The Ubuntu Manual Team

Geing Started with Ubuntu .
Second Edition
Copyright :o1o by Te Ubuntu Manual Team. Some rights reserved. cba
Tis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Auribution–Share
Alike ¡.o license. To view a copy of this license, see Appendix A, visit
http·//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/¡.o/, or send a leuer to Creative
Commons, 1,1 Second Street, Suite ¡oo, San lrancisco, California, ,¡1o¸, USA.
Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv :o.o, can be purdased from http·//ubuntu-manual.
org/buy/gswu1oo¡e:/en. A printed copy of this book can be ordered for the
price of printing and delivery. An electronic copy of this book can be down-
loaded for free. We permit and even encourage you to distribute a copy of this
book to colleagues, friends, family, and anyone else who might be interested.
http·//ubuntu-manual.org
Second ldition
Revision number· 1,o Revision date· :o1o-o8-1e 18·¸8·o¡ -o¸oo
Contents
Prologue ,
Welcome ,
Ubuntu philosophy ,
A brief history of Ubuntu 8
ls Ubuntu right for you` ,
Contact details 1o
Conventions used in this book 1o
1 lnstallation 11
Geuing Ubuntu 11
Minimum system requirements 1¡
lnstalling Ubuntu 1¡
: Te Ubuntu Desktop :¡
Understanding the desktop :¡
Managing windows :e
Switding between open windows :e
Using the Applications menu :,
Using the System menu :8
Browsing files on your computer :,
Nautilus file browser :,
Searding for files on your computer ¡:
Customizing your desktop ¡:
Accessibility ¡e
Managing your computer ¡,
Geuing help ¡8
¡ Working with Ubuntu ¡1
Geuing online ¡1
Browsing the web ¸o
Reading and composing email eo
Staying organized ,:
Using instant messaging ,e
Microblogging 81
Viewing and editing photos 8¡
Watding videos and movies 8,
listening to audio and music ,1
Working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations ,e
¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Taking notes ,,
Ubuntu One ,,
Seuing up Ubuntu One ,,
Ubuntu One Preferences ,,
More information 1oo
¡ Hardware 1o1
Using your devices 1o1
Hardware identification 1o1
Displays 1o1
Connecting and using your printer 1o:
Sound 1o¡
Burning CDs and DVDs 1o¸
Using a webcam 1o8
Scanning text and images 1o8
Other devices 1o,
¸ Sonware Management 111
Sonware management in Ubuntu 111
Using the Ubuntu Sonware Center 111
Managing additional sonware 11¡
Synaptic Padage Manager 11,
Updates and Upgrades 11,
e Te Command line 11,
lntroduction to the terminal 11,
Ubuntu file system structure 1:o
Geuing started with the command line 1:¡
lntroducing sudo 1:¡
Managing sonware through the terminal 1:¸
, Security 1:,
Why Ubuntu is safe 1:,
Basic Security concepts and procedures 1:,
System updates 1¡o
Users and groups 1¡1
Seuing up a secure system 1¡¡
8 Troubleshooting 1¡¸
Resolving problems 1¡¸
Troubleshooting guide 1¡¸
Geuing more help 1¡:
cox1ix1s ¸
, learning more 1¡¡
What else can l do with Ubuntu` 1¡¡
Open Source Sonware 1¡¡
Distribution families 1¡¡
¡:-bit or e¡-bit` 1¡e
linding additional help and support 1¡e
A license 1¡,
Creative Commons Notice 1¸e
Glossary 1¸,
Credits 1e1
Team leads 1e1
Authors 1e1
lditors 1e1
Designers 1e1
Developers 1e1
Translators 1e:
Special Tanks 1e:
lndex 1e¡
ProIogue
WeIcome
Welcome to Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv, an introductory guide wriuen to
help new users get started with Ubuntu.
Our goal is to cover the basics of Ubuntu (sud as installation and working
with the desktop) as well as guide you through some of the most popular
applications. We designed this guide to be simple to follow, with step-by-step
instructions and plenty of screenshots, allowing you to discover the potential
of your new Ubuntu system even if you are a novice computer user or are
migrating from another operating system for the first time.
Please bear in mind that this guide is still very mud a work in progress
and always will be. lt is wriuen specifically for Ubuntu 1o.o¡ i1s, and al-
though we have aimed to not limit our instructions to this version, it is un-
avoidable that some things will dange over the life of Ubuntu. Whenever a
new version of Ubuntu is released, we will incorporate any danges into our
guide, and make a new version available at http·//www.ubuntu-manual.org.
Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv :o.o, is not intended to be a comprehensive
Ubuntu instruction manual. lt is more like a quid-start guide that will get
you doing the things you need to do with your computer quidly and easily,
without geuing bogged down with tednical details.
lf you are aner more detail, there are excellent resources available at http·//
help.ubuntu.com. Ubuntu’s built-in system documentation is also very useful
for accessing help on specific topics, and can be found by cliding System‣
Help and Support in Ubuntu. lf something isn’t covered here, dances are More information about Ubuntu’s online
and system documentation can be found in
Chapter ,· Learning more.
you will find the information you are looking for in one of those locations.
We will try our best to include links to more detailed help wherever we can.
Ubuntu phiIosophy
Te term “Ubuntu” is a traditional African concept that originated from the
Bantu languages of southern Africa. lt can be described as a way of connect-
ing with others—living in a global community where your actions affect all of
humanity. Ubuntu is more than just an operating system· it is a community
of people that come together voluntarily to collaborate on an international
sonware project that aims to deliver the best possible user experience.
The Ubuntu promise
‣ Ubuntu will always be free of darge, along with its regular enterprise
releases and security updates.
8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from Canonical and hundreds
of companies from across the world.
‣ Ubuntu provides the best translations and accessibility features that the
free sonware community has to offer.
‣ Ubuntu’s core applications are all free and open source. We want you to
use free and open source sonware, improve it, and pass it on.
A brief history of Ubuntu
Ubuntu was conceived in :oo¡ by Mark Shuuleworth, a successful South
African entrepreneur, and his company Canonical. Shuuleworth recognized Canonical is the company that provides
financial and technical support for Ubuntu.
It has employees based around the world
who work on developing and improving
the operating system, as well as reviewing
work submiued by volunteer contributors.
1o learn more about Canonical, go to
http·//www.canonical.com.
the power of linux and open source, but was also aware of weaknesses that
prevented mainstream use.
Shuuleworth set out with clear intentions to address these weaknesses
and create a system that was easy to use, completely free (see Chapter ,·
learning more for the complete definition of “free”), and could compete with
other mainstream operating systems. With the Debian system as a base,
Shuuleworth began to build Ubuntu. Using his own funds at first, installation
cis were pressed and shipped worldwide at no cost to the end user. Ubuntu
spread quidly, the size of the community rapidly increased, and it soon
became the most popular linux distribution available.
With more people working on the project than ever before, Ubuntu con-
tinues to see improvement to its core features and hardware support, and has
gained the auention of large organizations worldwide. lor example, in :oo,,
Dell began a collaboration with Canonical to sell computers with Ubuntu
preinstalled. Additionally, in :oo¸, the lrend Police began to transition their
entire computer infrastructure to a variant of Ubuntu—a process whid has
reportedly saved them “millions of euros” in licensing fees for Microson
Windows. By the year :o1:, the lrend Police anticipates that all of their com-
puters will be running Ubuntu. Canonical profits from this arrangement by
providing tednical support and custom-built sonware.
While large organizations onen find it useful to pay for support services, For information on Ubuntu Server Ldition,
and how you can use it in your company,
visit http·//www.ubuntu.com/server/
features.
Shuuleworth has promised that the Ubuntu desktop system will always be
free. As of :o1o, Ubuntu is installed on nearly :¯ of the world’s computers.
Tis equates to millions of users worldwide, and is growing ead year.
What is Linux'
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of linux, whid is a member of the Unix
family. Unix is one of the oldest types of operating systems and has provided
reliability and security in professional applications for almost half a century.
Many servers around the world that store data for popular websites (sud as
YouTube and Google) run some variant of a Unix system. Te linux kernel is
best described as the core, or almost the brain, of the operating system.
iioiocui ,
Te linux kernel is the shin manager of the operating system; it is respon-
sible for allocating memory and processor time. lt can also be thought of as
the program whid mangages any and all programs on the computer itself.
linux was designed from the ground up with security and hardware com- While modern graphical desktop envi
ronments have generally replaced early
commandline interfaces, the command
line can still be a quick and efficient way
of performing many tasks. See Chapter o·
1he Command Line for more information,
and Chapter :· 1he Ubuntu Desktop to
learn more about c·o·r and other desktop
environments.
patibility in mind, and is currently one of the most popular -based operat-
ing systems. One of the benefits of linux is that it is incredibly flexible and
can be configured to run on almost any device—from the smallest micro-
computers and cellphones to larger super-computers. Unix was entirely com-
mand line–based until graphical user interfaces (cuis) began to emerge in the
early 1,,os.
Tese early cuis were difficult to configure and clunky at best, and gen- A desktop environment is a sophisticated
and integrated user interface that provides
the basis for humans to interact with a
computer using a monitor, keyboard and a
mouse.
erally only used by seasoned computer programmers. ln the past decade,
however, graphical user interfaces have come a long way in terms of usability,
reliability, and appearance. Ubuntu is just one of many different linux J::
ìr:|vì:on:, and uses one of the more popular graphical desktop environments 1o learn more about Linux distributions, see
Chapter ,· Learning more.
called cxo·i.
!s Ubuntu right for you'
New users to Ubuntu may find that it takes some time to feel comfortable
when trying a new operating system. You will no doubt notice many similar-
ities to both Microson Windows and Mac os x, as well as some differences.
Users coming from Mac os x are more likely to notice similarities due to the
fact that both Mac os x and Ubuntu originated from Unix.
Before you decide whether or not Ubuntu is right for you, we suggest A popular forum for Ubuntu discussion
and support is the Ubuntu Forums, http·//
ubuntuforums.org.
giving yourself some time to grow accustomed to the way things are done in
Ubuntu. You should expect to find that some things are different from what
you are used to. We also suggest taking the following into account·
‣ Ubuntu is community based. Tat is, Ubuntu is made, developed, and
maintained by the community. Because of this, support is probably not
available at your local computer store. lortunately, the Ubuntu community
is here to help. Tere are many articles, guides, and manuals available,
as well as users on various lnternet forums and lnternet Relay Chat (iic)
rooms that are willing to help out beginners. Additionally, near the end of
this guide, we include a troubleshooting dapter· Chapter 8· Troubleshoot-
ing.
‣ Many applications designed for Microsoß Windows or Mac os x will
not run on Ubuntu. lor the vast majority of everyday computing tasks,
there are suitable alternative applications available in Ubuntu. However,
many professional applications (sud as the Adobe Creative Suite) are not
developed to work with Ubuntu. lf you rely on commercial sonware that is 1o learn more about dualbooting (running
Ubuntu sidebyside with another operating
system), see Chapter 1· Installation. For
more information on Wine, go to http·//
www.winehq.org/.
not compatible with Ubuntu, yet still want to give Ubuntu a try, you may
want to consider dual-booting. Alternatively, some applications developed
for Windows will work in Ubuntu with a program called Wine.
1o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ Many commercial games will not run on Ubuntu. lf you are a heavy
gamer, then Ubuntu may not be for you. Game developers usually design
games for the largest market, whid leads to larger profits. Since Ubuntu’s
market share is not as substantial as Microson’s Windows or Apple’s Mac
os x, most game developers will not allocate resources towards making
their games compatible with Ubuntu. lf you just like to play a game every
now and then, there is active game development within the community,
and many high quality games can be easily installed through Ubuntu
Sonware Center. Additionally, some games developed for Windows will See Chapter ¸· Soúware Management to
learn more about Ubuntu Soúware Center.
also work in Ubuntu with Wine.
Contact detaiIs
Many people have contributed their time to this project. lf you notice any
errors or think we have len something out, feel free to contact us. We do
everything we can to make sure that this manual is up to date, informative,
and professional. Our contact details are as follows·
Te Ubuntu Manual Team
Website· http·//www.ubuntu-manual.org/
lmail· ubuntu-manual(lists.launchpad.net
iic· =ubuntu-manual on irc.freenode.net
Bug Reports· http·//bugs.ubuntu-manual.org
Conventions used in this book
Te following typographic conventions are used in this book·
‣ Buuon names, menu items, and other cui elements are set in boldfaced
type.
‣ Menu sequences are sometimes typeset as System‣ Preferences ‣ Appearance,
whid means, “Choose the System menu, then doose the Preferences sub-
menu, and then select the Appearance menu item.”
‣ Monospaced type is used for text that you type into the computer, text that
the computer outputs (as in a terminal), and keyboard shortcuts.
1 !nstaIIation
Geuing Ubuntu
Before you can get started with Ubuntu, you will need to obtain a copy of the Many companies (such as Dell and Sys
tem,o) sell computers with Ubuntu prein
stalled. If you already have Ubuntu installed
on your computer, feel free to skip to
Chapter :· 1he Ubuntu Desktop.
Ubuntu installation ci. Some options for doing this are outlined below.
DounIoading Ubuntu
Te easiest and most common method for geuing Ubuntu is to download the
Ubuntu ci image directly from http·//www.ubuntu.com. Head to the website
and clid the “Download Ubuntu” link at the top. Select the nearest download
location to you in the drop-down box (to ensure maximum download speed),
then clid “Begin Download.”
¡:-bit vs o¡-bit
You may notice the words “Ubuntu Desktop 1o.o¡ (¡:-bit)” underneath the _:bit and o¡bit are types of processor
architectures. o¡bit is newer, and most
recent computers will come with a o¡bit
capable processor. See Chapter ,· Learning
more for more information.
default download buuon on the website. lf you are unsure what ¡:-bit means,
don’t worry. ¡:-bit will work on most computers, so if in doubt, simply pro-
ceed with the download. However, if you know that your computer is capable
of using e¡-bit sonware, you may wish to try the e¡-bit version instead. To do
this, clid on “Alternative download options” and make your selection.
DounIoading Ubuntu as a torrent
When a new version of Ubuntu is released, sometimes the servers can get
clogged up with large numbers of people downloading or upgrading at the
same time. lf you are familiar with using torrents, you may wish to download
the torrent file by cliding “Alternative download options,” and obtain your
copy of the ci image this way instead. You may see significant improvements
to your download speed, and will also be helping to spread Ubuntu to other
users worldwide. Again, if you are unsure how to use torrents, you can use
the default download options on the website. Torrents are a way of sharing files and
information around the Internet via peer
topeer file sharing. When a new version of
Ubuntu is released, the Ubuntu servers can
become very busy. If you know how to use
torrents, we recommend that you download
the cr image this way to take the load off
the servers during periods of high demand.
Burning the cr image
Once your download is complete, you will be len with a file called v|vnìv
While the o¡bit version of Ubuntu is
referred to as the “AMDo¡” version, it will
work on Intel, AMD, and other compatible
o¡bit processors.
:o.o,Je:|ìo¡:¸8o.::o or similar (:¸8o here in the filename refers to the ¡:-bit
version. lf you had downloaded the e¡-bit version, the filename would contain
omJo, instead). Tis file is a ci image—a bit like a snapshot of the contents
of a ci—whid you will need to burn to a ci. To find out how to burn a ci
image on your computer, refer to your operating system’s or manufacturer’s
1: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
support documentation. You can also find detailed instructions at https·//help.
ubuntu.com/community/BurninglsoHowto.
Ordering a free cr
Alternatively, a free ci can be ordered from Canonical. Tis option may be You will be required to create a free online
account with Launchpad before you can
place your cr order. Once you have Ubuntu
installed and running, you will need this
account again for use with all Ubuntu
One services. See Chapter _· Working with
Ubuntu for more information on Ubuntu
One.
preferred if you don’t have access to a ci burner, have limited bandwidth,
or have a slow lnternet connection. Tere are no shipping costs or other
darges when you order an Ubuntu ci. Simply visit http·//shipit.ubuntu.com
to request your free Ubuntu Desktop ldition ci.
Te ci usually takes two to six weeks to arrive, depending on your loca-
tion and the current demand. lf you would rather start using Ubuntu sooner,
you may prefer to follow the instructions above for downloading the ci im-
age, and then burn it to a disc instead.
It is possible to purchase Ubuntu on cr from
some computer stores or online shops. Have
a look around your local area or on the
Internet to see if someone is selling it near
you. Lven though Ubuntu is free soúware,
it’s not illegal for people to sell it.
The Live cr
Te Ubuntu ci functions not only as an installation ci for puuing Ubuntu
onto your computer, but also as a live ci. A live ci allows you to test
Ubuntu without making any permanent danges to your computer by run-
ning the entire operating system straight from the ci.
Your computer reads information from a ci at a mud slower speed than
it can read information off of a hard drive. Running Ubuntu from the live
ci also occupies a large portion of your computer’s memory, whid would
usually be available for programs to access when Ubuntu is running from
your hard drive. Te live ci experience will therefore feel slightly slower
than it does when Ubuntu is actually installed on your computer. However,
running Ubuntu from the ci is a great way to test things out and allows you
to try the default applications, browse the lnternet, and get a general feel
for the operating system. lt’s also useful for deding that your computer
hardware works properly in Ubuntu and that there are no major compatibility
issues.
To try out Ubuntu using the live ci, insert the Ubuntu ci into your ci In some cases, your computer will not
recognize that the Ubuntu cr is present
as it starts up, and will start your existing
operating system instead. Generally, it
means that the priority given to devices
when your computer is starting needs to
be changed. For example, your computer
might be set to look for information from
your hard drive first, and then to look for
information on a cr second. In order to
run Ubuntu from the Live cr, we want
it to look for information from a cr first.
Changing your boot priority is beyond the
scope of this guide. If you need assistance to
change the boot priority, see your computer
manufacturer’s documentation for more
information.
drive and restart your computer. Most computers are able to detect when a
bootable ci is present in your drive at startup—that is, a ci that will tem-
porarily take precedence over your usual operating system. As your computer
starts, it will run whatever information is stored on this bootable ci, rather
than the information stored on your hard drive whid your computer usually
looks for.
Once your computer finds the live ci, and aner a quid loading screen,
you will be presented with the “Welcome” screen. Using your mouse, select
your language from the list on the len, then clid the buuon labeled Try
Ubuntu 1o.o¡. Ubuntu will then start up, running straight from the live ci.
Once Ubuntu is up and running, you will see the default desktop. We
ixs1~ii~1iox 1¡
Figure 1.1· 1he “Welcome” screen allows
you to choose your language.
will talk more about how to actually use Ubuntu in Chapter :· Te Ubuntu
Desktop, but for now, feel free to test things out. Open some programs, dange
seuings and generally explore—any danges you make will not be saved once
you exit, so you don’t need to worry about accidentally breaking anything.
When you are finished exploring, restart your computer by cliding the
“Power” buuon in the top right corner of your screen (circle with a line
through the top) and then select Restart. lollow the prompts that appear on
screen, including removing the live ci and pressing Enter when instructed,
and then your computer will restart. As long as the live ci is no longer in the
drive, your computer will return to its original state as though nothing ever
happened!
Minimum system requirements
Ubuntu runs well on most computer systems. lf you are unsure whether it 1he majority of computers in use today will
meet the requirements listed here; however,
refer to your computer’s documentation or
speak to the manufacturer if you would like
more information.
will work on your computer, the live ci is a great way to test things out first.
1¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
lor the more tednically minded, below is a list of hardware specifications
that your computer should meet as a minimum requirement.
‣ ,oo MHz x8e processor
‣ :¸e ·n of system memory (i~·)
‣ ¡ cn of disk space
‣ Graphics card capable of 1o:¡×,e8 resolution
‣ Sound card
‣ A network or lnternet connection
!nstaIIing Ubuntu
Te process of installing Ubuntu is designed to be quid and easy. However,
we do realize that some people may find the idea a liule daunting. To help
you get started, we have included step-by-step instructions below, along with
screenshots so you can see how things will look along the way.
lf you have already tested out the Ubuntu live ci, you should now be Alternatively, you can also use your mouse
to doubleclick the “Install Ubuntu 1o.o¡”
icon that is visible on the desktop when
using the Live cr. 1his will start the Ubuntu
installer.
familiar with the initial “Welcome” screen that appears (refer to Te live
ci section above for more information). Again, select your language on the
len-hand side, then clid the buuon labeled Install Ubuntu 1o.o¡.
At least ¡ cn of free space on your hard drive is required in order to install
Ubuntu; however, 1o cn or more of free space is recommended. Tis will
ensure that you will have plenty of room to install extra programs later on, as
well as store your own documents, music, and photos. 1here are two other options presented on
the “Welcome” screen· reIease notes and
update this instaIIer. Clicking on the blue
underlined reIease notes will open a web
page containing any important information
regarding the current version of Ubuntu.
Clicking update this instaIIer will search
the Internet for any updates to the Ubuntu
Live cr that may have been released since
your cr was created.
Geuing started
To get started, place the Ubuntu ci in your ci drive and restart your com-
puter booting into Ubuntu. When the welcome screen is displayed select your
language and clid the Install Ubuntu 1o.o¡.
Te next screen will display a world map. Using your mouse, clid your
location on the map to tell Ubuntu where you are. Alternatively, you can use
the drop-down lists underneath. Tis allows Ubuntu to set up your system
clod and other location-based features. Clid Forward when you are ready to
move on.
Next, you need to tell Ubuntu what keyboard you are using. Usually, you
will find the suggested option is satisfactory. lf you are unsure, you can clid
the Guess buuon to have Ubuntu work out the correct doice by asking you
to press a series of keys. You can also doose your own keyboard layout from
the list. lf you like, type something into the box at the bouom to make sure
you are happy with your selection, then clid Forward to continue.
ixs1~ii~1iox 1¸
Figure 1.:· 1ell Ubuntu your location.
Prepare disk space
Tis next step is onen referred to as partitioning. Partitioning is the process of
allocating portions of your hard drive for a specific purpose. When you create
a partition, you are essentially dividing up your hard drive into sections that
will be used for different types of information. Partitioning can sometimes
seem complex to a new user; however, it does not have to be. ln fact, Ubuntu
provides you with some options that greatly simplify this process.
Erase and use the entire disk
Use this option if you want to erase your entire disk. Tis will delete any Many people installing Ubuntu for the first
time currently use another operating system
on their computer, such as Windows xr,
Windows Vista, Windows ,, or Mac os x.
Ubuntu provides you with the option of
either replacing your existing operating
system altogether, or installing Ubuntu
alongside your existing system. 1he lauer is
called dualbooting. Whenever you turn on
or restart your computer, you will be given
the option to select which operating system
you want to use for that session.
existing operating systems that are installed on that disk, sud as Windows xi,
and install Ubuntu in its place. Tis option is also useful if you have an empty
hard drive, as Ubuntu will automatically create the necessary partitions for
you.
1e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure 1._· Check your keyboard layout is
correct.
Guided partitioning
lf you already have another operating system installed on your hard drive,
and want to install Ubuntu alongside it, doose the Install them side by side,
coosing between them eac startup option.
Ubuntu will automatically detect the other operating system and install
Ubuntu alongside it. lor more complicated dual-booting setups, you will need
to configure the partitions manually.
Specifying partitions manuaIIy
Tis option is for more advanced users and is used to create special partitions, Ubuntu installs a home foIder where your
personal files and configuration data are
located by default. If you choose to have
your home folder on a separate partition,
then in the event that you decide to reinstall
Ubuntu or perform a fresh upgrade to
the latest release, your personal files and
configuration data won’t be lost.
or format the hard drive with a filesystem different to the default one. lt can
also be used to create a separate /home partition. Tis can be very useful in
case you decide to reinstall Ubuntu, as it allows you to format and reinstall
the operating system, whilst keeping all your personal files and program
seuings intact in a separate partition.
Because this is quite an advanced task, we have omiued the details from
ixs1~ii~1iox 1,
Figure 1.¡· Choose where you would like to
install Ubuntu.
this edition of Geu:ng SìorìeJ +:ì| U|vnìv. You can see more information
and detailed instructions on partitioning here· https·//help.ubuntu.com/
community/HowtoPartition.
Once you are happy with the way the partitions are going to be set up,
clid the Forward buuon at the bouom to move on.
Enter your detaiIs
Ubuntu needs to know some information about you so it can set up the pri-
mary login account on your computer. Your name will appear on the login
screen as well as the MeMenu, whid will be discussed further in Chapter :·
Te Ubuntu Desktop.
On this screen you will need to tell Ubuntu·
‣ your real name,
‣ your desired username,
‣ your desired password,
‣ what you want to call your computer,
18 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ how you want Ubuntu to log you in.
Figure 1.¸· Setup your user account.
Type in your full name under “What is your name`”. Te next text field
is where you select a username for yourself, and is the name that will be
displayed at the Ubuntu login screen when you turn on your computer. You
will see this is automatically filled in for you with your first name. Most
people find it easiest to stid with this. However, it can be danged if you
prefer.
Next, doose a password and enter it into the first password field on the Although you can choose your preferred
username and computer name, you are
required to stick with Latin leuers, numbers,
hyphens, and dots. You will receive a
warning if nonacceptable symbols or other
characters are entered, and until this is
altered you will be unable to progress to the
next screen.
len, then type the same again into the right field to verify. When both pass-
words matd, a strength rating will appear on the right that will tell you
whether your password is “too short,” “weak,” “fair,” or “strong.” You will be
able to continue the installation process regardless of your password strength,
but for security reasons it is best to doose a strong one. Tis is best adieved
by having a password that is at least six daracters long, and is a mixture of
leuers, numbers, symbols, and uppercase/lowercase. lor extra security, avoid
obvious passwords like your birth date, spouse’s name, or the name of your
pet.
ixs1~ii~1iox 1,
Now you need to decide on your computer’s name. Again, this will be
filled in for you automatically using the login name you entered above (it
will say something like “john-desktop” or “john-laptop.”). However, it can be
danged if you prefer. Your computer name will mainly be used for identi-
fying your computer if you are on a home or office network with multiple
computers. To learn more about seuing up a network, refer to Chapter ¡·
Working with Ubuntu.
linally, at the bouom of this screen you have three options to doose from
regarding how you want to log in to Ubuntu.
Log in automaticaIIy
Ubuntu will log in to your primary account automatically when you start up
the computer so you won’t have to enter your username and password. Tis
makes your login experience quider and more convenient, but if privacy or
security are important to you, this option is not recommended. Anyone who
can physically access your computer will be able to turn it on and also access
your files.
Require my passuord to Iogin
Tis option is selected by default, as it will prevent unauthorized people from
accessing your computer without knowing the password you created earlier.
Tis is a good option for those who, for example, share their computer with
other family members. Once the installation process has been completed, an
additional login account can be created for ead family member. lad person
will then have their own login name and password, account preferences,
lnternet bookmarks, and personal storage space.
Require my passuord to Iogin and decrypt my home foIder
Tis option provides you with an extra layer of security. Your home folder
is where your personal files are stored. By selecting this option, Ubuntu will
automatically enable encryption on your home folder, meaning that files and
folders must be decrypted using your password before they can be accessed.
Terefore if someone had physical access to your hard drive (for example, if
your computer was stolen and the hard drive removed), they would still not
be able to see your files without knowing your password.
I{ yov doo:e ì|:: o¡ì:on, |e core{v| noì ìo eno||e ovìomoì:c |og:n oì o |oìer Joìe.
Iì +:|| cov:e com¡|:coì:on: +:ì| yovr encry¡ìeJ |ome {o|Jer, onJ +:|| ¡oìenì:o||y
|od yov ovì o{ :m¡orìonì fi|e:.
Confirm your seuings and begin instaIIation
Te last screen summarizes your install seuings, including any danges that
will be made to the partitions on your hard drive. Note the warning about
:o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
data being destroyed on any removed or formaued partitions—if you have
important information on your hard drive that is not baded up, now would
be a good time to ded that you have set up your partitions correctly. Once You should not need to click the Advanced
buuon unless you wish to change your
bootloader seuings or network proxy. 1hese
are more advanced tasks and beyond the
scope of this guide.
you have made sure that all the seuings are correct, clid on Install to begin
the installation process.
Figure 1.o· Check that everything is set up
right before Ubuntu is installed.
Ubuntu will now install. As the installation progresses, a slideshow will
give you an introduction to some of the default applications included with
Ubuntu. Tese applications are covered in more detail in Chapter ¡· Working
with Ubuntu.
Aner approximately twenty minutes, the installation will complete and
you will be able to clid Restart Now to restart your computer and start
Ubuntu. Te ci will be ejected, so remove it from your ci drive and press
Enter to continue.
Wait while your computer restarts, and you will then see the login window
(unless you selected automatic login).
Clid your username and enter your password, then press Enter or clid
ixs1~ii~1iox :1
Figure 1.,· 1he first slide in the installation
slideshow.
Figure 1.8· You are now ready to restart
your computer.
Iog in. You will then be logged in to Ubuntu and will be presented with your
new desktop!
:: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure 1.,· 1he Ubuntu login window.
: The Ubuntu Desktop
Understanding the desktop
At first glance, you will notice many similarities between Ubuntu and other Ubuntu 1o.o¡ has an emphasis on “social
from the start” and features social network
integration in the desktop for sites like
1wiuer and Facebook.
operating systems sud as Windows or Mac os x. Tis is because they are
all based on the concept of a graphical user interface (cui)—that is, you use
your mouse to navigate the desktop, open programs, move files, and perform
most other tasks. ln short, things are visually oriented, whid means that it’s
important for you to become familiar with where and what to clid in Ubuntu.
GNOME
All cui-based operating systems use a Je:|ìo¡ en+:ronmenì. Desktop environ-
ments encompass many things, sud as·
‣ the look and feel of your system
‣ how the desktop is organized
‣ the way the desktop is laid out
‣ how the desktop is navigated by the user
ln linux distributions (sud as Ubuntu), there are a number of desktop envi-
ronments available for use. One of the most popular desktop environments
is called cxo·i, whid the default in Ubuntu. xii, xici, and ixii are other 1o read more about other variants of
Ubuntu, refer to Chapter ,· Learning more.
popular desktop environments (used in Kubuntu, Xubuntu, and lubuntu, re-
spectively), although there are many more. Since Ubuntu uses cxo·i, we will
limit this guide to exploring your cxo·i desktop.
When you first log in to Ubuntu aner installing it, you will see the cxo·i
desktop. Ubuntu is highly customizable, as is the cxo·i desktop, but for now
let’s just explore the default layout that is in front of you.
lirst, you will notice there are two ¡one|:—one at the top of your desktop
and one at the bouom. A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen
and contains various o¡¡|eì:. Tese applets provide useful functions sud as Lverything on a panel is an applet, even the
main menu.
running programs, viewing the time, or accessing the main menu.
