a severe sentence to be passed. by C. as he was passing along the streets. Orestes and Alcaeon—Nero too. father! Farewell mother!" mimicked the gestures of persons drinking http://www. Sprung from Aeneas. Who says that Nero is degenerate? Safe through the flames. Si non et Vejos occupat ista domus. Should it not stretch to Veii.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. pious. a comic actor. His lyre to harmony our Nero strings. The lustful Nero. Noster erit Paean. Orestaes. and Latin: such as these. nor when information was laid before the senate against some of them. Quis neget Aeneae magna de stirpe Neronem? Sustulit hic matrem: sustulit 617 ille patrem. Fresh from his bridal—their own mothers slew. the Cynic philosopher. The other Phoebus name. Alkmaion. but behave badly yourself. one bore his sire. when repeating these words in the piece. "Farewell. Neonymphon 616 Neron.—famed in war. by and by. ille Ekataebeletaes.

at length forsook him. the rule of the East. either because he was insensible to shame.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Yet Nero only banished the player and philosopher from the city and Italy. after tolerating such an emperor for little less than fourteen years. Suetonius Tranquillus. And being most inclined to believe the latter prediction. that it would be his fortune to be at last deserted by all the world. he witnessed the exercise of the wrestlers with the greatest delight. But the greater part of them flattered him with assurances of his being restored to his former fortune. he expressed no greater resentment. upon consulting the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. upon losing Britain and Armenia. "An artist can live in any country. on the anniversary of the day on which he killed his mother. and some in express words the kingdom of Jerusalem. in his forlorn state. he conceived such hopes. that (371) "the fishes would bring them back to him. being the first to revolt. but of constant and singular good fortune. than only to threaten the rebels. and this occasioned that celebrated saying of his. For eight days together. nor give any orders. treating him with reproaches and contempt." by which he meant to offer as an excuse for his practice of music. as to excite a suspicion that he was really glad of it. the Gauls. XL. he was advised to beware of the seventy-third year. and swimming. Being roused at last by numerous proclamations of Vindex. never thinking of Galba's age. since he had now a fair opportunity of plundering those wealthy provinces by the right of war. Orcus vobis ducit pedes. Yet some of the astrologers promised him. and bore it with so much unconcern. Being interrupted at supper with letters which brought yet worse news. But when. as if he were not to die till then.gutenberg. that it was not only his amusement as a prince." At Naples he heard of the insurrection in Gaul. headed by Julius Vindex. he scrupled not to say amongst his friends.htm (261 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . but might be his support when reduced to a private station. but buried the whole affair in profound silence. he plainly intimated his application of it to the precarious position of the senate. or from apprehension that if he discovered his vexation. that having lost some things of great value by shipwreck. by C. still keener things might be said of him. You stand this moment on the brink of Orcus. Immediately going to the gymnasium. significantly alluding to the deaths of Claudius and Agrippina: and on uttering the last clause. he in a letter to the senate exhorted them to avenge his wrongs and those of the http://www. The world. he never attempted to answer any letters. Nero had been formerly told by astrologers. XLI. not only of living to advanced years. who at that time governed the province as pro-praetor. he imagined he had run through all the misfortunes which the fates had decreed him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.

he returned in great consternation to Rome. of a new invention. and discoursing upon the principles and difficulties of the contrivance. "I am beyond all example wretched. he intended to produce in the theatre. to abandon Gaul itself. he received intelligence that Galba and the Spaniards had declared against him. Nay. as men unanimously engaged in a conspiracy against him. apparently dead. http://www. republic. he told them.gutenberg. to be wasted and plundered by his armies. he sent word to an actor who was applauded by the spectators. by observing the frivolous omen of a Gaulish soldier defeated and dragged by the hair by a Roman knight. Soon afterwards. as to find himself railed at as a pitiful harper. and then. Even then he made no appeal either to the senate or people. his mind was somewhat relieved. These were to send new governors and commanders to the provinces and the armies. "that he had it all his own way. As soon as recovered from this state stupefaction he tore his clothes. and accompanied them with suitable gestures. Suetonius Tranquillus. he. abated nothing of his luxury and inattention to business.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and. lay a long time speechless. "It is all over with me!" His nurse endeavouring to comfort him. the former lest they should join the insurrection. he earnestly refuted that of his want of skill in an art upon which he had bestowed so much pains. at a sumptuous entertainment. XLII. "if they knew any one who was a more accomplished musician?" But being alarmed by messengers after messengers of ill news from Gaul. he fainted. sung with an air of merriment. which were made public. some jovial verses upon the leaders of the revolt. so that he leaped for joy. and ready to support (373) them. to massacre the exiles in every quarter. On the road. although conformable enough to his natural disposition. But nothing so much galled him. which was sculptured on a monument. the latter as privy to the designs of their countrymen. during the remainder of the day.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and employ assassins to butcher all the former governors and commanders. styled Aenobarbus: which being his family name. Being carried privately to the theatre. which. and beat his head. and adored the heavens. it is believed that he had formed many designs of a monstrous nature. now that he himself did not appear on the stage." He. he replied. carried them about with him to view some musical instruments. Passing by the other accusations as wholly groundless. and telling him that the like things had happened to other princes before him." XLIII. which were played by water 620 (372) exhibiting all the parts. he declared that he would resume it. for I have lost an empire whilst I am still living. and in which he had arrived at such perfection. nevertheless. but calling together some of the leading men at his own house.htm (262 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . upon which. since he was upbraided with it. and lay aside the name he had taken by adoption. because he had got cold. by C. on the arrival of good news from the provinces. and all the Gaulish population in Rome. desiring them to excuse his not appearing in the senate-house. instead of Nero. asking frequently those about him. crying out. and losing his reason. if Vindex would give him leave. he held a hasty consultation upon the present state of affairs. At the first breaking out of these troubles.

and judging an expedition into Gaul necessary. that as soon as he arrived in the province.gutenberg. which was said to be freighted (374) with dust for the wrestlers belonging to the emperor 621. to fire the city. apply himself to compose. he would make his appearance amongst the troops. to have the hair of the concubines he carried with him dressed in the fashion of men.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. But being deterred from the execution of these designs not so much by remorse of conscience. arising from dreams." A little bag was tied about another. without loss of time. as he walked out of the room leaning on the arms of some of his friends. all tenants of houses and mansions to pay one year's rent forthwith into the exchequer. and in their room assumed the consulship himself without a colleague. in the night-time. 624 XLVI. He was also terrified with manifest warnings. as if the fates had decreed that Gaul should not be conquered.htm (263 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . that "Now indeed he had a race to run. with unheard-of strictness. pretending to find fault with their servants. in the public rejoicings. the next day. frequently called for a Vindex. He summoned the city-tribes to enlist. Upon the top of one of his statues was placed the figure of a chariot with a Greek inscription. "What could I do?"—"Truly thou hast merited the sack. He commanded the several orders of the people to bring in a fixed proportion of their estates. he would. In preparing for this expedition. XLV. let him be gone. Suetonius Tranquillus. he removed the consuls from their office. and oblige them to surrender their gains. as it happened just at that time. as by despair of being able to effect them. The general odium in which he was held received an increase by the great scarcity of corn. and then let loose the wild beasts upon the people." And many. and an occurrence connected with it. after he had brought the mutineers to repentance." 622 Some person likewise wrote on the pillars in the forum. sing songs of triumph. which he must now. by C. crying out unanimously that he ought to squeeze the informers. not excepting their stewards and secretaries. as they stood in the censor's books. unarmed. and to supply them with battle-axes. For. to poison the whole senate at a feast. and. would receive only new coin of the purest silver and the finest gold. he ordered all masters to send a certain number of slaves. his first care was to provide carriages for his musical instruments and machinery to be used upon the stage. before the time of its expiration was arrived. but by a consul. he declared. both old and new. the best they had. and do nothing but weep: and that. after an entertainment at the palace. http://www.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Upon assuming the fasces. with a ticket containing these words. but no qualified persons appearing. in order to impede their stopping the progress of the flames. and Amazonian bucklers. XLIV. This so much inflamed the public rage. "that he had even woke the cocks 623 with his singing. there arrived from Alexandria a ship. insomuch that most people refused to pay. that he was treated with the utmost abuse and scurrility.

others absolutely refusing. the stone of which had carved upon it the Rape of Proserpine. if he could not prevail. upon the rostra. with orders to make ready a fleet. and at another. And when. these words were read. neighed very harmoniously. fell down during the preparations for sacrificing to them. Meanwhile. which he put up in a golden box. Augustus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and having his head only left unaltered. and that he fell as he was repeating this verse: Thanein m' anoge syngamos. calling on him by name. on the arrival of the news. surrounded by the national images which were set up near Pompey's theatre. had his hinder parts so changed. When a great multitude of the several orders was assembled. he went into the Servilian gardens. he fancied in his sleep that he was steering a ship. and. and one of them crying out aloud.gutenberg. or else appear before the people dressed in mourning. he tore to pieces the letters which were delivered to him at dinner. that the last tragic piece which he sung. Suetonius Tranquillus. Then taking from Locusta a dose of poison. XLVII. in the most piteous manner. After that event." It was likewise remarked. in a speech of his to the senate against Vindex. auspices. maetaer. overthrew the table. was Oedipus in Exile. because some of that poet's verses were cut upon them. and omens. as to resemble those of an ape. Usque adeone mori miserum est? Say. Sporus presented him with a ring. by C. and hindered from advancing farther." they all cried out. He had never been used to dream before the murder of his mother. and thence dispatching a trusty freedman to Ostia. The Lares being adorned with fresh garlands on the calends (the first) of January. "You will do it. While he was taking (375) the omens. to attend at the solemnity of making vows to the gods. is it then so sad a thing to die? 625 he was in great perplexity whether he should submit himself to Galba. that the rest of the armies had declared against him. request http://www. which he called Homer's. and. but part of them showing no great inclination to comply. force me to my end. beg pardon for his past misdemeanors. father.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. mother. it was a long time before the keys of the Capitol could be found. or apply to the Parthians for protection. and that the rudder was forced from him: that he was dragged by his wife Octavia into a prodigiously dark place. The doors of the mausoleum of Augustus flying open of themselves. that a Spanish jennet he was fond of. there issued from it a voice. pataer.htm (264 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and was at one time covered over with a vast swarm of winged ants. "that the miscreants should be punished and soon make the end they merited. Wife. and dashed with violence against the ground two favourite cups. he endeavoured to prevail with some tribunes and centurions of the pretorian guards to attend him in his flight.

"Is there any news in the city about Nero?" Uncovering his face when his horse was started by the scent of a carcase which lay in the road. and heard from the neighbouring camp 628 the shouts of the soldiers. and sent round for his friends. the gladiator. he returned to his bed-chamber. though he refused some coarse bread that was brought him. and by a flash of lightning which darted full in his face. he was recognized and saluted by an old soldier who had been discharged from the guards. and some another. "have I then neither friend nor foe?" and immediately ran out. and along a track through a bed of rushes. "I will not go under-ground alive. But none of them vouchsafing any message in reply. and finding the guards withdrawn. carrying off with them his bedding and box of poison. upon a miserable pallet. Deferring. therefore. "They are (377) in pursuit of Nero:" and another ask. he pulled out the thorns which stuck in it. where he might collect his thoughts. he awoke about midnight.htm (265 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . He was suddenly struck with horror by an earthquake. and with much difficulty he wound among bushes. with an old coverlet thrown over it. and prosperity to Galba. of them to grant him at least the government of Egypt. and in his tunic. barefoot as he was. and no one giving him any answer. of whom Sporus was one. between the Salarian 626 and Nomentan 627 roads. The doors being every where shut.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. being admitted. when he replied. as if he would throw himself into the Tiber. with his head muffled up. say. and being both hungry and thirsty. but not being able to procure any one. wishing his destruction. A speech to this purpose was afterwards found in his writing-case. they quitted their horses. or some one to kill him. But it is conjectured that he durst not venture upon this project. only slipping over it an old soiled cloak. and his freedman Phaon offering him his country-house. "What!" said he. he lay down in the first closet he came to. about four miles from the city. through a hole made for him in the wall. some having gone one way. and four persons only to attend him. while preparations were made for bringing him privately into the villa. But this furious impulse subsiding." Staying there some little time. he drank a little warm water. saying. Suetonius Tranquillus. he took up some water out of a neighbouring tank in his hand. and an handkerchief before his face. creeping upon his hands and knees. and briars. he leaped out of bed." 629 Then his cloak having been torn by the brambles. XLIX.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. before he could get to the Forum. he wished for some place of privacy. "This is Nero's distilled water.gutenberg. He then endeavoured to find Spicillus. by C. he mounted a horse. He also heard a traveller they met on the road. Phaon advised him to hide himself awhile in a sand-pit. Having reached a wall at the back of the villa. to drink. for fear of being torn to pieces. XLVIII. When they came to the lane which turned up to the house. At last. whence those who had the charge of it had all now eloped. All who surrounded him now pressing him to save himself from the indignities which http://www. he went with a few attendants to their houses. his resolution until the next (376) day. over which they spread their cloaks for him to walk on.

to the terror of all who beheld him. granted. and that search was making for him. that he might be punished according to the ancient custom of the Romans. that the (378) practice was to strip the criminal naked. He had requested of his attendants. he drove a dagger into his throat. that they would let no one have his head. and scourge him to death. the bed upon which his body was carried to the pile and burnt. L. He had but a little before been discharged from the prison into which he had been thrown. he condemned his own want of resolution in these words: "I yet live to my shame and disgrace: this is not becoming for Nero: it is not becoming. saying." He then inquired what kind of punishment that was. when the disturbances first broke out. and water and wood 630. Hippon m' okupodon amphi ktupos ouata ballei. but that by all means his body might be burnt entire. he ordered a pit to be sunk before his eyes. 632 The noise of swift-heel'd steeds assails my ears. "'Tis too late." One while. were now approaching the house. to be got ready for immediate use about his corpse. and frequently saying. he was so terrified that he took up two daggers which he had brought with him. he expired.gutenberg. and after feeling the points of both. he made no other reply but this. As soon as he heard them coming.htm (266 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . which stands upon the top of the Hill of the Gardens 633. In that monument. his secretary.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Suetonius Tranquillus. and then again. and there read. with his concubine Acte. with his eyes fixed and starting out of his head. and being told. weeping at every thing that was done. then: courage. Icelus. if any could be found about the house. were ready to befall him. and the bottom to be covered with pieces of marble put together. and applying his cloak to the wound. with an altar of marble of http://www. while his neck was fastened within a forked stake.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. A centurion bursting in just as he was half-dead. letters being brought in by a servant belonging to Phaon. interwoven with gold. man!" 631 The horsemen who had received orders to bring him away alive. "What an artist is now about to perish!" Meanwhile. being assisted in the act by Epaphroditus. His nurses. another while." and "Is this your loyalty?" Immediately after pronouncing these words. Thou oughtest in such circumstances to have a good heart: Come. "The fatal hour is not yet come. Galba's freedman. "That he had been declared an enemy by the senate. of the size of his body. he begged of Sporus to begin to wail and lament. The expenses of his funeral amounted to two hundred thousand sesterces. Ecloge and Alexandra. he entreated that one of them would set him an example by killing himself. And this. which he had worn upon the calends of January preceding. he snatched them out of his hand. as the most essential favour. put them up again. and is to be seen from the Campus Martius. by C. deposited his remains in the tomb belonging (379) to the family of the Domitii. he uttered with a trembling voice the following verse. a coffin of porphyry. pretending that he was come to his assistance. being covered with the white robes.

and the sun in chariot-driving. He was instructed. In stature he was a little below the common height. 634 LI. In his dress. he was so careless. being the rival of every man who obtained the applause of the people for any thing he did. (380) he composed verses both with pleasure and ease. he resolved also to imitate the achievements of Hercules. which contain some well-known verses in his own hand. he most eagerly coveted popularity. above all things. as well as upon flutes and bagpipes. his eyes grey and dull. Luna over it. Seneca. his skin was foul and spotted. Suetonius Tranquillus. and he generally appeared in public in the loose dress which he used at table. nor did he witness the gymnastic games in any part of Greece otherwise than sitting upon the ground in the stadium. or with a close hug. he let it grow long behind. as unsuited to one destined to be an emperor. Several little pocket-books and loose sheets have cone into my possession. though excessively luxurious in his mode of living. nor did he. Because he was thought to equal Apollo in music.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he would with his own hands drag them back into the centre of the circle. one above another. that he neither forbore the use of wine. either with a club. which he was to perform naked. as some think. which were so slight. in view of the people in the amphitheatre. his hair inclined to yellow. his legs very slender. discouraged him from reading the ancient orators. Towards the end of his life. and the care of his person. It was the general belief. nor made any alteration in his usual diet. and his preceptor. publish those of other writers as his own. But. and. from the blotting and interlining. and when in Achaia. he would the next lustrum have taken his place among the wrestlers at the Olympic games. as the umpires do. and without either a girdle or shoes. in the rudiments of almost all the liberal sciences. And they say that a lion was got ready for him to kill. his constitution sound. on the http://www.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. but were written by the composer of them. in the course of fourteen years. And if a pair of wrestlers happened to break the bounds. his belly prominent. Therefore. he would. with a handkerchief about his neck. that he had his hair cut in rings. as well as for moulding statues in plaster. He had likewise great taste for drawing and painting. after the crowns he won by his performances on the stage. that. in the spectacles which he intended to exhibit in honour of his success. nor dictated by another. that they had not been transcribed from a copy. by C.htm (267 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . that he might longer secure his devotion to himself. he had. he publicly vowed.gutenberg. having a turn for poetry. only three fits of sickness. his features were agreeable. For he was continually practising that art. LIII. but his mother diverted him from the study of philosophy. rather than handsome. that if his power in the state was securely re-established. that it was very evident. is enclosed by a wall built of stone brought from Thasos. when a boy. and written in such a manner. For. his neck was thick. include a performance upon organs 635. LII. LIV.

dressed in robes of state. in which only he obstinately persisted. when.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. LVII. And there are some who say. He had an insatiable desire to immortalize his name. some person of obscure birth gave himself out for Nero. LVI. He was also desirous to have it supposed that he had. the son of Claudius. and designed changing the name of Rome into that of Neropolis. last day of the games. who for a long time decked his tomb with spring and summer flowers. Some. Vologesus. By the rule of hereditary succession. offering to her three sacrifices daily. upon the same day on which he had formerly put Octavia to death.gutenberg. but the omens were not favourable. that name secured him so favourable a reception (382) from the Parthians. Sometimes they placed his image upon the rostra. but he http://www. yet the design of conveying it by lineal descent was implied in the practice of adoption. twenty years afterwards.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by revelations from this deity. He therefore (381) took from several things and places their former appellations. and acquire a reputation which should last through all succeeding ages. Neroneus. and gave them new names derived from his own. that the common people ran about the city with caps upon their heads. For having received from some obscure plebeian a little image of a girl. He held all religious rites in contempt. he attended a sacrifice. as a preservative against plots. and. they published proclamations in his name. Suetonius Tranquillus. as if he were still alive. being now engaged in another superstition. would act in the play. a knowledge of future events.htm (268 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and the public joy was so great upon the occasion. A few months before he died. that he made water upon her. at which time I was a young man 638. except those of the Syrian Goddess 636. he constantly worshipped his imaginary protectress as the greatest amongst the gods. that he put to death the player Paris as a dangerous rival. He called the month of April. were not wanting. and take the part of Turnus. and discovering a conspiracy immediately after. * * * * * * * Though no law had ever passed for regulating the transmission of the imperial power. at another. when he sent ambassadors to the senate to renew his alliance with the Roman people. He died in the thirty-second year of his age 637. as we find it in Virgil. king of the Parthians. and it was with much difficulty that they were prevailed upon to give him up. LV. and would shortly return to Rome. but it was capriciously directed. earnestly requested that due honour should be paid to the memory of Nero. however. by C. was the natural heir to the throne. but at last he paid her so little reverence. and take vengeance on all his enemies. to conclude. that he was very zealously supported. Britannicus. according to the Etruscan rites.

