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Do you want to perform earthquake analyses according to design codes or just in order to verify your structure? The current article describes in great detail two different approaches; the static (response specter) and the transient approach

Introduction:

Earthquake analyses can be performed by applying different procedures. The most popular procedure is the Response Spectrum analysis (RS-analysis). The RS-analysis is cheap to use in terms of numerical costs as it is based on modal results. However, the spectrum solution can only show positive results, i.e. positive stresses and strains, as it only records the maximum amplitudes for each mode and the superposition of these results in turn will give the positive results. Another procedure is to perform a full transient analysis of the earthquake. Such analyses are computational expensive. However, they will give results based on the dynamic equation of equilibrium and hence both positive (tensile) and negative (compressive) stress results will be reported for the full length of the earthquake. In this tutorial a shell structure will be used to show how such analysis can be run in ANSYS Workbench.

There are two steps in running a response spectrum analysis in ANSYS. First we run a modal analysis which will give use the modes/eigenvalues of the structure. Secondly we run the Response Spectrum analysis which does the following:

Calculates the participation factor for each of the structures frequencies Find the maximum accelerations from the given Response Specter (for each mode) Scales the modal displacements found in the modal analysis to physical mode shapes based on acceleration, participation factors and circular frequencies. Finally superpose these modal results to the final result using i.e. the SRSS method.

Step 1 - Modal analysis: The Modal analysis will give us the eigenfrequencies of the structure. We are going to run a response spectrum analysis where the ground acceleration is applied in the y-direction. Hence, we need to make sure that the effective mass in the y-direction is higher than 90 % of the total mass as most codes use this as a requirement for the RS analysis. We check this in solution information and for this case we see that by requesting 15 modes we will have 100% participating mass in the y-direction. Moreover it is seen that 2 of the modes (mode 1 and 6) are contributing with 85 % of the effective mass and consequently is can be expected that the earthquake response will be dominated by these modes. In the subsequent RS-analysis we will only use the first 6 modes as input as these modes participate with 92% of the effective mass in y-direction.

Figure 2: Details of the modal analysis can be found in the Solution Information Step 2: RS analysis: The RS-analysis uses the modal results obtained above as input for calculation of the earthquake response. To include the response specter data containing the relation between structural acceleration and the structures frequencies we insert the tool RS Acceleration (see Figure 3) and include earthquake data as a table (frequency [Hz] vs. acceleration [m/s2]). A graphical presentation of these data can be seen in Figure 8 a). Further we decide the direction of the earthquake to be the y-direction and define the combinational method in Analysis Settings to be SRSS. The response specter analysis can now be run. The results of the normal stress in y-direction are presented in Figure 4. Note that the results are all positive in a RS-analysis. The reason for this will be discussed in the following part where we aim to give a short description of how a RS-analysis is performed

Figure 4: Normal stress in Y-direction. Note that there are only positive results in RS analysis Step 3 Discussion of RS results: To demonstrate how the results are obtained in a RS-analysis we will do a stepwise procedure where we manually calculate the modal contributions and combine these. To do so we will first look at the contributions of each mode and then we will see how these results end up i.e. in the result given in Figure 4. 1. To eventually get the same result as in the RS-analysis (Figure 4) we will include the contribution of the 6 first modes as was done in the RS-analysis. From the modal analysis we will have the following 6 normal stress results as shown 2. As a comparison we first present the normal stress results for each of the 6 modes obtained from the modal analysis (see Figure 5). These are non-physical results as they are calculated from the modal displacements. However, although the absolute values are wrong the relative

stress values within the structure are correct for each mode as they are based on the modal shapes. Hence, these results are used as a base for the RS-analysis.