The top paneI
Starting from the len, you will see three menu headings—Applications,
Places, and System—followed by two program icons. Te first of these icons
will open the lirefox web browser (see Chapter ¡· Working with Ubuntu for
more information), and the next will open the Ubuntu Help Center. 1he Ubuntu Help Center is a highly useful
resource. It provides a wealth of infor
mation about your Ubuntu system, and is
always at your fingertips by simply clicking
this panel icon (or navigating to System‣
HeIp and Support).
On the right side of this panel you will find the noì:ficoì:on oreo, whid
is similar in function to the “system tray” in Windows, or the “menu extras”
:¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure :.1· 1he Ubuntu 1o.o¡ default desk
top.
area on the Mac os x menubar. Next to this is the MeMenu, whid will dis-
play your username (the name you entered during installation) and is used
to update social network sites like Twiuer and lacebook as well as set your
lnstant Messaging status in lmpathy. linally, on the far right of the panel is New notifications of emails and instant
messages appear in the messaging menu
applet. When you have a new message, the
envelope icon will turn green.
the session menu, whid provides menu options for loding your computer,
logging out, restarting, or shuuing down completely.
The notification area
lnside the notification area you will find the network indicator, volume ad-
justment, Bluetooth indicator (if your computer has Bluetooth capability),
messaging, and the date and time applets. Some programs will also place an
icon in the notification area when you open them.
len-cliding icons in the notification area will bring up a list of options 1o remove an applet, rightclick on it and
select Remove From PaneI. 1o add a new
applet to a panel, rightclick in a clear area
on the panel and select Add to PaneI.
associated with the application. ln some cases right-cliding an icon will also
perform another action related to that application. lor example, to adjust the
1ni unux1u iisx1oi :¸
volume, simply len-clid once on the volume icon and a volume slider will
appear. Clid the date and time applet to open a small calendar, and then clid
a specific date to add a reminder to your calendar through lvolution (see
Chapter ¡· Working with Ubuntu for more information on lvolution).
When the calendar is expanded there is a buuon labeled Iocations, whid
will open a small world map when clided. Here you can further set up your
location preferences by cliding Edit. ln the window that appears, clid Add,
then enter your location in the text field. lf you live in a major city it may be
on the list already; if not, you can enter your latitude and longitude manually
lf you don’t know this information try searding online for it. Make sure your
time zone is selected, then clid OK to return to the preferences screen.
leel free to explore the other options available under the General and
Weather tabs if you like, then clid Close at the bouom when you are done.
lf weather information is available for your home city, you will now see the
current temperature displayed alongside the date and time in the notification
area.
The bouom paneI
Ubuntu uses most of the bouom panel to display a list of all programs or win-
dows that are currently open. Tese appear as horizontal buuons whid can
be clided to m:n:m::e or re:ìore the corresponding windows (see Managing
windows below for more information).
1o show the desktop you can press
Ctrl+Alt+D
On the far len of the bouom panel is a small icon that resembles a desktop.
Tis S|o+ De:|ìo¡ buuon will minimize all open windows at once, giving
you clear access to your desktop. Tis is onen useful when you have many
windows open at once and your desktop becomes cluuered. Cliding the
buuon again will restore the windows to their original position.
On the right side of the panel you will see some small boxes in a row; 1he c·o·r desktop environment used in
Ubuntu can provide two or more “virtual
desktops,” or uorkspaces. Using these
workspaces can reduce cluuer by opening
windows on separate desktops, without
needing a separate monitor. For example, in
order to organize your activities you may
have your email open in one workspace
and a text document you are working on in
another. 1o switch workspaces, simply click
on the boxes in the uorkspace suitcher or
use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+Left
arrow or Ctrl+Alt+Right arrow to switch
workspaces quickly.
this is the Vor|:¡oce S+:ìder. By default, Ubuntu 1o.o¡ is set up with four
workspaces.
linally, the icon farthest to the right is the ìro:|, whid performs a similar
function to the Recycle Bin in Windows or the Trash in Mac os x. Any files
you delete are first sent to the trash. To see the contents of the trash, clid
on this icon. You can empty it by cliding on the Empty Trash buuon in
the window that appears, or alternatively by right-cliding the trash icon
in the bouom panel and selecting Empty Trash from the menu. Tis will
permanently delete any files or folders that it contains.
The desktop background
ln between the top and bouom panels is an image that covers the entire desk-
top. Tis is the desktop badground or wallpaper and the one you see in front
of you belongs to the default Ubuntu 1o.o¡ theme known as Am|:once. To
:e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
learn more about customizing your desktop including danging your bad-
ground, see the section on Customizing your desktop below.
Managing uindous
When you open a program in Ubuntu (sud as a web browser or a text ed-
itor—see Chapter ¡· Working with Ubuntu for more information on using
programs)—a +:nJo+ will appear on your desktop. lf you have used another
operating system before, sud as Microson Windows or Mac os x, you are
probably familiar with the concept of a “window”—the box that appears on
your screen when you start a program. ln Ubuntu, the top part of a window
(the ì:ì|e|or) will have the title of the window in the center, and three buuons
in the top len corner. lrom len to right, these buuons c|o:e, m:n:m::e, and
mo::m::e the window. Additionally, you can right-clid anywhere on the
titlebar for a list of other window management options.
CIosing, maximizing, restoring, and minimizing uindous
Figure :.:· 1he close, minimize, and max
imize buuons are on the topleú corner of
windows.
To c|o:e a window, clid on the “×” in the upper len corner of the window
—this will be the first buuon on the len-hand side. lmmediately to the right
of this is a downward-pointing arrow that is used to m:n:m::e the window to
the bouom panel of your desktop. Once minimized the window will no longer
be visible, but its corresponding buuon in the bouom panel will remain,
indicating the program is still running in the badground. Cliding this buuon
will re:ìore the window to its original position. linally, the right-most buuon
of this group will mo::m::e the window, making it fill the entire screen.
Cliding this buuon again will return the window to its original size.
Moving and resizing uindous
To move a window around the workspace, place the mouse pointer over the
window’s titlebar, then clid and drag the window while continuing to hold
down the len mouse buuon. To resize a window, place the pointer on an edge You can also move a window by holding the
Alt key and dragging the window
or corner of the window so that it turns into a larger arrow, the resize icon.
You can then clid and drag to resize the window.
Suitching betueen open uindous
Tere are at least three ways in Ubuntu to switd between open windows in
a workspace. You can find the window on the bouom panel taskbar and clid
1ni unux1u iisx1oi :,
to bring it up on the screen, or you can use Alt+Tab to select the window you
wish to work on. Hold down the Alt key, and keep pressing the Tab buuon
until the window you’re looking for appears in the popup. lf the window is
visible on your screen, you can clid any portion of it to raises it above all
other windows.
Using the AppIications menu
Tere are three menu headers in the top panel. let’s take a look at these in You may find that there are programs in
the AppIications menu that you don’t
use frequently, or just don’t want to be
displayed on the menu. 1o hide those
applications (without deleting the actual
programs), click on System‣ Preferences ‣
Main Menu. Find the programs in the right
panel that you want to hide from the menu,
and deselect them in the “Show” column.
more detail, starting with the Applications menu.
Accessories
Te Accessories sub-menu has many programs that are suited for productiv-
ity, including Calculator and Tomboy Notes.
Other programs in Accessories include the ci/ivi Creator, gedit Text See Chapter _· Working with Ubuntu
for more information about the included
applications.
lditor (similar to Windows’ Notepad and Mac os x’s Textldit), Seard for
liles (we’ll discuss that later), and Take Screenshot, whid allows you to take a
picture of your desktop screen. Another way to take a screenshot is to press
PrtSc.
Games
Ubuntu has several games built in for your entertainment. lf you enjoy card
games, ded out AisleRiot Solitaire. Perhaps you’re looking for more of a
dallenge· in that case, there’s gBrainy and Sudoku. Te Games menu also
includes Mahjongg, Mines (similar to Windows’ Minesweeper game) and
Qadrapassel (similar to Tetris).
Graphics
Under the Graphics sub-menu, you’ll find the l-Spot photo manager where
you can view, edit and share pictures you’ve downloaded from your camera.
OpenOffice.org Drawing allows you to create images using the OpenOffice.org
suite, and Simple Scan is a program for scanning images and documents from
your scanner.
!nternet
Te Internet sub-menu is where you will find the lirefox web browser and Instant messaging (t·) is a means of text
based communication where you can hold
a conversation with someone over the
Internet, instantly.
the lmpathy lnstant Messenger client to allow you to talk to your friends and
family.
Office
Te Office sub-menu is where you will find most of the OpenOffice.org suite 1o learn more about OpenOffice.org and to
get help with using the OpenOffice.org suite
of applications, visit http·//openoffice.org.
to help you create formal documents, presentation, or spreadsheets. Also
:8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
under Office is the lvolution email client and an online dictionary. Te full
OpenOffice.org suite installed in Ubuntu by default consists of·
‣ OpenOffice.org Word Processor
‣ OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet
‣ OpenOffice.org Presentation
‣ OpenOffice.org Drawing (located under the Graphics sub-menu)
Sound and video
Te Sound and Video sub-menu has programs for working with multimedia,
sud as·
‣ Brasero disc burner
‣ Totem movie player
‣ Pitivi video editor
‣ Rhythmbox music player
‣ Sound Recorder
More information on all of these programs can be found in Chapter ¡·
Working with Ubuntu.
Ubuntu Sonuare Center
At the very bouom of the Applications menu is the Ubuntu Sonware Center. Learn more about the Ubuntu Soúware
Center in Chapter ¸· Soúware Management.
Tis application gives you access to a library of sonware that you can down-
load. When you open the Ubuntu Sonware Center, the main screen is similar
to your Applications menu, for easy searding. lf you know the name of the
program you’re looking for, just type the name into the searc box in the top
right. Te Ubuntu Sonware Center keeps trad of programs that are installed
on your computer. lf you’re simply curious as to what is available, you can
explore the sonware available using the categories listed on the len side of the
window.
Using the System menu
Te System menu, located on the top panel, contains two important sub- See Chapter ¡· Hardware for more informa
tion on seuing up Ubuntu.
menus. Tese sub-menus, Preferences and Administration, allow you to
make modifications to Ubuntu’s appearance, as well as the way it functions.
Trough the System menu, you can also open the Ubuntu Help Center (Help
and Support), find out more about your cxo·i desktop environment (About
GNOMl), and find out more about Ubuntu in general (About Ubuntu).
Preferences
You can use the Preferences sub-menu to modify the appearance of the
desktop and windows, assign a default printer, designate keyboard shortcuts,
1ni unux1u iisx1oi :,
dange the entries listed in the Applications menu, edit network connections,
and dange mouse seuings, among other options.
Administration
Te Administration sub-menu contains programs you can use to monitor Most of the applications in the System‣
Administration menu will prompt you to
enter your user password when you launch
them. Some applications will require you
to click a buuon to unlock it. Press this
buuon, and enter your password. Aúer
entering your password you gain increased
privileges. 1his is a security feature to make
sure that only authorized people are allowed
to change system seuings. 1o learn more
about security in Ubuntu, see Chapter ,·
Security.
computer performance, dange disk partitions, activate third-party drivers,
manage all installed printers, and manage how your computer receives up-
dates from Ubuntu. Tis sub-menu also has the Synaptic Padage Manager
for locating and downloading sonware padages. Tis is a more tednical
alternative to Ubuntu Sonware Center and should be used by power users.
Brousing fiIes on your computer
Tere are two ways to locate files on your computer. You can use the Seard
for liles tool in the Applications ‣ Accessories. You can also use the Places
menu on the top panel. See the section below about the Nautilus file browser
for more details.
PIaces
Te Places menu holds a list of commonly used folders (sud as Documents,
Music, Downloads, and the Home Folder). You can also browse the disks
on your computer by cliding Computer in this menu. lf you set up a home
network, you will find a menu item to access shared files/folders. You can also
access the Seard for liles tool from the Places menu, as well as browse a list
of recently opened documents.
Your home foIder
Te home folder is where ead user’s personal files are located. When you
installed Ubuntu, you entered a name to set up your user account. Tat same
name is assigned to your home folder. When you open your personal folder,
you will see that there are several folders inside· Desktop (whid contains any
files that are visible on the desktop), Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures,
Public, Templates, and Videos.
You will also see a link named lxamples. Double-clid on that link to open You should open the example content to see
how different types of files are displayed in
Ubuntu.
a folder containing example documents, spreadsheets, and multimedia files.
You will note be able to edit them. lf you want to edit them move them to you
home folder.
NautiIus fiIe brouser
Just as Windows has Windows lxplorer and Mac os x has linder to browse
files and folders, Ubuntu uses the Nautilus file browser by default. We will
now look at the features offered in Nautilus.
¡o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
The NautiIus fiIe brouser uindou
When you open a folder on the desktop or from the Places menu, the Nautilus
file browser window opens up. Te standard browser window contains the
following features·
‣ Menv|or: Te menubar is located at the top of the window. Tese menus
allow you to modify the layout of the browser, navigate, bookmark
commonly used folders and files, and view hidden folders and files. If you bookmark a folder, it will appear in
the PIaces menu.
‣ Too||or: Te toolbar has tools for navigation and a tool to make the con-
tents of the window larger or smaller. A drop-down list gives you the
option of switding the view from Icon View to Iist View or Compact
View. Te seard icon (whid looks like a magnifying glass) opens a field
so you can seard for a file by name.
‣ AJJ:ì:ono| No+:goì:on Too|:: Just below the toolbar, you will see a repre- If you start typing a location starting with
a / character, Nautilus will automatically
change the navigation buuons into a text
field labeled Location. It is also possible to
convert the navigation buuons into a text
field by pressing Ctrl+L.
sentation of where you are currently browsing. Tis is similar to the his-
tory function of most browsers; it keeps trad of where you are and allows
you to badtrad if necessary. You can clid on the locations to navigate
bad through the file browser.
‣ Le[ Pone: Te len pane of the file browser has shortcuts to commonly-
used folders. When you bookmark a folder, it appears in the len pane.
No mauer what folder you open, the len pane will always contain the
same folders. Tis len pane can be danged to display different features by
cliding the down arrow beside “Places” near the top.
‣ Cenìro| Pone: Te largest pane shows the files and folders in the directory
that you are currently browsing.
Navigating betueen directories
To navigate between directories, use the bookmarks in the len pane of the
Nautilus file browser. You can also retrace your steps by cliding on the name
of a folder where it is listed just below the navigational icons. Double-cliding
on a visible directory will cause you to navigate to it in Nautilus.
Opening fiIes
To open a file, you can either double-clid on its icon or right-clid and select
Open With (program).
Creating neu foIders
To create a new folder from within Nautilus clid File ‣ Create Folder, then Note that you can easily view hidden files
by clicking Vieu‣ Shou Hidden FiIes, or
alternatively by pressing Ctrl+H. Hiding
files with a dot (.) is not a security measure
—instead it provides a way of keeping your
folders organized and tidy.
name the folder that appears by replacing the default “untitled folder” with
your desired label (e.g., “Personal linances”). You can also create a new folder
by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N, or by right-cliding in the file browser window
and selecting Create Folder from the popup menu (this action will also work
1ni unux1u iisx1oi ¡1
Figure :._· Nautilus file manager displaying
your home folder.
on the desktop). lf you wish to hide certain folders or files, place a dot (.) in
front of the name (:.e., “.Personal linances”). ln some cases it impossible to
hide files and folders, without prefixing them with a dot. ln Nautilus these
folders can be hidden by creating a .hidden file. Open the file and type in the
name of the file(s) or folder(s) you wish to hide. Make sure that ead file or
folder is on a separate line. When you open Nautilus the folder will no longer
be visible.
Copying and moving fiIes and foIders
You can copy files or folders in Nautilus by cliding Edit ‣ Copy, or by right- You can also use the keyboard shortcuts
Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to cut, copy and
paste (respectively) files and folders.
cliding on the item and selecting Copy from the popup menu. When using
the Edit menu in Nautilus, make sure you’ve selected the file or folder you
want to copy first (by len-cliding on it once).
Multiple files can be selected by len-cliding in an empty space (:.e., not
on a file or folder), holding the mouse buuon down, and dragging the cursor
across the files or folders you want. Tis “clid-drag” move is useful when you
are selecting items that are grouped closely together. To select multiple files
¡: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
or folders that are not positioned next to ead other, hold down the Ctrl key
while cliding on ead item individually. Once multiple files and/or folders
are selected you can use the Edit menu to perform actions just like you would
for a single item.When one or more items have been “copied,” navigate to the When you “cut” or “copy” a file or folder,
nothing will happen until you “paste” it
somewhere. Paste will only affect the most
recent item that was cut or copied.
desired location then clid Edit ‣ Paste (or right-clid in an empty area of the
window and doose Paste) to copy them to the new location.
While the co¡y command can be used to make a duplicate of a file or folder
in a new location, the cvì command can be used to move files and folders
around. Tat is, a copy will be placed in a new location, and the original will
be removed from its current location.
To move a file or folder, select the item you want to move then clid Edit ‣
Cut. Navigate to your desired location, then clid Edit ‣ Paste. As with the In the Nautilus Edit menu, you will also
find the Copy To and Move To buuons.
1hese can be used to copy or move items to
common locations, and can be useful if you
are using panes (see below). Note that it is
unnecessary to use Paste when using these
options.
copy command above, you can also perform this action using the right-clid
menu, and it will work for multiple files or folders at once. An alternative
way to move a file or folder is to clid on the item, and then drag it to the new
location.
Using muItipIe tabs and muItipIe NautiIus uindous
Opening multiple Nautilus windows can be useful for dragging files and
folders between locations. Te option of ìo|: is also available in Nautilus,
as well as the use of ¡one:. When browsing a folder in Nautilus, to open a When dragging items between Nautilus
windows, tabs or panes, a small symbol will
appear over the mouse cursor to let you
know which action will be performed when
you release the mouse buuon. A plus sign
(-) indicates you are about to copy the item,
whereas a small arrow means the item will
be moved. 1he default action will depend
on the locations you are using.
second window select File ‣ New Window or press Ctrl+N. Tis will open a
new window, allowing you to drag files and folders between two locations.
To open a new tab, clid File ‣ New Tab or press Ctrl+T. A new row will
appear above the space used for browsing your files containing two tabs—both
will display the directory you were originally browsing. You can clid these
tabs to switd between them, and clid and drag files or folders between tabs
the same as you would between windows. You can also open a second pane
in Nautilus so you can see two locations at once without having to switd
between tabs or windows. To open a second pane, clid View‣ Extra Pane, or
press F3 on your keyboard. Again, dragging files and folders between panes is
a quid way to move or copy items.
Searching for fiIes on your computer
larlier, we mentioned that you can seard for files on the computer by using Search for files quickly by pressing Ctrl+F
in Nautilus and then typing what you want
to find.
the Searc for Files feature on the Places menu in the top panel. You can also
use the Nautilus browser to seard for files, as explained above.
Customizing your desktop
Now that you’ve been introduced to the cxo·i desktop environment, let’s
take a look at customizing some of its features, sud as modifying the behav-
ior of your panels, or danging the look and feel of your desktop.
1ni unux1u iisx1oi ¡¡
PaneIs
Te panels (currently siuing at the top and bouom of your screen) can be
moved from their default positions to the sides of the screen, set to hide
from view when not in use, and can dange color. To access these features,
right-clid the panel you want to modify and select Properties from the pop-
up menu. Te General tab has options to autohide, position the panel, and
dange the panel size (width).
Use the Orientation drop-down box to select where you want the panel to
be located, and underneath this you can set the desired width (in pixels).
By default, a panel covers the entire length of the desktop. To dange that,
you can deselect the Expand option. Te panel will then shrink so that it is
just long enough to accommodate any applets or program launders that are
currently siuing in it. Tiding the Autohide buuon will cause your panel to
“fold” up into the edge of the screen when you are not using it, and remain
hidden until you move your mouse cursor bad to that screen edge.
An alternative way of hiding the panel is to do so manually. Cliding on
Show hide buttons will add a buuon to ead side of the panel that can be
used to hide it from view. By default these buuons will display directional ar-
rows; however, you can select the Arrows on hide buttons option to remove
the arrows and just have plain buuons. Cliding one of these |:Je |vuon: on
the panel will slide it across the screen and out of view, leaving just the oppo-
site hide buuon in sight whid you can clid to bring it bad. Te BaHground By default, Ubuntu requires that you
maintain at least one panel on the desktop.
If you prefer a Microsoú Windows feel,
a panel at the bouom of the desktop can
be set to start programs as well as select
between open windows. Alternatively, if
you prefer a Mac os x look you can keep
a panel at the top and add an applications
dock such as Docky, Avant Window
Navigator (tv·), or CairoDock. 1hese are
all available in the Ubuntu Soúware Center,
which is discussed further in Chapter ¸·
Soúware Management.
tab in the “Panel Properties” window allows you to dange the appearance of
the panel. By default, this is set to None (use system theme), meaning that
your desktop theme will dictate the appearance of the panel (we will look
at how to dange your desktop theme below). lf you prefer, you can doose
your own panel color by selecting the Solid color buuon, then opening the
color select window. You can also set the panel transparency using the slider.
Alternatively, you can clid the BaHground image buuon if you have an
image or pauern stored on your computer that you would like to use as your
panel badground. Use the file selector to locate the badground image in your
computer, then clid Open to apply the dange.
Adding appIets
Ubuntu provides a selection of applets that can be added to any panel. Applets
range from the informative to the fun, and can also provide quid access to
some tasks. To add an applet, right-clid on a panel then select Add to Panel…
from the popup menu. A window will appear with a list of available applets,
whid can then be dragged to an empty space on a panel. You may want
to spend some time exploring the different ones available—they can easily
be removed from your panel by right-cliding on the applet and selecting
Remove From Panel.
Some applets will be locked and can’t be
moved. Rightclick on them and deselect the
“Lock to Panel” check box.
¡¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
To reposition an existing applet, right-clid on it and select Move. Move
your mouse cursor to the desired location (this can even be a different panel)
and the applet will follow, then len-clid to drop it into place.
Te “Add to Panel…” window can also be used to add additional application You can also add program launchers to a
panel by dragging them directly from the
AppIications menu, in the leú of the top
panel.
launders to your panel, similar to the lirefox launder that sits to the right of
the System menu. To add a new one, double-clid on Application Iauncer…
near the top of the window. Here you can navigate through your applications
and drag them to your panel to create a new launder, just as you did to add
an applet previously. Program launders can also be removed and repositioned
through their right-clid menu.
Workspaces
To modify your workspaces, right-clid on the +or|:¡oce :+:ìder applet (by
default this is on the right side of the bouom panel, just to the len of the Trash
applet) and select Preferences. ln the window that appears you can doose
how many workspaces you want in total, and whether these will be displayed
on the panel in one or more rows. You can also rename ead workspace, and
have the names displayed in the panel applet. lf you prefer, you can also
doose to just have the workspace you are currently using displayed in the
panel. ln this case, you can still dange between workspaces by moving the
mouse over the workspace switder and scrolling the mouse wheel.
Appearance
You can dange the badground, fonts, and window theme to further modify
the look and feel of your desktop. To begin, open the Appearance Preferences
by navigating to System‣ Preferences ‣ Appearances in the top panel.
Theme
Te “Appearance Preferences” window will initially display the Teme tab
when it opens. Here you can select a theme that will control the appearance
of your windows, buuons, scroll bars, panels, icons, and other parts of the
desktop. Te “Ambiance” theme is used by default, but there are seven other
themes you can doose from. Just clid once on the theme you want to try,
and the danges will take effect immediately.
You can download additional themes by cliding the “Get More Temes
Online” link at the bouom of this window. Your web browser will open and
take you to http·//art.gnome.org/themes/, where you can download new
themes from a large selection. Once you have downloaded a theme, locate
the file on your computer (using Nautilus) and drag it across to the Temes
window. Tis will add it to your list of available themes, and a window will
appear asking whether you want to apply the danges immediately.
You can also customize any theme to your liking by selecting it then clid-
1ni unux1u iisx1oi ¡¸
ing the Customize… buuon underneath. Here you can mix elements of dif-
ferent themes sud as icons, mouse pointers, buuons, and window borders to
create your own unique look.
Figure :.¡· You can change the theme in the
Theme tab of “Appearance Preferences”.
Desktop background
Clid the BaHground tab in the Appearance Preferences window to dange You can also change the background by
rightclicking on the desktop and selecting
Change Desktop Background from the
popup menu.
the desktop badground. Here you will see Ubuntu’s default selection of
badgrounds. To dange the badground simply clid the picture you would
like to use. You’re not limited to this selection though. To use one of your own
pictures, clid the Add… buuon, and navigate to the image you want. Double-
clid it, and the dange will take effect immediately. Tis image will also then
be added to your list of available badgrounds.
lf you are aner a larger selection of desktop badgrounds, clid the “Get
More Badgrounds Online” link at the bouom of the Appearance Preferences
window. Tis link will open your web browser, and direct you to the http·//
art.gnome.org/backgrounds website.
¡e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Fonts
You can also dange the fonts used throughout your desktop through the
Appearance Preferences window by cliding on the Fonts tab. You can indi-
vidually set the font style and size for applications, documents, desktop items,
window titles, and for anything using fixed width fonts. Te Rendering sec-
tion at the bouom of the lonts tab gives you four options for danging the
way that fonts are drawn on your screen. Changing these may improve the
appearance of text on different types of monitors.
Screensaver
Ubuntu offers a selection of screensavers. By default, a blank screen will be
displayed aner a short period of inactivity. To select a different screensaver,
clid on the System menu in the top panel, then Preferences ‣ Screensaver.
Tis will open the “Screensaver Preferences” window, with the available
screensavers listed on the len. When you select a screensaver, you will see
a mini-preview in the window, or you can see how it will look on your full
screen by cliding the Preview buuon. Te len and right arrow buuons at the
top allow you to scroll through the different screensavers without leaving the
full screen preview. To return to the Screensaver Preferences window, clid
the Ieave Fullscreen buuon at the top of the screen.
Make sure that the Activate screensaver when computer is idle option
is selected if you want to enable the screensaver. Te slider can be adjusted
to set the duration of inactivity before the screensaver appears. Once it does,
you can resume working on your computer by pressing any key or by moving
your mouse. lor added security, you can also select the IoH screen when
screensaver is active option. ln this case, Ubuntu will ask you for your login
password when you return to the computer.
AccessibiIity
Ubuntu has built-in tools that make using the computer easier for people
with certain physical limitations. You can find these tools by opening the
System menu, then selecting Preferences ‣ Assistive Tecnologies. You can
adjust keyboard and mouse seuings to suit your needs through the “Assistive
Tednologies Preferences” window by cliding on the Keyboard Accessibility
or Mouse Accessibility buuons.
Other assistive technoIogies
Orca is another useful tool for persons with visual impairments, and comes
preinstalled on Ubuntu. To run Orca, press Alt+F2 and type orca into the
command text field. Ten press lnter or clid Run. Orca’s voice synthesizer
will activate and assist you through the various options sud as voice type,
1ni unux1u iisx1oi ¡,
Figure :.¸· Assistive 1echnologies allows
you to enable extra features to make it easier
to use your computer.
voice language, Braille, and screen magnification. Once you have finished
selecting your seuings, you will need to log out of the computer (Orca will
offer to do this for you). When you log bad in, the Orca seuings you dose
will automatically run every time you use your computer.
ln addition to these options, selecting high-contrast themes and larger
on-screen fonts can further assist those with vision difficulties.
Managing your computer
When you have finished working on your computer, you can doose to log
out, suspend, restart, or shut down through the session menu on the far right
side of the top panel. You can also quidly access these options by pressing the
Ctrl+Alt+Del keys.
Logging out
logging out will leave the computer running but return you to the login
screen. Tis is useful for switding users, sud as when a different person
wishes to log in to their account, or if you are ever instructed to “log out and
bad in again.” You should save your work before logging out.
Suspend
To save energy, you can put your computer into suspend mode, whid will
save its current condition and allow you to start more quidly while remain-
ing on but using very liule energy. Suspending the computer spins down the
hard disk and saves your session to memory, so it is very quid to suspend and
resume from suspension.
¡8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Hibernate
Hibernate is similar to suspend, except that instead of saving your session to
memory, hibernate will save your session to the hard disk. Tis takes a liule
longer, but with the added benefit that hibernation uses no power while it is
in a hibernated state.
Rebooting
To reboot your computer, select Restart from the session menu.
Shut doun
To totally power down your computer, select Shut Down from the session
menu.
Other options
lrom the session menu, you can also select IoH Screen to require a password You can lock your screen quickly by using
the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+L. Locking
your screen is recommended if you move
away from your computer for a short
amount of time.
before using the computer again—this is useful if you need to leave your
computer for some duration. You can also use the session menu to set up a
guest session for a friend to try Ubuntu, or to :+:ìd v:er: to log into another
user account without closing your applications.
Geuing heIp
Ubuntu, just like other operating systems, has a built-in help reference, called Many programs have their own help which
can be accessed by clicking the HeIp menu
within the application window.
the Ubuntu Help Center. To access it, clid on the help icon in the top panel.
You can also access it by cliding Help and Support in the System menu.
Figure :.o· Clicking the blue help icon
in the top panel (just to the right of the
System menu and the Firefox icon) will
open Ubuntu’s builtin system help.
lf you can’t find an answer to your question in this manual or in the
Ubuntu Help Center, you can contact the Ubuntu community through the
Ubuntu lorums (http·//ubuntuforums.org). Many Ubuntu users open an ac- We encourage you to check any infor
mation you find on other websites with
multiple sources when possible, but only
follow directions if you understand them
completely.
count on the forums to receive help, and in turn provide support to others
as they gain more knowledge. Another useful resource is the Ubuntu Wiki
(https·//wiki.ubuntu.com), a website maintained by the Ubuntu community.
1ni unux1u iisx1oi ¡,
Figure :.,· 1he builtin system help provides
topicbased help for Ubuntu.
¡ Working uith Ubuntu
Geuing onIine
lf you are in a location with lnternet access, you will want to make sure
you are connected in order to get the most out of your Ubuntu operating
system. Tis section of the manual will help you ded your connection and
configure it where necessary. Ubuntu can connect to the lnternet using a
wired, wireless, or dialup connection. lt also supports some more advanced
connection methods, whid we will briefly discuss at the end of this section.
A wired connection refers to when your computer is physically connected
to a router or an lthernet port with a cable. Tis is the most common connec-
tion for desktop computers.
A wireless connection is when your computer is connected to the lnternet
via a wireless radio network, also known as Wi-li. laptop computers com-
monly use Wi-li due to portability, making it easy to access the lnternet from
different rooms in the house or when traveling.
ln order to connect wirelessly, you must be in a location with a working
wireless network. To have your own, you will need to purdase and install a
+:re|e:: rovìer or occe:: ¡o:nì. Some locations may already have a publicly
accessible wireless network available.
A dialup connection is when your computer uses a moJem to connect to an
lnternet service provider through your telephone line.
NetuorkManager
ln order to connect to the lnternet in Ubuntu, you need to use the Network- If you are unsure whether your computer
has a wireless card, check with your
manufacturer.