Of all the Roman emperors who had hitherto reigned. Suetonius Tranquillus. Claudius. Livia. by whom she had Nero. Silanus. who had been married to C. Seneca. Whether this proceeded entirely from policy. The several reigns from the death of Augustus present us with uncommon scenes of cruelty and horror. with a view to the object now mentioned. and ready to sacrifice every principle of virtue. imperious. obtained the preference. Claudius seems to have had naturally a stronger tendency to weakness than to vice. is uncertain. The two rivals were strongly supported by their (383) respective parties.htm (269 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . a woman of beauty and intrigue.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and the means by which she indulged it. however much they all afterwards degenerated from those specious beginnings. Julia Agrippina was the daughter of Germanicus. perhaps. of which Tacitus availed himself in http://www. so she more than equalled her in the ingratitude of an unnatural son and a parricide. that we can scarcely exempt any of them. or by the desire of procuring the succession to the empire for her son.gutenberg. except. or that nature was not yet vitiated by the intoxication of uncontrolled power. but the inherent wickedness of Nero was discovered at an early period by his preceptor. she aspired to an incestuous alliance with him. but there remains no doubt of her having removed Claudius by poison. and the familiarity to which her near relation gave her a claim. in competition with Lollia Paulina. Junius Silanus. but such were the excesses into which they afterwards plunged. was supplanted by the artifices of his stepmother. that of Caligula had been obvious to those about him from his infancy. and the portentous nuptials of the emperor and his niece were publicly solemnized in the palace. from the imputation of great original depravity. who met at last with the fate which he had so amply merited. by C. and Claudius. by her superior interest with the emperor's favourites. and she accomplished that of his brother. She is said to have left behind her some memoirs. who flattered his follies and vices. From the time of Augustus it had been the custom of each of the new sovereigns to commence his reign in such a manner as tended to acquire popularity. Caesar. Besides Claudius. Nero. In the number of these was Tigellinus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and married Domitius Aenobarbus. She appears to have been richly endowed with the gifts of nature. entertaining a design of entering again into the married state. At the death of Messalina she was a widow. is uncertain. who had the address to procure it for her own son. her uncle. but Agrippina. to promote their own aggrandisement. The vicious temper of Tiberius was known to his own mother. violent. As she resembled Livia in the ambition of a mother. in the pursuit of supreme power or sensual gratification. but it was reserved for that of Nero to exhibit to the world the atrocious act of an emperor deliberately procuring the death of his mother. by means likewise of poison. Whether she was prompted to this flagrant indecency by personal ambition alone. he seems to have been most corrupted by profligate favourites. she projected the death of L. Yet even this emperor commenced his reign in a manner which procured him approbation. but in her disposition intriguing.

This massacre. he was recalled. to the number of seventy thousand. where running about in wild disorder.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. now Anglesey. but he found upon his arrival. the parts of the island which had already submitted to the Roman arms. after which. In one place. and Suetonius Paulinus was invested with the command of the Roman army employed in the reduction of that people. The women and Druids assembled promiscuously with the soldiers upon the shore. to obstruct his landing on this sacred island. Suetonius Tranquillus. and under the conduct of Boadicea. But they. that any attempt to preserve it would be attended with the utmost danger to the army. Boadicea. by a conciliatory administration. The island of Mona. however. in another. routed them in the field. queen of the Iceni. being the chief seat of the Druids. The command was afterwards given successively to Trebellius Maximus and Vettius Bolanus. destroying at the same time all the consecrated groves and altars in the island. It being judged unadvisable that Suetonius should any longer conduct the war against a people whom he had exasperated by his severity. by C. Suetonius having thus triumphed over the religion of the Britons. they boldly attacked the inhabitants.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. encouraged by his absence. and pouring forth the most hideous exclamations. was revenged by Suetonius in a decisive engagement. were put to the sword without distinction. revelling in open day in the company of the most http://www. flattered himself with the hopes of soon effecting the reduction of the people. Suetonius hastened to (384) the protection of London. such scenes of extravagance as almost exceed credibility. he resolved to commence his operations with attacking a place which was the centre of superstition. had already driven the hateful invaders from their several settlements. and Petronius Turpilianus appointed in his room.gutenberg.htm (270 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and burned the Druids in the same fires which had been prepared by those priests for the catastrophe of the invaders. the conquest of the Britons still continued to be the principal object of military enterprise. where eighty thousand of the Britons are said to have been killed. Nero himself was exhibiting. In this reign. and the Romans. both by force of arms and the terrors of religion. the Britons seeming determined to convince the enemy that they would acquiesce in no other terms than a total evacuation of the island. had taken arms. put a period to her own life by means of poison. The inhabitants endeavoured. During these transactions in Britain. and all strangers. in Rome or some of the provinces. to avoid falling into the hands of the insolent conquerors. the composition of his Annals. they struck the Romans with consternation. London therefore was reduced to ashes. But Suetonius animating his troops. who had been treated in the most ignominious manner by the Roman tribunes. contending for victory with the common musicians on the stage. which was by this time a flourishing Roman colony. but the plan pursued by these generals was only to retain. and to which the vanquished Britons retreated as the last asylum of liberty. with flaming torches in their hands. entering the lists amongst the competitors in a chariot race.

was mild and conciliating. in which inhuman transactions the natural barbarity of the emperor was inflamed by the prejudices and interested policy of the pagan priesthood. and a perpetual succession of civil wars. was liberal and humane: that of Augustus. if we exclude a few instances of vindictive severity towards individuals. and torn by dogs. there is reason to believe that the nation would again have been soon distracted with internal divisions. The despotism of Julius Caesar. that he had introduced amongst the Romans the best form of government: but while we make this observation. and folly. "that Nero. It is emphatically observed by Tacitus. Caligula. who united the most shameful vices to the most extravagant vanity. and exhibited the games of the Circus by this dreadful illumination. but which their successors no less disgraced.gutenberg. but the reigns of Tiberius. and. it is observed by Suetonius. after the murder of many illustrious personages. are to be mentioned the horrible cruelties exercised against the Christians in various parts of the empire. constitute the general characteristics of those capricious and detestable tyrants. and the whole of whose life was one continued scene of lewdness. setting fire to Rome.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. (385) The tyrant scrupled not to charge them with the act of burning Rome. exhibited the most flagrant acts of licentiousness and perverted authority. cruelty. committing depredations on the peaceful inhabitants of the capital. In vain would history be ransacked for a parallel to this emperor. were crucified. while he sung with delight in beholding the dreadful conflagration. to crown his enormities. manifested a desire of extirpating virtue itself. The most abominable lust. and set on fire. and the Romans were hastening to that fatal period http://www. that. and they were burnt alive. that they might serve for lights in the night-time. and Nero (for we except Claudius from part of the censure).The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. polluting with detestable lust. after which a sharp stake was put under their chin. had he even restored the republic. sensuality. Repeated experience now clearly refuted the opinion of Augustus. abandoned prostitutes and the vilest of men. while discriminated from each other by some peculiar circumstances." Among the excesses of Nero's reign. the most abject meanness to the strongest but most preposterous ambition. They were covered with the skins of wild beasts. the most shameful rapaciousness. in the night. it is proper to remark. a race rendered illustrious by the first and second emperors. or drenching with human blood. The manners of the people were become too dissolute to be restrained by the authority of elective and temporary magistrates. In the person of Nero. and the most inhuman cruelty.htm (271 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and he satiated his fury against them by such outrages as are unexampled in history. Suetonius Tranquillus. to make them stand upright. the race of the Caesars became extinct. Nero offered his gardens for this spectacle. Sometimes they were covered with wax and other combustible materials. the palace. by C. rapine. the streets. and the habitations of private families. the most extravagant luxury. though haughty and imperious. to give light to the spectators.

and the third. Suetonius Tranquillus. and whose works have been transmitted to posterity. equally with other Roman citizens. The possession of property became precarious. who abstained from certain meats. Seneca was recalled from his exile.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in which he http://www. was a man of letters.htm (272 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . their sentiments of duty and (386) honour were degraded by the loss of their former dignity. who had come from Corduba to Rome. Upon the marriage of Claudius with Agrippina. and placed him. Petronius Arbiter. two ended their days by the order of the emperor. which had formerly been the animating principle of the nation. under the most celebrated stoics of that age. with its attendant debility. but dreading the jealousy of Caligula. he was persuaded by his father to renounce the Pythagorean practice. and gave early indication of uncommon talents. would render them an easy prey to any foreign invaders. industry. and under the government of the emperors pernicious abuse was practised to a yet greater extent. It is a circumstance corresponding to the general singularity of the present reign. they endeavoured to compensate the reduction of their emoluments by an unbounded venality in the judicial decisions of the forum. Every source of national happiness and prosperity was by this means destroyed. had become openly corrupt in the dispensation of public justice. The senators.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. that. particularly fond of declamation. and apply himself towards suing for the honours and offices of the state. SENECA was born about six years before the Christian aera. Young Seneca. he removed from Rome. of the few writers who flourished in it. That class being now. from indignation at his conduct. imbibing the precepts of the Pythagorean doctrine. These unfortunate victims were Seneca. dependent on the sovereign power. by C. was effectually discouraged. even during the commonwealth. in all its branches. and the amor patriae. until Tiberius having threatened to punish some Jews and Egyptians. to which they had annually succeeded by an elective rotation in the times of the republic. religiously abstained from eating the flesh of animals. when general and great corruption. for the acquisition of philosophy. His father. was almost universally extinguished. He accordingly obtained the place of quaestor. in which office incurring the imputation of a scandalous amour with Julia Livia. But the odious government of the emperors was not the only grievance under which the people laboured in those disastrous times: patrician avarice concurred with imperial rapacity to increase the sufferings of the nation. and being likewise deprived of the lucrative governments of provinces. he thought proper to abandon that pursuit. Seneca displayed the talents of an eloquent speaker. in which he instructed his son. and was banished by the emperor Claudius to Corsica. who aspired to the same excellence. and Lucan.gutenberg.

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had remained near eight years, and was appointed to superintend the education of Nero, now destined to become the successor to the throne. In the character of preceptor he appears to have acquitted himself with ability and credit; though he has been charged by his enemies with having initiated his pupil in those detestable vices which disgraced the reign of Nero. Could he have indeed been guilty of such immoral conduct, it is probable that he would not so easily have (387) forfeited the favour of that emperor; and it is more reasonable to suppose, that his disapprobation of Nero's conduct was the real cause of that odium which soon after proved fatal to him. By the enemies whom distinguished merit and virtue never fail to excite at a profligate court, Seneca was accused of having maintained a criminal correspondence with Agrippina in the life-time of Claudius; but the chief author of this calumny was Suilius, who had been banished from Rome at the instance of Seneca. He was likewise charged with having amassed exorbitant riches, with having built magnificent houses, and formed beautiful gardens, during the four years in which he had acted as preceptor to Nero. This charge he considered as a prelude to his destruction; which to avoid, if possible, he requested of the emperor to accept of the riches and possessions which he had acquired in his situation at court, and to permit him to withdraw himself into a life of studious retirement. Nero, dissembling his secret intentions, refused this request; and Seneca, that he might obviate all cause of suspicion or offence, kept himself at home for some time, under the pretext of indisposition. Upon the breaking out of the conspiracy of Piso, in which some of the principal senators were concerned, Natalis, the discoverer of the plot, mentioned Seneca's name, as an accessory. There is, however, no satisfactory evidence that Seneca had any knowledge of the plot. Piso, according to the declaration of Natalis, had complained that he never saw Seneca; and the latter had observed, in answer, that it was not conducive to their common interest to see each other often. Seneca likewise pleaded indisposition, and said that his own life depended upon the safety of Piso's person. Nero, however, glad of such an occasion of sacrificing the philosopher to his secret jealousy, sent him an order to destroy himself. When the messenger arrived with this mandate, Seneca was sitting at table, with his wife Paulina and two of his friends. He heard the message not only with philosophical firmness, but even with symptoms of joy, and observed, that such an honour might long have been expected from a man who had assassinated all his friends, and even murdered his own mother. The only request which he made, was, that he might be permitted to dispose of his possessions as he pleased; but this was refused him. Immediately turning himself to his friends, who were weeping at his melancholy fate, he said to them, that, since he could not leave them what he considered as his own property, he should leave at least his own life for an example; an innocence of conduct which they might imitate, and by which they might acquire immortal fame. He remonstrated with composure against their unavailing tears and (388) lamentations, and asked them, whether they had not learnt better to sustain the shocks of

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fortune, and the violence of tyranny? The emotions of his wife he endeavoured to allay with philosophical consolation; and when she expressed a resolution to die with him, he said, that he was glad to find his example imitated with so much fortitude. The veins of both were opened at the same time; but Nero's command extending only to Seneca, the life of Paulina was preserved; and, according to some authors, she was not displeased at being prevented from carrying her precipitate resolution into effect. Seneca's veins bleeding but slowly, an opportunity was offered him of displaying in his last moments a philosophical magnanimity similar to that of Socrates; and it appears that his conversation during this solemn period was maintained with dignified composure. To accelerate his lingering fate, he drank a dose of poison; but this producing no effect, he ordered his attendants to carry him into a warm bath, for the purpose of rendering the haemorrhage from his veins more copious. This expedient proving likewise ineffectual, and the soldiers who witnessed the execution of the emperor's order being clamorous for its accomplishment, he was removed into a stove, and suffocated by the steam. He underwent his fate on the 12th of April, in the sixty-fifth year of the Christian aera, and the fifty-third year of his age. His body was burnt, and his ashes deposited in a private manner, according to his will, which had been made during the period when he was in the highest degree of favour with Nero. The writings of Seneca are numerous, and on various subjects. His first composition, addressed to Novacus, is on Anger, and continued through three books. After giving a lively description of this passion, the author discusses a variety of questions concerning it: he argues strongly against its utility, in contradiction to the peripatetics, and recommends its restraint, by many just and excellent considerations. This treatise may be regarded, in its general outlines, as a philosophical amplification of the passage in Horace:—
Ira furor brevis est: animum rege; qui, nisi paret, Imperat: hunc fraenis, hunc tu compesce catena. Epist. I. ii. Anger's a fitful madness: rein thy mind, Subdue the tyrant, and in fetters bind, Or be thyself the slave.

The next treatise is on Consolation, addressed to his mother, Helvia, and was written during his exile. He there informs his mother that he bears his banishment with fortitude, and advises her to do the same. He observes, that, in respect to himself, (389) change of place, poverty, ignominy,

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and contempt, are not real evils; that there may be two reasons for her anxiety on his account; first, that, by his absence, she is deprived of his protection; and in the next place, of the satisfaction arising from his company; on both which heads he suggests a variety of pertinent observations. Prefixed to this treatise, are some epigrams written on the banishment of Seneca, but whether or not by himself, is uncertain. Immediately subsequent to the preceding, is another treatise on Consolation, addressed to one of Claudius's freedmen, named Polybius, perhaps after the learned historian. In this tract, which is in several parts mutilated, the author endeavours to console Polybius for the loss of a brother who had lately died. The sentiments and admonitions are well suggested for the purpose; but they are intermixed with such fulsome encomiums on the imperial domestic, as degrade the dignity of the author, and can be ascribed to no other motive than that of endeavouring to procure a recall from his exile, through the interest of Polybius. A fourth treatise on Consolation is addressed to Marcia, a respectable and opulent lady, the daughter of Cremutius Cordus, by whose death she was deeply affected. The author, besides many consolatory arguments, proposes for her imitation a number of examples, by attending to which she may be enabled to overcome a passion that is founded only in too great sensibility of mind. The subject is ingeniously prosecuted, not without the occasional mixture of some delicate flattery, suitable to the character of the correspondent. These consolatory addresses are followed by a treatise on Providence, which evinces the author to have entertained the most just and philosophical sentiments on that subject. He infers the necessary existence of a Providence from the regularity and constancy observed in the government of the universe but his chief object is to show, why, upon the principle that a Providence exists, good men should be liable to evils. The enquiry is conducted with a variety of just observations, and great force of argument; by which the author vindicates the goodness and wisdom of the Almighty, in a strain of sentiment corresponding to the most approved suggestions of natural religion. The next treatise, which is on Tranquillity of Mind, appears to have been written soon after his return from exile. There is a confusion in the arrangement of this tract; but it contains a variety of just observations, and may be regarded as a valuable production. (390) Then follows a discourse on the Constancy of a Wise Man. This has by some been considered as a part of the preceding treatise; but they are evidently distinct. It is one of the author's best productions, in regard both of sentiment and composition, and contains a fund of moral observations, suited to fortify the mind under the oppression of accidental calamities.