Figure 5: Normal stress results obtained in the modal analysis from the first 6 modes 3. The non-physical results presented above need to be scaled to obtain the structures response from the earthquake. This is done in the RS-analysis by multiplying each of the modal results with a mode coefficient. The mode coefficient is calculated as where i represents the mode number, is the spectral acceleration, is the participation factor and is the circular frequency. All of these parameters for each mode can be found in the solution information for the response spectrum analysis. The physical results for each mode can then be plotted using a User Defined Result scaled with the mode coefficient. The normal stress in y-direction - for each mode - after this operation is performed is then

Figure 6: Scaled modal results giving the maximum amplitude contribution for each mode 4. The results for each mode given in Figure 6 are the amplitude maximums as the structure obviously is vibrating. That said it is also obvious that the results could be multiplied with -1 as the counter-phase are just as valid results. However, in some manner we will have to combine the modal results to get a final result but as we dont know the phase angles between the modes (these cannot be found in a modal analysis, for this it is necessary to run a full transient analysis), the superposition can only be an attempt to estimate the correct earthquake response. There are several different methods which can be used to combine the modes where SRSS, CQC and ABSOLUTE combinations are some of the most popular. In Figure 7 some of the scaled modal results from a corner node (probe result) are combined manually using the SRSS method. This is done by first extracting a scaled result from each mode and then combined using the SRSS method. The SRSS results from the RS-analysis are also presented so it can be seen that we will get the same value. Hence we have shown how the RSanalysis is working. Note that by using the combinational methods the sign conventions are lost.

Although we dont have the option in the workbench RS analysis to use the Absolute method, we have manually combined the prove values with this method as well to illustrate that using different combinational strategies will yield different results although the modal data is the same.

Figure 7: Probe results: RS-analysis results are compared with a manually superposition of the scaled modal results to show what is going on in the background of the RS-analysis.

The response specter (RS) analysis has a great advantage in fast solution times, but also has two obvious drawbacks. First of all the methods of combining the scaled modal results will always lead to final results which are all positive. The second drawback is that the analysis must be linear. A transient analysis does not have these limitations, but on the other side it is more costly in terms of solution times. Further, to run the earthquake analysis transient, it is necessary to artificially create the time-acceleration data in such a way that these data are compatible with the smoothed response specter in the frequency plane. This criterion is illustrated in Figure 8 where in Figure 8 a) the smoothed response specter in the frequency plane is the blue line (Swiss standard- SIA 261) while the red line is the compatible artificial earthquake as the acceleration for each frequency are in the same order as the smoothed data. When these artificial data are Fourier transformed to the time-plane (Figure 8 b) we have time-acceleration data which we can use in a transient analysis.

Figure 8: Compatible specters in a) the frequency plane b) time plane The set-up of the transient analysis is shown in Figure 9. The ground acceleration data vs. time (see Figure 8 b) is found in a text file and is read into ANSYS using a command script. In this analysis we have run a linear analysis to be able to compare the results to the RS-analysis. However, by using this procedure we could have run the analysis as a non-linear analysis as well (inclusion of non-linear contacts, materials and large deformational geometry).

Figure 9: Applying compatible ground acceleration data on the structure The result of the structure can be extracted throughout the analysis. I.e. the normal stress in ydirection after 6.925 [s] and 20.48 [s] are shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Results of normal stress in y-direction after 6.925 [s] and 20.48 [s] The probe values of the different result sets presented in the RS-analysis are compared to the transient analysis in Figure 11-Figure 13. It is seen that the SRSS results does not give the exactly same results as the transient analysis although the probe values are in the same range. In fact the transient data and the RS-analysis will never give the exactly same results as the compatible response specter data per definition cannot be exactly the same (the RS-specter is smooth) and because the superposition of the modal data does not take into account the difference in phase angles between the modes. Note that the maximum x-displacements obviously have a higher frequency than what it is seen from the y-displacements. The cause of this is that y-displacements are mainly caused by the first mode with the lowest frequency (found in the modal analysis results) whereas the maximum xdisplacements also have significant contributions from modes at higher frequencies.

Figure 11: Normal stress in y-direction from the probe location (see Figure 7). The red line give the SRSS value from the RS-analysis

Figure 12: Y-displacement from the probe location (see Figure 7). The red line give the SRSS value from the RS-analysis

Figure 13: X-displacement from the probe location (see Figure 7). The red line give the SRSS value from the RS-analysis and the green line is the absolute value from the RS-analysis (found by manually combining the modes)

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