Manager utility. NetworkManager allows you to turn all networking on or off,
and helps you manage your wired, wireless, and other connections.
Figure _.1· NetworkManager will display
this icon in the top panel when you are
connected to a wired network.
You can access all the functions of NetworkManager using its icon in the
top panel. Tis icon may look different depending on whether you currently
have a working connection, and whether the connection is wired or wireless.
lf you are unsure, try hovering your mouse over the icon until a short de-
scription appears near the cursor. Tis will read “Wired network connection
‘Auto eth0’ active” (for example) if you have a working wired connection, or
otherwise something else related to networking or connections sud as “No
connection” or “Networking disabled.”
Cliding this icon will bring up a list of network connections that are
¡: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure _.:· Here you can see the currently
active “auto eth0” connection listed in the
NetworkManager menu.
available to you. lf you are currently connected to the lnternet, the name of
this connection will be highlighted in bold.
Figure _._· 1his is the menu when you
rightclick the networking icon.
You can also right-clid on the NetworkManager icon. Tis will open a
menu allowing you to enable or disable networking, view tednical details
about your current connection, or edit all connection seuings. ln the image
above, the ded box next to “lnable Networking” is currently selected; you
can deselect it to disable all network connections. Tis may be useful if you
need to shut off all wireless communication, sud as when in an airplane.
EstabIishing a uired connection
lf you have an Fì|erneì cable running from a wall sodet, a router, or some
other device, then you will want to set up a wired network connection in
Ubuntu.
ln order to connect with a wired connection, you need to know whether Are you already online` If the Network
Manager icon in the top panel shows a
connection, then you may have successfully
connected during the installation process. If
so, you do not need to follow the rest of this
section.
your network connection supports inci. Tis stands for “Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol,” and is a way for computers on your network to
automatically receive configuration information from your lnternet service
provider (isi). Tis is usually the quidest and easiest way of establishing
a connection between your computer and your isi in order to access the
lnternet, although some isis may provide what is called a :ìoì:c oJJre::
instead. lf you are unsure whether your isi supports inci, you may wish to
contact their customer service line to ded. Tey will also be able to provide
you with information on your static address if one has been allocated to you
(in many cases isis only allocate static addresses to customers upon request).
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡¡
Automatic connections uith DHCP
lf your network supports inci, you may already be set up for online access.
To ded this, clid on the NetworkManager icon. Tere should be a “Wired
Network” heading in the menu that is displayed. lf “Auto eth0” appears di-
rectly underneath, then your computer is currently connected and probably
already set up correctly for inci. lf “disconnected” appears in gray under-
neath the wired network section, look below to see if an option labeled “Auto
eth0” appears in the list. lf so, clid on it to auempt to establish a wired con-
nection.
To ded if you are online, right-clid on the NetworkManager icon in the
top panel and select the Connection Information option.
Figure _.¡· 1his window displays your tr
address and other connection information.
You should see a window showing details about your connection. lf your ii An Internet Protocol (tr) address is a
numerical label assigned to devices on a
computer network. It is the equivalent of
phone numbers for your house and allows
your computer to be uniquely identified so
you can access the Internet and share files
with others.
address is displayed as o.o.o.o or starts with 1e,.:¸¡, then your computer was
not successfully provided with an address through inci. lf it shows another
address, it is most likely that your connection was automatically configured
correctly. To test out your lnternet connection, you may want to open the
lirefox web browser to try loading a web page. More information on using
lirefox can be found later in this dapter.
lf you are still not online aner following these steps, you may need to try 1o access the “Connection Information”
window, you will need to make sure that
networking is enabled. Otherwise this
option will be gray and you will not be
able to select it through the rightclick
menu of the NetworkManager applet.
1o enable networking, rightclick on the
NetworkManager applet and select EnabIe
Netuorking from the popup menu.
seuing up your lnternet configuration manually, using a static ii address.
ManuaI configuration uith static addresses
lf your network does not support inci, then you need to know a few items of
information before you can get online.
‣ An iv address is a unique address used for identifying your computer on
the lnternet. When connecting through inci this is likely to dange at
¡¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
times. However, if your isi has provided you with a static address then
it will not. An ii address is always given in the form of four numbers
separated by decimal points, for example, 1,:.1e8.o.:.
‣ Te network mask tells your computer how large the network is that it be-
longs to. lt takes the same form as an ii address, but is usually something
like :¸¸.:¸¸.:¸¸.o
‣ Te gateway is the ii address at your isi’s end. lt helps your computer
connect or “talk” with their network, whid acts as a “gateway” between
your computer and the lnternet.
‣ brs servers are one or more ii addresses of “Domain Name System”
servers. Tese servers convert standard web addresses (like http·//www.
ubuntu.com) into ii addresses sud as ,1.18,.,¡.1¸e. Tis step allows your
computer to “find” the correct web site when you type in the web address
you wish to visit. A minimum of one ixs server is required, up to a maxi-
mum of three. Te additional ones are used in case the first one fails.
To manually configure a wired connection, right-clid on the Network- If you do not already have these seuings,
you will need to consult your network
administrator or tsr customer support to
receive them.
Manager icon and select Edit Connections. Make sure you are looking at the
Wired tab inside the “Network Connections” window that is displayed.
Te list may already have an entry sud as “Auto eth0,” or a similar name.
lf a connection is listed, select it and then clid the Edit buuon. lf no connec-
tion is listed, clid the Add buuon instead.
lf you are adding a connection, you first need to provide a name for the
connection so you can distinguish it from any others that are added later. ln
the “Connection name” field, doose a name sud as “Wired connection 1.”
Figure _.¸· In this window you can manually
edit a connection.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡¸
To set up the connection·
1. Under the connection name, make sure that the Connect automatically
option is selected.
:. Switd to the ivv¡ Settings tab.
¡. Change the Method to “Manual.”
¡. Clid on the Add buuon next to the empty list of addresses.
¸. Type in your ii address in the field below the Address header.
e. Clid to the right of the ii address, directly below the Netmask header,
and type in your network mask. lf you are unsure of your network mask,
“:¸¸.:¸¸.:¸¸.o” is the most common.
,. Clid to the right of the network mask, directly below the Gateway header,
and type in the address of your gateway.
8. ln the brs servers field below, type in the addresses of your ixs server. lf
your network has more than one ixs server, enter them all, separated by
spaces or commas.
,. Clid Apply to save your danges.
A m~c oJJre:: :: o |orJ+ore oJJre:: {or yovr com¡vìer’: neì+or| corJ, onJ
enìer:ng :ì :: :omeì:me: :m¡orìonì +|en v::ng o co||e moJem connecì:on or
::m:|or. I{ yov |no+ ì|e m~c oJJre:: o{ yovr neì+or| corJ, ì|:: con |e enìereJ :n
ì|e o¡¡ro¡r:oìe ìe:ì fie|J :n ì|e Wired ìo| o{ ì|e eJ:ì:ng +:nJo+.
When you have returned to the Network Connections screen, your newly-
added connection should now be listed. Clid Close to return to the desktop.
lf your connection is configured correctly, the NetworkManager icon should
have danged to show an active connection. To test if your connection is
properly set up, refer to the instructions above for deding a inci connec-
tion.
WireIess
lf your computer is equipped with a wireless (Wi-li) card and you have a
wireless network nearby, you should be able to set up a wireless connection in
Ubuntu.
Connecting to a uireIess netuork for the first time
lf your computer has a wireless network card, you should be able to connect
to a wireless network. Most laptop and netbook computers have a wireless
network card.
Ubuntu is usually able to detect any wireless networks that are available 1o improve speed and reliability of your
connection, try to move closer to your
router or access point.
within range of your wireless card. To see a list of wireless networks, clid
on the NetworkManager icon. Under the “Wireless Networks” heading, you
should see a list of available wireless networks. lad network will be shown
with a name on the len, and a signal meter on the right. A signal meter looks
¡e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
like a series of bars—the more bars that are filled in, the stronger the connec-
tion will be.
A wireless network may be open to anyone to connect, or may be pro-
tected with network security. A small padlod will be displayed next to the
signal meter of any wireless networks that are protected. You will need to
know the correct password in order to connect to these.
To connect to a wireless network, select the desired network’s name from
the list. Tis will be the name that was used when the wireless router or
access point was installed. lf you are in a workplace or a location with a
publicly accessible wireless network, the network name will usually make it
easy to identify.
lf the network is unprotected (:.e., the network signal meter does not
display a padlod), a connection should be established within a few seconds.
Te NetworkManager icon in the top panel will animate as Ubuntu auempts
to establish a connection. lf it connects successfully the icon will dange
to display a signal meter. A notification message in the upper right of your
screen will also appear, informing you that a connection was established.
lf the network is secured, Ubuntu will display a window called “Wireless
Network Authentication Required” once it tries to connect. Tis means that a
password is required in order to connect.
Figure _.o· 1ype in your wireless network
passphrase.
lf you know the password, enter it in the Password field, and then clid
Connect. As you type your password, it will be obscured to prevent others
from seeing it. lf you prefer, you can select the Show password option to see
the password as you type.
Aner you clid the Connect buuon, the NetworkManager icon in the top
panel will animate as it tries to connect to the network. lf you have entered
the correct password, a connection will be established and the NetworkMan-
ager icon will dange to show signal meter bars. Again, Ubuntu will display
a pop up message in the upper right of your screen informing you that a con-
nection was established.
lf you entered the wireless network’s password incorrectly, Network- Select the Shou Passuord option to make
sure you haven’t made a mistake when
entering the password.
Manager will auempt to establish a connection then return to the “Wireless
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡,
Network Authentication Required” window. You can auempt to enter the
correct password again, or clid Cancel to abort your connection. lf you do
not know the password to the network you have selected, you will need to get
the password from the network administrator.
Once you have successfully established a wireless network connection,
Ubuntu will store these seuings (including the network password) in order
to make it easier to connect to the same wireless network in future. You
may also be prompted to select a |eyr:ng password here. Te keyring stores
network and other important passwords in the one place, so you can access
them all in future by just remembering your keyring password.
Connecting to a saved uireIess netuork
lf you have previously successfully established a wireless connection, that
connection’s password will be saved on your computer. Tis will allow you to
connect to the same network without having to re-enter the password.
ln addition, Ubuntu will automatically try to connect to a wireless network
within range if it has its seuings saved. Tis will work for both open and
secured wireless networks.
lf you have many saved wireless networks that are in range, Ubuntu may
doose to connect to one of them, while you may prefer to connect to another.
ln this case, clid on the NetworkManager icon. You should see a list of wire-
less networks in range, along with their signal meters. Clid on your desired
network.
lf the password and other seuings have not danged, Ubuntu will connect
to the wireless network you dose. lf the password has dange, Ubuntu will
open the “Wireless Network Authentication Required” window. ln this case,
follow instructions in the previous section.
Connecting to a hidden uireIess netuork
ln some circumstances, you may need to connect to a hidden wireless net-
work. Tese hidden networks do not broadcast their names, whid means that
they will not show up in the list of wireless networks in the NetworkManager
menu. ln order to be able to connect to a hidden network, you will need to get
its name and security seuings from your network administrator.
To connect to a hidden network·
1. Clid on the NetworkManager icon in the top panel.
:. Choose the Connect to Hidden Wireless Network option. Ubuntu should
open the “Connect to Hidden Wireless Network” window.
¡. By default, the Connection field should show “New…”—you can leave this
undanged.
¡. ln the Network name field, enter the name of the wireless network. Tis
name is also known as a ··ìn. Please enter the network name exactly as it
was given to you.
¡8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
¸. ln the Wireless security field, select one of the options. lf the network is
open, leave this field as “None.” lf you do not know the correct seuing for
the network you will not be able to connect to the hidden network.
e. Clid on the Connect buuon.
Te rest of the process should work exactly as in the section on the initial
connection to wireless networks. Once set up according to the instructions
above, the hidden network should show up in the list of saved networks.
DisabIing and enabIing your uireIess netuork card
Wireless access in Ubuntu is enabled by default if you have a wireless net- Some computers may have a physical switch
or buuon to turn off WiFi.
work card in your computer. ln certain cases, for example on airplanes, you
may need or be required to turn your wireless radio off.
To do this, right-clid on the NetworkManager icon, and deselect the En-
able Wireless option. Your wireless network will be turned off, and your
computer will no longer seard for available wireless networks.
To turn wireless networking bad on, right-clid on the NetworkManager
icon, and clid on the Enable Wireless option to re-select it. Your wireless
network will be turned bad on. Ubuntu will then seard for nearby wireless
networks and will connect to any saved networks within range.
Changing an existing uireIess netuork
At times, you may want to dange the seuings for a wireless connection that
you have previously saved. lts password may have danged, or your system
administrator asked you to dange some networking or security seuings.
To edit a saved wireless network connection·
1. Right-clid on the NetworkManager icon and select Edit Connections…
:. A “Network Connections” window should open. Clid on the Wireless tab
to see a list of saved wireless connections
¡. By default, this list shows connections in the order of most recently used to
least recently used. lind the connection you want to edit, clid on it, and
then clid Edit.
¡. Ubuntu should open a window called “lditing ⟨connecì:on nome⟩”, where
⟨connecì:on nome⟩ is the name of the connection you are editing. Te
window should display a number of tabs.
¸. Above the tabs, you may dange the Connection name field if you want to
give the connection a more recognizable name
e. lf the Connect automatically option is not selected, Ubuntu will detect
the wireless network but will not automatically connect to it without you
doosing it from the NetworkManager menu. Select or deselect this seuing
as needed.
,. On the Wireless tab of the “lditing ⟨connecì:on nome⟩” window, you may
need to edit the ssib field. A ssii is the wireless connection’s network
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¡,
name—if set incorrectly, the network may not be detected and a connection
may not be made. Please make sure that the ssii is set according to your
network administrator’s instructions.
8. Below the ssii, you should see the Mode field. Te “lnfrastructure” mode
means that you would be connecting to a wireless router or access point.
Tis is the most common mode for wireless networks. Te “Ad-hoc” mode
is a computer-to-computer mode and is onen only used in advanced cases.
,. On the Wireless Security tab of the “lditing ⟨connecì:on nome⟩” window,
you may need to dange the Security field to the correct seuing. A selec-
tion of None means that you are using an open network with no security.
Other selections may require slightly different additional information·
‣ vrv ¡o/1z8-bit Key is an older security seuing still in use by some
wireless networks. lf your network uses this security mode, you will
need to enter a key in the Key field that should appear aner you select
this mode.
‣ vrv 1z8-bit Passphrase is the same older security seuing as the entry
above. However, instead of a key, your network administrator should
have provided you with a text passphrase—a password—to connect to
the network. Once you select this security mode, you will need to enter
your passphrase in the Key field.
‣ vvA & vvAz Personal is the most common security mode for wireless
network connections at home and at businesses. Once you select this
mode, you will need to enter a password in the Password field.
‣ lf your network administrator requires ii~i, Dynamic wii, or wi~ &
wi~: lnterprise security, you will need to have the administrator help
you set up those security modes.
1o. On the ivv¡ Settings tab, you may need to dange the Method field from
“Automatic (inci)” to “Manual,” or one of the other methods. lor seuing
up manual seuings (also known as static addresses), please see the section
above on manual set up for wired network connections.
11. When you finish making danges to the connection, clid Apply to save
your danges and close the window. You can clid Cancel to close the
window without making danges.
1:. linally, clid Close on the “Network Connections” window to return to the
desktop.
Aner making danges, your new seuings should go into effect immediately.
Other connection methods
Tere are other ways to get connected with Ubuntu.
With NetworkManager, you can also configure Mobile Broadband connec-
tions to keep online through your cellular or other mobile data carrier.
You can also connect to isis (Digital Subscriber lines), whid are a method
of lnternet connection that uses your telephone lines and a “isi modem.”
¸o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure _.,· 1he default Ubuntu home page
for the Firefox web browser.
lt’s also possible to use NetworkManager to establish a vix (Virtual Private A vr· is a “Virtual Private Network,” and is
sometimes used to help secure connections.
rsts are “Digital Subscriber Lines,” a type of
broadband connection.
Network) connection. Tese are commonly used to create secure connectivity
to a workplace.
Te instructions for making connections using mobile broadband, vixs, or
isis, are beyond the scope of this guide.
Brousing the ueb
Once you have connected to the lnternet, you should be able to browse the
web with Ubuntu. Mozilla lirefox is the default application for browsing the
web in Ubuntu.
Starting Firefox
To start lirefox, clid Applications ‣ Internet ‣ Firefox Web Browser. lf your 1o set other keyboard shortcuts or to
change the shortcut for launching Firefox,
go to System‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard
Shortcuts.
keyboard has a “www” buuon, you can also press that buuon to start lirefox.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¸1
Navigating ueb pages
Vieuing your homepage
When you start lirefox, you will see your home page. By default, you will see
the Ubuntu Start Page.
To go to your home page quidly, press Alt+Home.
Navigating to another page
To navigate to a new web page, you need to type its lnternet address (also tat stands for uniform resource locator and
vvv stands for world wide web.
known as a uii) into the location Bar. uiis normally begin with “hup·//”
followed by one or more names that identify the address. One example is
“http·//www.ubuntu.com/”.
Figure _.8· You can enter a web address or
search the Internet by typing in the location
bar.
To navigate·
1. Clid on the location Bar to select the uii that is already there.
:. Type the uii of the page you want to visit. Te uii you type replaces any
text already in the location Bar.
¡. Press Enter.
To quidly select the uii of the location Bar, press Ctrl+L. You can also press F6 on your keyboard to
highlight the location bar in Firefox.
lf you don’t know a uii, try typing something specific to the page you
want to visit (for example a name or other seard request) into the location
Bar and press Enter. Tis will seard your preferred seard engine—Google by
default—for that term, and take you to the web page that is the top result from
the seard.
CIicking a Iink
Most web pages contain links you can clid to move to other pages.
To clid a link·
1. Move the mouse pointer until it danges to a pointing finger. Tis happens
whenever the pointer is over a link. Most links are underlined text, but
buuons and pictures on a web page can also be links.
:. Clid on the link once. While lirefox locates the link’s page, status mes-
sages will appear at the bouom of the window.
Retracing your steps
lf you want to visit a page you have seen before, there are several ways to do 1o go backwards and forwards you can also
use Alt+Leftto go backwards or Alt+Right
to go forwards.
¸: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
so.
‣ To go bad or forward one page, clid on the BaH or Forward buuon.
‣ To go bad or forward more than one page, clid on the small triangle
next to the Forward buuon. You should see a list of pages you’ve recently
visited. To return to a page, select it from the list.
‣ To see a list of any uiis you’ve typed into the location Bar, clid on the
down arrow at the right end of the location Bar. To view a page, select it
from the list.
‣ To doose from pages you’ve visited during the current session, open the
History menu and doose from the list in the bouom section of the menu.
‣ To doose from pages you’ve visited during the past several sessions, open
the History menu and doose Show All History. lirefox should open a
“library” window, whid shows a list of folders. Clid on the folders to
displays sub-folders, or titles of web pages you’ve visited in the past. Clid
on a page’s title to view that page.
Stopping and reIoading
lf a page is loading too slowly or you no longer wish to view a page, clid on
the Stop buuon.
To reload the current page or to get the most up-to-date version, clid on
the Reload buuon or press Ctrl+R.
Opening neu uindous
At times, you may want to have more than one browsing window. Tis may
help you organize your browsing session beuer, or separate web pages that
you are viewing for different reasons.
Tere are two ways to create a new window·
‣ On the menubar, open the File menu, then doose New Window.
‣ Press Ctrl+N.
Once a new window has opened, you can use it just like the first window
—including navigation and opening tabs.
Opening a Iink in a neu uindou
Sometimes, you may want to clid on a link to navigate to another web page,
but do not want the original page to close. To do this, you can open the link
you’d like to clid in its own window.
Tere are two ways to open a link in its own window·
‣ Right-clid on a link to open its popup menu. Choose the Open Iink in
New Window option. A new window will open, containing the web page
for the link you clided.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¸¡
‣ Press-and-hold the Shift key while cliding a link. Tis will also open the
web page in a new window.
Tabbed brousing
lf you would like to visit more than one web page at a time, you can use You can alternate quickly between differ
ent tabs by using the keyboard shortcut
Ctrl+Tab.
To||eJ Bro+::ng to navigate the web.
Tabbed browsing lets you open several web pages within a single lirefox
window, ead displaying in its own tab. Tis frees up space on your desk-
top since you don’t have to have a window open for every web page you’re
currently visiting. You can open, close, and reload web pages in one place
without having to switd to another window.
Opening a neu bIank tab
Tere are three ways to create a new blank tab·
‣ Clid on the New Tab buuon on the right side of the last tab.
‣ On the menubar, open the File menu, and then doose New Tab.
‣ Press Ctrl+T.
When you create a new tab, it will contain a blank page with the location
Bar focused. Start typing a web address (uii) or other seard term to open a
website in the new tab.
Opening a Iink in its oun tab
Sometimes, you may want to clid on a link to navigate to another web page,
but do not want the original page to close. To do this, you can open the link
you’d like to clid in its own tab.
Tere are many ways to open a link in its own tab·
‣ lf your mouse has a middle buuon, or a wheel, clid on the link with the
middle mouse buuon or wheel. A new tab should open, containing the web
page for the link you clided.
‣ Clid on the link with the len mouse buuon, and keep holding down the
mouse buuon. Drag the link up to a blank space on the tab bar, and release
the mouse buuon. A new tab should open, containing the web page for the
link you dragged.
‣ Press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliding the len mouse buuon on the
link. A new tab should open, containing the web page for the link you
clided.
‣ Right-clid on a link to open its popup menu. Choose the Open Iink in
New Tab option. A new tab will open, containing the web page for the link
you clided.
‣ Clid on a link, holding both len and right mouse buuons.
¸¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
CIosing a tab
Once you are done viewing a web page in a tab, you can close that tab.
Tere are four ways to close a tab·
‣ Clid on the Close buuon on the right side of the tab you want to close.
‣ On the menubar, open the File menu, and then doose Close Tab.
‣ Clid on the tab you want to close with the middle mouse buuon, or the
mouse wheel, if you have one.
‣ Press Ctrl+W.
‣ Clid on the tab with both mouse buuons.
Restoring a cIosed tab
Sometimes, you may close the wrong tab by accident, or want to bring bad a
tab that you’ve recently closed.
To bring bad a tab you’ve closed, do one of the following·
‣ On the menubar, open the History menu, doose Recently Closed Tabs,
and then doose the name of the tab you want to restore.
‣ Press Ctrl+Shift+T to re-open the most recently closed tab.
Changing the tab order
To move a tab to a different location on the tab bar, drag it there using your
mouse. Clid-and-hold on the tab and drag the tab to a new place on the tab
bar. While you are dragging the tab, lirefox will display a small indicator to
show where the tab will be moved.
When moving a tab to a new window it
may reload the page. remember to save your
work before doing this.
Moving a tab betueen uindous
lf you have more than one lirefox window open, you can move an open tab to
a different window. You can also split a tab off to become its own window.
To move a tab from one lirefox window to another already open window,
clid-and-hold on the tab and drag it to the tab bar on the other lirefox win-
dow. When you release the mouse buuon, the tab will be auaded to the new
window.
To move a tab from one window into its own window, clid-and-hold
on the tab and drag the tab below the tab bar. When you release the mouse
buuon, the tab will become a new window.
Searching
You can seard the web, or other collections, from within lirefox without first
visiting the home page of the seard engine.
By default, lirefox will seard the web using the Google seard engine.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¸¸
Searching the ueb
To seard the web in lirefox, type a few words into the lirefox seard Bar.
lor example, if you want to find information about the U|vnìv·
1. Clid on the Searc Bar.
:. Type the phrase “Ubuntu.” Your typing replaces any text currently in the
Seard Bar.
¡. Press Enter to seard.
Seard results from Google for “Ubuntu” should appear in the lirefox
window.
SeIecting search engines
Figure _.,· 1hese are the other search
engines you can use—by default—from the
Firefox search bar.
lf you do not want to use Google as your seard engine in the Seard Bar,
you can dange the seard engine that lirefox uses.
1he Ubuntu home page’s search bar uses
Google by default, but will automatically
use Yahoo if Yahoo is selected in the Search
Bar.
To dange the seard engine, clid on the icon on the len side of the Seard
Bar. Choose one of the other seard engines in the list. Some seard engines,
like Google, seard the whole web; others, like Amazon.com, only seard
specific sites.
Searching the ueb for uords seIected in a ueb page
Sometimes, you may want to seard for a phrase that appears on a different
web page. lnstead of copying and pasting the phrase into the Seard Bar,
lirefox allows you to seard the web for words you select within a web page.
1. Highlight any words in a web page using your len mouse buuon.
:. Right-clid on the text you’ve highlighted to open a popup menu. Choose
the option Searc |Searc Engine] for “|your selected words]”.
¸e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
lirefox should open a new tab containing seard results for your high-
lighted words, found using the currently selected seard engine.
Searching uithin a page
Figure _.1o· You can search within web
pages using the Find TooIbar.
You may want to look for specific text within the web page you are view-
ing. To find text within the current page in lirefox·
1. Press Ctrl+F or doose Edit ‣ Find to open the Find Toolbar at the bouom
of lirefox.
:. lnter the text you want to find into the Find field in the lind Toolbar. Te
seard automatically begins as soon as you type something into the field.
¡. Once some text has been matded on the web page, you can·
‣ Clid Next to find text in the page that is below the current cursor
position.
‣ Clid Previous to find text that is above the current cursor position.
‣ Clid on the Highlight all buuon to highlight occurrences of your
seard words in the current page.
‣ Select the Matc case option to limit the seard to text that has the
same capitalization as your seard words.
To find the same word or phrase again, press F3 or doose Edit ‣ Find
Again from the menubar.
Vieuing ueb pages fuII screen
To display more web content on the screen, you can use Fv|| Screen moJe.
lull Screen mode condenses the lirefox’s toolbars into one small toolbar. To
enable lull Screen mode, simply doose View‣ Full Screen or press F11.
Copying and saving pages
With lirefox, you can copy part of a page so that you can paste it elsewhere,
or save the page or part of a page as a file on your computer.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¸,
Copying part of a page
To copy text from a page·
1. Highlight the text and/or images with your mouse.
:. Choose Edit ‣ Copy from the menubar or press Ctrl+C.
You can paste the text into other programs.
To copy a text or image link (uii) from a page·
1. Position the pointer over the link or image.
:. Right-clid on the link or image to open a popup menu.
¡. Choose Copy Iink Iocation.
You can paste the link into other programs or into lirefox’s location Bar.
Saving aII or part of a page
To save an entire page in lirefox·
1. Choose File ‣ Save Page As from the menubar. lirefox should open the
“Save As” window.
:. Choose a location for the saved page.
¡. Type a file name for the page, and clid Save.
To save an image from a page·
1. Position the mouse pointer over the image.
:. Right-clid on the image to display a popup menu.
¡. Choose Save Image As. lirefox should open the “Save lmage” window.
¡. Choose a location for the saved image.
¸. lnter a file name for the image and clid Save.
Changing your homepage
By default, lirefox will show the Ubuntu Start Page when you start lirefox.
lf you prefer to view another page when you start lirefox, you will need to
dange your homepage preference.
1he homepage can also be set by entering
the addresses that should be open in the
Home Page, with a pipe—¦—separating
pages to be opened in a new tab
To dange your homepage·
1. Navigate to the page that you would like to become your new homepage.
:. Choose Edit ‣ Preferences from the menubar.
¡. ln the “Startup” section on the General tab, whid is shown by default,
clid on the Use Current Page buuon. lf you had more than one tab open
then all the tabs will be opened when lirefox starts. lf you prefer to have
one page open, close the other tabs and repeat Steps :-¡.
¡. Clid Close.
¸8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure _.11· You can change Firefox seuings
in this window.
DounIoad seuings
1he Downloads window shows the progress
of currently downloading files, and lists files
downloaded in the past. It can be used to
open or redownload files.
ln Edit ‣ Preferences you can dange how lirefox behaves with down-
loads. You can tell lirefox where to place downloaded files, or to ask where
ead time. You can also set the behavior of lirefox’s Downloads window. Te
Downloads window can be hidden entirely, or set to hide when downloads
finish.
Bookmarks
When browsing the web you may want to come bad to certain web pages
again without having to remember the uii.
ln lirefox, you can create |oo|mor|:, whid are saved in the web browser
and whid you can use to navigate bad to your pided web pages.
Bookmarking a page
Aner navigating to a web page you can save its location by bookmarking it.
Tere are two ways to bookmark a page·
‣ lrom the menubar, doose Bookmarks and then Bookmark Tis Page. A
window will open. Provide a descriptive name for the bookmark, and clid
on the Done buuon.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ¸,
‣ Press Ctrl+D. A pop-up will appear. Provide a descriptive name for the
bookmark, and clid on the Done buuon.
Navigating to a bookmarked page
To navigate to a bookmarked page, open the Bookmarks menu from the
menubar, and then doose your bookmark’s name. lirefox should open the
bookmark in the current tab.
Yov con o|:o ¡re:: Ctrl+B ìo J::¡|oy |oo|mor|: :n o ::Je|or on ì|e |e[ ::Je o{
ì|e |ro+:er +:nJo+. Pre:: Ctrl+B ogo:n ìo |:Je ì|e ::Je|or.
DeIeting a bookmark
lf you would like to delete a bookmark that you have previously made, open
the Bookmarks menu from the menubar, and then right-clid on your book-
mark’s name. lirefox should open a popup menu for your bookmark. Choose
the Delete option from the menu. Your bookmark should then be deleted.
History
Whenever you are browsing the web, lirefox is saving your browsing history.
Tis allows you to come bad to a web page that you have recently visited,
without needing to remember the page’s uii, or even bookmarking it.
To see your most recent history, open the History menu from the menubar.
Te menu should then display several of the most recent web pages that you
were viewing. Choose one of the pages to return to it.
To see the web pages you have visited recently, press Ctrl+H. lirefox will
open a “sidebar” on the len side of the browser window, that contains your
browsing history, categorized as “Today,” “Yesterday,” “last , days,” “Tis
month,” the past e months (listed month by month), and finally “Older than e
months.”
Clid on one of the date categories in the sidebar to expand it. Ten it will
reveal the pages you visited during that period. Ten, once you find the page
you need, clid on its title to return to it.
You can also seard for a page by its title. lnter a few leuers, or a word,
in the Searc field at the top of the history sidebar. Te sidebar should then
display a list of web pages whose titles matd your seard words. Clid on the
title of the page you need to return to it.
lf you would like to hide the history sidebar again, press Ctrl+H again.
CIearing private data
At times, you may want to delete all private data that lirefox stores about
your browsing history. While this data is stored only on your computer, you
may want to remove it if you share access to your computer.
eo ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
To delete your private data, open the Tools menu from the menubar, and
doose Clear Recent History. ln the drop down list for the Time range to
clear, doose how far bad you would like lirefox to delete.
lf you would like more control over what you clear, clid on the Details
text to display a list of options.