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We next meet with a tract on Clemency, in two books, addressed to Nero. This appears to have been written in the beginning of the reign of Nero, on whom the author bestows some high encomiums, which, at that time, seem not to have been destitute of foundation. The discourse abounds with just observation, applicable to all ranks of men; and, if properly attended to by that infatuated emperor, might have prevented the perpetration of those acts of cruelty, which, with his other extravagancies, have rendered his name odious to posterity. The discourse which succeeds is on the Shortness of Life, addressed to Paulinus. In this excellent treatise the author endeavours to show, that the complaint of the shortness of life is not founded in truth: that it is men who make life short, either by passing it in indolence, or otherwise improperly. He inveighs against indolence, luxury, and every unprofitable avocation; observing, that the best use of time is to apply it to the study of wisdom, by which life may be rendered sufficiently long. Next follows a discourse on a Happy Life, addressed to Gallio. Seneca seems to have intended this as a vindication of himself, against those who calumniated him on account of his riches and manner of living. He maintained that a life can only be rendered happy by its conformity to the dictates of virtue, but that such a life is perfectly compatible with the possession of riches, where they happen to accrue. The author pleads his own cause with great ability, as well as justness of argument. His vindication is in many parts highly beautiful, and accompanied with admirable sentiments respecting the moral obligations to a virtuous life. The conclusion of this discourse bears no similarity, in point of composition, to the preceding parts, and is evidently spurious. The preceding discourse is followed by one upon the Retirement of a Wise Man. The beginning of this tract is wanting; but in the sequel the author discusses a question which was much agitated amongst the Stoics and Epicureans, viz., whether a wise man ought to concern himself with the affairs of the public. Both these sects of philosophers maintained that a life of retirement was most suitable to a wise man, but they differed with respect to the circumstances in which it might be proper to deviate from this conduct; one party considering the deviation (391) as prudent, when there existed a just motive for such conduct, and the other, when there was no forcible reason against it. Seneca regards both these opinions as founded upon principles inadequate to the advancement both of public and private happiness, which ought ever to be the ultimate object of moral speculation. The last of the author's discourses, addressed to Aebucius, is on Benefits, and continued through seven books. He begins with lamenting the frequency of ingratitude amongst mankind, a vice which

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he severely censures. After some preliminary considerations respecting the nature of benefits, he proceeds to show in what manner, and on whom, they ought to be conferred. The greater part of these books is employed on the solution of abstract questions relative to benefits, in the manner of Chrysippus; where the author states explicitly the arguments on both sides, and from the full consideration of them, deduces rational conclusions. The Epistles of Seneca consist of one hundred and twenty-four, all on moral subjects. His Natural Questions extend through seven books, in which he has collected the hypotheses of Aristotle and other ancient writers. These are followed by a whimsical effusion on the death of Caligula. The remainder of his works comprises seven Persuasive Discourses, five books of Controversies, and ten books containing Extracts of Declamations. From the multiplicity of Seneca's productions, it is evident, that, notwithstanding the luxurious life he is said to have led, he was greatly devoted to literature, a propensity which, it is probable, was confirmed by his banishment during almost eight years in the island of Corsica, where he was in a great degree secluded from every other resource of amusement to a cultivated mind. But with whatever splendour Seneca's domestic economy may have been supported, it seems highly improbable that he indulged himself in luxurious enjoyment to any vicious excess. His situation at the Roman court, being honourable and important, could not fail of being likewise advantageous, not only from the imperial profusion common at that time, but from many contingent emoluments which his extensive interest and patronage would naturally afford him. He was born of a respectable rank, lived in habits of familiar intercourse with persons of the first distinction, and if, in the course of his attendance upon Nero, he had acquired a large fortune, no blame could justly attach to his conduct in maintaining an elegant hospitality. The imputation of luxury was thrown upon him from two quarters, viz, by the dissolute companions of Nero, to whom the mention of such an example served as an apology for their own extreme dissipation; (392) and by those who envied him for the affluence and dignity which he had acquired. The charge, however, is supported only by vague assertion, and is discredited by every consideration which ought to have weight in determining the reality of human characters. It seems totally inconsistent with his habits of literary industry, with the virtuous sentiments which he every where strenuously maintains, and the esteem with which he was regarded by a numerous acquaintance, as a philosopher and a moralist. The writings of Seneca have been traduced almost equally with his manner of living, though in both he has a claim to indulgence, from the fashion of the times. He is more studious of minute embellishments in style than the writers of the Augustan age; and the didactic strain, in which he mostly prosecutes his subjects, has a tendency to render him sententious; but the

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expression of his thoughts is neither enfeebled by decoration, nor involved in obscurity by conciseness. He is not more rich in artificial ornament than in moral admonition. Seneca has been charged with depreciating former writers, to render himself more conspicuous; a charge which, so far as appears from his writings, is founded rather in negative than positive testimony. He has not endeavoured to establish his fame by any affectation of singularity in doctrine; and while he passes over in silence the names of illustrious authors, he avails himself with judgment of the most valuable stores with which they had enriched philosophy. On the whole, he is an author whose principles may be adopted not only with safety, but great advantage; and his writings merit a degree of consideration, superior to what they have hitherto ever enjoyed in the literary world. Seneca, besides his prose works, was the author of some tragedies. The Medea, the Troas, and the Hippolytus, are ascribed to him. His father is said to have written the Hercules Furens, Thyestes, Agamemnon, and Hercules Oetaeus. The three remaining tragedies, the Thebais, Oedipus, and Octavia, usually published in the same collection with the seven preceding, are supposed to be the productions of other authors, but of whom, is uncertain. These several pieces are written in a neat style; the plots and characters are conducted with an attention to probability and nature: but none of them is so forcible, in point of tragical distress, as to excite in the reader any great degree of emotion.—— PETRONIUS was a Roman knight, and apparently of considerable fortune. In his youth he seems to have given great application to polite literature, in which he acquired a justness of taste, as well as an elegance of composition. Early initiated in the gaieties (393) of fashionable life, he contracted a habit of voluptuousness which rendered him an accommodating companion to the dissipated and the luxurious. The court of Claudius, entirely governed for some time by Messalina, was then the residence of pleasure; and here Petronius failed not of making a conspicuous appearance. More delicate, however, than sensual, he rather joined in the dissipation, than indulged in the vices of the palace. To interrupt a course of life too uniform to afford him perpetual satisfaction, he accepted of the proconsulship of Bithynia, and went to that province, where he discharged the duties of his office with great credit. Upon his return to Rome, Nero, who had succeeded Claudius, made him consul, in recompense of his services. This new dignity, by giving him frequent and easy access to the emperor, created an intimacy between them, which was increased to friendship and esteem on the side of Nero, by the elegant entertainments often given him by Petronius. In a short time, this gay voluptuary became so much a favourite at court, that nothing was agreeable but what was approved by Petronius and the authority which he acquired, by being umpire in whatever related to the economy of gay dissipation, procured him the title of Arbiter elegantiarum. Things continued in this state whilst the emperor kept within the bounds of moderation; and Petronius acted as intendant of his pleasures, ordering him shows, games, comedies, music, feats, and all that

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could contribute to make the hours of relaxation pass agreeably; seasoning, at the same time, the innocent delights which he procured for the emperor with every possible charm, to prevent him from seeking after such as might prove pernicious both to morals and the republic. Nero, however, giving way to his own disposition, which was naturally vicious, at length changed his conduct, not only in regard to the government of the empire, but of himself and listening to other counsels than those of Petronius, gave the entire reins to his passions, which afterwards plunged him in ruin. The emperor's new favourite was Tigellinus, a man of the most profligate morals, who omitted nothing that could gratify the inordinate appetites of his prince, at the expense of all decency and virtue. During this period, Petronius gave vent to his indignation, in the satire transmitted under his name by the title of Satyricon. But his total retirement from court did not secure him from the artifices of Tigellinus, who laboured with all his power to destroy the man whom he had industriously supplanted in the emperor's favour. With this view he insinuated to Nero, that Petronius was too intimately connected with Scevinus not to be engaged in Piso's conspiracy; and, to support his calumny, caused the emperor to be present at the examination (394) of one of Petronius's slaves, whom he had secretly suborned to swear against his master. After this transaction, to deprive Petronius of all means of justifying himself, they threw into prison the greatest part of his domestics. Nero embraced with joy the opportunity of removing a man, to whom he knew the present manners of the court were utterly obnoxious, and he soon after issued orders for arresting Petronius. As it required, however, some time to deliberate whether they should put a person of his consideration to death, without more evident proofs of the charges preferred against him, such was his disgust at living in the power of so detestable and capricious a tyrant, that he resolved to die. For this purpose, making choice of the same expedient which had been adopted by Seneca, he caused his veins to be opened, but he closed them again, for a little time, that he might enjoy the conversation of his friends, who came to see him in his last moments. He desired them, it is said, to entertain him, not with discourses on the immortality of the soul, or the consolation of philosophy, but with agreeable tales and poetic gallantries. Disdaining to imitate the servility of those who, dying by the orders of Nero, yet made him their heir, and filled their wills with encomiums on the tyrant and his favourites, he broke to pieces a goblet of precious stones, out of which he had commonly drank, that Nero, who he knew would seize upon it after his death, might not have the pleasure of using it. As the only present suitable to such a prince, he sent him, under a sealed cover, his Satyricon, written purposely against him; and then broke his signet, that it might not, after his death, become the means of accusation against the person in whose custody it should be found. The Satyricon of Petronius is one of the most curious productions in the Latin language. Novel in its nature, and without any parallel in the works of antiquity, some have imagined it to be a spurious composition, fabricated about the time of the revival of learning in Europe. This

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The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, by C. Suetonius Tranquillus;

conjecture, however, is not more destitute of support, than repugnant to the most circumstantial evidence in favour of its authenticity. Others, admitting the work to be a production of the age of Nero, have questioned the design with which it was written, and have consequently imputed to the author a most immoral intention. Some of the scenes, incidents, and characters, are of so extraordinary a nature, that the description of them, without a particular application, must have been regarded as extremely whimsical, and the work, notwithstanding its ingenuity, has been doomed to perpetual oblivion: but history justifies the belief, that in the court of Nero, the extravagancies mentioned by Petronius were realized (395) to a degree which authenticates the representation given of them. The inimitable character of Trimalchio, which exhibits a person sunk in the most debauched effeminacy, was drawn for Nero; and we are assured, that there were formerly medals of that emperor, with these words, C. Nero August. Imp., and on the reverse, Trimalchio. The various characters are well discriminated, and supported with admirable propriety. Never was such licentiousness of description united to such delicacy of colouring. The force of the satire consists not in poignancy of sentiment, but in the ridicule which arises from the whimsical, but characteristic and faithful exhibition of the objects introduced. That Nero was struck with the justness of the representation, is evident from the displeasure which he showed, at finding Petronius so well acquainted with his infamous excesses. After levelling his suspicion on all who could possibly have betrayed him, he at last fixed on a senator's wife, named Silia, who bore a part in his revels, and was an intimate friend of Petronius upon which she was immediately sent into banishment. Amongst the miscellaneous materials in this work, are some pieces of poetry, written in an elegant taste. A poem on the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, is beautiful and animated. Though the Muses appear to have been mostly in a quiescent state from the time of Augustus, we find from Petronius Arbiter, who exhibits the manners of the capital during the reign of Nero, that poetry still continued to be a favourite pursuit amongst the Romans, and one to which, indeed, they seem to have had a national propensity.
————Ecce inter pocula quaerunt Romulidae saturi, quid dia poemata narrent.—Persius, Sat. i. 30. ——Nay, more! Our nobles, gorged, and swilled with wine, Call o'er the banquet for a lay divine!—Gifford.

It was cultivated as a kind of fashionable exercise, in short and desultory attempts, in which the chief ambition was to produce verses extempore. They were publicly recited by their authors with

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great ostentation; and a favourable verdict from an audience, however partial, and frequently obtained either by intrigue or bribery, was construed by those frivolous pretenders into a real adjudication of poetical fame. The custom of publicly reciting poetical compositions, with the view of obtaining the opinion of the hearers concerning them, and for which purpose Augustus had built the Temple of Apollo, was well calculated for the improvement of taste and judgment, as well as the excitement of emulation; but, conducted as it now was, it led to a general degradation of poetry. Barbarism in (396) language, and a corruption of taste, were the natural consequences of this practice, while the judgment of the multitude was either blind or venal, and while public approbation sanctioned the crudities of hasty composition. There arose, however, in this period, some candidates for the bays, who carried their efforts beyond the narrow limits which custom and inadequate genius prescribed to the poetical exertions of their contemporaries. Amongst these were Lucan and Persius.—— LUCAN was the son of Annaeus Mela, the brother of Seneca, the philosopher. He was born at Corduba, the original residence of the family, but came early to Rome, where his promising talents, and the patronage of his uncle, recommended him to the favour of Nero; by whom he was raised to the dignity of an augur and quaestor before he had attained the usual age. Prompted by the desire of displaying his political abilities, he had the imprudence to engage in a competition with his imperial patron. The subject chosen by Nero was the tragical fate of Niobe; and that of Lucan was Orpheus. The ease with which the latter obtained the victory in the contest, excited the jealousy of the emperor, who resolved upon depressing his rising genius. With this view, he exposed him daily to the mortification of fresh insults, until at last the poet's resentment was so much provoked, that he entered into the conspiracy of Piso for cutting off the tyrant. The plot being discovered, there remained for the unfortunate Lucan no hope of pardon: and choosing the same mode of death which was employed by his uncle, he had his veins opened, while he sat in a warm bath, and expired in pronouncing with great emphasis the following lines in his Pharsalia:—
Scinditur avulsus; nec sicut vulnere sanguis Emicuit lentus: ruptis cadit undique venis; Discursusque animae diversa in membra meantis Interceptus aquis, nullius, vita perempti Est tanta dimissa via.—Lib. iii. 638. ——Asunder flies the man.

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No single wound the gaping rupture seems, Where trickling crimson flows in tender streams; But from an opening horrible and wide A thousand vessels pour the bursting tide; At once the winding channel's course was broke, Where wandering life her mazy journey took.—Rowe.

Some authors have said that he betrayed pusillanimity at the hour of death; and that, to save himself from punishment, he (397) accused his mother of being involved in the conspiracy. This circumstance, however, is not mentioned by other writers, who relate, on the contrary, that he died with philosophical fortitude. He was then only in the twenty-sixth year of his age. Lucan had scarcely reached the age of puberty when he wrote a poem on the contest between Hector and Achilles. He also composed in his youth a poem on the burning of Rome; but his only surviving work is the Pharsalia, written on the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. This poem, consisting of ten books, is unfinished, and its character has been more depreciated than that of any other production of antiquity. In the plan of the poem, the author prosecutes the different events in the civil war, beginning his narrative at the passage of the Rubicon by Caesar. He invokes not the muses, nor engages any gods in the dispute; but endeavours to support an epic dignity by vigour of sentiment, and splendour of description. The horrors of civil war, and the importance of a contest which was to determine the fate of Rome and the empire of the world, are displayed with variety of colouring, and great energy of expression. In the description of scenes, and the recital of heroic actions, the author discovers a strong and lively imagination; while, in those parts of the work which are addressed either to the understanding or the passions, he is bold, figurative, and animated. Indulging too much in amplification, he is apt to tire with prolixity; but in all his excursions he is ardent, elevated, impressive, and often brilliant. His versification has not the smoothness which we admire in the compositions of Virgil, and his language is often involved in the intricacies of technical construction: but with all his defects, his beauties are numerous; and he discovers a greater degree of merit than is commonly found in the productions of a poet of twenty-six years of age, at which time he died.—— PERSIUS was born at Volaterrae, of an equestrian family, about the beginning of the Christian aera. His father dying when he was six years old, he was left to the care of his mother, for whom and for his sisters he expresses the warmest affection. At the age of twelve he came to Rome, where, after attending a course of grammar and rhetoric under the respective masters of those branches of education, he placed himself under the tuition of Annaeus Cornutus, a celebrated stoic philosopher of that time. There subsisted between him and this preceptor so great a

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Spent in your converse. Such was the freedom of the Romans. Can I forget how many a summer's day. however. he bequeathed to Cornutus a handsome sum of money. and peculiar talents for teaching. Unum opus. and other ancient writers. than from any peculiarity either in his language or composition. in the use of some expressions. chiefly in allusion to the government of Nero: the fifth satire is employed in evincing that the wise man also is free. by C. et requiem pariter disponimus ambo: Atque verecunda laxamus feria mensa. the author adopts the observations used by Horace on the same subject. and his library. that at his death. the vanity of the poets in his time. but this imputation arises more from unacquaintance with the characters and manners to which the author alludes. v. ignorance and temerity in political administration. stole. unmarked. The last satire of Persius is directed against avarice. which happened in the twenty-ninth year of his age. and not with the admirable raillery of that facetious author.— http://www. His versification is harmonious. The satires of Persius are written in a free. whom the author celebrates for his amiable virtues. afford a more agreeable picture of domestic comfort and philosophical conviviality. Suetonius Tranquillus. there are in the fourth satire a few passages which cannot decently admit of being translated. and we have only to remark.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and argumentative manner.gutenberg. away? Or how. They have since. at the same time that they show how diligently the preceptor and his pupil were employed through the whole day in the cultivation of moral science. I snatched from feasts the earlier hours of night?—Gifford.htm (283 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . accepting only the books. that. however.—Sat. which just refinement has now exploded. Priscian. while listening with increased delight. though Persius is acknowledged to have been both virtuous and modest. than might be expected in the family of a rigid stoic: Tecum etenim longos memini consumere soles. in addition to similar examples in other Latin writers. friendship. we meet with a beautiful address to Cornutus. been generally divided into six different satires. spear of Persius's satires as consisting of a book without any division. left the money to Persius's sisters. the backwardness of youth to the cultivation of moral science. Et tecum primas epulis decerpere noctes. In the fifth. in discussing which point. but by some only into five. but exerted in the way of derision. The following lines. The latter. Quintilian. They are regarded by many as obscure. possessing the same justness of sentiment as those of Horace.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. expostulatory. The subjects of these compositions are.

a little before the death of each prince. and Augustus's sceptre was dashed from his hands.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and it was observed that. with a sprig of laurel in her mouth. Livia gave orders to have the hen taken care of. He wrote several tragedies. to this day. who was not in the remotest degree allied to the family of http://www. who wrote a severe satire against the priests of his time. just as she had seized it. the author was banished by Nero. as also one (399) against the senators. But in the last year of Nero. next to Horace. but of his various compositions. the best lyric poet among the Romans. (400) I. by C. a man of distinguished rank in the army. The laurel groves flourished so much. It was also their constant custom to plant others on the same spot. There now likewise flourished a lyric poet. an event prognosticated by various signs. II. and the hens all died. the temple of the Caesars 641 being struck with lightning. and the hen reared such a numerous brood of chickens. and the sprig of laurel set. when Livia. About the same time. SERGIUS SULPICIUS GALBA. and who obtained the honour of a triumph for a victory over a tribe of barbarians in Germany. after her marriage with Augustus. He is said to have been. Nothing remains of either of those productions.htm (284 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] .gutenberg. an eagle flying by. To the two poets now mentioned must be added POMPONIUS SECUNDUS. which in the judgment of Quintilian. the tree which had been set by him died away. Another poet. CAESIUS BASSUS. but.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. that the villa. is called the Villa of the Hens 640. in this period. two of which were particularly significant. The race of the Caesars became extinct in Nero. immediately after a triumph. the heads of all the statues in it fell off at once. for corruption in their judicial capacity. were beautiful compositions. for the latter. Suetonius Tranquillus. let drop upon her lap a hen. only a few inconsiderable fragments are preserved. that the Caesars procured thence the boughs and crowns they bore at their triumphs. was FABRICIUS VEIENTO. Formerly. to whom Persius has addressed his sixth satire. Nero was succeeded by Galba 642. was making a visit to her villa at Veii 639. the whole plantation of laurels perished to the very roots.

