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Public Switched Telephone Network

Public Switched Telephone Network

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Published by Navanita Das

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Published by: Navanita Das on May 04, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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By: - Engr.

Sajjad Ali

Began in the United States in 1878.  Reliability, “five nines reliability” 99.999.

providing an aggregation (summing) point for traffic between them.Network Topology    Interconnection of different network nodes.  TANDEM— Connects Eos or LEs together. . Interconnection of switching nodes.  TRANSIT— Provides an interface to another hierarchical network level. In some cases. It is located at the bottom of the network hierarchy. The End Office provides network access for the subscriber. Transit switches are generally used to aggregate traffic that is carried across long geographical distances. the Tandem node provides the EO access to the next hierarchical level of the network. Three node types.  END OFFICE (EO) — Also called a Local Exchange (LE).

 Mesh Topology   Nodes are interconnected. .  Hierarchical Tree  Nodes are aggregated as the hierarchy traverses from the subscriber access points to the top of the tree.Network Topology Two methods of connecting switching nodes.  PSTN networks use a combination of these two methods.

.Network Topology Fig: .Generic PSTN Hierarchy.

providing the subscriber access to the PSTN. but they can also be connected directly.  A Tandem Office often connects End Offices within a local area.  Local Tandem (LT)  Access Tandem(AT) ○ Inter exchange networks ○ International networks . The Local Exchange terminates both lines and trunks.PSTN Hierarchy  United States  Divide in three ○ Local exchange networks  The Local Exchange network consists of the digital switching nodes (EOs) that provide network access to the subscriber.

US PSTN Hierarchy .

○ Trunks also provide access to corporate phone environments (Example: .Access & Transmission Facilities  Connections to PSTN switches.PBX) .  Lines ○ Individual telephone lines connect subscribers to the Central Office (CO) by wire pairs  Trunks ○ Trunks are used to interconnect PSTN switches.

Access & Transmission Facilities .

○ Local Loop ○ Analog Signaling ○ Dialing ○ Ringing & Answer ○ Voice Encoding ○ ISDN PRI .Access & Transmission Facilities  Lines  Subscriber access into the PSTN.  Includes following facilities.

also referred to as Subscriber Line Multiplexers or Subscriber Line Concentrators. extend the line interface from the CO toward the subscribers ○ Remote switching centers are used instead of remote concentrators. or on a remote line concentrator.Access & Transmission Facilities  The Local Loop ○ Consists of a pair of copper wires extending from the CO to a residence or business . ○ Remote line concentrators. . ○ Terminates on the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) at the CO.

 Analog lines because they use an analog signal over the local loop ○ Communication between the phone and the CO: the voice component. ○ The signaling is in-band signaling.Access & Transmission Facilities  Analog Line Signaling ○ Most phone lines are analog phone lines. and the signaling component. . ○ DC current from the CO powers the local loop between the phone and the CO.

○ The dialing plan of the CO determines when all digits have been collected. .Access & Transmission Facilities  Dialing ○ Number is signaled to the CO as either a series of pulses based on the number dialed. the CO detects the change in loop current and stops generating the ringing voltage. or by Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signals.  Ringing and Answer ○ To notify the called party of an incoming call. the CO sends AC ringing voltage over the local loop to the terminating line. ○ When the destination phone is taken off-hook. ○ This procedure is commonly referred to as ring trip.

○ PCM .Access & Transmission Facilities  Voice Encoding ○ An analog voice signal must be encoded into digital information for transmission over the digital switching network.

TDM allocates one timeslot from each digital data stream's frame to transmit a voice sample from a conversation. Each frame carries a total of 24 multiplexed voice channels for T1 and 30 channels for E1.Access & Transmission Facilities  Trunks ○ Between telephony switching nodes. . ○ Digital trunks may be either four-wire (twisted ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ pairs) or fiber optic medium for higher capacity. The T1 frame uses a single bit for framing. T1 and E1 Voice channels are multiplexed into digital bit streams using Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). while E1 uses a byte.

Access & Transmission Facilities .

under software control.  Switching between calls is done electronically.  CO consist of following ○ The Main Distribution Frame ○ The Digital Switch ○ The Switching Matrix ○ Call Processing .Central Office (Local Exchange)  The Central Office (CO) houses the digital switching equipment that terminates subscribers' lines and trunks and switch calls.

this is normally the point at which voice encoding takes place. .Central Office (Local Exchange)  Main Distribution Frame (MDF) ○ Incoming lines and trunks are terminated on the Main Distribution Frame (MDF). ○ The MDF provides a junction point where the external facilities connect to the equipment within the CO ○ For analog lines.

. ○ Analog phone. all voice streams are digitized data. enter as analog data but undergo digital conversion at their point of entry. ○ Digital switches are designed with some degree of distributed processing. ○ Redundancy ○ Within the digital switch. ○ Primary functions is connecting voice channels to create a bi-directional conversation path between two phone subscribers.Central Office (Local Exchange)  Digital Switch ○ The digital switch provides a software-controlled matrix of interconnections between phone subscribers.

○ Switches have capacities of over 100. .Central Office (Local Exchange)  Switching Matrix ○ Digital switch can process many voice channels. ○ Digital switches incorporate some form of switching matrix to allow the connection of voice channels to other voice channels.000 connections.

in the figure. The figure shows thirty channels. For example. . time slot 4 from the digital stream on the left connects to timeslot 30 of the digital stream on the right.○ Following figure illustrates how a switching matrix demultiplexes individual timeslots from a multiplexed stream of voice channels and inserts them into the appropriate time slot for a connection on another facility. to connect voice channels. but the number of channels depends on the individual implementation of the switching matrix.

 ON/OFF Hook  Dialing digits  Answer . in response to stimulus from the facilities coming into the switch.Central Office (Local Exchange)  Call Processing is associated with: ○ Setup ○ Maintenance ○ Release ○ The process is driven by software.

Central Office (Local Exchange)  Call Processing can be broken into ○ Origination ○ Digit Collection ○ Translation (Digit Analysis) ○ Routing ○ Connection ○ Disconnection .

if the caller does not supply the required number of digits for calling within a specified time. ○ Digit Collection  The switch collects digits as the caller dials them.  The dialing plan used for the incoming facility usually specifies the number of digits that are required for calling.  Inter-digit timing monitors the amount of time.  Actual event provided to the digital switch (to indicate a line origination) can be a change in loop current for analog lines.Call Processing ○ Origination  Off-hook to initiate a call. .

is consulted to determine how the digits should be translated. including features like ring again. or trunk.  Centrex is a set of services provided by the local exchange switch to business subscribers. and conferencing.  The dial plan associated with the incoming line.Call Processing ○ Translation  Digit analysis  Process of analyzing the collected digits and mapping them to a result. call parking. .

○ Connection ○ Disconnection . which the dialed digits identify during translation.Call Processing ○ Routing  The process of selecting a voice channel (on a facility) over which to send the outbound call toward its intended destination.

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