When done, clid on the Clear Now buuon.
Using a different ueb brouser
Figure _.1:· You can change the default
browser with the ”Preferred Applica
tions” utility. 1o use it, open the System‣
Preferences ‣ Preferred AppIications.
lf you install a different web browser on your computer, you may want
to use it as the default browser when you clid on links from emails, instant
messages, and other places.
To dange your preferred web browser, open the System menu from
Ubuntu’s main menubar. Ten, doose System‣ Preferences ‣ Preferred Appli-
cations. Ubuntu should then open the “Preferred Applications” window.
ln the “Web Browser” section, doose your new preferred web browser, and
clid Close.
Reading and composing emaiI
To send and receive email in Ubuntu, you can use the lvolution mail applica-
tion. To start lvolution, open the Applications menu, then doose Office and
then Evolution Mail and Calendar.
ln addition to email, lvolution also can help manage your contact list, your
calendar, and a list of tasks.
A|ì|ovg| F+o|vì:on con |e v:eJ +:ì| mony +e|mo:| :y:ìem:, :vd o: Yo|oo!
Mo:|, Hoìmo:|, onJ Gmo:|, yov moy ¡re{er ìo v:e ì|e F:re{o: +e| |ro+:er ìo
occe:: ì|em.
woixixc wi1n unux1u e1
Running EvoIution for the first time
When you start lvolution for the first time, you will need to configure it to
connect to your email account.
When lvolution starts, you should see the “lvolution Setup Assistant”
window, welcoming you to lvolution. Clid Forward to continue with the
setup.
Next, on the “Restore from badup” screen, lvolution may ask you to
restore from a previous badup. Since this is the first time you are running
lvolution, you can clid Forward to skip this step.
On the next screen, “ldentity”, you need to enter your name and the email
address you wish to use with lvolution. lnter your full name in the Full
Name field, and the full email address in the Email Address field. You can
fill in the optional information, or leave it undanged if you desire. Clid
Forward when you are done.
Next, you should see the “Receiving lmail” screen. On this screen, you
need to provide lvolution with the details of your email servers. lf you do not
know these details, you will need to ask your network administrator or ded
with your email provider.
Tere are two common types of lnternet email connections· i·~i, and
ioi. Tese are described below. ln work environments there are sometimes
other types, sud as Microson lxdange or Novell GroupWise—for more
information on those types of connections, please see the documentation for
lvolution located in the Help ‣ Contents menu.
Seuing up an !MAP connection
i·~i connections allow you to manage your email remotely—the actual email
and folders reside on your email server, while lvolution allows you to view,
edit, and delete the messages and folders as needed.
lf your email provider recommends an i·~i connection, doose IMAP
from the Server Type drop-down list. ln the Server field, enter the lnternet
address or uii of your mail server. for example imap.example.com. ln the
Username field; enter the username that you use to log into your email sys-
tem, for example joe.x.user or joe.x.userQexample.com, as specified by
your email provider.
Your email provider may specify the security seuings you will need to use
in order to receive email. lf your connection does not use security, leave the
Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise,
doose either 1is encryption or ssi encryption, as specified by your email
provider.
Aner doosing these options, clid Forward to proceed to the “Receiv-
ing Options” screen. While it is normal to leave all options unselected, you
may want to select the CheH for new messages option to have lvolution
automatically ded email on a regular basis.
e: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
When you are finished seuing the options, clid Forward to continue to
the next screen.
Seuing up a POP connection
ioi connections let you manage your email locally—lvolution will connect to
your email provider and download any new messages you may have received,
and store them in folders on your computer. Te messages will be deleted
from the server.
lf your email provider recommends a ioi connection, doose POP from
the Server Type drop-down list. ln the Server field, enter the lnternet address
or uii of your mail server; for example pop.example.com. ln the Username
field, enter the username that you use to log into your email system, for
example joe.x.user, or joe.x.userQexample.com.
Your email provider may specify the security seuings you will need to use
in order to receive email. lf your connection does not use security, leave the
Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise,
doose either 1is encryption or ssi encryption, as specified by your email
provider.
Aner doosing these options, clid Forward to proceed to “Receiving Op-
tions” screen. While it is normal to leave all options unselected, you may
want to select the CheH for new messages option to have lvolution auto-
matically ded email on a regular basis.
You may also wish to adjust the Message Storage options, whid determine
what lvolution does aner downloading email to your computer. Select the
Ieave messages on server option to have lvolution keep the messages on
your email system aner downloading them. Tis will allow you to use another
computer to re-download all of your new messages. Select the Delete aßer ,
days option to have lvolution keep the messages for a few days, and delete
them aner a while. You can adjust the number of days that lvolution keeps
the messages.
When you are finished seuing the options, clid Forward to continue to
the next screen.
Seuing up your sending options
Te next screen should be the “Sending lmail” screen. Here, you will need to
configure your connection for sending email through your email provider.
Te most common type of sending connection is s·1i, whid is the default
server type selected.
ln the Server field, type in the name of the outbound mail server (also
known as the s·1i server), as described by your email provider. lor example,
mail.example.com.
lf your email provider requires authentication, select the Server requires
authentication option. Tis is common for commercial email providers.
woixixc wi1n unux1u e¡
ln the “Authentication” section of the screen, doose the type of authen-
tication from the Type drop-down list—the most common authentication
type is “ii~ix.” Below that, enter your username, for example, joe.x.user, or
joe.x.userQexample.com, in the Username field.
Your email provider may specify the security seuings you will need to use
in order to send email. lf your connection does not use security, leave the Use
Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise, doose
either 1is encryption or ssi encryption, as specified by your email provider.
Aner doosing these options, clid Forward to proceed to the next screen.
FinaIizing your account options
On the next screen, “Account Management”, enter a descriptive name for this
account. lf you set up more email accounts with lvolution the name provided
here will help distinguish those accounts.
When finished, clid Forward. Tis should open the “Done” screen. lf you
believe that you’ve entered the correct options, clid Apply to finish setup.
Otherwise, clid BaH to go bad one or more screens to correct your seuings,
or clid Cancel to abort setup and discard your account seuings.
Aner you finish setup, lvolution may ask you if you would like to make it
your default email client. Clid Yes if you plan on reading and sending email
only with lvolution. Clid No if you plan on installing or using a different
email program.
Around the EvoIution uorkspace
Te lvolution window is divided into four parts. At the top are the menubar
and toolbar. Te menubar lets you access most of the functionality of lvo-
lution, while the toolbar provides convenient shortcuts to some of the most
frequently used features.
On the len side of the window is the folder list. lvery message that you
send or receive will reside in one of the folders in this list.
Below the folder list on the len side of the window are the Mail, Contacts,
Calendars, Tasks, and Memos buuons. When working with email, the Mail
buuon is selected. Te other buuons take you to those other parts of lvolu-
tion.
On the right side of the window are the message list, and the message
preview beneath it. Te message list shows all of the messages in the currently
selected folder, or matding your seard request. lf a message is selected in
this list, its contents are shown in the message preview pane below.
Understanding the foIder Iist
Te folder list is the way that lvolution separates and categorizes your email.
Te first group of folders in the list is titled “On Tis Computer.” Tese are
e¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure _.1_· Lvolution allows you to manage
your mail, contacts and tasks.
your |oco| folders—they reside on your computer only. lf you use ioi servers
to retrieve your email, any new message will be placed in the Inbox local
folder.
You can clid on any folder to see its contents appear in the message list on
the right side of the window.
lad of the initial folders in the list is special·
‣ Inbox stores your incoming messages.
‣ Draßs stores messages that you’ve worked on, but have not yet sent.
‣ Junk stores messages that have been identified as unsolicited email that
you did not want. Junk mail is also known as “spam.”
‣ Outbox contains messages that you’ve finished composing, but whid
have not been sent yet. lor example, if you are in an airplane or another
location without an lnternet connection, you can still clid the Send buuon
once you’ve finished writing an email. Te message will be moved to the
Outbox, and will remain there until the next time you are able to send
and receive messages. Once you can send and receive messages, all email
messages in the Outbox will be sent out.
woixixc wi1n unux1u e¸
‣ Sent contains copies of messages that have been sent successfully. Once a
message from an Outbox is sent, it is copied to the Sent folder.
‣ Templates stores any email message templates you have saved. A template
is a partial message, for example, a blank invoice, that can be used as the
starting point for other messages.
‣ Trash contains messages that you have deleted. By default, the trash will
be emptied every time you exit lvolution.
lf a folder contains any unread messages, the folder’s name will be dis-
played in bold, and the number of unread messages will be displayed in
parentheses following the folder name.
lf you use an i·~i server to retrieve your email, then your remote i·~i
folders will also be shown in the folder list, below the “On Tis Computer”
section. Te heading for ead folder list uses the name you gave to that ac-
count. lad i·~i-enabled account has its own Inbox for new messages.
Towards the bouom of the folder list, lvolution will show a list of “Seard
lolders.” Tese are special folders that represent certain messages that matd
seard rules. Please see the section on linding Messages for more on seard
folders.
Managing foIders
ln addition to the initial folders, you can create your own folders to manage
your email.
To create a new folder, open the Folder menu, and then doose New. lnter
a name for the folder that you would like to create. Ten, from the list of
folders below, select the ¡orenì folder. lor example, if you would like your
new folder to be placed under the lnbox then select the lnbox folder. lf you
select “On Tis Computer,” then your new folder will be placed under “On
Tis Computer” in the folder list.
Once you’ve made your selection, clid on the Create buuon to create the
folder. Your new folder should now be in the folder list.
You can move folders that you have created. To do so, clid on the folder
that you would like to move, hold down the mouse buuon, and drag the folder
to a new parent folder. Once the mouse cursor highlights a new parent folder,
release the mouse buuon to finish the move.
You can also right-clid on a folder, and doose the Move… option. Ten,
select the new parent folder, and clid on the Move buuon.
To delete a folder, right-clid on the folder and doose the Delete option.
To confirm that you want to delete the folder, clid on the Delete buuon.
ee ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Checking and reading messages
Checking maiI
When you finish setup, or when you start lvolution in the future, lvolution
will first try to connect to your email provider to ded your email. ln order to
connect, lvolution will need to know your email account password, and will
ask you for it.
Figure _.1¡· You need to enter your pass
word to authenticate your account.
ln the “lnter Password” window, enter your password and clid OK. lf you
wish for lvolution to remember this password and not ask you in the future,
you can select the Remember this password option.
lvolution will then show a “Send & Receive Mail” window, showing the
progress of the operation sud as how many messages are being retrieved.
Listing messages
Te top right portion of the lvolution window is the message list. Here, you
can see email messages for your currently selected folder, or matding your
seard terms.
By default, the message list shows six columns of information for ead
message. Te first column is a read/unread indicator. lf a message has been
read, the column shows an icon of an open envelope. lf a message has not
been read, the icon will show a closed envelope.
Te second column is an auadment indicator. lf a message contains an
auaded file, lvolution will show an icon of a paperclip in this column. Oth-
erwise, the column will be blank.
Te third column is an importance indicator. lf someone sends you a
message marked with high importance, lvolution will show an exclamation
mark in this column. Otherwise, this column will be blank.
Te fourth column contains the sender of the message. Both the name and
email, or just the email address, may be displayed in this column.
Te finh column contains the subject of the email message.
linally, the sixth column is the date that the email was sent.
When you clid on a message, its contents will be displayed in the preview
pane below the message list. Once you select a message by cliding it, you can
woixixc wi1n unux1u e,
clid on the Reply buuon in the toolbar to begin composing a reply message
to be sent to the sender, or clid on the Reply to All buuon to begin com-
posing a reply message to be sent to the sender and other recipients of your
selected message.
You can also clid on the Trash buuon in the toolbar to put the message
in the Trash folder, or on the Junk buuon to move the message into the Junk
folder. Note that lvolution, or your mail server, may automatically classify
some mail as Junk.
ln addition to the buuons on the toolbar, you can right-clid on a message
in the list. lvolution will open a menu with actions that you can perform for
the message.
Sometimes, you may wish to take an action on multiple email messages
(for example, delete multiple messages, or forward them to a new recipient).
To do this in lvolution, press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliding on multi-
ple messages—the messages you clid on will be selected. You can also clid
on one message to select it, then press-and-hold the Shift key and clid on
another message in the list. All messages in the list between the original selec-
tion and the one you just clided on will be selected. Once you have multiple
messages selected, right-clid on one of them to perform your desired action.
Directly above the message list are the Show drop-down list, and the
seard options. You can use the Show drop-down list to filter your view to
show only unread messages, or only messages with auadments, etc.
Te seard options will be covered in a later section.
Previeuing messages
When you select an email message, its contents will be shown in the preview
pane below the message list.
Te top of the preview pane will show the message header, whid contains
the sender, recipients, and subject of the message, as well as the date the
message was sent. Below the header, lvolution shows the contents of the
message itself.
lf a message was sent with n1·i formauing, some of the images may not Note that loading images may provide a
way for the sender to track your receipt of
the message. We do not recommend loading
images in messages that you suspect are
Junk.
be displayed when a message is previewed. To display the missing images,
open the View menu from the menubar, then Ioad Images, or press Ctrl+I.
lf your lnternet connection is active, the missing images should then load.
Opening messages
At times, you may want to display multiple messages at the same time. To do
so, you can open ead message in a separate window instead of just viewing it
in the preview pane.
To open a message in its own window, double clid a message in the mes-
sage list. Te message should then open in a separate window. You can go
bad to the message list and open another message, if needed.
e8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
ln the open message window, you can use the options in the menubar or on
the toolbar to reply to the message, categorize it, delete it, as well as perform
other message actions.
Finding messages
Tere are three ways to seard for messages in lvolution· you can use the
seard option at the top of the message list, use the Advanced Seard function,
or create a seard folder.
To use message list seard, enter the text you want to find in the Searc
field at the top right of the message list, and press Enter. Te list of messages
will dange to show only those messages containing the text you entered.
To the right of the seard field you should be able to see a drop-down list
of options sud as “Current lolder,” “Current Account,” and “All Accounts.”
By default, lvolution will use the “Current lolder” option and will only
show you results within the folder you’ve got selected in the folder list on
your len. lf you doose the “Current Account” option, lvolution will seard
for messages in all folders within the current email account—sud as all the
folders “On Tis Computer” or in your i·~i folders, depending on your email
setup. lf you have multiple email accounts added to lvolution, doosing the
“All Accounts” option lets you seard for messages in all of your accounts.
lf no messages matd the text you’ve entered, you can edit the text and
try searding again. To return to the folder display, open the Searc menu
from the menubar and then doose Clear, or instead erase all the text you’ve
entered in the Searc field and press Enter.
ln some cases, you may want to seard for messages using multiple criteria.
lor example, you may want to find a message from a particular user with
some specific words in the subject of the message. ln lvolution, you can
perform this seard using the Advanced Seard function.
Figure _.1¸· 1o use more search terms you
can use the advanced search window.
To use Advanced Seard, doose Searc‣ Advanced Searc. lvolution
should open the “Advanced Seard” window. ln the middle section of the
woixixc wi1n unux1u e,
window, specify your seard criteria. lor our example, to find messages from
myfriend(example.com that contained “boat” in the subject, you would enter
myfriend@example.com in the text field to the right of the drop-down list with
“Sender” selected, and would enter boat in the text field to the right of the
drop-down list with “Subject” selected. Ten, clid on Remove to the right of
all lines that are unused, and clid OK to perform the seard. Te message list
should then only display messages that matd your advanced seard criteria.
When specifying the criteria for advanced seard, you can clid on the Add
Condition buuon to add additional lines. You can also dange the selection
in the drop-down list at the beginning of ead line to specify a different field
to be deded, or dange the drop-down with “contains” selected by default
in order to have a different type of a matd. Please refer to the lvolution help
documents for more information.
ln some cases, you may want to perform the same seard request on a reg-
ular basis. lor example, you may want to always be able to see all messages
from myfriend(example.com regardless of whid folder you’ve used to store
the message. To help with this type of a seard, lvolution allows you to create
Seard lolders.
To create a seard folder, doose Searc‣ Create Searc Folder From
Searc from the menubar. Give the folder a name by entering it in the Rule
name field at the top. Ten, specify seard criteria in the same way as in
Advanced Seard. Below the criteria, pid whid folders should be searded by
this seard folder—for example, you can doose “All local and active remote
folders” to seard in all of your account’s folders. When you are finished, clid
OK.
Te new seard folder should now be added to the list of seard folders
towards the bouom of the message list. lf you clid on the seard folder to
select it, you should be able to see a list of messages that matd your seard
criteria.
Subscribing to !MAP foIders
lf you use i·~i to retrieve your email, you should see a set of folders in the
folder list on the len side of the window that is titled with the name of your
i·~i account. lolders like lnbox, Drans, Junk and others should be displayed
in the folder list.
lf you have other folders in your i·~i account, you will need to subscribe
to them. lf you subscribe to a folder, lvolution will download messages for
that folder whenever you ded your email.
To subscribe to a folder select Folder ‣ Subscriptions from the menubar.
lvolution should open the “lolder Subscriptions” window. lrom the Server
drop-down list doose your account name. lvolution should then show a list
of folders in the list below.
Choose the folders you would like to subscribe to by selecting the ded
,o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
box to the len of the folder name. When you are finished, clid Close. Te
folders will be updated the next time you ded your email.
Composing and repIying to messages
ln addition to reading email, you will likely want to reply to the email you
read, or compose new messages.
Composing neu messages
To compose a new message, clid on the New buuon on the toolbar. lvolution
should open a “Compose message” window.
ln the To· field, enter the email address of the destination—the contact to
whom you are sending this email. lf there is more than one contact to whom
you are writing, separate multiple recipients with commas.
lf a contact that you are addressing is in your address book, you can ad-
dress them by name. Start typing the name of the contact; lvolution will
display the list of matding contacts below your text. Once you see the con-
tact you intend to address, clid on their email address or use the down arrow
key and then Enter to select the address.
lf you would like to carbon-copy some contacts, enter their email addresses
in the Cc· field in the same manner as the To· recipients. Contacts on the To·
and Cc· lines will receive the email, and will see the rest of the contacts to
whom an email was sent.
lf you would like to send an email to some contacts without disclosing
to whom your email was sent, you can send a blind carbon-copy, or Bcc. To
enable Bcc, select View‣ Bcc Field from the menubar. A Bcc· field should
appear below the Cc· field. Any contacts entered in the Bcc· field will re-
ceive the message, but none of the recipients will see the names or emails of
contacts on the Bcc· line.
lnstead of typing the email addresses, or names, of the contacts you are
addressing in the message, you can also select the contacts from your address
book. To do so, clid on the To·, Cc· or Bcc· buuons to the len of the text
fields. lvolution should open the “Select Contacts from Address Book” win-
dow. Use the list on the len side of the window to select your contact, or type
a few leuers from your contact’s first or last name in the Searc field to filter
the list to only show matding contacts.
Once you identify the contact you would like to address, clid on their
name in the list. Ten, clid on the Add buuon to the len of either the To·,
Cc·, or Bcc· fields located on the right of the screen. Your selected contact will
be added to that list. lf you’ve added the contact in error, clid their name in
the list on the right, and clid on the Remove buuon. When you are finished
piding contacts, clid Close to return to the composing screen.
lnter a subject for your email. Messages should have a subject to help the
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,1
recipient to identify the email while glancing at their message list; if you do
not include a subject, lvolution will warn you about this.
lnter the contents of your message in the big text field below the subject.
Tere is no practical limit on the amount of text you can include in your
message.
By default, new messages will be sent in “Plain Text” mode. Tis means
that no formauing or graphics will be shown to the recipient, but the message
is least likely to be rejected or displayed illegibly to the recipients. lf you
know that your recipient uses a contemporary computer and a modern email
program, you can send them messages that include formauing. To switd to
this mode, clid the drop-down list buuon on the len side directly above the
text field for the message contents. Change the selection from “Plain Text”
to “n1·i” to enable advanced formauing. When using n1·i mode, a new
toolbar should appear right under the mode selection that will allow you to
perform advanced font styling and message formauing.
When you have finished composing your email, clid on the Send buuon
on the window’s toolbar. Your message will be placed in the Outbox, and will
be sent when you next ded your email.
Auaching fiIes
At times, you may want to send files to your contacts. To send files, you will
need to auad them to your email message.
To auad a file to an email you are composing, clid on the Add Attac-
ment buuon at the bouom right of the email message window. lvolution
should show the “Add auadment” window.
Select the file you would like to include in your message and clid on the
Attac buuon. lvolution will return you to the email message window, and
your selected file should be listed in a section below the Add Attacment
buuon.
RepIying to messages
ln addition to composing new messages, you may want to reply to messages
that you receive.
Tere are three types of email replies·
‣ Reply (or “Reply to Sender”)—sends your reply only to the sender of the
message to whid you are replying.
‣ Reply to All—sends your reply to the sender of the message, as well as
anyone else on the To or Cc lines.
‣ Forward—allows you to send the message, with any additional comments
you may add, to some other contacts.
To use any of these methods, clid on the message to whid you want
,: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
to reply and then clid the Reply, Reply to All, or Forward buuon on the
toolbar.
lvolution should open the reply window. Tis window should look mud
like the window for composing new messages, but the To, Cc, Subject, and
main message content fields should be filled in from the message to whid you
are replying. lad line in the message should be prefixed with a “~” daracter.
ldit the To, Cc, Bcc, Subject or main body as you see fit. When your reply
is finished, clid on the Send buuon on the toolbar. Your message will be
placed in the Outbox, and will be sent when you next ded your email.
Using signatures
ln order to give your messages a footer, lvolution allows you to use a “signa-
ture.” Signatures in email are a bit of standard text that is added to the bouom
of any new messages or replies.
When composing of replying to a message, clid on the Signature drop-
down list below the toolbar just above the To· field. Tis list should contain
any signatures that you have created, as well as an “Autogenerated” signature.
lf you select Autogenerated, lvolution will add two dashes, and then your
name and email address to the bouom of the email message.
You can also specify some custom signatures. To create a signature, open
the “lvolution Preferences” window by selecting Edit ‣ Preferences from
the menubar. On the len side of the lvolution Preferences window, select
Composer Preferences and then select the Signatures tab.
Clid on the Add to add a new signature. lvolution should then open
the “ldit Signature” window. Give your signature a name, and enter the
contents of your signature in the big text field below. When finished, clid Note that the two dashes are added auto
matically by Ubuntu, so there is no need to
include them in your custom signature.
on the Save buuon on the toolbar (the buuon’s icon looks like a floppy disk).
Your new signature’s name should appear in the list in preferences. Close the
preferences window.
Your signature should now show up in the drop-down list in the com-
pose/reply window.
Staying organized
Te lvolution application in Ubuntu can let you keep and manage a list of
your contacts, maintain a calendar, and a task list.
lf you have already set up lvolution with an email account, you do not
need to do any further setup to use these features. lf you do not wish to
use lvolution for email, you can still use it for managing your contacts or
maintaining a sdedule, as well as keep trad of tasks and memos that you can
create for yourself.
To start lvolution, open the Applications menu, then doose Office and
then Evolution Mail and Calendar.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,¡
Managing your contacts
Figure _.1o· You can view, edit, and add
contacts.
lf you would like to keep a list of your contacts—personal or professional
contact information for people and organizations—you can manage these
contacts in lvolution.
To view contacts, clid on the Contacts buuon below the folder list on
the len side of the lvolution window. Te folder list on the len will be re-
placed by a list of address book types. Clid on an address book, for example
“Personal.”
Te right side of the window will display a list of contacts. Clid a contact An address book is a collection of contacts
and contact lists. It can either be stored on
your computer, or on a remote server.
to show the contact’s details in the lower portion of the right side of the
window.
lf you use Ubuntu One, you may have two address books—a “Personal” Ubuntu One is a free service you can use
to sync and store contacts, as well as other
information. For more information on
Ubuntu One see the dedicated section later
in this chapter.
address book stored on your computer, and an “Ubuntu One” address book.
You can add contacts to either address book, though only the “Ubuntu One”
address book is syndronized to your Ubuntu One account.
,¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Searching for contacts
To find a contact, type in a few a few leuers from the contact’s first or last
name in the seard text box on the upper right of the window, and press
Enter. Te list below should dange to only show contacts whose name
matdes your seard term.
Adding or editing a contact
To make danges to an existing contact, find the contact in the list and double-
clid on the entry. lvolution should open a “Contact lditor” window for the
contact.
Switd between the different tabs in the contact editor to make danges to
the contact. Clid OK when you have finished making your danges.
To add a new contact, clid on the New on the toolbar. lvolution should
open the “Contact lditor” window. lnter the contact’s details in the contact
editor window, and clid OK when finished.
Managing your scheduIe
lf you like to manage your sdedule with a computer, you can maintain this
sdedule in Ubuntu using lvolution.
To view your calendar, clid on the Calendars buuon below the folder
list on the len side of the lvolution window. Te folder list on the len will
be replaced by a list of calendars, and a mini-calendar showing the current
month.
lvolution allows you to manage more than one calendar. lor example, you
could have a personal calendar and a sdool or work calendar. You can also
subscribe to the calendar of a friend or family member who may doose to
share their calendar with you.
Clid on one of the calendars in the list. By default, you should have a
“Personal” calendar in the list. Te middle of the window should now show a
view of the current day, showing all the hours of the current day.
lf the calendar already has some events, lvolution will show the event in
the day view between the hours when the event starts and finishes. You can
double-clid on the event to open its details, or drag the event to a different
time or date to resdedule it.
ln the day view, you can clid on a different day on the mini-calendar on
the len side of the screen. lvolution will then display that day in the day
view.
You may also wish to see more than one day at a time. Tis will allow you
to compare sdedules on different days, or find a free day for an event you
wish to sdedule. ln lvolution, you can clid on the Work Week or Week
buuons on the toolbar to see an entire week at the same time. Clid on the
Month buuon on the toolbar to see a view of the entire month—if an event
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,¸
is difficult to read due to the small space alloued to ead day, you can hover
your mouse over the event to have lvolution show the full title of the event.
linally, the Iist buuon on the toolbar shows upcoming appointments in a list,
allowing you to see all of your upcoming appointments at a glance.
On the right side of the window, lvolution displays a list of tasks and
memos. You can add a new task or memo to lvolution
Adding a neu event
Te simplest way to add a new task is to clid a time in the day view, and
begin typing. An event “bubble” will appear, containing the text that you are
typing. lf you want to add a longer event, drag your mouse from the first time
slot to the last before starting to type.
Figure _.1,· You can stay organized by
adding events to your calendar.
To add a new event without using the day view, clid on the New buuon
on the toolbar. lvolution should open the “Appointment” window. ln the
Summary field, enter a short title for the event as you want it to appear on
the calendar. Optionally specify the location and enter a longer description if
you would like. Make sure that the time and date, as well as the duration, are
as you want them. linally, clid on the Save buuon on the toolbar to save this
new event (the buuon looks like a hard drive, and is the first buuon on the
toolbar).
ScheduIing a meeting
lf you would like to sdedule a meeting with one of your contacts, lvolution
can assist you in sending out an invitation and processing replies.
To create a meeting invitation, doose File ‣ New‣ Meeting from the
,e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
menubar. Specify the subject, location, time and duration, and description as
when you create a regular event.
You will then need to add auendees to this meeting. To add an auendee,
clid on the Add buuon. ln the list of auendees, lvolution will add a new row
—type the auendee’s email address or contact name.
When you are finished adding auendees, clid on the Save buuon on the
toolbar. lvolution should then ask you if you would like to send meeting invi-
tations to your selected participants. Clid Send to send out these invitations.
Te invitations will be sent the next time you ded email in lvolution.
lf your contact dooses to reply to the meeting invitation, lvolution will
show you a new email message. ln the body of the email message, lvolution
will display an Update Attendee Status buuon. Clid on that buuon to mark
your contact as auending the meeting.
Using instant messaging
lnstant messaging allows you to communicate with people you know in real
time. Ubuntu includes the lmpathy application that lets you use instant
messaging features to keep in toud with your contacts. To start lmpathy,
open the Applications menu from the menubar, then doose Internet and
then Empathy IM Client.
lmpathy lets you connect to many instant messaging networks. You can
connect to ~i·, Gadu-Gadu, Google Talk, Groupwise, icç, Jabber, ·sx, MyS-
pace, QQ, x·ii, Sametime, Silc, sii, Yahoo, or Zephyr.
Running Empathy for the first time
When you open lmpathy for the first time you will need to configure it with
the details of your instant messaging accounts.
When lmpathy starts you will see the “Welcome to lmpathy” window.
Choose the option corresponding to your situation.
You have an account
lf you have an account that you have used previously with another instant
messaging program then select the Yes, I’ll enter my account details now
option. Ten, clid Forward to continue.
On the next screen, doose your account type from the drop-down list
below What kind of cat account do you have'. Ten, enter your account
details in the field below.
Depending on the account type that you doose, lmpathy may request that
you enter a username, or an ii for your account, followed by a password.
lf you do not remember your account information, you will need to visit
the website of the instant messaging network to retrieve that information.
lf you have another account to add then select the Yes option, and clid
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,,
Figure _.18· Creating a new instant messen
ger account in Lmpathy.
Forward to repeat the above process. When you have entered all the accounts
leave the No, that’s all for now option selected, and clid Apply to finish the
setup process.
Next, lmpathy should display the “Please enter personal details” screen. lf
you doose to fill out this information, you will be able to communicate with
people who are on your local network either at home or in an office.
lnter your first name in the First name field, and your last name in the
Iast name field. Type in a way that you would like to be identified on your
local network in the NiHname field. When you have filled all of the informa-
tion, clid Apply.
lf you don’t want to communicate with people on your local network,
select the I don’t want to enable this feature for now option and clid
Apply.
You uouId Iike an account
lf you don’t have an account that you can use, then you can create one by
selecting the No, I want a new account option. Clid Forward to display the
next set of options.
Choose the account type that you would like to create from the drop-down
list below What kind of cat account do you want to create' You can
create either a Jabber or a Google Talk account. Note· If you wish to create another account
type then you will need to visit the relevant
website and create the account. 1hen follow
the “You have an account” section.
Next, enter the account name that you would like in the text field, and in
the proceeding text field enter a password of your doice. lf you would like
to set up another account then select the Yes option, and repeat the above
process.
When you have entered all the accounts leave the No, that’s all for now
option selected, and clid Forward.
,8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
lmpathy should display the “Please enter personal details” window. Pro-
viding this information allows you to communicate with people who are on
your local network either at home or in the workplace.
lnter your First name in the text field, and enter your Iast name in the
next field. ln the NiHname field enter a nidname by whid you would like
to be identified. When you have filled all of the text fields clid Apply to save
your seuings.
lf you don’t want to talk to people on your local network then select the I
don’t want to enable this feature for now option and clid Apply.