Caius 649. is uncertain. daughter of Catulus. because he was of a slender habit of body. a person of consular rank 644. Caius and Sergius. without doubt. but a tolerable orator. History relates. gave a lustre to the family. in the language of the Gauls. Galba. that.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. Why. I shall. who sacked Corinth 648. Catulus Capitolinus. and by that means gave occasion to the war of Viriatus 645. joined with Cassius and Brutus in the conspiracy against him. Some are of opinion. that she was farther encouraged to persevere in her advances. after he had a long time attacked it to no purpose. Livia Ocellina. and the other. he set up the images of his ancestors in the hall 643 of the palace. being descended from a great and ancient family. III. or. and showing her the deformity of his person. by C. he perfidiously put to the sword thirty thousand Lusitanians. For he rose no higher than the praetorship. From him were descended the grandfather and father of the emperor Galba. the first of the Sulpicii who had the cognomen of Galba. therefore. They say. was so called. but published a large and not uninteresting history. of very noble extraction. The elder of these. with torches dipped in the gum called Galbanum: others said he was so named. when they were alone. having very much reduced his estate. and by the mother's to Pasiphae. than (402) for any figure he made in the government. of stripping off his toga. when he was pro-praetor of Spain. and being prohibited by Tiberius from standing for a pro-consulship in his year. on account of his being prodigiously corpulent.gutenberg. or whence. wrapped up in wool: others. by whom it is supposed he was courted for the nobleness of his descent. upon the bases of his statues. His grandson being incensed against Julius Caesar. like those insects which breed in a sort of oak. because. because he was through him disappointed of the consulship 646. He was twice married: the first of his wives was Mummia Achaica. Sergius Galba. To give even a short account of the whole family. the wife of Minos. but.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. only slightly notice that branch of it from which he was descended.htm (285 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he took an opportunity. for which he was condemned by the Pedian law. whose lieutenant he had been in Gaul. for he always used to put amongst his other titles. according to the inscriptions on which. and great-grand-daughter of Lucius Mummius. that it was because he set fire to a city in Spain. and are called Galbae. the Caesars. The grandfather was more celebrated for his application to study. his being great-grandson to Q. And when he came to (401) be emperor. on the contrary. His father attained to the consulship 647: he was a short man and humpbacked. by an incident which evinced the great ingenuousness of his disposition. put an end to his own life. Suetonius Tranquillus. such a one being called. http://www. retired from town. He had by Achaica two sons. he made use of it as a remedy. and an industrious pleader. in a lingering disease. he carried up his pedigree on the father's side to Jupiter. would be tedious. and the most eloquent man of his time. that he might not be thought to impose upon her. Upon her pressing her suit. a very rich and beautiful woman.

to have his freedmen and slaves appear in a body before him twice a day. with the cognomen of Ocella. above a cubit long. the latter. he ever after worshipped it with a monthly sacrifice. calling to mind the sacrifice and saying of his grandfather. as a mule's happening at that time to have a foal. he dreamt that the goddess Fortune said to him. but at an advanced age. and changed his praenomen. Amongst other liberal studies. The emperor Sergius Galba was born in the consulship of M. morning and evening. Most of all. close to the threshold. when the door of the house was opened. to pay his respects to Augustus. Upon this. until he arrived at the imperial dignity. instead of Sergius. nor could he be prevailed upon to marry again. he made a considerable figure. while he was a married man. but the mother and children all dying. Being adopted by his stepmother 652. when a mule comes to bear a foal. said. and narrowly missed being enriched by the will which she left at her death. he found a brazen statue of the goddess. and now nowhere observed. the entrails of the victim were snatched out of his hand by an eagle. pinching his cheek. to offer him their salutations. not even Agrippina herself. and having consecrated it in an apartment of his house. amongst other boys of his own age. He married Lepida 653. child. by C. when in company with several married women.gutenberg. When he took upon him the manly habit." When Galba first declared against Nero. which was. then. who had employed all her blandishments to allure him to her embraces. being told that he would come to be emperor. It is well known. he kept up an ancient but obsolete custom. except in his own family. nothing gave him so much confidence of success. in a villa standing upon a hill. he applied himself to the law. and even went so far as to cuff her. and Cn. that the family would come to be masters of the empire. where he used to pass the summer season. wilt taste our imperial dignity. by whose favour. which he carried with slim to Tusculum. V. "And thou. said to him. he assumed the name of Livius. likewise. Though but a very young man. exclaimed. Suetonius Tranquillus.htm (286 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . "I stand before your door weary. insomuch that Lepida's mother." Tiberius. he continued a widower. I shall fall into the hands of the first who comes to seize me. "Let him live. the soothsayers said. and carried off into an oak-tree loaded with acorns. he alone regarded it as a most fortunate omen. while she was living." On his awaking. for he afterwards used that of Lucius. And whilst all others were shocked at the occurrence. Lentulus. on the left-hand side of the road to Fundi 651. at that time left a widow by the death of Domitius.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. since that does not concern me!" When his grandfather was offering sacrifice to (403) avert some ill omen from lightning. rebuked her for it. upon the ninth of the calends of January [24th December] [650]. and unless I am speedily admitted. he courted the empress Livia 654. by a legacy of fifty millions of sesterces. and an anniversary vigil. too. that when he came once. http://www. "Ay. smiling.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in which she distinguished him from the rest of the (404) legatees. near Terracina. but not until many years had elapsed: at which he. Valerius Messala. IV. as a most inauspicious prodigy. by whom he had two sons.

stood so high in his good opinion. 'Tis Galba. He was then governor of the province of Aquitania for near a year. non Gaetulicus. On this account. 655 VI. With equal strictness. he was in great favour with Claudius. he would allow of no petitions for leave of absence from the camp. he put a stop to their plaudits in a public spectacle. none met with higher commendation.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and was succeeded by Salvius Otho. by C. Learn.htm (287 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . both old and young. "That they should keep their hands under their cloaks. to five hundred thousand: and even this he never received. it was reduced by her heir. and being received into the number of his friends. so that his holding it between the sons of these two men. Domitius. the following verse became very common in the camp: Disce. Upon the news of Caius's death. He hardened the soldiers. even in matters of small importance. at the celebration of games in honour of the goddess Flora. he so far recommended himself and his army to that emperor's approbation. upon Caius's coming into Germany. miles. father to the emperor of that name. It so happened that he succeeded L. He governed Africa. he chose rather to be quiet. looked like a presage of his future advancement to the empire. as pro-consul.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. during his praetorship. though many earnestly pressed him to lay hold of that opportunity of seizing the empire. not Gaetulicus." Immediately upon which. and running at the side of the emperor's chariot twenty miles together. that. or greater rewards from him. But because the sum was expressed in figures. by constant exercise. soldier. A soldier http://www. the father of Nero. because he was suddenly seized with a slight indisposition. by issuing an order. and having quickly reduced within their own limits the barbarians who had made inroads into Gaul. and the alarms of the barbarians. VII. commands. and not in words at length. and soon afterwards took the consulship in the usual course. His administration was distinguished by great strictness and equity. He likewise distinguished himself by heading an escort. Tiberius. which was in great disorder from civil dissensions. now in arms to use your hands. he presented the new spectacle of elephants walking upon ropes. with a shield in his hand 658. Being appointed by Caius Caesar to supersede Gaetulicus in his command. that the expedition to Britain 659 was for some time suspended. and held it for six months 656. Filling the great offices before the age required for it by law. the day after his joining the legions. militare: Galba est. Suetonius Tranquillus. for two years. amongst the innumerable troops drawn from all the provinces of the empire.gutenberg. being chosen out of the regular course to restore order in the province.

IX. and indeed excessively severe. by C." Without any long demur. in the punishment of offenders. On this delinquent imploring the protection of the law. and to mitigate his punishment. and painted white.gutenberg. But by degrees he gave himself up to a life of indolence and inactivity. he lived for the most part in retirement. to whom he was guardian. and the covering being there removed. He never went abroad (405) so much as to take the air. At first he was active. And not long after. another in the college of Titius. and from that time to the middle of Nero's reign. and crying out that he was a Roman citizen. ready at hand. and accordingly he died of famine. the evidence being slight on both sides. he received the triumphal ornaments. He governed the province during eight years. a money-dealer having committed some fraud in the way of his business. upon some expedition being charged with selling. This incident was regarded by some as a token of an approaching revolution in the government. with his head muffled up. who had poisoned an orphan. in which there was a million of sesterces in gold. For. when he came to be in want himself. "Nobody was obliged to render an account of their leisure hours. a cause being brought before him about some beast of burden. and put himself at their head to relieve them from the tyranny of Nero.htm (288 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . until at last. and it being difficult to come at the truth. the ownership of which was claimed by two persons. a thunderbolt falling into a lake in Cantabria 660. he ordered the beast to be led to a pond at which he had used to be watered. letters were brought from Vindex. After his arrival in the province. a bushel of wheat. http://www. requesting him "to assert the rights of mankind. For his achievements. When sitting in judgment. and while the lieutenant of Aquitania was soliciting his assistance. to be erected for him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. that he should be the property of the person whom he followed of his own accord. without a carriage attending him." He was holding a court of justice on the circuit at New Carthage 661. became all on a sudden grey-headed. he affected to afford him some alleviation. which was all he had left. at the time he was living in the town of Fundi. for a hundred denarii. both at this time in Africa. and next heir to the estate. and three sacerdotal appointments. and because. he forbad him to be relieved by any body. and a third amongst the Augustals. the province of Hispania Tarraconensis was offered him. whilst he was sacrificing in a temple. and nailed them to his counter. Suetonius Tranquillus. after drinking. and that an old man would succeed a young one: that is. a boy who attended with a censer. twelve axes were found in it. from the fear of giving Nero any occasion of jealousy. a manifest sign of the supreme power. higher than usual. his administration being of an uncertain and capricious character. he cut off his hands. and formerly in Germany. one among The Fifteen. as he used to say. he crucified. Another. when he received intelligence of the insurrection in Gaul 662. by a mark of honour. VIII.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. vigorous. that he would succeed Nero. ordered a cross. in a great scarcity of corn.

He likewise issued proclamations throughout the provinces of the empire. One of the two wings of horse. from a mixture of fear and hope. And some slaves who had been presented to him by a freedman of Nero's. family. as by the prophecy of a young woman of good. as often as occasion should require. besides his veteran army consisting of one legion. and whom he had purposely sent for from one of the neighbouring Balearic isles. These dangers were followed by the death of Vindex.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. because the priest of Jupiter at Clunia 663. he formed a kind of senate. Out of the military leaders most distinguished for age and prudence. From this incident. and were with some difficulty kept in their duty.gutenberg. a confession was extorted from them. being called "The Reserve. a ship of Alexandria arrived at Dertosa 664. he had the effigies of a number of persons who had been condemned and put to death by Nero. by all the ways and means in their power. XI. as if there was no other business than the manumitting of slaves. he publicly declared himself "only the lieutenant of the senate and people of Rome. The more so. repenting of the violation of their oath to Nero. admonished by a dream. and lamenting the condition of the times. he accepted the invitation. two wings of horse. Suetonius Tranquillus. on purpose to murder him.htm (289 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . he levied legions and auxiliary troops among the provincials. about two hundred years before. Presently after.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. they were called to an account concerning it. and three cohorts. About the same time. and. when all on a sudden the whole design was exposed to failure. For he had discovered that private orders had been sent by Nero to his procurators in the province to get (407) him dispatched. without any person to steer it. had like to have killed him as he went through a narrow passage to the bath. at which being extremely discouraged. nobody entertained the least doubt but the war upon which they were entering was just and honourable. Taking his seat on the tribunal. He likewise chose several young men of the equestrian order. set up before him. instead of the legionary soldiers." X. or so much as a single sailor or passenger (408) on board. and aid the common cause. therefore. who were to be allowed the privilege of wearing the gold ring. which he had pitched upon for a military post. whilst a noble youth stood by. and recourse being had to the torture. of antique workmanship." should mount guard before his bed-chamber. exhorting all to rise in arms unanimously." Then shutting the courts. as well by several auspices and omens. a ring was found. had discovered in the recesses of the temple some verses similar to those in which she had delivered her prophecy. attempted to desert him upon his approach to the camp. in fortifying a town. and he was encouraged to the enterprise. Being overheard to encourage one another not to lose the opportunity. as http://www. with whom to advise upon all matters of importance. who had been banished. in the stone of which was engraved the goddess Victory with a trophy. and favoured likewise by the gods. These had also been uttered by a girl under divine inspiration. and being thereupon unanimously saluted by the title of Emperor. Spain should give the world a lord and master. loaded with arms. "That in time. The import of the verses was. by C.

For some seamen who had been taken from the fleet. His arrival. in town was not very agreeable to the people. such as. who opposed his advancement. he did not resume the use of the toga. he laid aside the title of lieutenant. taken out of the temple of Jupiter. He also disbanded a cohort of Germans. io.gutenberg. XIII. he reached him a dish of legumes from his table as a reward for his care and diligence. he not only dispersed them by a body of horse. with which he was presented by the people of Tarracona. and when Canus. by C. Simus 665 a villa: Lo! Clodpate from his village comes. with the two lieutenants. such as that he had punished some cities of Spain and Gaul.htm (290 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . but likewise decimated them. Venit. and sent them back into their own country. and that all had taken an oath to him as emperor. and had exacted from them three ounces which were wanting in the weight. but whether with or without foundation. than his own. prefect of the pretorian guards at Rome. I know not. he had melted down. he had thoughts of putting an end to his own life. which had been formed by the preceding emperors. and obstinately clinging to the more honourable service under their eagles and standards. but they refusing to comply. all the spectators. he fetched a deep groan: that when one of the stewards presented him with an account of his expenses. he presented him. that when a more sumptuous entertainment than usual was served up. had played much to his satisfaction. for not joining him readily. and upon many occasions found very faithful. and some by levelling their walls. therefore. he obliged to return to their former condition. by the imposition of heavy taxes. with one voice. Suetonius Tranquillus. Rumours of his cruelty and avarice had reached the city before his arrival. five denarii taken out of his pocket. without giving them any gratuity. until Nymphidius Sabinus. near whose gardens they encamped. and this appeared at the next public spectacle. went on with the rest. and enlisted (409) among the troops by Nero.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and a dagger hanging from his neck before his breast. Putting himself upon his march in his general's cloak. This report of him was confirmed and increased. Fonteius Capito in Germany. were all put down. repeating and acting the first verse http://www. if fortune had quite forsaken him. XII. pretending that they were more inclined to favour the advancement of Cneius Dolabella.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. but receiving advice by his messengers from Rome that Nero was slain. and had put to death the governors and procurators with their wives and children: likewise that a golden crown. and took upon him that of Caesar. with his own hand. of fifteen pounds weight. The following ridiculous stories were also related of him. for their body-guard. the piper. For when the actors in a farce began a well-known song. as soon as he entered the town. and Claudius Macer in Africa.