You uant to taIk to peopIe nearby
lf you would only like to communicate with people on your local network
either at home or in the workplace, then you should select the No, I just want
to see people online nearby for now option.
Clid Forward to display the next set of options. Ten enter your First
name in the text field, and enter your Iast name in the next field. ln the
NiHname field enter a nidname by whid you would like to be identified.
When you have filled all of the text fields, clid Forward.
Figure _.1,· You can talk to people nearby
by entering your information.
Changing account seuings
lf you need to add more accounts aner the first laund, then open the Edit
menu, then doose Accounts. lmpathy will then display the “Accounts”
window.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,,
Adding an account
To add an account clid on the Add buuon. lmpathy should display some
options on the right hand side of the window. Choose your account type from
the Protocol drop-down list. Next, enter your account name in the first text
field. Ten enter your password in the Password text field. linally clid on
the Iog in buuon to save and verify your seuings.
Editing an account
You might need to edit an account if you dange the password or get the
password wrong. Select the account you want to dange on the len side of
the “Accounts” window. lmpathy should show the current seuings for the
account. Once you have made your danges, clid Save.
Removing an account
To remove an account select the account on the len hand side of the window
and clid on the Remove buuon. lmpathy should open the “Do you want to
remove” window. Clid on the Remove buuon to confirm that you want to
remove the account, or clid Cancel to keep the account.
Editing contacts
Adding a contact
To add a contact open the Chat menu, then doose Add contact. lmpathy
should open the “New Contact” window.
ln the Account drop-down list doose the account that you want to add
the contact to. When creating a contact you must select a service that matdes
the service you contact is using.
lor example if your contact’s address ends in “(googlemail.com” then you
will need to add it to an account that ends in “(googlemail.com.” likewise if
the contact’s email ends in “(hotmail.com” then you would need to add it to
an account ending in “(hotmail.com.”
Aner doosing the account you wish to add the contact to, you will need to
enter their login ii, their username, their screen name or their email address
in the Identifier text field.
Ten, in the Alias text field, enter the name that you would like to see it in
your contact list. Clid Add to add the contact to your list of contacts.
Removing a contact
Clid on the contact that you want to remove and then open the Edit menu,
then doose Contact, then Remove. Tis will open the “Remove contact”
window.
8o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Clid on the Remove buuon to confirm that you want to remove a contact,
or clid Cancel to keep the contact.
Communicating uith contacts
Text
To communicate with a contact, select the contact in lmpathy’s main window
and double-clid their name. lmpathy should open a new window where you
can type messages to your contact, and see a record of previously exdanged
messages.
To send a message to the contact, type your message in the text field below
the conversation history.
When you have typed your message press the Enter key to send the mes-
sage to your contact. lf you are communicating with more than one person
then all of the conversations will be shown in tabs within the same window.
Audio
lf your contact has audio capabilities then there will be an icon of a micro-
phone next to their name. Clid on the microphone icon to open a popup
menu. Choose the Audio call option from the menu. lmpathy should then
open the “Call” window.
Tis window shows your picture on the right and your contact’s picture
on the len. lnsure that your microphone and speakers are connected, and
proceed with the audio conversation. You can finish the conversation by
cliding on the Hang up buuon.
Video
lf your contact has video dat capabilities then there will be an icon of a
webcam next to their name. Clid on the icon to open a popup menu. Choose
the Video call option from the menu. lmpathy should then open the “Call”
window.
Tis window shows your webcam view in the top right and your contact’s
webcam will be in the middle.
lf you don’t have a webcam then your picture will be shown instead. You
can finish the call by cliding on the Hang up buuon.
Sending and receiving fiIes
Sending a fiIe
When you are in a conversation with a contact and you would like to send
them a file, open the Contact menu and then doose Send file.
lmpathy should open the “Select file” window. lind the file that you wish
woixixc wi1n unux1u 81
to send and clid on the Send buuon. A “lile Transfers” window will open
showing the dosen file and its transfer progress.
When the file transfer is complete, you can close the “lile Transfers” win-
dow.
Receiving a fiIe
When a contact wants to send you a file, the status icon to the len of the
contact’s name will flash with an icon of a paper plane.
To receive the file double-clid the contact’s name. lmpathy will open
the “Select a destination” window. Choose a location where you would like
lmpathy to save the file, and clid Save. lmpathy should open the “lile
Transfers” window.
Te “lile Transfers” window shows you the progress of current file trans-
fers. You can stop file transfers by cliding on the Stop buuon, open trans-
ferred files by cliding on the Open buuon, and clear the list of completed
transfers by cliding on the Clear buuon.
Changing your status
You can use your status to show your contacts how busy you are or what you
are doing. You can use the standard statuses, whid are “Available,” “Busy,”
“Away,” “lnvisible,” and “Off-line.” Tese can be danged in the main lmpathy
window from the drop-down list at the top of the window.
Te same drop-down list lets you set a custom status by doosing “Custom
Message…” next to the icon that matdes your status. Type what you would
like your status to say, and clid on the green ded mark.
Changing your picture
Your picture is what your contacts will see next to your name in their contact
list. Te default picture is the outline of a person. You can dange your picture
by opening the Edit menu, then doosing Personal Information.
lmpathy should open the “Personal lnformation” window. lrom the Ac-
count drop-down list doose the account that you want to dange, then clid
on the picture on the right hand side of the window.
lmpathy should open the “Select Your Avatar lmage” window. lind the file
containing your picture, and clid Open. lf you would like to return it to the
default avatar, clid on the No Image buuon instead.
MicrobIogging
You can connect several microblogging services by opening the Applications
menu, then doosing Internet and then Gwibber Social Client. Until you add
accounts, the “Social Accounts” window will open.
8: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Aner you have added accounts you will see the “Social broadcast mes-
sages” window.
ln this window in the Add new drop-down list you can doose the from
llidr, Twiuer, StatusNet, Qaiku, lacebook, lriendleed, Digg, and ldenti.ca.
Figure _.:o· Gwibber lets you add many
different account types.
MeMenu
lf you clid your name in the top panel, you will see the “MeMenu,” in the box
below your name you can type a message to post on the sites that you have
set up with Gwibber.
You can also dange your account seuings by cliding Broadcast Ac-
counts…, this opens the “Broadcast Accounts” window.
Changing accounts
To add more accounts aner you have already added some. Clid Edit then
Accounts, the “Social Accounts” window will open.
Adding accounts
ln the “Social Accounts” clid Add…, ead account will need you to enter your
account details. Te details that you require for ead account is detailed as
follows.
FliHr· To set up a llidr account all you need is the account login ii.
Twitter· Requires a user name and password.
StatusNet· A login ii, domain and password is needed.
Qaiku· You will need an ~ii key, instructions for this are provided in the
Gwibber window. You will also need your login ii.
Facebook· Clid Authorize, then enter your email address and password
and clid Connect. lf you want to be able to post on lacebook from Gwibber,
clid Allow publishing, otherwise clid Don’t allow.
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8¡
lf you want Gwibber to show your news feed, you will need to clid Al-
low access, otherwise clid Don’t allow. You will also need to allow status
updates—clid Allow status updates; if you don’t want Gwibber to be able to
update your status, clid Don’t allow.
ln order for Gwibber to interact with lacebook ead time it is used, it will
need to have constant authorization. lf not, you will have to authorize it ead
time you use it. To allow constant authorization clid Allow.
FriendFeed· A remote key is required for friend feed, Gwibber provides
information on where to get one from. You will also need a login ii.
Digg· A login ii is all that is required for Digg.
Identi.ca· A login ii and password is required for ldenti.ca.
Removing accounts
ln the “Broadcast Accounts” window clid the account that you want to re-
move and clid Remove.
Hou Guibber dispIays accounts
Gwibber allows you to post to either all, one or a selection of accounts. Tis
can be set at the bouom of the “Social broadcast message” window—ead of
the accounts that you can post with will have an icon. Cliding on an icon so
that it is disabled (appears gray) means that you will not post to that account.
Once you have decided on whid accounts you want to post to you can
type your message in the text field above the icons, then clid Send.
lad one of your accounts will have a set of icons to go with it. Tese icons
are displayed on the len hand size of the “Social broadcast message” window.
Te set of icons that goes with an account has a badground color. Selecting
ead one of these icons allows you to do tasks for that specific account.
Vieuing and editing photos
To view and edit photos in Ubuntu, you can use the l-Spot Photo Manager
application. To start l-Spot, open the Applications menu, then doose Graph-
ics, then F-Spot Photo Manager. When you start l-Spot for the first time,
you will see the “lmport” window—how to use this is covered in ‘Importing’.
By default, l-Spot displays your photos by date. You can view photos from
a specific month by cliding on that month in the timeline near the top of the
window.
You can also play slide shows of your pictures by cliding on the Play
buuon on the toolbar (this buuon looks like a green triangle).
Tis guide onen refers to the side bar on the len. lf you can’t see it, open
the View menu, then doose Components, and doose Sidebar—making sure
the option is selected.
8¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure _.:1· FSpot lets you store, tag, and
edit your photos.
Version system
When you edit a photo, l-Spot creates a new version so that the original is not
lost. You can create a new version by opening the Photo menu, then doosing
Create New Version…. Tis opens the “Create New Version” window. ln the
Name text field you can type what you would like to call the version and then
clid OK. A new version will then be created.
You can view previous versions of photos by cliding on the photo that
you wish to view, then cliding on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges the
side bar on the len to the “ldit” side bar. ln the bouom len, the Version drop-
down list allows you to doose previous versions of the photo.
You might want to rename a version so that you remember whid version
is whid. To rename a version, clid on the photo that you want to dange,
then clid on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges the side bar on the len to
the “ldit” side bar. ln the bouom len the Version drop-down list lets you
doose the version of the photo that you want to rename.
Open the Photo menu, then doose Rename Version. Tis will open the
“Rename Version” window. lnter the new name in the New name text field,
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8¸
then if you want to rename the version clid OK. lf you don’t want to rename
the version, clid Cancel.
When editing photos, you may make a mistake and may decide to remove
that version as you no longer need it. To delete a version, clid on the photo
that you want to dange, then clid on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges
the side bar on the len to the “ldit” side bar. ln the bouom len the Version
drop-down list doose the version of the photo that you want to delete. Ten
open the Photo menu, then doose Delete Version. Tis will open the “Really
Delete`” window. lf you want to delete the version clid Delete. lf you don’t
want to delete the version, clid Cancel.
!mporting
When you laund l-Spot for the first time you will see the “lmport” window.
Aner the first laund you can import more photos by cliding on the Import
buuon.
When you import some photos, only the photos that you have just im-
ported are shown. To show all of your photos, clid on the gray X to the right
of the blue Find.
Choosing uhere F-Spot saves photos
When importing pictures in the “lmport” window, the Copy files to the
Photos folder option determines where the photos are saved.
lf the Copy files to the Photos folder option is selected then l-Spot will
copy the photos into the Photos folder, whid is within your Pictures folder.
Te pictures are then sorted by year, month and then date.
lf the Copy files to the Photos folder option is unselected then l-Spot will
not copy the pictures into the Photos folder.
!mporting from fiIe
To import photos that are saved on your computer, doose Select Folder from
the Import Source drop-down list. Tis opens the “lmport” window. Navigate
to the folder containing your photos and clid Open.
When the loading bar says “Done loading” all the photos in that folder
and any sub-folders are then displayed in the “lmport” window. You can
exclude importing photos from sub-folders by deselecting the Include sub-
folders option.
All of the photos are imported by default, but you can doose to import
only some photos. To do so, press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliding the
photos you do not want to import. Duplicates are automatically detected
when the Detect duplicates option is selected.
You can auad tags by typing the names of the your current tags in the
Attac Tags text field. lf you want to use multiple tags then separate them
with a comma.
8e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure _.::· You can import all of your
photos.
Once you have dosen the photos that you want to import, clid on the
Import buuon.
From digitaI camera
To import photos from a digital camera, plug your camera into the usn port of
your computer, and turn your camera on. lf your camera is detected, Ubuntu
should open a new window prompting you to import photos. lnsure that
Open F-Spot is dosen in the drop-down list and clid OK. Tis will show the
“lmport” window. ln the Import Source drop-down list doose the option that
looks like …Camera.
A “Select Photos to Copy from Camera…” window will open. You can
then clid the photos that you want to copy. All of the photos are selected by
default but you can add or remove individual photos by pressing-and-holding
the Ctrl key while cliding on photos to deselect them.
You can auad tags to all of them by cliding on the Attac tag option and
doosing the tag in the Attac tag· drop-down list. lor more information
about tags see Organizing photos.
You can dange where the files are saved in the Target location drop-down
list. Te default is the Photos folder—this is where l-Spot saves the photos.
Once you have dosen the photos that you want to import, clid on the
Copy buuon. Te “Transferring Pictures” window should open, and will show
the copying progress. When copying is complete, the progress bar will display
Download Complete. linally, clid OK to show your photos in l-Spot.
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8,
Organizing photos
l-Spot makes finding photos of the same type easier by using tags. You can
apply as many tags to a photo as you like.
To apply tags to photos, first select the photos. Ten right-clid on the
photos and doose Attac Tag. Clid the tag you want add to your photos.
You can auad tags when importing photos, as covered in the “lmporting”
section.
You can make new tags by opening the Tags and doosing Create New
Tag…. Tis will open up the “Create New Tag” window. lnter the name of
the tag in the Name of New Tag· text field. Te Parent Tag· drop-down list
allows you to doose the “parent” tag for your new tag.
Editing !mages
You may want to edit some of the photos you import into l-Spot. lor exam-
ple, you may want to remove something at the edge, some discoloring, fix red
eyes, or straighten a photo. To edit a photo, clid on the photo that you want
to edit and then clid on the Edit Image buuon. Tis danges the side bar on
the len of the “l-Spot” window. Te panel will show eight options· Crop,
Red-eye Reduction, De-saturate, Sepia Tone, Straighten, Soß Focus, Auto
Color, and Adjust Colors. Some of these options are explained in more detail
in the next section.
Cropping photos
You might want to crop a photo to dange the framing or remove part of the
edge of the photo. Clid on the Crop on the len panel, then in the Select an
area to crop drop-down list doose the ratio that you would like to crop with.
You might want doose the ratio that matdes the ratio that you would like to
print, so that the photo is not stretded.
You can create custom constraints if one of the defaults does not meet your
requirements. Tis is done by doosing Custom Ratios from the Select an
area to crop drop-down list. Tis opens the “Selection Constraints” window.
Clid Add to place a new entry on the len of the window.
Once you have dosen your constraint, move the cursor to one corner of
the section of the photo that you want to keep. Clid-and-hold the len mouse
buuon and drag it to the opposite corner of the section that you want to keep.
Release the the mouse buuon to finish your cropping selection.
To resize the cropping selection box, move the mouse until an arrow points
to the side of the cropping selection box that you want to move. Clid-and-
hold the len mouse buuon, and move the mouse until the edge is in the right
place.
All ratios work in portrait and landscape mode. To dange between the
two, you need to clid on the edge of the cropping selection box as if you
88 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
were to resize the box. Moving the cursor between top right and bouom len
switdes between portrait and landscape modes.
Red-eye Reduction
lf you have taken a photo and the flash caused the subject to have red eyes,
you can fix this problem in l-Spot. lirst, clid on the Red-eye Reduction
buuon. Move the cursor to the one corner of the subject’s eye and clid-and-
hold the len mouse buuon as you drag the cursor to the opposite corner of the
eye. Ten, release the mouse buuon.
Tis box can be moved by placing the cursor into the middle of the red
eye selection box until a hand cursor is shown. Ten, clid-and-hold the len
mouse buuon and move the selection box into the correct place. When it is in
the correct place you can release the len mouse buuon.
To resize the box, move the mouse until an arrow points to the side of the
red eye selection box that you want to move. Clid-and-hold the len mouse
buuon, move the mouse until the edge is in the right place.
When the box covers all of the red in one eye, clid the Fix buuon. You
will need to repeat the process for ead of the subject’s eyes that is affected.
Straighten
lf you have a photo where the subject is at an angle, you can straighten the
photo with l-Spot. lirst, clid on the Straighten buuon. Ten move the slider
until the picture is straight again. l-Spot will auto crop the picture to remove
any white parts that occur due to the rotation. When you are happy that the
picture is straight, clid on the Straighten buuon.
Auto CoIor
To automatically correct the coloring of a photo, clid on the Auto Color
buuon.
Exporting to ueb services
l-Spot allows you to export you photos to a Web Gallery, lolder or ci and the
following services· SmugMug, Picasa Web, llidr, :¡hq and Zooomr.
You can export to these services by selecting a picture and then opening
the Photo menu, then doosing Export to and cliding the service that you
require. Tis will open a window in whid you can enter your account name
and password for the service. Tis will allow you to upload pictures to this
service.
woixixc wi1n unux1u 8,
Watching videos and movies
To watd videos or ivis in Ubuntu, you can use the Movie Player application.
To start the Movie Player, open the Applications menu, then doose Sound &
Video, then doose Movie Player. Tis will open the “Movie Player” window.
Figure _.:_· 1otem plays music and videos.
Codecs
Watding ivis may require Ubuntu to install a “codec,” whid is a piece of
sonware that allows your computer to understand the contents of the ivi,
and display the video.
Lego| Noì:ce: Poìenì onJ co¡yr:g|ì |o+: o¡eroìe J:fferenì|y Je¡enJ:ng on +|:d
covnìry yov ore :n. P|eo:e o|ìo:n |ego| oJ+:ce :{ yov ore vn:vre +|eì|er o ¡or
ì:cv|or ¡oìenì or re:ìr:cì:on o¡¡|:e: ìo o meJ:o {ormoì yov +::| ìo v:e :n yovr
covnìry.
So that you can play all videos and ivis, you will need to install some
codecs. Tese are located within the Multiverse repository. Tis is now
enabled by default.
,o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
To install the codecs, open the Applications menu, then doose Ubuntu
Soßware Center. When the “Ubuntu Sonware Center” window opens, use
the seard box in the top right and seard for the following·
‣ gstreamero.1o-ffmpeg
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-bad
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-bad-multiverse
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-ugly
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-ugly-multiverse
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-base
‣ gstreamero.1o-plugins-good
‣ libdvdread¡
‣ libdvdnav¡
When you find ead one, select it with a double-clid and then clid the
Install buuon. Tis may open an “Authenticate” window. lf so, enter your
password then clid Authenticate to start the installation process.
To finish codec installation, you also need to run a command in the termi- For more information on the terminal see
Chapter o· 1he Command Line
nal. Open the Applications menu, then doose Accessories and then doose
Terminal. Tis will open the “Terminal” window.
Type the command as shown below. Sudo is a way to gain temporary adminis
trative rights to perform certain tasks, such
as installing new soúware. Usually, sudo is
presented in a window for you to enter your
password. When you enter your password
in a terminal, it will not be shown.
$ sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css.sh
Once you have typed the command, press Enter. You will be asked for
your password—to authorize this action, type in you password and press
Enter. Wait for the process to finish. Once it has finished you can close the
“Terminal” window.
PIaying videos from fiIe
Open the Movie menu, then doose Open…. Tis will open the “Select Movies
or Playlists” window. lind the file or files that you want to play and clid on
the Add buuon. Te video or videos will start playing.
PIaying a DVD
When you insert a ivi in the computer, Ubuntu should open the “You have
just inserted a Video ivi. Choose what application to laund” window. Make
sure that Open Movie Player is dosen in the drop-down list and then clid
OK. Te “Movie Player” window will open and the movie will start.
lf the “Movie Player” window is already open, open Movie menu, then
doose Play Disc… and the movie will start.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,1
Listening to audio and music
Ubuntu comes with the Rhythmbox Music Player for listening to your music,
streaming lnternet radio, managing playlists and podcasts, and purdasing
songs.
Starting Rhythmbox
To start Rhythmbox, open the Applications menu, then doose Sound &
Video, then Rhythmbox Music Player.
To quit Rhythmbox, doose Music ‣ Qit or press Ctrl+Q. Rhythmbox
will continue to run if you doose Music ‣ Close or close the window. A few
Rhythmbox tools (sud as Play, Next, and Previous) are available from the
Rhythmbox Music Player icon in the notification area (typically the top right
of your screen). You can also doose Qit from this menu to quit Rhythmbox.
PIaying music
Figure _.:¡· Rhythmbox with a cr in.
,: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
ln order to play music, you must first import music into your library.
Choose Music ‣ Import Folder or press Ctrl+O on your keyboard to import a
folder of songs or Import File for single songs.
Te Rhythmbox toolbar contains most of the controls that you will use for
browsing and playing your music.
lf you want to play a song, select a trad and clid on the Play buuon on
the toolbar (you can also doose Control ‣ Play from the menubar or press
Ctrl+Space). Cliding on the Play buuon again will pause the song.
Next and Previous buuons are next to the Play buuon. You can clid on
these buuons to play the next and previous songs in your library.
Te Rhythmbox toolbar also has options to enable or disable Repeat
(Control ‣ Repeat or Ctrl+R), Shuffle (Control ‣ Shuffle or Ctrl+U), the
Artist/Album browser (View‣ Browse or Ctrl+B), and Visualization.
When you insert a ci into your computer, it will appear in the list of
Devices in the Side Pane. Select the ci in the Devices list. lnable and disable
the Side Pane by doosing View‣ Side Pane or F9. Rhythmbox will auempt
to find the correct artist, album, and trad names. To play the songs on the ci,
doose the trad and press Play.
To import the songs into your library, select the ci in the Devices list. You
can review information about the ci, make any danges if needed, or deselect
songs that you do not want to import. Te toolbar will display additional
options to reload album information, eject the cb, and copy the traHs to
your library. Press the Copy buuon to import the songs.
Listening to streaming radio
Rhythmbox is preconfigured to enable you to stream radio from various Streaming radio are radio stations that are
broadcast over the Internet.
sources. Tese include lnternet broadcast stations (Radio from the Side Pane)
as well as Iast.fm. To listen to an lnternet radio station, doose a station
from the list and clid Play. To listen to music from last.fm, configure your
Account Settings.
Connect digitaI audio pIayers
Rhythmbox can connect with many popular digital audio players. Connected
players will appear in the Devices list. leatures will vary depending on the
player but common tasks like transferring songs and playlists should be sup-
ported.
Listen to shared music
lf you are on the same network as other Rhythmbox users (or any music rttr stands for “Digital Audio Access
Protocol,” and is a method designed by
Apple Inc. to let soúware share media
across a network.
player sonware with i~~i support), you can share your music and listen to
their shared music. Choose Shared from the Side Pane for a list of shared li-
braries on your network. Usually shares will be listed automatically but some-
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,¡
times you will be required to add the lP manually. To do this clid Music ‣
Connect to DAAP share…. Ten enter the lP address and the port number.
Ten clid Add. Cliding a shared library will enable you to browse and play
songs from other computers.
Manage podcasts
Rhythmbox can manage all of your favorite podcasts. Select Podcasts from
the Side Pane to view all added podcasts. Te toolbar will display additional
options to Subscribe to a new Podcast Feed and Update all feeds. Choose
Music ‣ New Podcast Feed, Ctrl+P, or press the Subscribe buuon in the
toolbar to import a podcast uii. Podcasts will be automatically downloaded
at regular intervals or you can manually update feeds. Select an episode and
clid Play. You can also delete episodes.
Figure _.:¸· You can add and play your
podcasts in Rhythmbox.
,¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Rhythmbox preferences
Te default configuration of Rhythmbox may not be exactly what you want.
Choose Edit ‣ Preferences to alter the application seuings. Te Preferences
tool is broken into four main areas· General, PlaybaH, Music, and Podcasts.
‣ General options include music filtering and sorting options and a configu-
ration seuing for toolbar buuon labels.
‣ PlaybaH options allow you to customize the crossfading feature and
define the buffer seuing for streamed music from sources sud as lnternet
radio and shared libraries.
‣ Music options define the Iibrary Iocation on your computer where
imported music is added, the Iibrary Structure of how folders are created
based on your imported music, and the Preferred format for imported
music.
‣ Podcasts options define the Download location podcast episodes and the
frequency to CheH for new episodes.
Managing your music
Rhythmbox supports creating playlists. Playlists are either static lists of songs
that are played in order or can be automatic playlists based on your specific
filter criteria. Playlists contain references to songs in your library. Tey do
not contain the actual song file. lf you remove a song from a playlist (Remove
from Playlist), it will remain in your library.
To create a playlist, doose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Playlist or Ctrl+N and
give the new playlist a name. You can then either drag songs from you library
to the new playlist in the side pane or right-clid on songs and doose Add to
Playlist and pid the playlist.
Automatic Playlists are created almost the same way as static playlists
—doose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Automatic Playlist. Next, define the fil-
ter criteria. You can add multiple filter rules. linally, clid Close and give
the new automatic playlist a name. Automatic Playlists will appear in your
side pane with a different icon than any static playlists. You can update any
playlist by right-cliding on the name and doosing Edit….
Rhythmbox supports seuing song ratings. Select a song in your library and
doose Music ‣ Properties, Alt+Enter, or right-clid on the file and doose
Properties. Select the Details tab and set the rating by piding the number
of stars. Other song information sud as Title, Artist, and Album can be
danged from the Basic tab. Clid Close to save any danges.
To delete a song, select it in your library and doose Edit ‣ Move to Trash
or right-clid on the song and doose Move to Trash. Tis will move the song
file to your trash.
lf you ever want to move a song (for example to another computer), doose
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,¸
the song (or group of songs) from your library and drag it to a folder or to
your desktop. Tis will make a copy in the new location.
Rhythmbox pIugins
Rhythmbox comes with a variety of plugins. Tese are tools that you can
enable and disable that add more features to Rhythmbox. lxamples include
Cover art, Song Iyrics, and various music stores. A few plugins are enabled
by default.
To view the list of available plugins, doose Edit ‣ Plugins. Te Configure
Plugins window allows you to enable or disable individual plugins, view
descriptions, and configure additional options if they are available for the
plugin.
Music stores
Rhythmbox has three music stores whid give you access to an extremely
large catalog of music with a variety of licensing options.
Te Jamendo store sells free, legal and unlimited music published under
the six Creative Commons licenses. You can browse the catalog and play
songs by doosing Jamendo in the Stores list in the side pane. More informa-
tion about their catalog can be found at http·//www.jamendo.com/.
Te Magnatune store sells music from independent musicians. Tey work
directly with artists and hand-pid the songs available. Teir catalog is com-
posed of high quality, non-ii· (no copy protection) music and covers a
variety of genres from Classical and Jazz to Hip Hop and Hard Rod. You
can browse the catalog and play songs by doosing Magnatune in the Stores
list in the side pane. More information about their catalog and subscription
service can be found at http·//www.magnatune.com/.
Te Ubuntu One Music Store sells music from major and minor music
labels around the world. Te store offers non-ii· (no copy protection) songs
encoded in either high quality ·i¡ or ~~c format. Ubuntu does not come
with support for ·i¡ playbad, but the store will install the proper codecs
automatically for free. You can browse the catalog, play previews, and buy
songs by doosing Ubuntu One in the Stores list in the side pane.
Te Ubuntu One Music Store integrates with the Ubuntu One service. All
purdases are transferred to your personal cloud storage and then automati-
cally copied to all of your computers so an Ubuntu One account is required.
Te catalog of music available for purdase will vary depending on where you
live in the world. More information about the Ubuntu One Music Store can be
found at http·//one.ubuntu.com/music/.
,e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Audio codecs
Different audio files (e.g., ·i¡, w~v, ~~c) require unique tools to decode them
and play the contents. Tese tools are called codecs. Rhythmbox will auempt
to detect any missing codecs on your system so you can play all of your audio
files. lf a codec is missing, it will try to find the codec in online resources and
guide you through installation.
Rhythmbox support
Rhythmbox is used by many users throughout the world. Tere are a variety
of support resources available in many languages.
‣ Choose the Help buuon for a variety of support options and information
about reporting Rhythmbox bugs.
‣ Te Rhythmbox website· http·//projects.gnome.org/rhythmbox/
‣ Te Multimedia & Video category of Ubuntu lorums· http·//ubuntuforums.
org/forumdisplay.php`f÷¡¡¡
Working uith documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
Qite onen, you may need to use your computer for work. You may have a
need to use a word processor to write a document. You may need to work on
a spreadsheet, do calculations on a table of data or create a data dart. You
may want to work on slides for a presentation.
ln Ubuntu, you can use the OpenOffice.org suite of applications for these
tasks.
Working uith documents
lf you need to work with documents, you can use the OpenOffice.org Word 1he OpenOffice.org Word Processor is
also known as the OpenOffice.org Writer.
Spreadsheet is also known as Calc, and
Presentation is known as Impress.
Processor. To start the word processor, open the Applications menu, doose
Office, and then doose OpenOffice.org Word Processor. Ubuntu should
then open the main window for the word processor.
Working uith spreadsheets
lf you need to work with spreadsheets, you can use the OpenOffice.org
Spreadsheet. To start the spreadsheet application, open the Applications
menu, doose Office, and then doose OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet.
Working uith presentations
lf you need to work with slides for a presentation, you can use the OpenOf-
fice.org Presentation. To start the presentation application, open the Applica-
tions menu, doose Office, and then doose OpenOffice.org Presentation.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,,
Geuing more heIp
lad of these applications comes with a comprehensive set of help screens. lf
you are looking for more assistance with these applications, press the F1 key
aner starting the application.
Taking notes
You can take notes in a program called Tomboy Notes. You can use it to make
a shopping or a to do list. Clid Applications, then clid Accessories and clid
Tomboy Notes.
Figure _.:o· You can record information that
you need to remember.
You can seard all of your notes by typing a word in the Searc· text field
in the main tomboy window.
Making notes
To create a new note clid File, then clid New. Te “New Note” window will
open.
,8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Te “New Note” window will contain a blue title “New Note”—this can
be deleted and danged to a title that makes the note more memorable. Te
main content of the note can be typed where it says “Describe your new note
here.” Once you have entered your text just close your note as all danges are
automatically saved.
To delete the note clid the red delete note buuon. Tis will open a “Really
delete this note`” window. lf you do want to delete the note clid the Delete
buuon, otherwise clid the Cancel buuon.
You can add a note to a notebook by cliding the Notebook buuon and
cliding the option next to the notebook that you want to move the note to.
Organizing notes
You can organize your notes in Tomboy using “Notebooks.” Tis makes find-
ing you notes quider and in a more logical location. To create a new note
book clid File, then Notebooks, and clid New Notebook….
Te “Create a new notebook” window will open, type the name of the
notebook in the Notebook name· text field. Once you have typed the note-
book name clid the Create buuon.
Te notebook will now show up in the sidebar of Tomboy Notes. You can
clid and hold on the note of your doice and drag it on top of the notebook
that you want to move it to.
Synchronizing
You can syndronize your notes with your Ubuntu One account, whid means
that you can access them across all of your Ubuntu computers. You can also
access them from https·//one.ubuntu.com/.
To syndronize your notes clid the Edit. Ten clid Preferences. Tis will
open the “Tomboy Preferences” window. Clid the Syncronization tab and
then in the Service drop down clid Tomboy Web.
Next clid the Connect to Server buuon. Tis will open a web page in
Firefox you will need to enter the email address that you use for Ubuntu One
and your password. Ten clid the Continue buuon, then in the Computer
Name text field enter a name that reminds you of that computer and clid
the Add Tis Computer buuon. lirefox will then display a page that says
something similar to “Tomboy Web Authorization Successful.”
Bad at the “Tomboy Preferences” window clid the Save buuon. A new
window will pop up asking if you want to “syndronize your notes now.”
Clid the Yes buuon and the “Syndronizing Notes…” window will show.
Once the syndronization is complete clid the Close buuon.
lf you want to syndronize the notes again clid Tools and clid Syncro-
nize Notes. Your notes will start syndronizing. When they are done, clid the
close buuon.
woixixc wi1n unux1u ,,
Ubuntu One
lt is common for many people to use multiple computers in the course of their
work, sdool, and personal life. You might have a desktop at your office as
well as a laptop for traveling or just going to a coffee shop. lnsuring that all
of your files are accessible no mauer what computer you’re using is quite
a difficult task. Te same could be said for the complexity of keeping your
lvolution address book, Tomboy notes, or lirefox bookmarks in sync.
Ubuntu One can help you keep your digital life in sync. All of your docu-
ments, music, bookmarks, address book contacts, and notes stay in sync across
all of your computers. ln addition, they’re all stored in your personal cloud so
you can use a web browser from any computer to access all of your stuff from
the Ubuntu One website (http·//one.ubuntu.com/).
Ubuntu One provides all Ubuntu users with : cn of storage for free. More
storage capacity and contacts syndronization with mobile phones is available
for a monthly fee. Aner you set up Ubuntu One you can continue to use your
computer as you normally would, with Ubuntu One taking care of making
your data appear on all your other computers with Ubuntu One installed.
Seuing up Ubuntu One
To set up Ubuntu One, first open the System menu, then doose Preferences,
then Ubuntu One. lf this is your first time running the U|vnìv One Pre{er
ence: application, it will add your computer to your Ubuntu One account.
Ubuntu One uses the Ubuntu Single Sign On (sso) service for user ac-
counts. lf you don’t already have an Ubuntu sso account, the setup process
will let you create one. When you’re finished, you will have an Ubuntu sso
account, a free Ubuntu One subscription, and your computer will be setup for
syndronization.
Ubuntu One Preferences
Te Ubuntu One Preferences application shows how mud of your storage
capacity you are currently using as well as provides account management
tools.
Te Accovnì tab displays your account information like name and email
address and links to more account management and tednical support re-
sources.
Te De+:ce: tab lists all of the devices that are currently added to syndro-
nize with your account. Devices are either computers or mobile phones. lor
the computer that you are currently using, you can adjust how mud of your
bandwidth is used by syndronization and connect or reconnect to Ubuntu
One. You can also remove computers and mobile phones from your Ubuntu
One account.
1oo ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Te Ser+:ce: tab is where you manage what Ubuntu One features syndro-
nize with your cloud storage and other computers. You can enable or disable
the syndronization of files, purdased music, contacts, and bookmarks.
More information
lor more information about Ubuntu One, its services, and tednical support
resources, visit the Ubuntu One website at http·//one.ubuntu.com/. lollow
the Ubuntu One blog at http·//one.ubuntu.com/blog for news on the latest
features.
¡ Harduare
Using your devices
Ubuntu supports a wide range of hardware, and support for new hardware
improves with every release.
Harduare identification
To identify your hardware you can install the following application· Clid
Applications, scroll down to Ubuntu Soßware Center. When the “Ubuntu
Sonware Center” window opens, use the seard box in the top right and
seard for the following· “sysinfo.” Now select the Application clid Install
and enter your password to install the application.
To run the application, doose Applications ‣ System Tools ‣ Sysinfo.
Te Sysinfo program will then open a window with information about the
hardware that is part of your system.
DispIays
Harduare drivers
A driver is some code padaged in a file, whid tells your computer how to
utilize a piece of hardware. lvery component in a computer requires a driver
to function, whether it’s the printer, ivi player, hard disk, or graphics card.
A majority of graphics cards are manufactured by three well known com- Your graphics card is the component in your
computer that powers your display. When
you’re watching videos on You1ube or rvrs
or simply enjoying the smooth transition
effects when you maximize/minimize your
windows, your graphics device is doing the
hard work behind the scenes.
panies· lntel, ~·i/~1i, and xviii~ Corp. You can find your card manufacturer
by referring to your computer manual or looking for the specifications of
your particular model on the lnternet. Te Ubuntu Sonware Center houses a
number of programs that allow detailed system information to be obtained.
SysInfo is one sud program that you can use to find relevant information
about your System devices. Ubuntu comes with support for graphics devices
manufactured by the above companies, and many others, out of the box. Tat
means that you don’t have to find and install any drivers by yourself, Ubuntu
takes care of it on its own.
ln keeping with Ubuntu’s philosophy, the drivers that are used by default
for powering graphics devices are open source. Tis means that the drivers
can be modified by the Ubuntu developers and problems with them can be
fixed. However, in some cases the proprietary driver (restricted driver) pro-
vided by the company may provide beuer performance or features that are
not present in the open source driver wriuen by the developer community. ln
other cases, your particular device may not be supported by the open source
1o: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
drivers yet. ln those scenarios, you may want to install the restricted driver
provided by the manufacturer.
lor both philosophical and practical reasons, Ubuntu does not install
restricted drivers by default but allows the user to make an informed doice.
Remember that restricted drivers, unlike the open source drivers for your
device, are not maintained by Ubuntu. Problems caused by those drivers will
be resolved only when the manufacturer wishes to address them. To see if
restricted drivers are available for your system, clid System in the top panel,
go to Administration and find Hardware Drivers. lf a driver is provided by
the company for your particular device, it will be listed there. You can simply
clid Activate and use the driver if you want. Tis process will require an
active lnternet connection and will ask for your password.
Te Ubuntu developers prefer open source drivers because they allow
the problem to be identified and fixed by anyone with knowledge in the
community. Ubuntu development is extremely fast and it is likely that your
device will be supported by open source drivers. You can use the Ubuntu
live ci to ded for your device compatibility before installing Ubuntu or go
online in the Ubuntu forums to ask about your particular device.
Another useful resource is the official online
documentation (http·//help.ubuntu.com),
which contains detailed information
about various graphics drivers and known
problems.
Seuing up your screen resoIution
One of the most common display related tasks is seuing up your screen reso-
lution.
Ubuntu correctly identifies your native screen resolution by itself and sets Displays are made up of thousands of
tiny pixels. Lach pixel displays a different
color, and when combined they all display
the image that you see. 1he native screen
resolution is a measure of the amount of
actual pixels on your display.
it for you. However, due to a huge variety of devices available, sometimes it
can make a mistake and set up an undesirable resolution.
To set up or just ded your screen resolution, go to System‣ Preferences ‣
Monitors. Te Mon:ìor: application shows you your monitor name and size,
the screen resolution and refresh rate. Cliding on the displayed resolution
(e.g., “1o:¡×,e8 (¡:¡)”) would open a drop-down menu where you can select
the resolution of your doice.
Connecting and using your printer
You can add, remove, and dange printer properties by navigating to System‣
Administration‣ Printing. Tis will display the “Printing-localhost” window.
When you want to add a printer, you will need to make sure that it
switded on, and plugged into your computer with a usn cable or connected to
your network.
Adding a IocaI printer
lf you have a printer that is connected to your computer with a usn cable then
this is termed a |oco| ¡r:nìer. You can add a printer by cliding on the Add
Printer buuon.
n~iiw~ii 1o¡
ln the len hand pane of the “New Printer” window any printers that you
can install will be listed. Select the printer that you would like to install and
clid Forward.
You can now specify the printer name, description and location. lad of If your printer can automatically do double
sided printing it will probably have a
duplexer. Please refer to the instructions
that came with the printer if you are unsure.
If you do have a duplexer you will need to
make sure the DupIexer !nstaIIed option is
checked and then click the Foruard buuon.
these should remind you of that particular printer so that you can doose the
right one to use when printing. linally, clid Apply.
Adding a netuork printer
Make sure that your printer is connected to your network with an lthernet
cable and is turned on. You can add a printer by cliding Add Printer. Te
“New Printer” window will open. Clid the “-” sign next to Neì+or| Pr:nìer.
lf your printer is found automatically it will appear under Neì+or| Pr:nìer.
Clid the printer name and then clid Forward. ln the text fields you can
now specify the printer name, description and location. lad of these should
remind you of that particular printer so that you can doose the right one to
use when printing. linally clid Apply.
You can also add your network printer by entering the ii address of the
printer. Select Find Network Printer, type in the ii address of the printer
in the box that reads Host· and press the Find buuon. Ubuntu will find the
printer and add it. Most printers are detected by Ubuntu automatically. lf
Ubuntu cannot detect the printer automatically, it will ask you to enter the
make and model number of the printer.
1he default printer is the one that is auto
matically selected when you print a file.
1o set a printer as default, rightclick the
printer that you want to set as default and
then click Set As DefauIt.
Changing printer options
Printer options allow you to dange the printing quality, paper size and media
type. Tey can be danged by right-cliding a printer and doosing Prop-
erties. Te “Printer Properties” window will show, in the len pane doose
Pr:nìer O¡ì:on:.
You can now specify seuings by danging the drop-down entries. Some of
the options that you might see are explained.
Media Size
Tis is the size of the paper that you put into your printer tray.
Media source
Tis is the tray that the paper comes from.
CoIor ModeI
Tis is very useful if you want to print in Grayscale to save on ink, or to print
in Color, or Inverted Grayscale.
1o¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Media type
Depending on the printer you can dange between·
‣ Plain Paper
‣ Automatic
‣ Photo Paper
‣ Transparency lilm
‣ ci or ivi Media
Print QaIity
Tis specifies how mud ink is used when printing, Fast Draß using the least
ink and High-Resolution Photo using the most ink.
Sound
Ubuntu usually detects the audio hardware of the system automatically dur-
ing installation. Te audio in Ubuntu is provided by a sound server named
PulseAudio. Te audio preferences are easily configurable with the help of a
very easy to use cui whid comes preinstalled with Ubuntu.
A volume icon, siuing on the top right corner of the screen, provides
quid access to different audio related functions. len cliding on the vol-
ume icon shows up a slider buuon whid you can move horizontally to in-
crease/decrease volume. len cliding on the volume icon also allows you to
doose between muting the sound and Sound Preferences. Selecting SovnJ
Pre{erence: opens up another window whid provides access to sound themes,
hardware, input and output preferences. Sound Preferences can also be found
if you go to System‣ Preferences ‣ Sound.
Te first tab whid shows up by default is :ovnJ ì|eme:. You can disable
the existing sound theme or configure it with the options available.
Te |orJ+ore ìo| will have a list of all the sound cards available in your You can add new sound themes by installing
them from Soúware Center (e.g., Ubuntu
Studio Sound theme.) You will get the
installed sound themes from the drop down
menu. You can also enable window and
buuon sounds.
system. Usually there is only one listed, however, if you have a graphics card
whid supports ni·i audio it will also show up in the list. Tis section should
be configured only if you are an advanced user.
Te third tab is for configuring :n¡vì ovJ:o. You will be able to use this
A microphone is used for making au
dio/video calls which are supported by
applications like Skype or Lmpathy. It can
also be used for sound recording.
section when you have an inbuilt microphone in your system or if you add an
external microphone.
You can increase/decrease and mute/unmute input volume from this tab. lf
You should note that by default in any
Ubuntu installation, the input sound is
muted. You will have to manually unmute
to enable your microphone to record sound
or use it during audio/video calls.
there is more than one input device, you will see them listed in the white box
whid reads C|oo:e o Je+:ce {or :ovnJ :n¡vì.
Te ovì¡vì ìo| is used for configuring the output audio. You can in-
By default, the volume in Ubuntu is set to
maximum during installation.
crease/decrease and mute/unmute output volume and select your preferred
output device.
lf you have more than one output device, it will be listed in the section If you change your sound output device, it
will remain as default.
n~iiw~ii 1o¸
whid reads “Choose a device for sound output.” Te default output hardware,
whid is automatically detected by Ubuntu during installation will be selected.
Te A¡¡|:coì:on: ìo| is for danging the volume for running applica-
tions. Tis comes in very handy if you have multiple audio programs run-
ning, for example, if you have Rhythmbox, Totem Movie Player and a web-
based video playing at the same time. ln this situation, you will be able to
increase/decrease, mute/unmute volume for ead application from this tab.
Burning CDs and DVDs
To create a ci or ivi go to Applications ‣ Sound and Video ‣ Brasero Disc
Burner. Tis opens Brasero, whid gives you five options to doose from.
lad one of these is explained below.
Figure ¡.1· Brasero burns music, video, and
data rvrs and crs.
UniversaI options
Tese options apply for all projects except Disc copy and Burn Image.
1oe ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Adding fiIes to a project
To add files to the list, clid the Green + buuon, whid opens the “Select liles”
window. Ten navigate your way to the file you want to add, clid it, and then
clid the Add buuon. Repeat this process for ead file that you want to add.
Saving a project
To save a project so that you can finish it later, doose Project ‣ Save. Te
“Save Current Project” window will be opened. Choose where you would like
to save the project. Ten, in the Name· text field, enter a name for the project
so that you will remember it. Now clid the Save buuon.
Removing fiIes
lf you want to remove a file from the project, clid the file in the list and clid Icons of a broom are oúen used in Ubuntu
to represent clearing a text field or returning
something to its default state.
on the Red - buuon. To remove all the files in the list clid on the Broom
shaped buuon.
Burning the disc
When you clid the burn buuon you will see the “Properties of …” window.
You can specify the burning speed in the Burning speed drop down. lt is
best to doose the highest speed.
To burn your project directly to the disc, select the Burn the image di-
rectly without saving it to disc option. With this option selected, no image
file is created and no files are saved to the hard disk.
Te Simulate before burning option is useful if you encounter problems 1emporary files are saved in the /tmp folder
by default. Should you wish to save these
files in another location, you will need to
change the seuing in the Temporary fiIes
drop down menu. Under normal conditions,
you should not need to change this seuing.
burning discs. Selecting this option allows you to simulate the disc burning
process without actually writing data to a disc—a wasteful process if your
computer isn’t writing data correctly. lf the simulation is successful, Brasero
will burn the disc aner a ten second pause. During that ten second pause, you
have the option to cancel the burning process.
BIanking a disk
lf you are using a disc that has iw wriuen on it and you have used it before, av stands for ReWritable which means that
disc can be used more than once.
then you can blank it so that you can use it again. Doing this will cause you
to lose all of the data currently on the disc. To blank a disc, open the Tools
menu, then doose Blank. Te “Disc Blanking” window will be open. ln the
Select a disc drop down doose the disc that you would like to blank.
You can enable the Fast blank option if you would like to shorten the
amount of time to perform the blanking process. However, selecting this
option will not fully remove the files; if you have any sensitive data on your
disc, it would be best not to enable the Fast blank option.
Once the disc is blank the you will see 1e J::c +o: :vcce::{v||y ||on|eJ.
Clid the Close buuon to finish.
n~iiw~ii 1o,
Audio project
lf you record your own music, then you may want to transfer this music onto
an audio ci so your friends and family can listen. You can start an audio
project by cliding Project, then New Project and then New Audio Project.
So that ead file does not play straight aner ead other you can add a
two second pause aner a file. Tis can be done by cliding the file and then
cliding the ¦¦ buuon.
You can slice files into parts by cliding the Knife buuon. Tis opens a
“Split Trad” window. Te Method drop down gives you four options ead
one of these lets you split the trad in a different way. Once you have split the
trad clid OK.
ln the drop down at the bouom of the main “Brasero” window make sure
that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. Ten clid
the Burn buuon.
Data project
lf you want to make a bad up of your documents or photos it would be best
to make a data project. You can start a data project by cliding Project then
cliding New Project and then New Data Project.
lf you want to add a folder you can clid the Folder picture, then type the
name of the folder.
ln the drop down at the bouom of the main “Brasero” window make sure
that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. Ten clid
the Burn buuon.
Video project
lf you want to make a ivi of your family videos it would be best to make
a video project. You can start a video project by cliding Project, then New
Project and then New Video Project.
ln the drop down at the bouom of the main “Brasero” window make sure
that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. Ten clid
the Burn buuon.
Disc copy
You can copy a disc cliding Project, then New Project and then Disc copy.
Tis opens the “Copy ci/ivi” window.
lf you have two ci/ivi drives you can copy a disc from one to the other,
the disc that you want to copy to must be in the ciiw/iviiw drive. lf you
have only one drive you will need to make an image and then burn it to a
disc. ln the Select disc to copy drop-down doose the disc to copy. ln the
Select a disc to write to drop-down either doose image file or the disc that
you want to copy to.
1o8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
!mage fiIe
You can dange where the image file is saved by cliding Properties, this
shows the “location for lmage lile”. You can edit the name of the file in the
Name· text field.
Te default save location is your home folder, you can dange this by
cliding the - next to Browse for other folders . Once you have dosen
where you want to save it clid Close.
Bad in the “Copy ci/ivi” window clid Create Image. Brasero will open
the “Creating lmage” and will display the job progress. When the process is
complete clid Close.
Burn image
To burn an image, open the Project ‣ New Project, and then Burn Image.
Brasero will open the “lmage Burning Setup” window. Clid on the CliH here
to select a disc image drop-down and the “Select Disc lmage” window will
appear. Navigate your way to the image you wish to burn, clid on it, and
then clid Open.
ln the Select a disc to write to drop-down menu, clid on the disc to
whid you’d like to write, then clid Create Image.
Using a uebcam
Webcams onen come built into laptops and netbooks. Some computers, sud
as Apple desktops, also have webcams built into the monitors. Te rest of the
webcams typically use usn connections. To use a usn webcam, plug it into an
open usn port in your computer.
Almost all new webcams are detected by Ubuntu automatically. You can 1here are quite a few applications which
are useful for webcams. Cheese can capture
pictures with your webcam and VLC media
player can capture video streaming from
your webcam. You can install these from the
Ubuntu Soúware Center.
configure webcams for individual applications sud as Skype and lmpathy
from the application’s setup menu. lor webcams whid do not work right
away with Ubuntu, visit https·//wiki.ubuntu.com/Webcam for help.
Scanning text and images
Most of the time, Ubuntu will simply detect your scanner and you should just
be able to use it. To scan a document, follow these steps·
1. Place what you want to scan on the scanner.
:. Go to Applications ‣ Graphics ‣ Simple Scan.
¡. Clid Scan.
¡. Clid the Paper Icon to add a another page.
¸. Clid Save to save.
n~iiw~ii 1o,
Does my scanner uork uith Ubuntu'
Tere are three ways to see if you scanner works in Ubuntu·
1. Simply plug it in. lf it is a newer usn scanner, it is likely that it will just
work.
:. Ched https·//wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupportComponentsScanners to
find out whid scanners work with Ubuntu.
¡. s~xi project listing of supported scanners. Te s~xi (Scanner Access Now
lasy) project provides most of the bad-ends to the scanning sonware on
Ubuntu.
Ubuntu can’t find my scanner
Tere are a few reason why Ubuntu may give you a “No devices available
message”·
‣ Your scanner is not supported in Ubuntu. Te most common type of scan-
ner not supported is old parallel port or lexmark All-in-One printer/scanner/faxes.
‣ Te driver for your scanner is not being automatically loaded.
Other devices
Fireuire
lirewire is a special type of port that makes use of lirewire tednology to
transfer data. Tis port is generally used by camcorders and digital cameras.
lf you want to import video from your camcorder you can do so by con-
necting your camcorder to the lirewire port. You will need to install a pro-
gram called Kino whid is available in the Ubuntu Sonware Center.
1o find out more about kino, visit http·//
www.kinodv.org/.
BIuetooth
Bluetooth is widely used on cis devices, mouses, mobile phones, headsets,
music players, desktops and laptops for data transfer, listening to music,
playing games and for various other activities. All modern operating systems
support Bluetooth and Ubuntu is no exception.
You can access the Bluetooth preferences by len-cliding on the Bluetooth
icon on the right hand side of the top panel. lt is usually located next to the
volume icon. len-cliding on the Bluetooth icon opens a popup menu with
several doices, sud as an option to Turn off Bluetooth.
Te Bluetooth preferences can also be accessed from System‣ Preferences ‣
Bluetooth. lf you want to setup a new device sud as a mobile phone to
syndronize with your computer, doose the option that reads Setup new
device...
Ubuntu will then open a window for new device setup. When you clid
Forward, Ubuntu will open the second screen whid will show you how
11o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure ¡.:· 1he Bluetooth applet menu.
many Bluetooth devices are present within the range of your system. Te list
of available devices might take a minute or so to appear on the screen as your
system will be scanning for the devices. Te scan and display is in real time,
whid means that every device will be displayed as soon as it is found. Clid
on the required Bluetooth device from the list of devices. Ten, select the iix
number by selecting PIN options.
Tree predefined iix numbers are available but you can create a custom
iix if you like. You will need to enter this iix on the device you will be pair-
ing with Ubuntu.
Once the device has been paired, Ubuntu will open the “Setup completed”
screen.
ln Ubuntu, your computer is hidden by default for security reasons. Tis
means that your Ubuntu system can seard other Bluetooth enabled systems
but they cannot seard for your Ubuntu system. You will have to enable
the option, if you want your Bluetooth device to find your Ubuntu system.
You can do this by selecting the option “Make computer discoverable” in
Bluetooth preferences. You can also add a fancy name for your Bluetooth-
enabled Ubuntu system by danging the text under Friendly Name.
¸ Sonuare Management
Sonuare management in Ubuntu
As discussed in Chapter ¡· Working with Ubuntu, a range of default applica-
tions are available in Ubuntu that are suitable for many everyday tasks. At
some point you may decide to test out an alternative web browser, set up a
different email client, edit an audio file, or try some new games (for exam-
ple), and to do any of these you will need to install new sonware. Ubuntu
keeps trad of many different sonware padages, and finding and installing
what you are aner is designed to be as quid and easy as possible. Alterna-
tively, you may prefer to browse through the extensive library of available
applications, and try any that catd your interest.
Differences from other operating systems
Most other operating systems generally require a user to purdase commer-
cial sonware (online or through a physical store), or otherwise seard the
lnternet for a free alternative (if one is available). Te correct installation file
must then be downloaded and located on the computer, followed by the user
proceeding through a number of installation prompts and options.
While at times a similar process may be used for installing sonware in
Ubuntu, the quidest and easiest way to find and install new applications is
through the Ubuntu Sonware Center. Tis is a central location for accessing
new sonware, and is based on the concept of re¡o::ìor:e:. A repository can be
thought of as a catalog of padages that are available for downloading from a
single location. You automatically have access to the official Ubuntu reposito-
ries when the operating system is installed; however, additional repositories
can be added later in order to access more sonware.
Using the Ubuntu Sonuare Center
Te Sonware Center can be used to install most applications that are available Some soúware packages have more ad
vanced purposes, such as programming or
running a server, and cannot be installed
using the Soúware Center. You will need
to use the Synaptic Package Manager (dis
cussed towards the end of this chapter) to
install these packages.
in the official Ubuntu repositories.
To start the Sonware Center, open the Applications menu and doose
Ubuntu Soßware Center.
Te Sonware Center window has two parts—a list of sections on the len,
and a set of icons on the right. lad icon represents a Je¡orìmenì, whid
is a category of sonware. lor example, the “Games” department contains
“Sudoku.”
Te sections on the len side of the window represent your current view of
the Sonware Center’s catalog. Clid the Get Soßware buuon on the len to
11: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure ¸.1· You can install and remove
applications from your computer using the
Soúware Center.
see sonware that is available to install, and Installed Soßware to see a list of
sonware that is already installed on your computer.
Finding sonuare
lf you are looking for an application, you may already know a specific name
(for example, “Tunderbird” is a popular email client), or otherwise you may
just have a general category in mind (for example, the “sound and video”
category includes a number of different sonware applications sud as video
converters, audio editors, and music players).
To help you find the right application, you can browse the Sonware Center
catalog by cliding on the department that reflects the category of sonware
you are aner, or alternatively use the built-in seard at the top-right of the
window to look for specific names or keywords.
When you select a department, you will be shown a list of applications Check out the Featured Applications depart
ment to see a list of highly recommended
applications.
that fit within that category. Some departments have sub-categories—for
example, the “Games” department has subcategories for “Simulation” and
“Card Games.”
soi1w~ii ·~x~ci·ix1 11¡
To move through categories you can use the bad and forward buuons at
the top of the window, as well as the navigational buuons (onen referred to as
“breadcrumbs”) next to these.
!nstaIIing sonuare
lnstalling applications is practically only one clid away. Once you have found Note that you will need to be connected
to the Internet for the Soúware Center
to work. 1o learn how to set up your
connection, see Chapter _· Working with
Ubuntu.
an application that you would like to try·
1. C|:d ì|e Install |vuon ìo ì|e r:g|ì o{ ì|e :e|ecìeJ ¡odoge. lf you would
like to read more about the sonware padage before installing it, first clid
on More Info. Tis will take you to a short description of the application,
as well as a screenshot and a web link when available. lf you wish to
proceed, you can also clid Install from this page.
:. Ty¡e yovr ¡o::+orJ :nìo ì|e ovì|enì:coì:on +:nJo+ ì|oì o¡¡eor:. Tis is
the same password you use to log in to your account. You are required to
enter it whenever installing new sonware, in order to prevent someone
without administrator access from making unauthorized danges to your
computer.
If you receive an “Authentication Failure”
message aúer typing in your password,
check that you typed it correctly by trying
again. If the error continues, this may mean
that your account is not authorized to install
soúware on the computer.
¡. Vo:ì vnì:| ì|e ¡odoge :: fin::|eJ :n:ìo||:ng. During the installation (or
removal) of sonware padages, you will see an animated icon of rotating
arrows to the len of the In Progress buuon in the sidebar. lf you like, you
can now go bad to the main browsing window and queue additional son-
ware padages to be installed by following the steps above. At any time,
cliding the In Progress buuon on the len will take you to a summary of
all operations that are currently processing. Here you can also clid the X
icon to cancel any operation.
Once the Sonware Center has finished installing an application, it is now
ready to be used. Ubuntu will usually place an entry in your Applications
menu under the relevant sub-menu—its exact location will depend on the
purpose of the application. ln some cases an application will appear in one of
the System‣ Preferences or System‣ Administration menus instead.
Removing sonuare
Removing applications is very similar to installing them. lirst, clid on the
Installed Soßware buuon in the Sonware Center’s sidebar. Scroll down to the
application you wish to remove (or use the seard field to quidly find it), and
then·
1. C|:d ì|e Remove |vuon to the right of the selected application. 1o completely remove a package and all
its configuration, you will need to purge it.
You can do this with the more advanced
Synaptic Package Manager, which is
discussed further in the Synaptic Package
Manager section below.
:. Ty¡e yovr ¡o::+orJ :nìo ì|e ovì|enì:coì:on +:nJo+ ì|oì o¡¡eor:. Remov-
ing sonware also requires that you enter your password to help protect
your computer against unauthorized danges. Te padage will then be
queued for removal, and will appear under the In Progress section in the
sidebar.
11¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Removing a padage will also update your menus accordingly.
Managing additionaI sonuare
Although the Sonware Center provides a large library of applications to
doose from, initially only those padages available within the official Ubuntu
repositories are listed. At times, a particular application you are aner may not
be available in these repositories. lf this happens, it is important to understand
some alternative methods for accessing and installing sonware in Ubuntu,
sud as downloading an installation file manually from the lnternet, or adding
extra repositories. lirst, we will look at how to manage your repositories
through Sonware Sources.
Sonuare Sources
Te Sonware Center lists only those applications that are available in your
enabled repositories. Repositories can be added or removed through the Son-
ware Sources application. To open this, clid System‣ Administration‣ You can also open Soúware Sources from
the Soúware Center. Simply go to Edit ‣
Sonuare Sources.
Soßware Sources in the top panel. You will be asked to enter your password,
then the “Sonware Sources” window will open. Tere are five tabs at the top
of this window· Ubuntu Soßware, Other Soßware, Updates, Authentica-
tion, and Statistics.
Managing the officiaI repositories
Te Ubuntu Soßware tab lists the five official Ubuntu repositories, ead
containing different types of padages. When Ubuntu is first installed, four of
these are enabled—mo:n, vn:+er:e, re:ìr:cìeJ, and mv|ì:+er:e.
‣ Canonical-supported open source soßware (main)· Tis repository
contains all the open-source padages that are maintained by Canonical.
‣ Community-maintained open source soßware (universe)· Tis repos-
itory contains all the open-source padages that are developed and main-
tained by the Ubuntu community.
‣ Proprietary drivers for devices (restricted)· Tis repository contains Closedsource packages are sometimes
referred to as nonfree. 1his is a reference
to freedom of speech, rather than monetary
cost. Payment is not required to use these
packages.
proprietary drivers, whid may be required to utilize the full capabilities of
some of your devices or hardware.
‣ Soßware restricted by copyright or legal issues (multiverse)· Tis
repository contains sonware that may be protected from use in some states
or countries by copyright or licensing laws. By using this repository you
assume responsibility for the usage of any padages that you install.
‣ Source code· Tis repository contains the source code that is used to build
the sonware padages from some of the other repositories.
Te Source code option should not be selected unless you have experience BuiIding appIications from source is an
advanced process for creating packages,
and usually only concerns developers. You
may also require source files when using
a custom kernel, or if trying to use the
latest version of an application before it
is released for Ubuntu. As this is a more
advanced area, it will not be covered in this
manual.
with building applications from source.
soi1w~ii ·~x~ci·ix1 11¸
SeIecting the best sonuare server
Ubuntu grants permission to many servers all across the world to act as m:r
ror:. Tat is, they host an exact copy of all the files contained in the official
Ubuntu repositories. ln the Ubuntu Soßware tab, you can select the server
that will give you the best possible download speeds.
When selecting a server, you may want to consider the following·
‣ Connection speed. Depending on the physical distance between you and a
server, the connection speed may vary. Ubuntu provides a tool for selecting
the server that provides the fastest connection with your computer.
lirst, clid the dropdown box next to “Download from·” in the “Son-
ware Sources” window, and select Other from the menu. ln the “Server
Selection” window that appears, clid the Select Best Server buuon in
the upper right. Your computer will now auempt a connection with all
the available servers, then select the one with the fastest speed. lf you are
happy with the automatic selection, clid Choose Server to return to the
“Sonware Sources” window.
‣ Iocation. Choosing a server that is close to your location will onen pro-
vide the best connection speed.