at another. when the Roman people were very clamorous for the punishment of Halotus and Tigellinus. Nay. no doubt. was advanced to be prefect of the pretorian guards. By this conduct. and the use of the cognomen Martianus. And as to Tigellinus. and that with great difficulty. having. it should be exacted from the purchasers. All the grants of Nero he recalled. from an assessor to the prince. Cornelius Laco. and to bestow them only on those who were unwilling to accept them. spent the money. He possessed himself of the imperial power with more favour and authority than he administered it. and to punish the innocent. or immunities from taxes. who governed in every thing according to the capricious impulse of their vices and tempers. a man of insatiable (410) avarice. or pardon criminals. with orders. dignified a little before with the privilege of wearing the gold ring. obtained the name of his pedagogues. and even bestowed on Halotus one of the best procurations in his disposal. who. that if players or wrestlers had sold what had been formerly given them. and without trial. he incurred the hatred of all orders of the people. When the judges petitioned to have a sixth decury added to their number. he not only denied them. but especially of the http://www. upon a very slight suspicion. and his authority was so much abused by them. He was governed by three favourites. XV. who had been his lieutenant in Spain. as his misconduct was offensive. he suffered his attendants and freedmen to sell or give away the revenue of the state. At one time. but abolished the vacation which had been granted them by Claudius for the winter. several times over. because they lived in the palace. although he gave many proofs of his being an excellent prince: but these were not so grateful to the people. and were constantly about him.htm (291 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and was so far advanced in years. saving only the tenth part of them. For this purpose he gave a commission to fifty Roman knights. than became a prince who had been chosen by the people.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. He resigned himself so implicitly into the power of those three favourites. only to one or two. at pleasure. that the tenor of his conduct was not very consistent with itself. since the others. and only for a limited time. XVI. two of the (411) most mischievous amongst all the emissaries of Nero. he was more rigorous and frugal. These were Titus Vinius. XIV. he even reprimanded the people for their cruelty by a proclamation.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by C. he protected them. He condemned some men of the first rank in the senatorian and equestrian orders. who became a candidate for the highest honour within the reach of any person of the equestrian order 666. who. as well as indolence. more lavish and negligent. It was thought that he likewise intended to reduce the offices held by senators and men of the equestrian order. and had refused them. and his freedman Icelus. Suetonius Tranquillus.gutenberg. He rarely granted the freedom of the city to any one. were not in a condition to pay. and the privilege belonging to such as had three children. a person of intolerable arrogance. But on the other hand. and the beginning of the year. to a term of two years' continuance.

therefore. at break of day he sent forward some persons to Tusculum. The pretorian guards he alarmed with apprehensions of danger and unworthy treatment. and threatening to resume what she had given him. he consecrated it to the Capitoline Venus. But it suddenly occurring to him that it deserved a more august place." XVII. six days after the adoption. who might meet with the approbation of all the armies. complaining that she had been defrauded of the present intended her. Likewise. But most of all. and a noise like the bellowing of cattle. to http://www. and running straight against his chariot. They were.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and favourers of Nymphidius. Him he now styled his son. refusing upon the calends [the 1st] of January. as for having no children. that he had appointed him in his will the heir both of his estate and name. to let them know. bespattered him with blood. Many remarkable prodigies had happened from the (412) very beginning of his reign. frequently bragging. XVIII.gutenberg. but without making any mention of a donative. as he was alighting. by C. soldiery. he was welcomed with an earthquake. For their commanders having promised them in his name a donative larger than usual." and to desire that "they would make choice of another. and one of these. as being defrauded of the rewards due to them for the service they had rendered in the insurrection of the Gauls under Vindex. "that it was his custom to choose his soldiers. These signs of ill-fortune were followed by some that were still more apparently such. not buy them. the first who ventured to break into open mutiny. a youth of noble descent and great talents. to adorn his statue of Fortune at Tusculum. adopted him in the presence of the assembled troops.htm (292 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . with his fore-feet elevated. he dreamt that Fortune appeared to him. afterwards. had very nearly wounded him with his lance. In every town through which he passed in his way from Spain to Rome. and they immediately dispatched deputies to the pretorian troops. the army in Upper Germany was incensed against him. "they did not like the emperor who had been set up in Spain. being pushed forward by the crowd.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. broke the rope with which it was tied. being maddened with the stroke of the axe. for whom he had before contracted such a regard. upon their taking the oath to him before his arrival at Rome. Upon receiving intelligence of this. he immediately singled out of a company of young persons of rank. and taking him to the camp. and next night. Piso Frugi Licinianus. This circumstance afforded the better opportunity to Marcus Salvius Otho of accomplishing his object. which forewarned him of his approaching fate. disbanding many of them occasionally as disaffected to his government. which was a bull. Suetonius Tranquillus. the palace. one of the guard. to take any oath of allegiance. Out of all his treasures he had selected a necklace of pearls and jewels. imagining that he was slighted not so much on account of his age." Thus the troops became exasperated against him in all quarters. except to the senate. And upon his entering the city and. who came to pay their compliments to him. victims were slain on the right and left of the roads. Terrified at this denunciation. he refused to make it good.

as he was sacrificing in the morning. appointed to dispatch him. saying.gutenberg.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. for that he was in danger from assassins. and secure himself by guards of the legionary soldiers. they had taken a circuitous route. and you are mine. was not placed." and promised them a donative: but the generality of writers relate. when he was to harangue the soldiers. There the knights. being not well acquainted with the town. until a common soldier returning from the receipt of his allowance of corn." It is remarkable. he asked him. and that they were near at hand. in consideration of his late kindness in showing them particular attention during a sickness which prevailed in the camp. the augur warned him from time to time to be upon his guard. that Otho was in possession of the pretorian camp. and when he himself arrived at the place. for. XIX. he was informed. Farther. however. flew to his aid. It was remarked. (413) in hopes that he might quell the tumult by his authority and presence. Soon after. which the conspirators had purposely spread to induce him to venture abroad—some few of those about him too hastily assuring him that the tumult had ceased. through the neglect of his attendants. ever made any attempt to assist the emperor. now abandoned by all his attendants. and some wine in an earthern pot. that not one of those who were at hand. There being upon it no hair. but came too late. upon his tribunal. who were quartered in different parts about the city. and there left. that whilst he was sacrificing upon the calends of January. and an old man in black standing by. that he offered his throat to them. holding a little incense in a glass. cut off his head. his curule chair was set with the back forward. "Do your work. He was slain near the Curtian Lake 667. He put on a linen coat of mail. that upon a soldier's boasting that he had killed Otho. that it would avail him little against the points of so many swords. Suetonius Tranquillus. by C. the chaplet fell from his head. "What do you mean. that upon their first approach he cried out. They. But being tempted out by false reports. and the rest coming to congratulate him. Some authors relate. except a troop of Germans.htm (293 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . XX. and strike. the mutineers were apprehended. make preparations for a sacrifice which might avert the displeasure of the goddess. And though most of his friends advised him to repair thither immediately. "By what authority?" and proceeded as far as the Forum. The day before he was slain. since you are resolved upon it. they flew away. halted a while. they put him to death. remarking at the same time. upon the day of his adopting Piso. after which. and upon his consulting the pullets for omens. but afterwards thrusting his thumb into http://www. throwing down the load which he carried. resolved to continue firm in their obedience—he went forward to meet them with so much confidence. upon seeing him at a distance. making their way through the crowd of citizens. by which he might hold it. he hid it in the bosom of his dress. fellow-soldiers? I am yours. according to custom. the seat which he used upon those occasions. and in the senate-house. galloping up to him. he found nothing but some hot embers upon the altar. and all who were sent for. too. he resolved to do nothing more than keep close within the palace.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. disregarded the summons.

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the mouth, he carried it in that manner to Otho, who gave it to the drudges and slaves who attended the soldiers; and they, fixing it upon the (414) point of a spear, carried it in derision round the camp, crying out as they went along, "You take your fill of joy in your old age." They were irritated to this pitch of rude banter, by a report spread a few days before, that, upon some one's commending his person as still florid and vigorous, he replied,
Eti moi menos empedoi estin. 668 My strength, as yet, has suffered no decay.

A freedman of Petrobius's, who himself had belonged to Nero's family, purchased the head from them at the price of a hundred gold pieces, and threw it into the place where, by Galba's order, his patron had been put to death. At last, after some time, his steward Argius buried it, with the rest of his body, in his own gardens near the Aurelian Way. XXI. In person he was of a good size, bald before, with blue eyes, and an aquiline nose; and his hands and feet were so distorted with the gout, that he could neither wear a shoe, nor turn over the leaves of a book, or so much as hold it. He had likewise an excrescence in his right side, which hung down to that degree, that it was with difficulty kept up by a bandage. XXII. He is reported to have been a great eater, and usually took his breakfast in the winter-time before day. At supper, he fed very heartily, giving the fragments which were left, by handfuls, to be distributed amongst the attendants. In his lust, he was more inclined to the male sex, and such of them too as were old. It is said of him, that in Spain, when Icelus, an old catamite of his, brought him the news of Nero's death, he not only kissed him lovingly before company, but begged of him to remove all impediments, and then took him aside into a private apartment. XXIII. He perished in the seventy-third year of his age, and the seventh month of his reign 669. The senate, as soon as they could with safety, ordered a statue to be erected for him upon the naval column, in that part of the Forum where he (415) was slain. But Vespasian cancelled the decree, upon a suspicion that he had sent assassins from Spain into Judaea to murder him.
* * * * * *

GALBA was, for a private man, the most wealthy of any who had ever aspired to the imperial dignity. He valued himself upon his being descended from the family of the Servii, but still more upon his relation to Quintus Catulus Capitolinus, celebrated for integrity and virtue. He was

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likewise distantly related to Livia, the wife of Augustus; by whose interest he was preferred from the station which he held in the palace, to the dignity of consul; and who left him a great legacy at her death. His parsimonious way of living, and his aversion to all superfluity or excess, were construed into avarice as soon as he became emperor; whence Plutarch observes, that the pride which he took in his temperance and economy was unseasonable. While he endeavoured to reform the profusion in the public expenditure, which prevailed in the reign of Nero, he ran into the opposite extreme; and it is objected to him by some historians, that he maintained not the imperial dignity in a degree consistent even with decency. He was not sufficiently attentive either to his own security or the tranquillity of the state, when he refused to pay the soldiers the donative which he had promised them. This breach of faith seems to be the only act in his life that affects his integrity; and it contributed more to his ruin than even the odium which he incurred by the open venality and rapaciousness of his favourites, particularly Vinius.

I. The ancestors of Otho were originally of the town of Ferentum, of an ancient and honourable family, and, indeed, one of the most considerable in Etruria. His grandfather, M. Salvius Otho (whose father was a Roman knight, but his mother of mean extraction, for it is not certain whether she was free-born), by the favour of Livia Augusta, in whose house he had his education, was made a senator, but never rose higher than the praetorship. His father, Lucius Otho, was by the mother's side nobly descended, allied to several great families, and so dearly beloved by Tiberius, and so much resembled him in his features, that most people believed Tiberius was his father. He behaved with great strictness and severity, not only in the city offices, but in the pro-consulship of Africa, and some extraordinary commands in the army. He had the courage to punish with death some soldiers in Illyricum, who, in the disturbance attempted by Camillus, upon changing their minds, had put their generals to the sword, as promoters of that insurrection against Claudius. He ordered the execution to take place in the front of the camp 670, and under his own eyes; though he knew they had been advanced to higher ranks in the army by Claudius, on that very account. By this action he acquired fame, but lessened his favour at court; which, however, he soon recovered,

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by discovering to Claudius a design upon his life, carried on by a Roman knight 671, and which he had learnt from some of his slaves. For the senate ordered a statue of him to be erected in the palace; an honour which had been conferred but upon very few before him. And Claudius advanced him to the dignity of a patrician, commending him, at the same time, in the highest terms, and concluding with these words: "A man, than whom I don't so (417) much as wish to have children that should be better." He had two sons by a very noble woman, Albia Terentia, namely; Lucius Titianus, and a younger called Marcus, who had the same cognomen as himself. He had also a daughter, whom he contracted to Drusus, Germanicus's son, before she was of marriageable age. II. The emperor Otho was born upon the fourth of the calends of May [28th April], in the consulship of Camillus Aruntius and Domitius Aenobarbus 672. He was from his earliest youth so riotous and wild, that he was often severely scourged by his father. He was said to run about in the nighttime, and seize upon any one he met, who was either drunk or too feeble to make resistance, and toss him in a blanket 673. After his father's death, to make his court the more effectually to a freedwoman about the palace, who was in great favour, he pretended to be in love with her, though she was old, and almost decrepit. Having by her means got into Nero's good graces, he soon became one of the principal favourites, by the congeniality of his disposition to that of the emperor or, as some say, by the reciprocal practice of mutual pollution. He had so great a sway at court, that when a man of consular rank was condemned for bribery, having tampered with him for a large sum of money, to procure his pardon; before he had quite effected it, he scrupled not to introduce him into the senate, to return his thanks. III. Having, by means of this woman, insinuated himself into all the emperor's secrets, he, upon the day designed for the murder of his mother, entertained them both at a very splendid feast, to prevent suspicion. Poppaea Sabina, for whom Nero entertained such a violent passion that he had taken her from her husband 674 and entrusted her to him, he received, and went through the form of marrying her. And not satisfied with obtaining her favours, he loved her so extravagantly, that he could not with patience bear Nero for his rival. It is certainly believed that he not only refused admittance to those who were sent by Nero to fetch her, but that, on one (418) occasion, he shut him out, and kept him standing before the door, mixing prayers and menaces in vain, and demanding back again what was entrusted to his keeping. His pretended marriage, therefore, being dissolved, he was sent lieutenant into Lusitania. This treatment of him was thought sufficiently severe, because harsher proceedings might have brought the whole farce to light, which, notwithstanding, at last came out, and was published to the world in the following distich:—

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Cur Otho mentitus sit, quaeritis, exul honore? Uxoris moechus caeperat esse suae. You ask why Otho's banish'd? Know, the cause Comes not within the verge of vulgar laws. Against all rules of fashionable life, The rogue had dared to sleep with his own wife.

He governed the province in quality of quaestor for ten years, with singular moderation and justice. IV. As soon as an opportunity of revenge offered, he readily joined in Galba's enterprises, and at the same time conceived hopes of obtaining the imperial dignity for himself. To this he was much encouraged by the state of the times, but still more by the assurances given him by Seleucus, the astrologer, who, having formerly told him that he would certainly out-live Nero, came to him at that juncture unexpectedly, promising him again that he should succeed to the empire, and that in a very short time. He, therefore, let slip no opportunity of making his court to every one about him by all manner of civilities. As often as he entertained Galba at supper, he distributed to every man of the cohort which attended the emperor on guard, a gold piece; endeavouring likewise to oblige the rest of the soldiers in one way or another. Being chosen an arbitrator by one who had a dispute with his neighbour about a piece of land, he bought it, and gave it him; so that now almost every body thought and said, that he was the only man worthy of succeeding to the empire. V. He entertained hopes of being adopted by Galba, and expected it every day. But finding himself disappointed, by Piso's being preferred before him, he turned his thoughts to obtaining his purpose by the use of violence; and to this he was instigated, as well by the greatness of his debts, as by resentment (419) at Galba's conduct towards him. For he did not conceal his conviction, "that he could not stand his ground unless he became emperor, and that it signified nothing whether he fell by the hands of his enemies in the field, or of his creditors in the Forum." He had a few days before squeezed out of one of the emperor's slaves a million of sesterces for procuring him a stewardship; and this was the whole fund he had for carrying on so great an enterprise. At first the design was entrusted to only five of the guard, but afterwards to ten others, each of the five naming two. They had every one ten thousand sesterces paid down, and were promised fifty thousand more. By these, others were drawn in, but not many; from a confident assurance, that when the matter came to the crisis, they should have enough to join them. VI. His first intention was, immediately after the departure of Piso, to seize the camp, and fall upon Galba, whilst he was at supper in the palace; but he was restrained by a regard for the cohort

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at that time on duty, lest he should bring too great an odium upon it; because it happened that the same cohort was on guard before, both when Caius was slain, and Nero deserted. For some time afterwards, he was restrained also by scruples about the omens, and by the advice of Seleucus. Upon the day fixed at last for the enterprise, having given his accomplices notice to wait for him in the Forum near the temple of Saturn, at the gilded mile-stone 675, he went in the morning to pay his respects to Galba; and being received with a kiss as usual, he attended him at sacrifice, and heard the predictions of the augur 676. A freedman of his, then bringing (420) him word that the architects were come, which was the signal agreed upon, he withdrew, as if it were with a design to view a house upon sale, and went out by a back-door of the palace to the place appointed. Some say he pretended to be seized with an ague fit, and ordered those about him to make that excuse for him, if he was inquired after. Being then quickly concealed in a woman's litter, he made the best of his way for the camp. But the bearers growing tired, he got out, and began to run. His shoe becoming loose, he stopped again, but being immediately raised by his attendants upon their shoulders, and unanimously saluted by the title of EMPEROR, he came amidst auspicious acclamations and drawn swords into the Principia 677 in the camp; all who met him joining in the cavalcade, as if they had been privy to the design. Upon this, sending some soldiers to dispatch Galba and Piso, he said nothing else in his address to the soldiery, to secure their affections, than these few words: "I shall be content with whatever ye think fit to leave me." VII. Towards the close of the day, he entered the senate, and after he had made a short speech to them, pretending that he had been seized in the streets, and compelled by violence to assume the imperial authority, which he designed to exercise in conjunction with them, he retired to the palace. Besides other compliments which he received from those who flocked about him to congratulate and flatter him, he was called Nero by the mob, and manifested no intention of declining that cognomen. Nay, some authors relate, that he used it in his official acts, and the first letters he sent to the (421) governors of provinces. He suffered all his images and statues to be replaced, and restored his procurators and freedmen to their former posts. And the first writing which he signed as emperor, was a promise of fifty millions of sesterces to finish the Golden-house 678. He is said to have been greatly frightened that night in his sleep, and to have groaned heavily; and being found, by those who came running in to see what the matter was, lying upon the floor before his bed, he endeavoured by every kind of atonement to appease the ghost of Galba, by which he had found himself violently tumbled out of bed. The next day, as he was taking the omens, a great storm arising, and sustaining a grievous fall, he muttered to himself from time to time:
Ti gar moi kai makrois aulois; 679

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What business have I the loud trumpets to sound!

VIII. About the same time, the armies in Germany took an oath to Vitellius as emperor. Upon receiving this intelligence, he advised the senate to send thither deputies, to inform them, that a prince had been already chosen; and to persuade them to peace and a good understanding. By letters and messages, however, he offered Vitellius to make him his colleague in the empire, and his son-in-law. But a war being now unavoidable, and the generals and troops sent forward by Vitellius, advancing, he had a proof of the attachment and fidelity of the pretorian guards, which had nearly proved fatal to the senatorian order. It had been judged proper that some arms should be given out of the stores, and conveyed to the fleet by the marine troops. While they were employed in fetching these from the camp in the night, some of the guards suspecting treachery, excited a tumult; and suddenly the whole body, without any of their officers at their head, ran to the palace, demanding that the entire senate should be put to the sword; and having repulsed some of the (422) tribunes who endeavoured to stop them, and slain others, they broke, all bloody as they were, into the banquetting room, inquiring for the emperor; nor would they quit the place until they had seen him. He now entered upon his expedition against Vitellius with great alacrity, but too much precipitation, and without any regard to the ominous circumstances which attended it. For the Ancilia 680 had been taken out of the temple of Mars, for the usual procession, but were not yet replaced; during which interval it had of old been looked upon as very unfortunate to engage in any enterprise. He likewise set forward upon the day when the worshippers of the Mother of the gods 681 begin their lamentations and wailing. Besides these, other unlucky omens attended him. For, in a victim offered to Father Dis 682, he found the signs such as upon all other occasions are regarded as favourable; whereas, in that sacrifice, the contrary intimations are judged the most propitious. At his first setting forward, he was stopped by inundations of the Tiber; and at twenty miles' distance from the city, found the road blocked up by the fall of houses. IX. Though it was the general opinion that it would be proper to protract the war, as the enemy were distressed by (423) famine and the straitness of their quarters, yet he resolved with equal rashness to force them to an engagement as soon as possible; whether from impatience of prolonged anxiety, and in the hope of bringing matters to an issue before the arrival of Vitellius, or because he could not resist the ardour of the troops, who were all clamorous for battle. He was not, however, present at any of those which ensued, but stayed behind at Brixellum 683. He had the advantage in three slight engagements, near the Alps, about Placentia, and a place called Castor's 684; but was, by a fraudulent stratagem of the enemy, defeated in the last and greatest battle, at Bedriacum 685. For, some hopes of a conference being given, and the soldiers being

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drawn up to hear the conditions of peace declared, very unexpectedly, and amidst their mutual salutations, they were obliged to stand to their arms. Immediately upon this he determined to put an end to his life, more, as many think, and not without reason, out of shame, at persisting in a struggle for the empire to the hazard of the public interest and so many lives, than from despair, or distrust of his troops. For he had still in reserve, and in full force, those whom he had kept about him for a second trial of his fortune, and others were coming up from Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Moesia; nor were the troops lately defeated so far discouraged as not to be ready, even of themselves, to run all risks in order to wipe off their recent disgrace. X. My father, Suetonius Lenis 686, was in this battle, being at (424) that time an angusticlavian tribune in the thirteenth legion. He used frequently to say, that Otho, before his advancement to the empire, had such an abhorrence of civil war, that once, upon hearing an account given at table of the death of Cassius and Brutus, he fell into a trembling, and that he never would have interfered with Galba, but that he was confident of succeeding in his enterprise without a war. Moreover, that he was then encouraged to despise life by the example of a common soldier, who bringing news of the defeat of the army, and finding that he met with no credit, but was railed at for a liar and a coward, as if he had run away from the field of battle, fell upon his sword at the emperor's feet; upon the sight of which, my father said that Otho cried out, "that he would expose to no farther danger such brave men, who had deserved so well at his hands." Advising therefore his brother, his brother's son, and the rest of his friends, to provide for their security in the best manner they could, after he had embraced and kissed them, he sent them away; and then withdrawing into a private room by himself, he wrote a letter of consolation to his sister, containing two sheets. He likewise sent another to Messalina, Nero's widow, whom he had intended to marry, committing to her the care of his relics and memory. He then burnt all the letters which he had by him, to prevent the danger and mischief that might otherwise befall the writers from the conqueror. What ready money he had, he distributed among his domestics. XI. And now being prepared, and just upon the point of dispatching himself, he was induced to suspend the execution of his purpose by a great tumult which had broken out in the camp. Finding that some of the soldiers who were making off had been seized and detained as deserters, "Let us add," said he, "this night to our life." These were his very words. He then gave orders that no violence should be offered to any one; and keeping his chamber-door open until late at night, he allowed all who pleased the liberty to come and see him. At last, after quenching his thirst with a draught of cold water, he took up two poniards, and having examined the points of both, put one of them under his pillow, and shutting his chamber-door, slept very soundly, until, awaking about break of day, he stabbed himself under the left pap.

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Some persons bursting into the room upon his first groan, he at one time covered, and at another exposed his wound to the view of the bystanders, and thus life soon ebbed away. His funeral was hastily performed, according to his own order, in the thirty-eighth year of his age, and ninety-fifth day of his reign. 687 XII. The person and appearance of Otho no way corresponded to the great spirit he displayed on this occasion; for he is said to have been of low stature, splay-footed, and bandy-legged. He was, however, effeminately nice in the care of his person: the hair on his body he plucked out by the roots; and because he was somewhat bald, he wore a kind of peruke, so exactly fitted to his head, that nobody could have known it for such. He used to shave every day, and rub his face with soaked bread; the use of which he began when the down first appeared upon his chin, to prevent his having any beard. It is said likewise that he celebrated publicly the sacred rites of Isis 688, clad in a linen garment, such as is used by the worshippers of that goddess. These circumstances, I imagine, caused the world to wonder the more that his death was so little in character with his life. Many of the soldiers who were present, kissing and bedewing with their tears his hands and feet as he lay dead, and celebrating him as "a most gallant man, and an incomparable emperor," immediately put an end to their own lives upon the spot, not far from his funeral pile. (426) Many of those likewise who were at a distance, upon hearing the news of his death, in the anguish of their hearts, began fighting amongst themselves, until they dispatched one another. To conclude: the generality of mankind, though they hated him whilst living, yet highly extolled him after his death; insomuch that it was the common talk and opinion, "that Galba had been driven to destruction by his rival, not so much for the sake of reigning himself, as of restoring Rome to its ancient liberty."
* * * * * *

It is remarkable, in the fortune of this emperor, that he owed both his elevation and catastrophe to the inextricable embarrassments in which he was involved; first, in respect of pecuniary circumstances, and next, of political. He was not, so far as we can learn, a follower of any of the sects of philosophers which justified, and even recommended suicide, in particular cases: yet he perpetrated that act with extraordinary coolness and resolution; and, what is no less remarkable, from the motive, as he avowed, of public expediency only. It was observed of him, for many years after his death, that "none ever died like Otho."

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I. Very different accounts are given of the origin of the Vitellian family. Some describe it as ancient and noble, others as recent and obscure, nay, extremely mean. I am inclined to think, that these several representations have been made by the flatterers and detractors of Vitellius, after he became emperor, unless the fortunes of the family varied before. There is extant a memoir addressed by Quintus Eulogius to Quintus Vitellius, quaestor to the Divine Augustus, in which it is said, that the Vitellii were descended from Faunus, king of the aborigines, and Vitellia 689, who was worshipped in many places as a goddess, and that they reigned formerly over the whole of Latium: that all who were left of the family removed out of the country of the Sabines to Rome, and were enrolled among the patricians: that some monuments of the family continued a long time; as the Vitellian Way, reaching from the Janiculum to the sea, and likewise a colony of that name, which, at a very remote period of time, they desired leave from the government to defend against the Aequicolae 690, with a force raised by their own family only: also that, in the time of the war with the Samnites, some of the Vitellii who went with the troops levied for the security of Apulia, settled at Nuceria 691, and their descendants, a long time afterwards, returned again to Rome, and were admitted (428) into the patrician order. On the other hand, the generality of writers say that the founder of the family was a freedman. Cassius Severus 692 and some others relate that he was likewise a cobbler, whose son having made a considerable fortune by agencies and dealings in confiscated property, begot, by a common strumpet, daughter of one Antiochus, a baker, a child, who afterwards became a Roman knight. Of these different accounts the reader is left to take his choice. II. It is certain, however, that Publius Vitellius, of Nuceria, whether of an ancient family, or of low extraction, was a Roman knight, and a procurator to Augustus. He left behind him four sons, all men of very high station, who had the same cognomen, but the different praenomina of Aulus, Quintus, Publius, and Lucius. Aulus died in the enjoyment of the consulship 693, which office he bore jointly with Domitius, the father of Nero Caesar. He was elegant to excess in his manner of living, and notorious for the vast expense of his entertainments. Quintus was deprived of his rank of senator, when, upon a motion made by Tiberius, a resolution passed to purge the senate of those who were in any respect not duly qualified for that honour. Publius, an intimate friend

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and companion of Germanicus, prosecuted his enemy and murderer, Cneius Piso, and procured sentence against him. After he had been made proctor, being arrested among the accomplices of Sejanus, and delivered into the hands of his brother to be confined in his house, he opened a vein with a penknife, intending to bleed himself to death. He suffered, however, the wound to be bound up and cured, not so much from repenting the resolution he had formed, as to comply with the importunity of his relations. He died afterwards a natural death during his confinement. Lucius, after his consulship 694, was made governor of Syria 695, and by his politic management not only brought Artabanus, king of the Parthians, to give him an interview, but to worship the standards of the Roman legions. He afterwards filled two ordinary consulships 696, and also the censorship 697 jointly with the emperor Claudius. Whilst that (429) prince was absent upon his expedition into Britain 698, the care of the empire was committed to him, being a man of great integrity and industry. But he lessened his character not a little, by his passionate fondness for an abandoned freedwoman, with whose spittle, mixed with honey, he used to anoint his throat and jaws, by way of remedy for some complaint, not privately nor seldom, but daily and publicly. Being extravagantly prone to flattery, it was he who gave rise to the worship of Caius Caesar as a god, when, upon his return from Syria, he would not presume to accost him any otherwise than with his head covered, turning himself round, and then prostrating himself upon the earth. And to leave no artifice untried to secure the favour of Claudius, who was entirely governed by his wives and freedmen, he requested as the greatest favour from Messalina, that she would be pleased to let him take off her shoes; which, when he had done, he took her right shoe, and wore it constantly betwixt his toga and his tunic, and from time to time covered it with kisses. He likewise worshipped golden images of Narcissus and Pallas among his household gods. It was he, too, who, when Claudius exhibited the secular games, in his compliments to him upon that occasion, used this expression, "May you often do the same." III. He died of palsy, the day after his seizure with it, leaving behind him two sons, whom he had by a most excellent and respectable wife, Sextilia. He had lived to see them both consuls, the same year and during the whole year also; the younger succeeding the elder for the last six months 699. The senate honoured him after his decease with a funeral at the public expense, and with a statue in the Rostra, which had this inscription upon the base: "One who was steadfast in his loyalty to his prince." The emperor Aulus Vitellius, the son of this Lucius, was born upon the eighth of the calends of October [24th September], or, as some say, upon the seventh of the ides of September [7th September], in the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus 700. His parents were so (430) terrified with the predictions of astrologers upon the calculation of his nativity, that his father used his utmost endeavours to prevent his being sent governor into any of the provinces, whilst he was alive. His mother, upon his being sent to the legions 701, and also

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from consciousness of his guilt. He was sent by Galba into Lower Germany 704. V. because of his fondness for chariot-driving. immediately lamented him as utterly ruined. IV. and had the superintendence of the public works. 703 VI. a man of great influence at that time. but to the highest dignities of the sacred order. Suetonius Tranquillus. and. yet his modesty would not permit him. as for a particular service which he rendered him. Soon afterwards.htm (304 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . contrary to his expectation. but shortly after. in the latter of which he acted as deputy to his brother. upon condition that he should be released from his father's authority. notwithstanding the people entreated much for it. For he governed the province with singular integrity during two years. in which appointment his conduct. He spent his youth amongst the catamites of Tiberius at Capri. It is supposed that he was assisted in procuring this appointment by the interest of Titus Junius. being upon a very intimate footing with Caius [Caligula]. consequently. and to have exchanged brass and tin for gold and silver. by C. By the favour of these three princes. In the subsequent part of his life. Upon his quitting the theatre. Among the former was one who had such a stammering in his speech. as was believed. who succeeded him. he was not only advanced to the great offices of state. drank the poison he had prepared for his father. the latter discharged him accordingly. who was blind of an eye. and pretending that he had. Vitellius fetched him back again. charging him with a design upon his life. VII. upon his being proclaimed emperor. were very different. whose friendship he had long before gained by favouring the same set of charioteers with him in the Circensian games.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he rose to great favour at court. The mother being willing to appoint this youth her heir. that he was little better than if he had been dumb. But in his office in the city. after which he held the proconsulship of Africa. by consenting to gratify the emperor's unnatural lust. he was said to pillage the temples of their gifts and ornaments. the daughter of a man of consular rank. and that even his enormous appetite must http://www. and with Claudius for his love of gaming. and was supposed to have been the occasion of his father's advancement. he married Galeria Fundana. was himself constantly stigmatized with the name of Spintria 702. murdered him. and had by her a son named Petronius. He took to wife Petronia.gutenberg. though he was extremely desirous to perform amongst the harpers. When Nero presided in the games instituted by himself. But he was in a still higher degree acceptable to Nero. and had by her both sons and daughters. his reputation. as well on the same accounts. being still most scandalously vicious. the daughter of a man of pretorian rank.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and so afforded him the opportunity of yielding to their in treaties. But Galba openly declared that none were less to be feared than those who only cared for their bellies. pretending to represent the determined wishes of the people.

prodigal disposition. joining in the proceedings. that he was obliged to put his wife and children. without regard to the day or season. was in the prime of life. but deferred assuming that of Augustus. the army. "Courage. and of an easy. he eluded.htm (305 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . whom he left at Rome. he being at that time so much straitened in his circumstances. which had been long entertained of him." And this was all he said to the soldiers. and presented to him when he was first saluted.gutenberg. and been excessively complaisant in the inns and stables to the muleteers and travellers. to defray his expenses on the road. he very eagerly accepted the cognomen of Germanicus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. having kissed all the common soldiers whom he met with upon the road. (432) which was disaffected to Galba. Upon this accident. by C.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. until he had wrung from the freedman fifty thousand sesterces. sued a certain freedman. Nor did he return to the pretorium. IX. however. who was clamorous in demanding a debt of him. It is certain. he cried out. which action he would not withdraw. intending to send one of them before him against Otho. in order that he might let his own house for the remainder of the year. by belching. and unanimously saluted by the title of EMPEROR 705. A crowd of creditors who were waiting to stop him. received him with open arms. with the sword of the Divine Julius in his hand. After he had reached the camp. He had. he denied no man any thing he asked for. therefore. when he had settled his affairs in Germany he divided his troops into two bodies. and considering it as an unlucky omen. Vitellius confirmed by some late practices. if they had got their breakfasts. and refused for ever that of Caesar. and pardoned all who lay under sentence for disgraceful conduct or disorderly habits. Before a month. The army of the Upper Province likewise. had passed. Upon his arrival in the province. and http://www. that when he was to set out. that he was the son of a man who had been thrice consul. he had not money for the expenses of his journey. He was then carried round the most considerable towns in the neighbourhood. whose taxes he had converted to his own use. This opinion. that he had eaten his. all being in consternation. It was no small recommendation to their favour. VIII. and he pawned a pearl taken from his mother's ear-ring. offered him by the unanimous consent of both armies. and amongst them the people of Sineussa and Formia. and he in an undress. asking them in a morning. although it was evening. under pretence that he had kicked him. into a poor lodging which he hired for them. until his dining-room was in flames from the chimney's taking fire. which had been taken by some person out of the temple of Mars. be satisfied with the plenty of that province. and ripe for insurrection. which had before declared against Galba for the senate. he was hurried by the soldiers out of his bedchamber. as if he had been sent them from heaven. Intelligence of Galba's death arriving soon after. by alarming them with the apprehension of false accusation. so that it is evident he was selected for that government more out of contempt than kindness. Suetonius Tranquillus. and letting them see. boys! it shines brightly upon us.