To select a server by country, doose your location in the “Server Selec-
tion” window. lf there are multiple servers available in your location, select
one then clid Choose Server when you are finished.
linally, if you do not have a working lnternet connection, Ubuntu can
install some sonware padages straight from your installation ci. To do this,
insert the disc into your computer’s ci drive, then select the ded box next to
Installable from the cb-rox/bvb. Once this ded box is tided, the disc will
be treated just like an online repository, and applications will be installable
straight from the ci through the Sonware Center.
Adding more sonuare repositories
Ubuntu makes it easy to add additional, third-party repositories to your list of A rrt is a Personal Package Archive. 1hese
are online repositories used to host the
latest versions of soúware packages, digital
projects, and other applications.
sonware sources. Te most common repositories added to Ubuntu are called
ii~s. Tese allow you to install sonware padages that are not available in the
official repositories, and automatically be notified whenever updates for these
padages are available.
Providing you know the web address of a ii~’s laundpad site, adding it to
your list of sonware sources is relatively simple. To do so, you will need to use
the Other Soßware tab in the “Sonware Sources” window.
On the laundpad site for a ii~, you will see a heading to the len called
“Adding this PPA to your system.” Underneath will be a short paragraph
containing a unique uii in the form of ppa·test-ppa/example. Highlight this
uii by selecting it with your mouse, then right-clid and doose copy.
11e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure ¸.:· 1his is an example of the Launch
pad page for the Lifesaver PPA. Lifesaver
is an application that is not available in
the official Ubuntu repositories. However,
by adding this PPA to your list of soúware
sources, it would then be easy to install and
update this application through the Soúware
Center.
Return to the “Sonware Sources” window, and in the Other Soßware tab
clid Add… at the bouom. A new window will appear, and you will see the
words “Apt line·” followed by a text field. Right-clid on the empty space in
this text field and select Paste, and you should see the uii appear that you
copied from the ii~s laundpad site earlier. Clid Add Source to return to the
“Sonware Sources” window. You will see a new entry has been added to the
list of sources in this window, with a tided ded box in front meaning it is
enabled.
lf you clid Close in the bouom right corner of this window, a message will
appear informing you that “Te information about available sonware is out-
of-date.” Tis is because you have just added a new repository to Ubuntu, and
it now needs to connect to that repository and download a list of the padages
that it provides. Clid Reload, and wait while Ubuntu refreshes all of your
enabled repositories (including this new one you just added). When it has
finished, the window will close automatically.
Congratulations, you have just added a ii~ to your list of sonware sources.
You can now open the Sonware Center and install applications from this ii~,
soi1w~ii ·~x~ci·ix1 11,
in the same way you previously installed programs from the default Ubuntu
repositories.
Synaptic Package Manager
Te Synaptic Padage Manager is a more advanced tool for managing son-
ware in Ubuntu. lt can be used to perform the same tasks as the Ubuntu
Sonware Center, sud as installing and removing applications, but also allows
for more control over your padages. lor example, it provides the following
options·
‣ Install any padage in your repositories. ln many cases you can even select
whid version of a padage to install, although this option is only available
if there are multiple versions in the repository.
‣ Reinstall a padage. Tis may be useful if you wish to revert a padage to
its default state, or repair any conflicts or damaged files.
‣ Update a padage when a newer version is released.
‣ Remove any padage you no longer need.
‣ Purge a padage to completely remove it, including any stored prefer-
ences or configuration files (whid are onen len behind when a padage is
removed).
‣ Fix broken padages.
‣ CheH properties of any padage, sud as the version number, contained
files, padage size, dependencies, and more.
To open the Synaptic Padage Manager, navigate to System‣ Administration‣
Synaptic PaHage Manager. As explained above, Synaptic is a more complex
tool than the Sonware Center, and generally not essential for a new user just
geuing started with Ubuntu. lf you want to read more information on how
to use this program, or require more support managing the sonware on your
system, head to https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/SynapticHowto.
Updates and Upgrades
Ubuntu also allows you to decide how to manage padage updates through the
Updates tab in the Sonware Sources window.
Ubuntu updates
ln this section, you are able to specify the kinds of updates you wish to install
on your system, and usually depends on your preferences around stability,
versus having access to the latest developments.
‣ Important security updates· Tese updates are highly recommended to
ensure your system remains as secure as possible. Tese are enabled by
default.
118 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
‣ Recommended updates· Tese updates are not as important for keeping
your system secure, but will mean your padages always have the most
recent bug fixes or minor updates that have been tested and approved. Tis
option is also enabled by default.
‣ Pre-released updates· Tis option is for those who would rather remain
up-to-date with the very latest releases of applications, at the risk of in-
stalling an update that has unresolved bugs or conflicts. Note that it is
possible that you will encounter problems with these updated applications,
therefore this option is not enabled by default. However, if this happens it
is possible to “roll-bad” to a previous version of a padage through Synap-
tic Padage Manager.
‣ Unsupported updates· Tese are updates that have not yet been fully
tested and reviewed by Canonical. Some bugs may occur when using these
updates, and so this option is also not enabled by default.
Automatic updates
Te middle section of this window allows you to customize how your sys-
tem manages updates, sud as the frequency with whid it deds for new
padages, as well as whether it should install important updates right away
(without asking for your permission), download them only, or just notify you
about them.
ReIease upgrade
Here you can decide whid system upgrades you would like to be notified Lvery o months, Canonical will release
a new version of the Ubuntu operating
system. 1hese are called normal releases.
Lvery four normal releases—or :¡ months
—Canonical releases a Long 1erm Support
(L1S) release. Long 1erm Support releases
are intended to be the most stable releases
available, and are supported for a longer
period of time.
about.
‣ Never· Choose this if you would rather not be notified about any new
Ubuntu releases.
‣ Normal releases· Choose this if you always want to have the latest
Ubuntu release, regardless of whether it is a long Term Support release
or not. Tis option is recommended for normal home users.
‣ Iong Term Support releases only· Choose this option if you need a
release that will be more stable and have support for a longer time. lf you
use Ubuntu for business purposes, you may want to consider selecting this
option.
o The Command Line
!ntroduction to the terminaI
Troughout this manual, we have focused primarily on the graphical desktop
user interface. However, in order to fully realize the power of Ubuntu, you
may want to learn how to use the terminal.
What is the terminaI'
Most operating systems, including Ubuntu, have two types of user interfaces.
Te first is a graphical user interface (cui). Tis is the desktop, windows,
menus, and toolbars that you clid to get things done. Te second, and mud
older, type of interface is the command-line interface (cii).
Te ìerm:no| is Ubuntu’s command-line interface. lt is a method of con-
trolling some aspects of Ubuntu using only commands that you type on the
keyboard.
Why uouId ! uant to use the terminaI'
lor the average Ubuntu user, most day-to-day activities can be completed
without ever needing to open the terminal. However, the terminal is a pow-
erful and invaluable tool that can be used to perform many useful tasks. lor
example·
‣ Troubleshooting any difficulties that may arise when using Ubuntu some-
times requires you to use the terminal.
‣ A command-line interface is sometimes a faster way to accomplish a task.
lor example, it is onen easier to perform operations on many files at once
using the terminal.
‣ learning the command-line interface is the first step towards more ad-
vanced troubleshooting, system administration, and sonware develop-
ment skills. lf you are interested in becoming a developer or an advanced
Ubuntu user, knowledge of the command-line will be essential.
Opening the TerminaI
You can open the terminal by cliding Applications ‣ Accessories ‣ Terminal. 1he terminal gives you access to what is
called a shell. When you type a command
in the terminal the shell interprets this
command, resulting in the desired action.
1here are different types of shells that
accept slightly different commands. 1he
most popular is called “bash,” and is the
default shell in Ubuntu.
When the terminal window opens, it will be largely blank apart from some
text at the top len of the screen, followed by a blinking blod. Tis text is your
prompt—it displays your login name and your computer’s name, followed by
the current directory. Te tilde (-) means that the current directory is your
In ctt environments the term “folder” is
commonly used to describe a place where
files are stored. In ctt environments the
term “directory” is used to describe the same
thing and this metaphor is exposed in many
commands (i.e., cd or pwd) throughout this
chapter.
1:o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
home directory. linally, the blinking blod is the cursor—this marks where
text will be entered as you type.
To test things out, type pwd and press Enter. Te terminal should display
/home/yourusername. Tis text is called the “output.” You have just used the
pwd (print working directory) command, and the output that was displayed
shows the current directory.
Figure o.1· 1he default terminal window
allows you to run hundreds of useful
commands.
All commands in the terminal follow the same approad. Type in the
name of a command, possibly followed by some parameters, and press Enter
to perform the specified action. Onen some output will be displayed that Parameters are extra segments of text,
usually added at the end of a command,
that change how the command itself is
interpreted. 1hese usually take the form of
-h or --help, for example. In fact, --help
can be added to most commands to display
a short description of the command, as well
as a list of any other parameters that can be
used with that command.
confirms the action was completed successfully, although this depends on
the command. lor example, using the cd command to dange your current
directory (see below) will dange the prompt, but will not display any output.
Te rest of this dapter covers some very common uses of the terminal.
However, there are almost infinite possibilities available to you when using
the command-line interface in Ubuntu. Troughout the second part of this
manual we will continue to refer to the command line, particularly when
discussing steps involved in troubleshooting and the more advanced manage-
ment of your computer.
Ubuntu fiIe system structure
Ubuntu uses the linux file system, whid is based on a series of folders in
the root directory. lad of these folders contain important system files that
cannot be modified unless you are running as the root user or use :vJo. Tis
restriction exists for both security and safety reasons· computer viruses will
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:1
not be able to dange the core system files, and users should not be able to
accidentally damage anything vital.
Below are some of the most important directories.
Figure o.:· Some of the most important
directories in the root file system.
Te root directory—denoted by /—contains all other directories and files.
Here are the contents of some system essential directories·
‣ /bin & /sbin· Many essential system programs
‣ /etc· System-wide configuration files
‣ /home· lad user will have a subdirectory to store personal files (for exam-
ple /home/your-username)
‣ /lib· library files, similar to .dll files on Windows
‣ /media· Removable media (ciio·s and usn drives) will be mounted in
this directory
‣ /root· Tis contains the root user’s files (not to be confused with the root
directory)
‣ /usr· Pronounced ‘user’, it contains most program files (not to be confused
with ead user’s home directory)
‣ /var/log· Contains log files wriuen by many programs
1:: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
lvery directory has a ¡oì|. Te path is a directory’s full name—it describes
a way to navigate the directory from anywhere in the system.
lor example, the directory /home/your-username/Desktop contains all the
files that are on your Ubuntu desktop. Te path, /home/your-username/Desktop,
can be broken down into a few pieces·
1. /—indicates that the path starts at the root directory
:. home/—from the root directory, the path goes into the home directory
¡. your-username/—from the home directory, the path goes into the your-
username directory
¡. Desktop—from the your-username directory, the path ends up in the Desk-
top directory
lvery directory in Ubuntu has a complete path that starts with the / (the
root directory) and ends in the directory’s own name.
Directories and files that begin with a period are hidden directories. Tese
are usually only visible with a special command or by selecting a specific op-
tion. ln the Nautilus you can show hidden files and directories by selecting
View‣ Show Hidden Files, or by pressing Ctrl+H. Tere are many hidden di-
rectories in your home folder used to store program preferences. lor example,
/home/your-username/.evolution stores preferences used by the lvolution
mail application.
Mounting and unmounting removabIe devices.
Any time you add storage media to your computer—an internal or external
hard drive, a usn flash drive, a ciio·—it needs to be movnìeJ before it is
accessible. Mounting a device means to associate a directory name with the
device, allowing you to navigate to the directory to access the device’s files.
When a device sud as a usn flash drive or a media player is mounted in
Ubuntu, a folder is automatically created for it in the meJ:o directory and
you are given the appropriate permissions to be able to read and write to the
device.
Most lile Managers will automatically add a shortcut to the mounted
device in its side bar so it’s easy for you to get to. You shouldn’t have to
physically navigate to the meJ:o directory in Ubuntu, unless you doose to do
so from the command line.
When you are done using a device, you can vnmovnì it. Unmounting a
device means to disassociate the device from its directory, allowing you to
eject it.
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:¡
Geuing started uith the command Iine
Navigating directories
Te pwd command is short for ¡r:nì +or|:ng J:recìory. lt can be used to dis-
play the directory you are currently in. Note that the prompt (the text just
before the blinking cursor) also displays your current directory.
$ pwd
/home/your-username/
Te cd command is short for donge J:recìory. lt allows you to navigate
from your current working directory to another of your doosing.
$ cd /directory/you/want/to/go/to/
lf there are spaces in one of the directories, you will need to put quotation
marks around the path·
$ cd ~/"Music/The Beatles/Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band/"
lf you leave out the quotation marks, the terminal will think that you are
trying to dange to a directory named ~/Music/The.
Tere are some special directory names. ~ is a special name that always
refers to your home directory. You can type cd ~ to navigate to your home
directory from anywhere in the system. Te name .. (two periods) is a spe-
cial name that refers to the directory’s “parent”—the directory one level above
it in the directory tree. lor example, if your current working directory is
/home/your-username then typing cd .. will navigate to the /home direc-
tory.
Geuing a Iist of fiIes
Te ls command is used to get a |::ì of all the files and directories that exist
inside the current directory.
$ ls
alligator-pie.mp3
squirm.mp3
baby-blue.mp3
Moving things around
Te mv command is used to move a file from one directory to another. Note that the terminal is casesensitive.
For example, if you have a directory called
Directory1, you must remember to include
the capital leuer whenever referring to it in
the terminal, otherwise the command will
not work.
$ mv /dmb/big-whiskey/grux.mp3 /home/john
You can also use the mv command to rename a file. lor example·
$ mv grux.mp3 frub.mp3
Te cp command is used to copy a file from one directory into another.
1:¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
$ cp /dmb/big-whiskey/grux.mp3 /media/ipod
Creating directories
Te mkdir command is short for mo|e J:recìory, and is used to create a new
directory in the current directory or another specified location. lor example,
this command will make a directory called newdirectory inside the current
directory·
$ mkdir newdirectory
Te following command will ignore your current directory, and in-
stead make one called newdirectory inside a hypothetical directory called
/tmp/example/·
$ mkdir /tmp/example/newdirectory
You could then navigate to this new directory by using the cd command.
$ cd /tmp/example/newdirectory
DeIeting fiIes and directories
Te rm command is used to delete files. lor example, to delete a file named
deleteme.txt located in the current directory·
$ rm deleteme.txt
To delete a file located in another directory (:.e., not inside your current
working directory), you would need to include the ¡oì| to the file. ln other
words, you are specifying the file’s location. lor example, to delete the file
deleteme.txt located in the /tmp/example/ directory, use the following
command·
$ rm /tmp/example/deleteme.txt
Te rmdir command is similar to the rm command, except it is used to
delete folders. lor example, this command would delete the directory called
newdirectory that we created earlier.
$ rmdir /tmp/example/newdirectory/
!ntroducing sudo
When you installed Ubuntu, the system automatically created two user ac-
counts· your primary user account, and a “root” account that operates behind
the scenes. Tis root account has the necessary privileges required for modi-
fying system files and seuings, whereas your primary user account does not.
Rather than logging out of your primary user account and then logging bad
in as root (whid can be very dangerous), you can use the sudo command (for
command line applications) and gksudo to borrow root account privileges
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:¸
for performing administrative tasks sud as installing or removing sonware,
creating or removing new users, and modifying system files.
lor example, the following command would open Ubuntu’s default text When using sudo in the terminal, you
will be prompted to enter your password.
You will not see any dots, stars, or other
characters appearing in the terminal as you
type your password—this is an extra security
feature to help protect your password from
any prying eyes.
editor gedit with root privileges. You will then be able to edit important
system files that would otherwise be protected. Te password you use with
sudo is the same password that you use to log in to your primary account, and
is set up during the Ubuntu installation process.
$ gksudo gedit
[sudo] password for username:
Opening gedit...
1e sudo commonJ g:+e: yov +:rìvo||y vn|:m:ìeJ occe:: ìo :m¡orìonì :y:ìem fi|e:
onJ :eu:ng:. Iì :: :m¡orìonì yov on|y v:e sudo :{ yov vnJer:ìonJ +|oì yov ore
Jo:ng. Yov con finJ ovì more o|ovì v::ng sudo :n C|o¡ìer ;: Secvr:ìy.
Managing sonuare through the terminaI
ln Ubuntu there are many ways to manage your sonware. Graphical tools
sud as the Ubuntu Sonware Center and Synaptic Padage Manager were
discussed in Chapter ¸· Sonware Management, however, many people prefer
to use the apt command (Advanced Padaging Tool) to manage their son-
ware from within the terminal. Te apt command is extremely versatile and
encompasses several tools, the most commonly used of whid is apt-get.
Te various apt commands should be prefixed with the sudo command,
since they typically require root privileges.
Using apt-get
Te apt-get command is used for installing and removing padages from
your system. lt can also be used to refresh the list of padages available in
the repositories, as well as download and install any new updates for your
sonware.
Updating and upgrading
Te apt-get update command can be used to quidly refresh the list of pad-
ages that are available in the default Ubuntu repositories, as well as any addi-
tional repositories added by the user (see Chapter ¸· Sonware Management for
more information on repositories).
$ sudo apt-get update
You can then use apt-get upgrade to download and install any available
updates for your currently installed padages. lt is best to run apt-get update
prior to running apt-get upgrade, as this will ensure you are geuing the most
recent updates available for your sonware.
1:e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be upgraded:
tzdata
1 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 683kB of archives.
After this operation, 24.6kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
Te terminal will give you a summary of what padages are to be up-
graded, the download size, and how mud extra disk space will be used (or
freed), and then ask you to confirm before continuing. To proceed with the
installation, press y and then Enter, and the upgrades will be downloaded and
installed for you. lf you do not want to proceed with the installation, press n
and then Enter.
!nstaIIing and removing
Te following command would be used to install vic media player using
apt-get· Notice the sudo command before the aptget
command. In most cases it will be necessary
to use sudo when installing soúware, as you
will be modifying protected parts of your
system. Many of the commands we will be
using from here on require root access, so
expect to see sudo appearing frequently.
$ sudo apt-get install vlc
[sudo] password for username:
To remove vic, you would type·
$ sudo apt-get remove vlc
[sudo] password for username:
CIeaning up your system
Onen sonware in Ubuntu depends on other padages being installed on your
system in order to run correctly. lf you auempt to install a new padage
and these Je¡enJenc:e: are not already installed, Ubuntu will automatically
download and install them for you at the same time (provided the correct
padages can be found in your repositories). When you remove a padage in
Ubuntu, any dependencies that were installed alongside the original padage
are not also automatically removed. Tese padages sit in your system and
can build up over time, taking up disk space. A simple way to clean up your
system is to use the apt-get autoremove command. Tis will select and Another useful cleaning command is apt-
get autoclean which removes cache files
leú over from downloading packages.
remove any padages that were automatically installed but no longer required.
$ sudo apt-get autoremove
Adding extra sonuare repositories
Sometimes you might want to install some sonware that isn’t in the official
repositories but may be available in a what’s called a ii~. ii~s, or personal
1ni co··~xi iixi 1:,
padage ardives, contain sonware that you can install by adding that ii~ to
your system. To add a PPA repository·
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:example/ppa
Once you have installed the ii~ you may install sonware from it in the
usual way using the apt-get install command.
, Security
Tis dapter discusses ways to keep your Ubuntu computer secure.
Why Ubuntu is safe
Ubuntu is secure by default for a number of reasons·
‣ Ubuntu clearly distinguishes between normal users and administrative
users.
‣ Sonware for Ubuntu is kept in a secure online repository, whid contains
no false or malicious sonware.
‣ Open-source sonware like Ubuntu allows security flaws to be easily de-
tected.
‣ Security patdes for open-source sonware like Ubuntu are onen released
quidly.
‣ Many viruses designed to primarily target Windows-based systems do not
affect Ubuntu systems.
Basic Security concepts and procedures
When Ubuntu is installed, it is automatically configured for a single person
to use. lf more than one person will use the computer with Ubuntu, ead
person should have her or his own user account. Tis way, ead user can
have separate seuings, documents, and other files. lf necessary, you can also
protect files from being viewed or modified by users without administrative
privileges. See Users and groups to learn more about creating additional users
accounts.
Permissions
ln Ubuntu, files and folders can be set up so that only specific users can view,
modify, or run them. lor instance, you might wish to share an important
file with other users, but do not want those users to be able to edit the file.
Ubuntu controls access to files on your computer through a system of “per-
missions.” Permissions are seuings that you can configure to control exactly
how files on your computer are accessed and used.
To learn more about modifying permissions, visit https·//help.ubuntu.com/
community/lilePermissions.
1¡o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Passuords
You can use a strong password to increase the security of your computer. Your
password should not contain names, common words or common phrases. By
default, the minimum length of a password in Ubuntu is four daracters. We
recommend a password with more than the minimum number of daracters.
Locking the screen
When you leave your computer unauended, you may want to lod the screen.
loding your screen prevents anyone from using your computer until your
password is entered. To lod the screen·
‣ Clid the session menu icon in the right corner of the top panel, then select
IoH Screen, or
‣ press Ctrl+Alt+L to lod the screen. Tis keyboard shortcut can be
danged in System‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard Shortcuts.
System updates
Good security depends on an up-to-date system. Ubuntu provides free son-
ware and security updates. You should apply these updates regularly. See
Chapter ¸· Sonware Management to learn how to update your Ubuntu com-
puter with the latest security updates and patdes.
Trusting third party sources
Normally, you will add applications to your computer via the Sonware Center,
whid downloads sonware from the Ubuntu repositories as described in
Chapter ¸· Sonware Management. However, it is occasionally necessary to
add sonware from other sources. lor example, you may need to do this when
an application is not available in the Ubuntu repositories, or when you need a
newer version of the one available in the Ubuntu repositories.
Additional repositories are available from sites sud as getdeb.net and
laundpad ii~s, whid can be added as described in Chapter ¸· Sonware
Management. You can download the iin padages for some applications
from their respective project sites on the lnternet. Alternately, you can build
applications from their source code (an advanced method of installing and
using applications).
Using only recognized sources sud as a project’s site, ii~, or various
community repositories (sud as getdeb.net) is more secure than downloading
applications from an arbitrary (and perhaps less reputable) source. When
using a third party source, consider its trustworthiness, and be sure you know
exactly what you’re installing on your computer.
sicuii1v 1¡1
Users and groups
like most operating systems, Ubuntu allows you to create separate user ac-
counts for ead person that use the computer. Ubuntu also supports user
groups, whid allow you to administer permissions for multiple users at the
same time.
lvery user in Ubuntu is a member of at least one group—the group’s name
is the same as the name of the user. A user can also be a member of additional
groups. You can configure some files and folders to be accessible only by a
user and a group. By default, a user’s files are only accessible by that user;
system files are only accessible by the root user.
Figure ,.1· Add, remove and change the user
accounts.
Managing users
You can manage users and groups using the Users and Groups administra-
tion application. To find this application, clid System‣ Administration‣
Users and Groups.
To adjust the user and group seuings clid the keys icon next the phrase
“Clid to make danges.” You will need to input your password in order to
make danges to user and group seuings.
AJJ:ng o v:er Clid the Add buuon whid appears underneath a list of
the current user accounts that have already been created. A window will
appear that has two fields. Te “Name“ field field is for a friendly display
name. Te “Short Name“ field is for the actual username. lill in the requested
information, then clid OK. A new dialog box will appear asking you to enter
a password for the user you have just created. lill out the fields, then clid
OK. Privileges you grant to the new user can be altered in “Users Seuings”.
1¡: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
MoJ:{y:ng o v:er Clid on the name of a user in the list of users, then clid
on the Change… buuon, whid appears next to ead of following options·
‣ Account type·
‣ Password·
lor more advanced user options clid on the Advanced Settings buuon.
Change the details as required in the dialog that appears. Clid OK to save the
danges.
De|eì:ng o v:er Select a user from the list and clid Delete. Ubuntu will
deactivate the user’s account, and you can doose whether remove the user’s
home folder or leave it.
Managing groups
Clid on the Manage Groups buuon to open the group management dialog.
AJJ:ng o grov¡ To add a group, clid Add. ln the dialog that appears, enter
the group name and select the names of users you would like to add to the
group.
MoJ:{y:ng o grov¡ To alter the users in an existing group, select a group and
clid on the Properties buuon. Select and deselect the users as required, then
clid OK to apply the danges.
De|eì:ng o grov¡ To delete a group, select a group and clid Delete.
AppIying groups to fiIes and foIders
To dange the group associated with a file or folder, open the Nautilus file
browser and navigate to the appropriate file or folder. Ten, either select the
folder and doose File ‣ Properties from the menubar, or right-clid on the file
or folder and doose Properties. ln the Properties dialog that appears, clid on
the Permissions tab and select the desired group from the Groups drop-down
list. Ten close the window.
Using the command Iine
You can also modify user and group seuings via the command line. We
recommend that you use the graphical method above unless you have a
good reason to use the command line. lor more information on using the
command line to modify users and groups, see the Ubuntu Server Guide at
hups·//help.ubuntu.com/1o.o¡/serverguide/C/user-management.html
sicuii1v 1¡¡
Seuing up a secure system
You may also want to use a firewall, or use encryption, to further increase the
security of your system.
FireuaII
A firewall is an application that protects your computer against unauthorized
access by people on the lnternet or your local network. lirewalls blod con-
nections to your computer from unknown sources. Tis helps prevent security
breades.
Uncomplicated lirewall (uiw) is the standard firewall configuration pro-
gram in Ubuntu. lt is a program that runs from the command line, but a
program called Gufw allows you to use it with a graphical interface. See
Chapter ¸· Sonware Management to learn more about installing the Gufw
padage.
Once it’s installed, start Gufw by cliding System‣ Administration‣
Firewall configuration. To enable the firewall, select the Enable option. By
default, all incoming connections are denied. Tis seuing should be suitable
for most users.
lf you are running server sonware on your Ubuntu system (sud as a web
server, or an i1i server), then you will need to open the ports these services
use. lf you are not familiar with servers, you will likely not need to open any
additional ports.
To open a port clid on the Add buuon. lor most purposes, the Precon-
figured tab is sufficient. Select Allow from the first box and then select the
program or service required.
Te simple tab can be used to allow access on a single port, and the Ad-
vanced tab can be used to allow access on a range of ports.
Encryption
You may wish to protect your sensitive personal data—for instance, financial
records—by encrypting it. lncrypting a file or folder essentially “lods” that
file or folder by encoding it with an algorithm that keeps it scrambled until it
is properly decoded with a password. lncrypting your personal data ensures
that no one can open your personal folders or read your private data without
your private key.
Ubuntu includes a number of tools to encrypt files and folders. Tis dap-
ter will discuss two of these. lor further information on using encryption
with either single files or email, see Ubuntu Community Help documents at
hups·//help.ubuntu.com/community.
1¡¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Home foIder
When installing Ubuntu, it is possible to encrypt a user’s home folder. See
Chapter 1· lnstallation for more on encrypting the home folder.
Private foIder
lf you have not dosen to encrypt a user’s entire home folder, it is possible to
encrypt a single folder—called Private—in a user’s home folder. To do this,
follow these steps·
1. lnstall the ecryptfs-utils sonware padage.
:. Use the terminal to run ecryptfs-setup-private to set up the private
folder.
¡. lnter your account’s password when prompted.
¡. lither doose a mount passphrase or generate one.
¸. Record both passphrases in a safe location. Tese are required if you ever
have to recover your data manually.
e. log out and log bad in to mount the encrypted folder.
Aner the Private folder has been set up, any files or folders in it will auto-
matically be encrypted.
lf you need to recover your encrypted files manually see https·//help.
ubuntu.com/community/lncryptedPrivateDirectory.
8 TroubIeshooting
ResoIving probIems
Sometimes, things simply do not work as they should. ludily, problems
encountered while working with Ubuntu are easily fixed. Below, we offer
a guide to resolving basic problems that users may encounter while using
Ubuntu. lf you exhaust the troubleshooting advice below, see Geuing more
help to learn about seeking support from the Ubuntu community.
TroubIeshooting guide
Te key to effective troubleshooting is working slowly and methodically,
documenting danges you make to your Ubuntu system at every step. Tis
way, you will always be able to roll bad your work—and give fellow users
information about your previous auempts, in the unlikely event that you
should need to turn to the community for support.
Ubuntu faiIs to start aner !’ve instaIIed Windous
Occasionally you may install Ubuntu and then decide to install Microson
Windows as a second operating system running side-by-side with Ubuntu.
While this is supported by Ubuntu, you may find that aner installing Win-
dows you may no longer be able to start Ubuntu.
When you first turn on your computer, a program called a “bootloader”
must start Ubuntu or another operating system. When you installed Ubuntu, A bootIoader is the initial soúware that
loads the operating system when you turn
on the computer.
you installed an advanced bootloader called crun that allowed you to doose
between the various operating systems on your computer, sud as Ubuntu,
Windows and others. However, when you installed Windows, it replaced
ciun with its own bootloader, thus removing the ability to doose whid
operating system you’d like to use. You can easily restore ciun—and regain
the ability to doose your operating system—by using the same ci you used to
install Ubuntu.
lirst, insert your Ubuntu ci into your computer and restart it, making sure
to have your computer start the operating system that is on the ci itself (see
Chapter 1· lnstallation). Next, doose your language and select Try Ubuntu.
Wait while the sonware loads. You will need to type some code to restore
your bootloader. On the Applications menu, clid Accessories, and then clid
the Terminal item. lnter the following·
$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/hda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
1¡e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 1224 64228+ 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 * 1225 2440 9767520 a5 Windows
/dev/sda3 2441 14593 97618972+ 5 Extended
/dev/sda4 14532 14593 498015 82 Linux swap
Partition table entries are not in disk order
Tis output means that your system (linux, on whid Ubuntu is based) 1he device (/dev/sda1, /dev/sda:, etc) we
are looking for is identified by the word
“Linux” in the System column. Modify the
instructions below if necessary, replacing
/dev/sda1 with the name of your Linux
device.
is installed on device /dev/sda1, but your computer is booting to /dev/sda:
(where Windows is located). We need to rectify this by telling the computer to
boot to the linux device instead.
To do this, first create a place to manipulate your Ubuntu installation·
$ sudo mkdir /media/root
Next, link your Ubuntu installation and this new folder·
$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/root
lf you’ve done this correctly, then you should see the following·
$ ls /media/root
bin dev home lib mnt root srv usr
boot etc initrd lib64 opt sbin sys var
cdrom initrd.img media proc selinux tmp vmlinuz
Now, you can reinstall ciun·
$ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/root /dev/sda
Installation finished. No error reported.
This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/device.map.
Check if this is correct or not. If any of the lines is incorrect,
fix it and re-run the script grub-install.