" He also sent the poniard. which were erected for him in several places. and if any dared to make resistance. for he was not able to keep the empire which had been secured for him by his lieutenants. and without the least hesitation. and sailed down the rivers in ships.gutenberg.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. by their repeated treasons. when he began his own march. some of those around him being offended at the smell of the carcases which lay rotting upon the ground. especially if he were a fellowcitizen. fitted out with the greatest elegance. commanding them to deliver up their arms to his tribunes. and the licentiousness both in his family and army. amidst the most extravagant entertainments. he had the audacity to encourage them by a most detestable remark. to the colony of Agrippina 709. the offensiveness of the stench. "That a dead enemy smelt not amiss. whilst he was yet in Gaul. and his former manner of life. and the laurel crown. at Vienne 706. and having hovered (433) round the standards. and the death of Otho.htm (306 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . as having. When he reached the plains on which the battles (434) were fought 708. and decorated with various kinds of crowns. and afterwards upon his head. with which Otho killed himself. had he not managed his other affairs in a way more corresponding with his own disposition. not satisfied with the provision every where made for them at the public expense. On his observing a stone with an inscription upon it to the memory of Otho. all the equestrian statues. Soon afterwards." To qualify.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Suetonius Tranquillus. fell off his head into a river. however. to be dedicated to Mars. The army he sent forward had a lucky omen. an eagle cams flying up to them on the right. under whose hands he had found petitions presented to Otho. Such was the want of discipline. and sometimes slaughter amongst them. they dealt blows and abuse. The issue corresponded to these omens. for. that. as he was upon the tribunal administering justice. to follow with the other himself. than to the imperial dignity. disbanded all the pretorian cohorts. flew gently before them on their road. by C. which he had put on as emblematical of auspicious fortune. and was such as to afford hope of his becoming an excellent prince. So far his conduct deserved approbation. Upon the Appenine hills he celebrated a Bacchanalian feast. suddenly. a cock perched upon his shoulder. But. set a dangerous example to the rest of the army. fell suddenly down with their legs broken. A hundred and twenty of them. He heard of the victory at Bedriacum 707. and with equal vanity and insolence distributed a large quantity of it among his troops. having begun his march. http://www. For. they committed every kind of robbery and insult upon the inhabitants. X. setting slaves at liberty as they pleased. "It was a mausoleum good enough for such a prince. he said. for rewards of their service in the murder of Galba. he quaffed in public a goblet of wine. frequently wounds. by a single proclamation. he rode through every city in his route in a triumphal procession. on the other hand. he besides ordered to be sought out and punished.

been engaged with him in a course of mutual and unnatural pollution. upon the day of the defeat at the Allia 710. The most famous was a set entertainment given him by his brother. both divine and human. but soon released him. it is said. sometimes four: breakfast. being at last quite tired of the occupation. Acting more and more in open violation of all laws. His master. This load of victuals he could well enough bear. he conducted (435) his affairs. and the arms of the soldiers unsheathed. the brains of pheasants and http://www. and put him in chains. and especially his freedman Asiaticus. upon his being advanced to the government of a province. during the greater part of his reign. by C. he assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus. and supper. and seven thousand birds. To put it out of all doubt what model he intended to follow in his government of the empire. For these several meals he would make different appointments at the houses of his friends on the same day. XI." In this dish there were tossed up together the livers of char-fish. some time after.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. but. ran away. and retained him in his former capacity. of frequently vomiting. ordered the magistrates to be elected for ten years of office. Yet even this supper he himself outdid. he presented him with the gold rings at supper. he sold him to a strolling fencing-master. XII. there were served up no less than two thousand choice fishes. he made his offerings to the shade of Nero in the midst of the Campus Martius. when all about him requested that favour in his behalf. however. entirely by the advice and direction of the vilest amongst the players and charioteers. And at a solemn entertainment. after which. he suddenly carried him off. At last he entered the City with trumpets sounding. and at length. This fellow had. He was chiefly addicted to the vices of luxury and cruelty. from a custom to which he had enured himself. and could not refrain from applauding him. when the fellow was to have been brought up to play his part at the conclusion of an entertainment of gladiators. at which.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. in his general's cloak. XIII. at a feast which he gave upon the first use of a dish which had been made for him. he started up in presence of the whole assembly.gutenberg. and made himself consul for life. selling a liquor called Posca 711. he desired a harper who pleased the company much. to sing something in praise of Domitius. for its extraordinary size. After such a commencement of his career. though in the morning. The first day of his reign. Suetonius Tranquillus. of his rough and stubborn temper. caught him at Puteoli. amidst a display of standards and banners. dinner. and which.htm (307 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . when young. he called "The Shield of Minerva. None ever entertained him at less expense than four hundred thousand sesterces 712. and with a full assembly of the public priests attending him. and girded with his sword. he expressed the utmost abhorrence of putting so great a stain upon the equestrian order. and a drunken revel after all. his attendants being all in the military habit. gave him his freedom. and upon his beginning some songs of Nero's. He always made three meals a day. Growing weary. by clapping his hands.

so that. and with any garbage that came in his way. while in the very act of saluting him. and crying out to him.gutenberg." Two sons who interceded for their father. notaries. yet he put them all to death by some base means or other. by C. and even those which were capital. some of which swore allegiance http://www. XV. and the expectation of a revolution in the government. he ordered to be executed with him. and eat them upon the spot. with the tongues of flamingos. he would snatch from the fire flesh and cakes. a German witch 714. without any distinction of persons or occasions. "I have a mind to feed my eyes. but would gratify it likewise at unseasonable times. and was half-eaten." he desired to produce his will: and finding that he had made his freedman joint heir with him. those in Judaea and Syria. or any toll or custom upon the road. "That he would long reign in security if he survived his mother. Suetonius Tranquillus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. of the armies beyond sea. a bill was immediately posted about the city. and Italy also. He delighted in the infliction of punishments. he did the same at the inns upon the road. and the Spanish Straits. or what had been left the day before. whom he held to be oracular. his school-fellows and companions. He was enraged against them. in a cup of cold water which he called for in a fever. with the following words:—"TAKE NOTICE: 713 The Chaldaeans also decree that Vitellius Germanicus shall be no more. she obtained without difficulty a dose of poison from her son. which had been brought in ships of war as far as (436) from the Carpathian Sea. XIV. he treated with such flattering caresses. by the day of the said calends. he commanded that both he and the freedman should have their throats cut. He scarcely spared one of all the usurers. He was not only a man of an insatiable appetite. because. saying. "You are my heir. by forbidding sustenance to be given her when she was unwell. that being quite weary of the state of affairs. he ordered for execution. end as soon as any one of them was informed against. upon his being dragged away for execution.htm (308 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . having told him. but immediately sent for him back. One of these. he commanded him to be slain in his own presence. as seemed to indicate an affection short only of admitting them to share the honours of the imperial dignity. and the entrails of lampreys. In the eighth month of his reign.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. he put him to death without the formality of a trial. He put to death some of the common people for cursing aloud the blue party in the Circensian games. There were no persons he was more severe against than jugglers and astrologers. peacocks. at a sacrifice. invited by him to court. before the calends [the first] of October. and publicans. whether the meat was fresh dressed and hot. To one he gave poison with his own hand. upon which all about him applauding his clemency. after his proclamation by which he commanded all astrologers to quit home. and apprehensive of the future. When he travelled." He was even suspected of being accessary to his mother's death. supposing it to be done in contempt of himself. who had ever demanded a debt of him at Rome." But others say. as did likewise. the troops both in Moesia and Pannonia revolted from him. Several noblemen. A Roman knight.

and a hundred millions of sesterces granted him. But being beaten or betrayed in every direction. on one hand he opposed against them his brother with a fleet. and promised all who enlisted as volunteers. tying the dog before the door. however. who now thought themselves secure. that the enemy was willing to come to terms. he presented it first to the consul. the new levies. and swore "that nothing was dearer to him than the public peace. or. where he was feasting. and piling up against it the bed http://www. early in the morning. to secure the favour and affection of the people. Immediately. whilst he beheld the contest and the fire from Tiberius's house 715. and in another quarter the troops and generals who were engaged at Bedriacum. repenting of what he had done. on the Aventine hill. he recovered his courage. to retreat into the Capitol. borne by hand. XVI. but for the future use the cognomen of Concord. he privately withdrew to his father's house." which oath he also obliged the rest to take. Vespasian's brother. The enemy now pressing forward both by sea and land. time for consultation." but they all remonstrating against it. to abdicate. not only their discharge after the victory was gained. but all the rewards due to veterans who had served their full time in the wars. a baker and a cook. and he immediately. Vitellius lavished on all around whatever he had it in his power to bestow. he went away. and throwing the blame of it upon others. and a body of gladiators. on condition of having his life spared. upon his refusing it. that the enemy was advancing." he came back again. with only two attendants. He advised the senate to send deputies. he received intelligence by a scout. He also levied soldiers in the city. and with many tears repeated the (438) declaration from a writing which he held in his hand. he suffered himself to be carried back to the palace. while he was waiting for an answer. and those who were with him stealing away. but some crying out to him.gutenberg. "that he resigned the government. and said that he would not only keep his weapon. accompanied by the Vestal Virgins. as if he meant to lay it up in the temple of Concord. and then to every one of the senators. publicly declared to a large body of soldiers there assembled. throwing himself into a small litter. But a groundless report being circulated. upon the palace-steps. and forced Sabinus. and then ran into the porter's lodge. he deferred the conclusion of the treaty.htm (309 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . The day after. therefore. in the most extravagant manner. by C. both publicly and privately. therefore. but none of them being willing to accept it. Next day. to desire peace. In order. at least. "You are Concord. but to rely on their zealous support. and. but the soldiers and people again interposing. Then drawing a dagger from his side. Finding. with the rest of the Flavian party. Suetonius Tranquillus. to Vespasian as emperor in his own presence. nobody there. he agreed with Flavius Sabinus.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he called a meeting. he came down to the Forum in a very mean habit. which he had accepted reluctantly. to the magistrates.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Not long after. where he destroyed them all by setting fire to the temple of Jupiter. and others in his absence. he girded round his waist a belt full of gold pieces. and encouraging him not to give way. intending to escape thence into Campania.

htm (310 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and large promises to the soldiery. pelting him with dung and mud. and bedding. and meeting with nobody. * * * * * * (440) After the extinction of the race of the Caesars." They also upbraided him with the defects of his person. as he was attending upon Caius 716. searched. as was natural. whilst others called him "an incendiary and glutton. while they were yet fluctuating in the hands of Otho. a rope about his neck. every corner. in the fifty-seventh year of his age 718. Suetonius Tranquillus. which signifies a cock's beak. Vitellius. he begged hard to be detained in custody. a large belly.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. meanwhile. XVII. the possession of the imperial power became extremely precarious. and asked "who he was?" (for they did not recognize him). and his clothes torn. he was dragged half-naked into the Forum. who was born at Toulouse. there arose between them a contention. For he was seized by Antoninus Primus. from the omen which happened to him at Vienne. it was not difficult to snatch the reins of government. both by word and deed. they either unanimously elected one and the same person. had risen to a high military rank. Nevertheless. amidst the most contemptuous abuse. while he was driving. with his hands tied behind him.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. XVIII. as before related 719. He perished with his brother and son 717.gutenberg. even were it in a prison. and his boldness was crowned with success. in the manner of condemned criminals. some of the mob. when a boy. which was usually determined by an appeal to arms. by C. and one thigh weak. and. At length. and the point of a sword put under his chin. upon the Scalae Gemoniae. his head being held back by the hair. In the http://www. and followed by the assassination of the unsuccessful competitor. and verified the prediction of those who. pretending to have something to say which concerned Vespasian's security. that he might hold up his face to public view. or different parties supporting the interests of their respective favourites. By this time the forerunners of the enemy's army had broken into the palace. But at last being discovered. had the cognomen of Becco 720. by being a parasite of all the emperors from Tiberius to Nero inclusively. occasioned by a chariot running against him. "and if he knew where Vitellius was?" he deceived them by a falsehood. with a spirit of enterprise. he was tormented and put to death in lingering tortures. and great influence in the army was the means which now invariably led to the throne. a general of the adverse party. The soldiers having arrogated to themselves the right of nomination. by which. His ambition prompted to the attempt. Being dragged by them out of his cell. and then dragged by a hook into the Tiber. for he was monstrously tall. along the Via Sacra. and had a face usually very red with hard-drinking. foretold that he would be made prisoner by some man of Gaul.

and others. which had been erected to him by the cities of that province. and at last prefect of the camp. to be emperor. with this inscription: "To the honest Tax-farmer. though some say he was a centurion of the first order. Vitellius had imbibed the principal vices of them all: but what chiefly distinguished him was extreme voraciousness. he was discharged on account of his bad state of health: this Sabinus. could yet be gratified by the vilest and most offensive garbage. and two sons by her. was a publican. had for her father Vespasius Pollio. was at length restored to peace and security by the Flavian family. Suetonius Tranquillus. And there were remaining. he became a collector of the money raised by public sales in the way of auction. (441) I. was never engaged in the military service. and there died. at the time of the advancement of the family. and received the tax of the fortieth penny in Asia. though he usually pampered it with enormous luxury.htm (311 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . several statues. that whilst he held that rank. by the rebellion and violent death of its three last rulers.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS AUGUSTUS. forms a striking contrast to the heroic behaviour of Otho. which had been long thrown into a disturbed and unsetted state. having at last obtained his pardon and discharge. though it is acknowledged that Domitian met with the just reward of his avarice and cruelty. leaving behind him his wife. surnamed Sabinus. about six miles from Nursia. and her brother was a senator of praetorian dignity. that Petro's father was a native of Gallia http://www. service of the four preceding emperors. whether a centurion or an evocatus 722 of Pompey's party in the civil war. I will not deny that some have pretended to say. a place on the summit of a hill. which. The pusillanimity discovered by this emperor at his death. The empire. whose descent was indeed obscure. at Nursia 724. Vespasia Pella. descended of a good family. came to be prefect of the city. Titus Flavius Petro. and which boasted no ancestral honours. His son. called Vespasiae. where are several monuments of the Vespasii. thrice appointed (442) military tribune. a sufficient proof of the splendour and antiquity of the family. I say. and the younger. the elder of whom. but the public had no cause to regret its elevation. on the road to Spoletum. Polla. where.gutenberg. by C. Vespasian. There is to this day.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. fled out of the battle of Pharsalia and went home. T. a townsman of Reate 721. Sabinus. is uncertain." 723 He afterwards turned usurer amongst the Helvetii.

She at length drove him to it. III. He outlived his wife and daughter. and desirous to gain. he constantly drank out of a silver cup which she had been accustomed to use. Transpadana 725. he obtained leave to exhibit extraordinary 730 games for the emperor's victory in Germany. to assist them in their husbandry 726. the good graces of Caius 729. but no more than secretary to a quaestor. whose employment was to hire workpeople who used to emigrate every year from the country of the Umbria into that of the Sabines. he renewed his union 731 with his former concubine Caenis. and the villa was continued in the same condition. He was candidate for the aedileship. he used frequently to visit the place where he had spent his infancy. he had a long time a distaste for the senatorian toga. and lost them both before he became emperor. 732 http://www. by exposing their corpses unburied. in the evening. And he had so great a regard for the memory of his grandmother. But the office of praetor he carried upon his first canvass. but met with a repulse in the former case. and soon after for the praetorship. standing amongst the highest at the poll. nor could he be persuaded by any one but his mother to sue for that badge of honour. and there married. He served as military tribune in Thrace. though his brother had obtained it. who [Domitilla] enjoyed Latin rights. and was soon after declared fully and freely a citizen of Rome. almost as if she had been his lawful wife. his brother's footman. upon the fifth of the calends of December [27th November]. more by taunts and reproaches. the freedwoman of Antonia. and Domitilla. by C. at Cosa 728. by all possible means. After his advancement to the empire. though at last. but who settled at last in the town of Reate. Being incensed against the senate. But of this I have not been able to discover the least proof. beyond Reate. upon an estate belonging to the family. II. After assuming the manly habit. calling him now and then. he married Flavia Domitilla. the province of Crete and Cyrene fell to him by lot. a native of Ferentum.gutenberg. upon the strictest inquiry.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. even after he was emperor. in a little country-seat called Phalacrine. Domitian. After the death of his wife. that he might see every thing about him just as he had been used to do. upon solemn occasions and festival days. and was educated under the care of Tertulla.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. on a trial before the court of Recovery. and also her amanuensis. who had formerly been the mistress of Statilius Capella. his grandmother by the father's side. By her he had the following children: Titus. by way of reproach. Vespasian was born in the country of the Sabines. a Roman knight of Sabrata in Africa. than by her entreaties (443) and authority. that. He likewise gave him thanks in that august assembly for the honour of being admitted to his table. Meanwhile. he came in sixth on the poll-books. and treated her.htm (312 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and advised them to increase the punishment of the conspirators against his life. When made quaestor. with much difficulty. brought by her father Flavius Liberalis. in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Caius Poppaeus Sabinus. five years before the death of Augustus 727. Suetonius Tranquillus.

at that time. he turned the eyes of the neighbouring provinces upon him.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. partly under the command of Aulus Plautius.htm (313 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and ten cohorts. which he governed with great reputation. As the suppression of this revolt appeared to require a stronger force and an active general. until a province." He is said likewise to have been convicted of extorting from a young man of fashion two hundred thousand sesterces for procuring him the broad-stripe. besides the consulship. in the attack of a http://www. which lies close to the coast of Britain. and on account of the obscurity of his origin and name. he was sent to Germany. who was then dead. and was severely reprimanded for it. in an insurrection at Adrumetum. that he was obliged to mortgage his whole property to his brother. Suetonius Tranquillus. (444) IV. he retired to a small out-of-the-way town. therefore. by C. In the reign of Claudius. a man of consular rank. that it was fated for the empire of the world. the consular lieutenant. A firm persuasion had long prevailed through all the East 735. and hated all the friends of Narcissus. excepting that once. who was advancing to his assistance. by the interest of Narcissus. for which reason he was commonly called "the Muleteer. and took an eagle. of one of his legions. being added to the former troops in Judaea. The interval between that and his proconsulship he spent in leisure and retirement. and engaging the enemy once or twice with such resolution. who still held great sway over her son. who might be safely trusted in an affair of so much importance. Two legions. he engaged the enemy in thirty several battles. and in a short time after two priesthoods. Vespasian was chosen in preference to all others. For this success he received the triumphal ornaments. Afterwards he got by lot the province of Africa. by reforming immediately the discipline of the camp. and having defeated and slain their governor 736. with an army. whence being removed into Britain. as soon as he arrived in his province. and. It is certain that he returned thence nothing richer. but the Jews. taking with him his eldest son as lieutenant.gutenberg. where he lay skulking in constant fear of his life. with the Isle of Wight. was offered him. which he held during the two last months of the year 734. as the event shewed. the standard. he frequently withdrew from the theatre while Nero was singing. for the support of his rank. routed the lieutenant of Syria 737. being a person of whom (446) there could be not the least jealousy. and was reduced to the necessity of dealing in mules. to devolve on some who should go forth from Judaea. that. for his credit was so low. This prediction referred to a Roman emperor. but debarred the liberty of saluting him in public. applying it to themselves. he was pelted with turnips. both for his known activity. broke out into rebellion. and partly under Claudius himself 733. for fear of Agrippina.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. in command of a legion. contrary to the wishes of his father. eight squadrons of horse. which gave so much (445) offence. and went to sleep if he remained. He reduced under subjection to the Romans two very powerful tribes. While in attendance upon Nero in Achaia. and above twenty great towns. that he was not only excluded from his society. Upon this.

in the neighbourhood of Rome. and as it were into his lap. He dreamt in Achaia that the good fortune of himself and his family would begin when Nero had a tooth drawn. and received several arrows in his shield. Also not long afterwards. being trampled under foot and deserted in some civil commotion. V. she said. as if he was tired. he had his knee hurt by the stroke of a stone. put out each time a new branch. ordered the soldiers to fill the bosom of his gown with dirt. which. but the third grew like a tree. but he would be emperor first 742. and among others. a strange dog. A cypress-tree likewise. a plough-ox throwing the yoke off his neck. there was an old oak. was put in chains. some persons at that time construed it into a sign that the government.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. towards the close of his days. showed him a tooth which he had just extracted from Nero.gutenberg. brought a man's hand 739. at the three several deliveries of Vespasia. And another time. and after he had frightened away all the attendants. from the following omens. The second became vigorous. which quickly withered away. fell down at his feet. that Nero. the answer was so encouraging as to assure him of success in anything he projected. which were confirmed by the augurs. (447) on a sudden. the girl that was born did not live long. when Caius Caesar. being enraged at his not taking care to have the streets kept clean. "that her grandson would be emperor of Rome. as he lay still upon his couch. and laid it under the table. told his mother. by C. but next day it rose again fresher and stronger than before. which portended great good fortune. Upon an estate belonging to the Flavian family. broke into the room. encouraged by these omens. one of the noble prisoners. Suetonius Tranquillus. to Vespasian's house. and it happened that the day after. upon his consulting the oracle of the divinity at Carmel 740. Some omens were likewise mentioned in the news from Rome. was commanded in a dream to carry Jupiter's sacred chariot out of the sanctuary where it stood. was torn up by the roots. wondering. in a field belonging to the family." at which she laughed heartily. he entertained hopes of obtaining the empire. In Judaea. a surgeon coming into the hall. whilst Otho and Vitellius were contending for the sovereignty. while he was at dinner. and hung down his neck. evident intimations of the future fortune of each child. The first was but a slender one. and accordingly. with the prospect of which he had long before flattered himself. when there was no violent wind. that wandered about the streets." Afterwards in his aedileship. and laid flat upon the ground.htm (314 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . however great or important it might be. while he was at supper. would fall under his protection. he confidently affirmed that he should be released in a very short time by the same Vespasian. "that her son should be in his dotage whilst she continued still in full possession of her faculties. His father. And when Josephus 741. Sabinus. castle 738. and conduct it thence into the circus. Once.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. sacred to Mars. as Galba http://www. After the deaths of Nero and Galba.

a statue of the Divine Julius 743 turned towards the east. What contributed greatly to forward the affair. and upon the fifth of the ides of the same month [the 28th July]. in which he was created consul for the second time. notwithstanding which they continued their march as far as Aquileia. and had put an end to his life. which was circulated. by C. first obliged the legions under his command to swear obedience to Vespasian as their emperor. that Vitellius. promised to join him with the Syrian army. his name was immediately inscribed on their standards. recommending to him in the most urgent terms to avenge his death. However. the troops being brought to submit to Vitellius a little longer. Two thousand men. and one of them being beaten. the army in Judaea. and one objecting to one. (448) VI. "to the army which made Galba emperor. no attempt upon the sovereignty. being taken into consideration. news came that he had been defeated." they said. Tiberius Alexander. While they were upon their march. and. among the allied kings. also swore allegiance to him. at last some of the third legion. was a copy of a letter. where he then was. The design was nevertheless quashed for a time. which a little before Nero's death had been removed out of Syria into Moesia. Moreover. the fact becoming known. and even pressed him to the enterprise. to whom Vitellius owed his elevation. "For they were no ways inferior. http://www. nor the army in Germany. tempted by the opportunity which the disorder of the times afforded them. extolled Vespasian in high terms. therefore. two eagles engaged in the sight of the army. a third came from the east. they ravaged and plundered the country at discretion." The names of all the consular lieutenants. after his success against Otho. however. nor to the pretorian troops which had set up Otho. drawn out of three legions in the Moesian army. He made. and another to another. There. fearing to be called to an account on their return. before the battle began. Suetonius Tranquillus.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. whether real or counterfeit. which was observed ever after as the day of his accession to the empire. they resolved upon choosing and creating an emperor. and said to have been written by Otho before his decease to Vespasian. as well as a report which was circulated. and punished for it. until he was encouraged to it by the fortuitous aid of persons unknown to him and at a distance. amongst the governors of provinces. offered him a reinforcement of forty thousand archers. though his friends were very ready to support him. and all the rest assenting. on the calends [the 1st] of July. and remove those in Germany to a less (449) hazardous station and a warmer climate. and drove away the conqueror. king of the Parthians. Volugesus. Licinius Mucianus dropping the grudge arising from a jealousy of which he had hitherto made no secret.gutenberg. and entreating him to come to the aid of the commonwealth. And in the field of Bedriacum 744. for various reasons. governor of Egypt. proposed to change the winter quarters of the legions. until at length.htm (315 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . had been sent to the assistance of Otho. pretending that they gave no credit to the report. was going to the election.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h.

About the same time. He likewise assumed the censorship. he added eight consulships 749 to his former one. and saying that they were admonished (450) in a dream by the god Serapis to seek his aid. came both together before him. were all in a disturbed state. The soldiers. chaplets. and he had long laboured under a muscular debility. and sent forward his generals and forces into Italy. Here having entered alone. several vessels of ancient workmanship were dug out of a consecrated place.htm (316 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . arrived letters with intelligence that Vitellius's troops had been defeated at Cremona. by the advice of his friends. in the presence of the assembled multitudes. was now added. that it was late before he paid the gratuities due to them by law. Having.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. by the direction (451) of some soothsayers.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. and free cities. and made it his principal concern. VII. and seemed to offer him the sacred leaves. he made the attempt publicly. and some kingdoms in alliance with Rome. and so far was he from granting any extraordinary favours to the sharers of his success. Immediately after this. wanted something which might clothe him with divine majesty and authority. That he might let slip no opportunity of reforming the discipline of the army. Nay. if he vouchsafed but to touch it with his heel. and therefore hesitated to venture on making the experiment. by C. on which there was an effigy resembling Vespasian. Returning now to Rome. At first he could scarcely believe that the thing would any how succeed. and punished others. and the other smarting with the disgrace of their defeat. first to restore order in the state. when he was seated on the tribunal. and then to improve it. one part of them emboldened by victory. who assured them that he would restore sight to the one by anointing his eyes with his spittle. and was in a tottering condition. This. during the whole of his government. according to the usage of the place. Suetonius Tranquillus. and another who was lame. the provinces. without attendants. had abandoned themselves to every species of licentiousness and insolence. after enjoying a triumph for victories over the Jews. and it was crowned with success in both cases 748. and with a great reputation. at Tegea in Arcadia. [his freedman] Basilides 746 appeared before him. likewise. and give strength to the leg of the other. it was certain that at the very time he was far away. he himself. which had been almost ruined. the new emperor. disbanded many of Vitellius's soldiers. too. entered on a civil war. to obtain possession of the key of Egypt 745. and having done his utmost to propitiate the deity. imploring him to heal them 747. which would hardly have allowed him to walk into the temple. besides which. passed over to Alexandria. At length. Vespasian. upon turning round. He. the temple of Serapis. under these auspices. in the meantime. although no one had admitted him. upon a young man's coming much perfumed to return him thanks (452) for having appointed him to command a http://www. and he himself slain at Rome. therefore. A poor man who was blind. to take the auspices respecting the establishment of his power. having been raised unexpectedly from a low estate. however. therefore. VIII. and cakes.gutenberg.

and Cilicia. he ordered them for the future to run barefooted. in which were contained the decrees of the senate. Thrace. as well as Comagene. "I had rather you had smelt of garlic. and partly from the accession of new suits arising out of the disorder of the times. He stationed some legions in Cappadocia on account of the frequent inroads of the barbarians. squadron of horse. He deprived of their liberties. treaties. relative to alliances. almost from the building of the city. searching in all quarters for copies of those curious and ancient records. and was fallen into disrepute by neglect. unless they were the aggressors. as well as the acts of the people. he turned away his head in disgust. and others with extraordinary jurisdiction to decide causes belonging to http://www. And to let it be known that those two orders differed not so much in privileges as in dignity. he declared publicly. giving him this sharp reprimand. and reduced them into the form of provinces. that of Claudius on the (453) Coelian mount. IX. and Samos. and was the foremost to put his hand to clearing the ground of the rubbish. which had been begun by Agrippina. upon finding that Augustus had projected such a work. petitioned for an addition to their pay. And he undertook. and then it was fair and lawful to return it. still remained undecided.htm (317 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . therefore. which until that time had been under the government of kings. partly from old law-suits which. When the men belonging to the fleet. chose commissioners by lot to provide for the restitution of what had been seized by violence during the war." X. Lycia. Rhodes.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he gave leave to any one who would." revoked his commission. by C. he chose in their room the most honourable persons in Italy and the provinces. also. which had been much reduced by the havoc made amongst them at several times. under the name of shoe-money. but almost entirely demolished by Nero 751. and an amphitheatre 752 in the middle of the city. Having expelled the most unworthy. likewise. when some altercation passed between a senator and a Roman knight. appointed as governor of it a man of consular rank. the temple of Peace 750 near the Forum. and removed some of it upon his own shoulder.gutenberg. to restore the three thousand tables of brass which had been destroyed in the fire which consumed the Capitol. and. to take possession of the void ground and build upon it. being a great desight to the city. The ruins of houses which had been burnt down long before.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and so they have done ever since. "that senators ought not to be treated with scurrilous language. The business of the courts had prodigiously accumulated. namely. who travelled by turns from Ostia and Puteoli to Rome. if the proprietors should hesitate to perform the work themselves. Achaia. He resolved upon rebuilding the Capitol. He likewise erected several new public buildings. and privileges granted to any person. on account of the interruption that had been given to the course of justice. He purified the senatorian and equestrian orders. and. Suetonius Tranquillus. Byzantium. thinking that it would answer little purpose to send them away without a reply. He. instead of a Roman knight.

htm (318 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . should be considered (454) a bondwoman herself. from the beginning to the end of his government. by C. from the licence which had long prevailed. the lives of the litigants could scarcely allow sufficient time. And in regard to the custom of searching those who came to salute him. bid him go to Morbonia 756. he dropped it even in the time of the civil war. "However. And he was so little fond of external and adventitious ornaments. XI. and reduce them to as small a number as possible." Salvius Liberalis. besides. presuming upon his great services. or the title of Father of his Country. not even after their fathers were dead. whither he should go? one of those whose office it was to introduce people to the emperor. and the petulance of philosophers. snarling at him in scurrilous language. in pleading the cause of a rich man under prosecution. and that usurers should not be allowed to take proceedings at law for the recovery of money lent to young men whilst they lived in their father's family. he laughed at them for it. he conducted himself with great moderation and clemency. He was little disposed to keep up the memory of affronts or quarrels. He bore with great mildness the freedom used by his friends.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. XII. being quite tired of the length and tediousness of the procession. treated him very rudely. for the dispatch of which. obtained a decree of the senate. if Hipparchus possesses a hundred millions of sesterces?" he commended him for it. but. that he frequently made mention of it himself. He made a very splendid marriage for the daughter of his enemy Vitellius. Being in a great consternation after he was forbidden the court in the time of Nero. that. what he should do? or. nor did he harbour any resentment on account of them. and asking those about him. Demetrius. Suetonius Tranquillus. Lust and luxury. he could not forbear saying. and a companion of Hercules 753.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. In other affairs. meeting him on the road. the Cynic philosopher 755. He was so far from dissembling the obscurity of his extraction. as if it was either due to his ancestors. who had been guilty of notorious acts of lewdness. XIII. he concluded with these words. or had ever been expected by himself. XIV. that a woman who formed an union with the slave of another person. he reproved only in private. He. for having in his old age been so silly as to desire a triumph.gutenberg. presuming to say. a suitable fortune and equipage. he only called him a cur. whose monument is still to be seen on the Salarian road. and refusing to rise up or salute him." Nor would he for a long time accept of the tribunitian authority. on the day of his triumph 754. and gave her. therefore. had also grown to an enormous height. But when this same person http://www. otherwise. thrusting him out. (455) who had been sentenced to banishment. When some affected to trace his pedigree to the founders of Reate. and when complaining of his conduct to a common friend of theirs. Licinius Mucianus. I am a man. "he was rightly served. "What is it to Caesar. nay. the centumviri. the satirical allusions of advocates.

with the view of squeezing them after they had acquired great wealth." On the other hand. by C.gutenberg. at the just punishment of the guilty. that he advanced all the most rapacious amongst the procurators to higher offices." because it was his practice. "That the fox changed his hair. that. and without his knowledge. Although Helvidius Priscus 757 was the only man who presumed to salute him on his return from Syria by his private name of Vespasian.htm (319 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . and. that he had already perished. declaring that "no less than four hundred thousand millions of sesterces were wanting to carry on the government. whether they were innocent or guilty. which is discreditable 758 even to a private individual. as we may say. augmented the tribute of the provinces. and pardons to persons under prosecution. http://www. that so much as one innocent person suffered in his reign. and when he was imposed upon. who. The only thing deservedly blameable in his character was his love of money. He was so far from being influenced by suspicion or fear to seek the destruction of any one. and doubled that of some of them. or even any mention of him in his edicts. when he came to be praetor. yet he would gladly have saved him notwithstanding. and was upbraided with it by an old herdsman of his. came afterwards to beg his pardon." This is the more likely to be true. or. cried out. upon the emperor's refusing to enfranchise him gratis. of which he took public notice in the beginning of his reign. XVI. but not his nature. he only vented his resentment in nearly the same words. He likewise openly engaged in a traffic. for the purpose of retailing them again to advantage. that he was destined by fate to the empire. It is said that he was naturally extremely covetous. and afterwards ordered him to be put to death. until Helvidius proceeded to inveigh against him with the most scurrilous language. he imposed new and onerous taxes. he made no scruple of selling the great offices of the state to candidates. For not satisfied with reviving the imposts which had been repealed in the time of Galba. because it was commonly believed. because he applied to the best purposes what he procured by bad means. contrary to his inclination. buying great quantities of goods. when his friends advised him to beware of Metius Pomposianus. It is believed. and he would have saved him. nay he would shed tears. It will scarcely be found. He was commonly said.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. at least. on his nativity being cast. "to have used them as sponges. that he would not forget the benefit conferred. He never rejoiced at the death of any man. omitted any mark of honour to him. yet he was not angry.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. promising for him. he made him consul. which on his advancement he humbly petitioned for. and sigh. unless in his absence. (456) Though he did indeed banish him. and the extreme poverty of the treasury and exchequer. had he not been deceived by a false account brought. XV. some are of opinion. that he was urged to his rapacious proceedings by necessity. Suetonius Tranquillus. Nay. and squeeze them when wet. and accordingly dispatched messengers to fetch back the executioners. to wet them when dry.

"give him but a hundred thousand sesterces. by C. strong-limbed. so did he to the women upon the calends of March 766. He made up to several senators the estate required (457) by law to qualify them for that dignity.htm (320 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] ." 764 XIX. and to another artist who repaired the Colossus 763. the principal mimic. and often in great state and very sumptuously. In consequence. http://www. four hundred thousand sesterces. In the games celebrated when the stage-scenery of (458) the theatre of Marcellus 765 was repaired. but would not accept his service. to all ranks of people. however." XX. personating him. "how much his funeral and the procession would cost?" And being answered "ten millions of sesterces. which had been damaged by earthquakes or fires. if they would. He first granted to the Latin and Greek professors of rhetoric the yearly stipend of a hundred thousand sesterces 760 each out of the exchequer. He also bought the freedom of superior poets and artists 761. besides many golden crowns. He gave Apollinaris.gutenberg. a name which had been given to one of their kings who was sordidly avaricious." 767 He enjoyed a good state of health. when you have done relieving your bowels. saying. and imitating. and his features gave the idea of a man in the act of straining himself. though he used no other means to preserve it. He entertained company constantly at his table. he restored the old musical entertainments. and the least he gave to any of the performers was forty thousand. with a yearly allowance of five hundred thousand sesterces 759. at his funeral." he cried out.The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. and to Terpinus and Diodorus. as much (459) as he could bear. and gave a noble gratuity to the restorer of the Coan of Venus 762. relieving likewise such men of consular rank as were poor. He was a great encourager of learning and the liberal arts. several cities in different parts of the empire. Favo. and rebuilt. besides fasting one day in every month. than repeated friction. one of the city wits. As in the Saturnalia he made presents to the men which they were to carry away with them. he rewarded him very handsomely for his invention. upon the emperor's desiring him "to say something droll respecting himself. Nay. to some a hundred thousand.org/files/6400/6400-h/6400-h. he could not wipe off the disrepute of his former stinginess. the harpers. was excessive. His liberality. in order to promote trade. both his manner of speaking and his gestures. "I will. and they might throw his body into the Tiber. asked aloud of the procurators. in a better manner than before. two hundred thousand. Suetonius Tranquillus. Some one offering to convey some immense columns into the Capitol at a small expense by a mechanical contrivance. in the tennis-court attached to the baths." facetiously answered. He was broad-set. as actors do. "Suffer me to find maintenance for the poor people. on his neck and other parts of his body. The Alexandrians called him constantly Cybiosactes. XVIII. the tragedian. XVII. notwithstanding which.

and assumed the name of Laches. amongst which are the following. and dress himself with his own hands. And of Cerylus. Ah. Epan apothanaes. Laches! when thou art no more. such as is addressed to young girls about to be married. He used Greek verses very wittily. They say that he was never more good-humoured and indulgent than at that time: and therefore his attendants always seized that opportunity. Then. just as before. he would put on his own shoes. he gave her 770 four hundred (460) thousand sesterces. his vast long spear. Coming out of his private apartments. had begun to pass himself off as free-born. he used to rise very early. speaking of a tall man. Being once reminded by Mestrius Florus. His method of life was commonly this.htm (321 of 524) [2/10/2007 4:28:18 PM] . A certain lady pretending to be desperately e