(hd0) /dev/sda
linally, remove the Ubuntu disc from your ciio· drive, reboot your
computer, and enjoy your Ubuntu system once again.
Tis guide may not work for all Ubuntu users due to differences in sys-
tem configuration. Still, this is the recommended method, and the most suc-
cessful method, for restoring the ciun bootloader. lf following this guide
does not restore ciun on your computer, please consider trying some of
the other troubleshooting methods at https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/
RecoveringUbuntuAfterlnstallingWindows. When following the instructions,
please note that your Ubuntu installation uses Grub:. Tis guide replicates
the method described in the first section of the referenced web page. Please
consider starting with the third section, https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/
RecoveringUbuntuAfterlnstallingWindows.
1iouniisnoo1ixc 1¡,
Ubuntu doesn’t present the Iogin screen uhen my computer boots
Te simplest and easiest way to correct this issue is to order Ubuntu to reset
the graphics configuration. Press and hold Control, Alt and F1. You should
now see a blad and white screen with a prompt for your username and
password.
lnter your username, press Enter, and then enter your password. (Char-
acters +:|| noì appear on the screen as you enter your password. Don’t worry
—this behavior is normal and was implemented for security purposes). Next,
enter the following commands. Your password will be needed again.
$ sudo cd /etc/X11
$ sudo mv ./xorg.conf ./xorg.conf_old
$ sudo service gdm stop
$ sudo X -configure
$ sudo mv ./xorg.conf.new ./xorg.conf
$ sudo reboot now
Ubuntu will reboot, and your login screen should be restored.
! forgot my passuord
lf you forget your password in Ubuntu, you will need to reset it using “Recov-
ery mode.”
To start Recovery mode, shut down your computer, then power it up.
As the computer starts up, press Shiß (Grub:) lsc (Grub1) when you see
the white-on-blad screen with a countdown (the ciun prompt). Select the
Recovery mode option using the arrow keys on your keyboard. Recovery
mode should be the second item in the list.
Wait while Ubuntu starts up. You +:|| noì see a normal login screen. ln-
stead, you will be presented with a terminal prompt that looks something
like·
root@something#
To reset your password, enter·
$ passwd username
Replace “username” above with your username. Ubuntu will prompt you
for a new password. lnter your desired password, press enter and then type
your password again, pressing enter aner you are done. (Ubuntu asks for your
password twice to make sure you did not make a mistake while typing). Once
you have restored your password, return to the normal system environment
by entering·
$ init 2
login as usual and continue enjoying Ubuntu.
1¡8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Figure 8.1· 1his is the grub screen in which
you can choose recovery mode.
! accidentaIIy deIeted some fiIes that ! need
lf you’ve deleted a file by accident, you may be able to recover it from
Ubuntu’s trash folder. Tis is a special folder where Ubuntu stores deleted
files before they are permanently removed from your computer.
1he Wastebasket is called different things
in various parts of the desktop. 1his could
cause confusion. 1his is a known issue
and will be resolved in the next version
of c·o·r. 1he Wastebasket could also be
know as the “Deleted Items Folder“.
To access the trash folder, select Places ‣ Computer from the top panel,
then doose Trash from the list of places in the len-hand sidebar of the win-
dow that appears (alternatively, clid on the trash applet at the far right of
the bouom panel). To remove items from this folder and restore them to your
computer, right-clid on the items you want and select Restore, or otherwise
drag them wherever you would like (we recommend a memorable location,
sud as your home folder or desktop).
1iouniisnoo1ixc 1¡,
Hou do ! cIean Ubuntu'
Over time, Ubuntu’s sonware padaging system can accumulate unused pad-
ages or temporary files. Tese temporary files, also called cades, contain
padage files from all of the padages that you have ever installed. lventu-
ally, this cade can grow quite large. Removing them allows you to reclaim
space on your computer’s hard drive for storing your documents, music,
photographs, or other files.
To clear the cade, you can use either the clean, or the autoclean option
for a command-line program called apt-get. Te clean command will re-
move every single caded item, while the autoclean command only removes
caded items that can no longer be downloaded (these items are onen unnec-
essary). To run clean, open Terminal and type·
$ sudo apt-get clean
Padages can also become unused over time. lf a padage was installed to
assist with running another program—and that program was subsequently
removed—you no longer need the supporting padage. You can remove it with
autoremove.
load Terminal and type·
$ sudo apt-get autoremove
to remove the unnecessary padages.
! can’t pIay certain audio or video fiIes
Many of the formats used to deliver rid media content are proprietary,
meaning they are not free to use, modify and distribute with an open-source
operating system like Ubuntu. Terefore, Ubuntu does not include the ca-
pability to use these formats by default; however, users can easily configure
Ubuntu to use these proprietary formats. lor more information about the
differences between open source and proprietary sonware, see Chapter ,·
learning more.
lf you find yourself in need of a proprietary format, you may install the
files necessary for using this format with one command. Before initiating this
command, ensure that you have Universe and Multiverse repositories enabled.
See the Synaptic Padage Manager section to learn how to do this.
Open the Ubuntu Sonware Center by selecting it from Applications.
Seard for ubuntu-restricted-extras by typing “ubuntu restricted extras”
in the seard box on the right-hand side of the Ubuntu Sonware Center’s
main window. When the Sonware Center finds the appropriate sonware, clid
the arrow next to its title. Clid Install, then wait while Ubuntu installs the
appropriate sonware.
Once Ubuntu has successfully installed sonware, your rid media content
should work properly.
1¡o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Hou can ! change my screen resoIution'
Te image on every monitor is composed of millions of liule colored dots
called pixels. Changing the number of pixels displayed on your monitor is
called “danging the resolution.” lncreasing the resolution will make the dis-
played images sharper, but will also tend to make them smaller. Te opposite
is true when screen resolution is decreased. Most monitors have a “native res-
olution,” whid is a resolution that most closely matdes the number of pixels
in the monitor. Your display will usually be sharpest when your operating
system uses a resolution that matdes your display’s native resolution.
Te Ubuntu configuration utility Monitors allows users to dange the
resolution. Open it by doosing System from the Main Menu, then doosing
Preferences and then Monitors. Te resolution can be danged using the
drop down list within the program. Piding options higher up on the list (for
example, those with larger numbers) will increase the resolution.
Figure 8.:· You can change your display
seuings.
You can experiment with various resolutions by cliding Apply at the bot-
tom of the window until you find one that’s comfortable for you. Typically
the highest resolution will be the native resolution. Selecting a resolution
and cliding Apply will temporarily dange the screen resolution to the se-
lected value. A dialog box will also be displayed. lt allows you to revert to
the previous resolution seuing or keep the new resolution. Te dialog box
will disappear in ¡o seconds, restoring the old resolution.Tis feature was
implemented to prevent someone from being loded out of the computer by
a resolution that distorts the monitor and makes it unusable. When you have
finished seuing the screen resolution, clid Close.
1iouniisnoo1ixc 1¡1
Figure 8._· You can revert back to your old
seuings if you need to.
Ubuntu is not uorking properIy on my AppIe MacBook or MacBook
Pro
When installed on notebook computers from Apple—sud as the MacBook or
MacBook Pro—Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in
components, including the iSight camera and the Airport wireless lnternet
adapter. ludily, the Ubuntu community offers documentation on fixing these
and other problems. lf you are having trouble installing or using Ubuntu on
your Apple notebook computer, please follow the instructions at https·//help.
ubuntu.com/community/MacBook. You can select the appropriate guide aner
identifying your computer’s model number. lor instructions on doing this,
visit the web page above.
Ubuntu is not uorking properIy on my Asus EeePC
When installed on netbook computers from Asus—sud as the leePC—
Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in components,
including the keyboard shortcut keys and the wireless lnternet adapter.
Te Ubuntu community offers documentation on enabling these com-
ponents and fixing other problems. lf you are having trouble installing
or using Ubuntu on your Asus leePC, please follow the instructions at
https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/leePC. Tis documentation page con-
tains information pertaining specifically to leePC netbooks.
My harduare is not uorking properIy
Ubuntu occasionally has difficulty running on certain computers, gener-
ally when hardware manufacturers use non-standard or proprietary com-
ponents. Te Ubuntu community offers documentation to help you trou-
bleshoot many issues that may arise from this situation, including problems
with wireless cards, scanners, mice and printers. You can find the complete
hardware troubleshooting guide on Ubuntu’s support wiki, accessible at
https·//wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupport. lf your hardware problems per-
sist, please see Geuing more help for more troubleshooting options or infor-
mation on obtaining support or assistance from an Ubuntu user.
1¡: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Geuing more heIp
Tis guide does not cover every possible workflow, task or issue in Ubuntu.
lf you require assistance beyond the information in the manual, you can find
a variety of support opportunities online. You can access extensive and free
documentation, buy professional support services, query the community for
free support or explore tednical solutions. More information is available here·
http·//www.ubuntu.com/support
, Learning more
What eIse can ! do uith Ubuntu'
By now, you should be able to use your Ubuntu desktop for all your daily
activities—sud as browsing the web and editing documents. But you may be
interested in learning about other versions of Ubuntu you can integrate into
your digital lifestyle. ln this dapter, we’ll provide you with more detail about
versions of Ubuntu that are specialized for certain tasks. But first, we’ll first
discuss the tednologies that make Ubuntu a powerful collection of sonware.
Open Source Sonuare
Ubuntu is open source sonware. Open source sonware differs from propri-
etary sonware—sonware whose source code is patented and is therefore not
freely available for modification or distribution by anyone but the rightsh-
older.Microson Windows and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary 1he source code of a program is the
collection files that have been wriuen in a
computer language to make the program.
sonware.
Proprietary sonuare is soúware that
cannot be copied, modified, or distributed
freely.
Unlike proprietary sonware programs, Ubuntu is specifically licensed
to promote sharing and collaboration. Te legal rules governing Ubuntu’s
production and distribution ensure that anyone can obtain, run, or share it
for any purpose they wish. Computer users can modify open source sonware
to suit their individual needs, share it, improve it, or translate it into other
languages—provided they release these modifications so others can do the
same. ln fact, the terms of many open source licensing agreements make it
illegal not to do so.
Because open source sonware is developed by large communities of pro-
grammers distributed throughout the globe, it benefits from rapid develop-
ment cycles and speedy security releases (in the event that someone discovers
bugs in the sonware). ln other words, open source sonware is updated, en-
hanced, and made more secure every day as programmers all over the world
continue to improve it.
Aside from these tednical advantages, open source sonware also has
economic benefits. While users must adhere to the terms of an open source
licensing agreement when installing and using Ubuntu, for instance, they
needn’t pay to obtain this license. While not all open source sonware is free of
monetary costs, mud is.
To learn more about open source sonware, see the Open Source lnitia-
tive’s open source definition, available at http·//www.opensource.org/docs/
definition.php.
1¡¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Distribution famiIies
Ubuntu is one of several popular operating systems based on linux (an open
source operating system). While other versions of linux, or “distributions,”
may look different from Ubuntu at first glance, they share similar daracteris-
tics because of their common roots. A distribution, or “distro,” is a operating
system made from open source programs,
bundled together to make them easier to
install and use.
linux distributions can be divided into two broad families· the Debian
family and the Red Hat family. lad family is named for a distribution on
whid subsequent distributions are based. lor example, “Debian” refers to
both the name of a distribution as well as the family of distributions derived
from Debian. Ubuntu is part of the Debian family of distributions, as are
linux Mint, Xandros, and CrundBang linux. Distributions in the Red Hat
family include ledora, openSUSl, and Mandriva.
Te most significant difference between Debian-based and Red Hat-based
distributions is the system ead uses for installing and updating sonware.
Tese systems are called “padage management systems.”Debian sonware Package management systems are
the means by which users can install,
remove, and organize soúware installed
on computers with open source operating
systems like Ubuntu.
padages are iin files, while Red Hat sonware padages are ii· files. lor
more information about padage management, see Chapter ¸· Sonware Man-
agement.
You will also find distributions that have been specialized for certain tasks.
Next, we’ll describe these versions of Ubuntu and explain the uses for whid
ead has been developed.
Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its derivatives
Just as Ubuntu is based on Debian, several distributions are subsequently
based on Ubuntu. Some of these are made for general use, and ead differs
with respect to the sonware included as part of the distribution. Others are
designed for specialized uses.
lour derivative distributions are officially recognized and supported by
both Canonical and the Ubuntu community. Tese are·
‣ Ubuntu Netbook Edition, whid is optimized for netbook computers.
‣ Kubuntu, whid uses the xii graphical environment instead of the cxo·i
environment found in Ubuntu;
‣ Edubuntu, whid is designed for use in sdools; and
‣ Ubuntu Server Edition, whid is designed for use on servers, and typi-
cally is not used as a desktop operating system because it doesn’t have a
graphical interface.
lour other derivatives of Ubuntu are available. Tese include·
‣ Xubuntu, whid uses the xici graphical environment instead of the
cxo·i environment found in Ubuntu;
‣ Ubuntu Studio, whid is designed for creating and editing multimedia; and
‣ Mythbuntu, whid is designed for creating a home theater ic with
MythTV (an open source digital video recorder).
ii~ixixc ·oii 1¡¸
lor more information about these derivative distributions, see http·//www.
ubuntu.com/project/derivatives.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition
Ubuntu Netbook ldition is a version of Ubuntu designed specifically for
netbook computers.lt is optimized for computing devices with small screens Netbooks are lowcost, lowpower note
book computers designed chiefly for
accessing the Internet.
and limited resources (like the energy-saving processors and smaller hard
disks common among netbooks). Ubuntu Netbook ldition sports a unique
interface and features a collection of sonware applications particularly useful
to on-the-go users.
Because many netbooks do not contain ciio· drives, Ubuntu Netbook
ldition allows users to install it on their computers using usn flash drives.
To learn more about using a flash drive to install Ubuntu Netbook ldition on
a netbook computer, visit https·//help.ubuntu.com/community/lnstallation/
lromlmgliles.
Ubuntu Server Edition
Te Ubuntu Server ldition is an operating system optimized to perform
multiuser tasks when installed on servers.Sud tasks include file sharing and A server is a computer that’s been con
figured to manage, or “serve,” files many
people wish to access.
website or email hosting. lf you are planning to use a computer to perform
tasks like these, you may wish to use this specialized server distribution in
conjunction with server hardware.
Tis manual does not explain the process of running a secure web server
or performing other tasks possible with Ubuntu Server ldition. lor details on
using Ubuntu Server ldition, refer to the manual at http·//www.ubuntu.com/
server.
Ubuntu Studio
Tis derivative of Ubuntu is designed specifically for people who use com-
puters to create and edit multimedia projects. lor instance, it features ap-
plications to help users manipulate images, compose music, and edit video.
While users can install these applications on computers running the desktop
version of Ubuntu, Ubuntu Studio makes them all available immediately upon
installation.
lf you would like to learn more about Ubuntu Studio (or obtain a copy for
yourself), visit http·//ubuntustudio.org/home.
Mythbuntu
Mythbuntu allows users to turn their computers into entertainment systems.
lt helps users organize and view various types of multimedia content sud as
movies, television shows, and video podcasts. Users with 1v tuners in their
computers can also use Mythbuntu to record live video and television shows.
1¡e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
To learn more about Mythbuntu, visit http·//www.mythbuntu.org/.
¡:-bit or o¡-bit'
As mentioned earlier in this manual, Ubuntu and its derivatives are available
in two versions· ¡:-bit and e¡-bit. Tis difference refers to the way computers
process information. Computers capable of running e¡-bit sonware are able to
process more information than computers running ¡:-bit sonware; however,
e¡-bit systems require more memory in order to do this. Nevertheless, these
computers gain performance enhancements by running e¡-bit sonware.
Why doose one over another` Pay auention to the version you select in
the following cases·
‣ lf your computer is fairly old (made before :oo,), then you may want to
install the ¡:-bit version of Ubuntu. Tis is also the case for most netbooks.
‣ lf your computer has more than ¡ cn of memory (i~·), then you may need
to install the e¡-bit version in order to use all the installed memory.
Finding additionaI heIp and support
Tis guide is not intended to be an all-encompassing resource filled with ev-
erything you’ll ever need to know about Ubuntu. Because Geu:ng SìorìeJ
+:ì| U|vnìv :o.o, could never answer all your questions, we encourage you
to take advantage of Ubuntu’s vast community when seeking further infor-
mation, troubleshooting tednical issues, or asking questions about your com-
puter. Below, we’ll discuss a few of these resources—located both inside the
operating system and on the lnternet—so you can learn more about Ubuntu or
other linux distributions.
System heIp
lf you need additional help when using Ubuntu or its applications, clid
the Help icon on the top panel, or navigate to System‣ Help and Support.
Ubuntu’s built-in help guide covers a broad range of topics in great detail.
OnIine Ubuntu heIp
Te Ubuntu Documentation team has created and maintains a series of wiki
pages designed to help both new and experienced users learn more about
Ubuntu. You can access these at http·//help.ubuntu.com.
The Ubuntu Forums
Te Ubuntu lorums are the official forums of the Ubuntu community. Mil-
lions of Ubuntu users use them daily to seek help and support from one
another. You can create an Ubuntu lorums account in minutes. To create
ii~ixixc ·oii 1¡,
an account and learn more about Ubuntu from community members, visit
http·//ubuntuforums.org.
Launchpad Ansuers
laundpad, an open source code repository and user community, provides a
question and answer service that allows anyone to ask questions about any
Ubuntu-related topic. Signing up for a laundpad account requires only a few
minutes. Ask a question by visiting laundpad at https·//answers.launchpad.
net/ubuntu/-addquestion.
Live chat
lf you are familiar with lnternet relay dat (iic), you can use dat clients sud
as XChat or Pidgin to join the dannel =ubuntu on irc.freenode.net. Here,
hundreds of user volunteers can answer your questions or offer you support in
real time.
In addition to official Ubuntu and commu
nity help, you will oúen find thirdparty
help available on the Internet. While these
documents can oúen be great resources,
some could be misleading or outdated. It’s
always best to verify information from
thirdparty sources before taking their
advice.
LoCo teams
Within the Ubuntu community are dozens of local user groups called “loCo
teams.” Spread throughout the world, these teams offer support and ad-
vice, answer questions and promote Ubuntu in their communities by host-
ing regular events. To locate and contact the loCo team nearest you, visit
http·//loco.ubuntu.com/.
Community support
lf you’ve exhausted all these resources and still can’t find answers to your
questions, visit Community Support at http·//www.ubuntu.com/support/
community.
A License
1ni woix (~s iiiixii niiow) is iioviiii uxiii 1ni 1ii·s oi 1nis cii
~1ivi co··oxs iuniic iicixsi (“ccii” oi “iicixsi”). 1ni woix is iio
1ic1ii nv coiviicn1 ~xi/oi o1nii ~iiiic~nii i~w. ~xv usi oi 1ni woix
o1nii 1n~x ~s ~u1noiizii uxiii 1nis iicixsi oi coiviicn1 i~w is iio
nini1ii.
nv ixiicisixc ~xv iicn1s 1o 1ni woix iioviiii niii, vou ~ccii1
~xi ~ciii 1o ni nouxi nv 1ni 1ii·s oi 1nis iicixsi. 1o 1ni ix1ix1 1nis
iicixsi ·~v ni coxsiiiiii 1o ni ~ cox1i~c1, 1ni iicixsoi ci~x1s vou
1ni iicn1s cox1~ixii niii ix coxsiiii~1iox oi voui ~ccii1~xci oi
sucn 1ii·s ~xi coxii1ioxs.
1. Definitions
(a) “Adaptation” means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work
and other pre-existing works, sud as a translation, adaptation, deriva-
tive work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or
artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinemato-
graphic adaptations or any other form in whid the Work may be recast,
transformed, or adapted including in any form recognizably derived
from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will
not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this license. lor the
avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical work, performance
or phonogram, the syndronization of the Work in timed-relation with
a moving image (“synding”) will be considered an Adaptation for the
purpose of this license.
(b) “Collection” means a collection of literary or artistic works, sud as
encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broad-
casts, or other works or subject mauer other than works listed in Sec-
tion 1(f) below, whid, by reason of the selection and arrangement of
their contents, constitute intellectual creations, in whid the Work is
included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more
other contributions, ead constituting separate and independent works
in themselves, whid together are assembled into a collective whole. A
work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation
(as defined below) for the purposes of this license.
(c) “Creative Commons Compatible license” means a license that is listed
at http·//creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses that has been ap-
proved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this
license, including, at a minimum, because that license· (i) contains
terms that have the same purpose, meaning and effect as the license
1¸o ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
llements of this license; and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of
adaptations of works made available under that license under this li-
cense or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same license
llements as this license.
(d) “Distribute” means to make available to the public the original and
copies of the Work or Adaptation, as appropriate, through sale or other
transfer of ownership.
(e) “license llements” means the following high-level license auributes as
selected by licensor and indicated in the title of this license· Auribu-
tion, ShareAlike.
(f) “licensor” means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that
offer(s) the Work under the terms of this license.
(g) “Original Author” means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the
individual, individuals, entity or entities who created the Work or if
no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher; and in addition
(i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers,
and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or
otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore;
(ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal
entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds;
and, (iii) in the case of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the
broadcast.
(h) “Work” means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms
of this license including without limitation any production in the liter-
ary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form
of its expression including digital form, sud as a book, pamphlet and
other writing; a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same na-
ture; a dramatic or dramatico-musical work; a doreographic work or
entertainment in dumb show; a musical composition with or without
words; a cinematographic work to whid are assimilated works ex-
pressed by a process analogous to cinematography; a work of drawing,
painting, arditecture, sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photo-
graphic work to whid are assimilated works expressed by a process
analogous to photography; a work of applied art; an illustration, map,
plan, sketd or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topogra-
phy, arditecture or science; a performance; a broadcast; a phonogram; a
compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work;
or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is
not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.
(i) “You” means an individual or entity exercising rights under this license
who has not previously violated the terms of this license with respect to
the Work, or who has received express permission from the licensor to
exercise rights under this license despite a previous violation.
(j) “Publicly Perform” means to perform public recitations of the Work and
iicixsi 1¸1
to communicate to the public those public recitations, by any means
or process, including by wire or wireless means or public digital per-
formances; to make available to the public Works in sud a way that
members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a
place individually dosen by them; to perform the Work to the public
by any means or process and the communication to the public of the
performances of the Work, including by public digital performance;
to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs,
sounds or images.
(k) “Reproduce” means to make copies of the Work by any means includ-
ing without limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of
fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work, including storage of a
protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic
medium.
:. lair Dealing Rights. Nothing in this license is intended to reduce, limit, or
restrict any uses free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or
exceptions that are provided for in connection with the copyright protec-
tion under copyright law or other applicable laws.
¡. license Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this license, licensor
hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for
the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the
Work as stated below·
(a) to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Col-
lections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections;
(b) to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any sud Adapta-
tion, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to
clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that danges were made
to the original Work. lor example, a translation could be marked “Te
original work was translated from lnglish to Spanish,” or a modification
could indicate “Te original work has been modified.”;
(c) to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated
in Collections; and,
(d) to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations.
(e) lor the avoidance of doubt·
i. Non-waivable Compulsory license Sdemes. ln those jurisdictions
in whid the right to collect royalties through any statutory or com-
pulsory licensing sdeme cannot be waived, the licensor reserves the
exclusive right to collect sud royalties for any exercise by You of the
rights granted under this license;
ii. Waivable Compulsory license Sdemes. ln those jurisdictions in
whid the right to collect royalties through any statutory or com-
pulsory licensing sdeme can be waived, the licensor waives the
1¸: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
exclusive right to collect sud royalties for any exercise by You of the
rights granted under this license; and,
iii. Voluntary license Sdemes. Te licensor waives the right to collect
royalties, whether individually or, in the event that the licensor is a
member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing
sdemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the rights
granted under this license.
Te above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether
now known or hereaner devised. Te above rights include the right to
make sud modifications as are tednically necessary to exercise the
rights in other media and formats. Subject to Section 8(f), all rights not
expressly granted by licensor are hereby reserved.
¡. Restrictions. Te license granted in Section ¡ above is expressly made
subject to and limited by the following restrictions·
(a) You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms
of this license. You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource
ldentifier (URl) for, this license with every copy of the Work You Dis-
tribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on
the Work that restrict the terms of this license or the ability of the re-
cipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under
the terms of the license. You may not sublicense the Work. You must
keep intact all notices that refer to this license and to the disclaimer of
warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Per-
form. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not
impose any effective tednological measures on the Work that restrict
the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights
granted to that recipient under the terms of the license. Tis Section
¡(a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection, but this does
not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made sub-
ject to the terms of this license. lf You create a Collection, upon notice
from any licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the
Collection any credit as required by Section ¡(c), as requested. lf You
create an Adaptation, upon notice from any licensor You must, to the
extent practicable, remove from the Adaptation any credit as required
by Section ¡(c), as requested.
(b) You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the
terms of· (i) this license; (ii) a later version of this license with the
same license llements as this license; (iii) a Creative Commons juris-
diction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the
same license llements as this license (e.g., Auribution-ShareAlike ¡.o
US)); (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible license. lf you license the
Adaptation under one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must com-
ply with the terms of that license. lf you license the Adaptation under
iicixsi 1¸¡
the terms of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) or (iii) (the “Ap-
plicable license”), you must comply with the terms of the Applicable
license generally and the following provisions· (l) You must include
a copy of, or the URl for, the Applicable license with every copy of
ead Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (ll) You may not
offer or impose any terms on the Adaptation that restrict the terms of
the Applicable license or the ability of the recipient of the Adaptation
to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the
Applicable license; (lll) You must keep intact all notices that refer to the
Applicable license and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy
of the Work as included in the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly
Perform; (lV) when You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Adapta-
tion, You may not impose any effective tednological measures on the
Adaptation that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Adaptation from
You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of
the Applicable license. Tis Section ¡(b) applies to the Adaptation as
incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection
apart from the Adaptation itself to be made subject to the terms of the
Applicable license.
(c) lf You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations
or Collections, You must, unless a request has been made pursuant to
Section ¡(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide,
reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing· (i) the name of
the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if
the Original Author and/or licensor designate another party or parties
(e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for auribution
(“Auribution Parties”) in licensor’s copyright notice, terms of service
or by other reasonable means, the name of sud party or parties; (ii) the
title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable,
the URl, if any, that licensor specifies to be associated with the Work,
unless sud URl does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing
information for the Work; and (iv) , consistent with Ssection ¡(b), in
the case of an Adaptation, a credit identifying the use of the Work
in the Adaptation (e.g., “lrend translation of the Work by Original
Author,” or “Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author”).
Te credit required by this Section ¡(c) may be implemented in any
reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Adaptation
or Collection, at a minimum sud credit will appear, if a credit for all
contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears, then
as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the
credits for the other contributing authors. lor the avoidance of doubt,
You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose
of auribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your
rights under this license, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or
1¸¡ ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original
Author, licensor and/or Auribution Parties, as appropriate, of You
or Your use of the Work, without the separate, express prior wriuen
permission of the Original Author, licensor and/or Auribution Parties.
(d) lxcept as otherwise agreed in writing by the licensor or as may be
otherwise permiued by applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or
Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations
or Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other
derogatory action in relation to the Work whid would be prejudicial to
the Original Author’s honor or reputation. licensor agrees that in those
jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), in whid any exercise of the right granted in
Section ¡(b) of this license (the right to make Adaptations) would be
deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or other derogatory
action prejudicial to the Original Author’s honor and reputation, the
licensor will waive or not assert, as appropriate, this Section, to the
fullest extent permiued by the applicable national law, to enable You to
reasonably exercise Your right under Section ¡(b) of this license (right
to make Adaptations) but not otherwise.
¸. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer
uxiiss o1niiwisi ·u1u~iiv ~ciiii 1o nv 1ni i~i1iis ix wii1ixc,
iicixsoi oiiiis 1ni woix ~sis ~xi ·~xis xo iiiiisix1~1ioxs oi
w~ii~x1iis oi ~xv xixi coxciixixc 1ni woix, ixiiiss, i·iiiii,
s1~1u1oiv oi o1niiwisi, ixciuiixc, wi1nou1 ii·i1~1iox, w~ii~x1iis
oi 1i1ii, ·iicn~x1iniii1v, ii1xiss ioi ~ i~i1icui~i iuiiosi, xoxix
iiixci·ix1, oi 1ni ~nsixci oi i~1ix1 oi o1nii iiiic1s, ~ccui~cv,
oi 1ni iiisixci oi ~nsixci oi iiiois, wni1nii oi xo1 iiscovii
~nii. so·i Juiisiic1ioxs io xo1 ~iiow 1ni ixciusiox oi i·iiiii
w~ii~x1iis, so sucn ixciusiox ·~v xo1 ~iiiv 1o vou.
e. limitation on liability. ixcii1 1o 1ni ix1ix1 iiçuiiii nv ~iiiic~nii
i~w, ix xo ivix1 wiii iicixsoi ni ii~nii 1o vou ox ~xv iic~i 1nioiv
ioi ~xv siici~i, ixciiix1~i, coxsiçuix1i~i, iuxi1ivi oi ixi·ii~iv
i~·~cis ~iisixc ou1 oi 1nis iicixsi oi 1ni usi oi 1ni woix, ivix ii
iicixsoi n~s niix ~ivisii oi 1ni iossiniii1v oi sucn i~·~cis.
,. Termination
(a) Tis license and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automati-
cally upon any bread by You of the terms of this license. lndividuals or
entities who have received Adaptations or Collections from You under
this license, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided
sud individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those li-
censes. Sections 1, :, ¸, e, ,, and 8 will survive any termination of this
license.
(b) Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is
perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work).
iicixsi 1¸¸
Notwithstanding the above, licensor reserves the right to release the
Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at
any time; provided, however that any sud election will not serve to
withdraw this license (or any other license that has been, or is required
to be, granted under the terms of this license), and this license will
continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.
8. Miscellaneous
(a) lad time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection,
the licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same
terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this license.
(b) lad time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation, licensor
offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms
and conditions as the license granted to You under this license.
(c) lf any provision of this license is invalid or unenforceable under ap-
plicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the re-
mainder of the terms of this license, and without further action by the
parties to this agreement, sud provision shall be reformed to the mini-
mum extent necessary to make sud provision valid and enforceable.
(d) No term or provision of this license shall be deemed waived and no
bread consented to unless sud waiver or consent shall be in writing
and signed by the party to be darged with sud waiver or consent.
(e) Tis license constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with
respect to the Work licensed here. Tere are no understandings, agree-
ments or representations with respect to the Work not specified here.
licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may ap-
pear in any communication from You. Tis license may not be modified
without the mutual wriuen agreement of the licensor and You.
(f) Te rights granted under, and the subject mauer referenced, in this
license were draned utilizing the terminology of the Berne Conven-
tion for the Protection of literary and Artistic Works (as amended on
September :8, 1,,,), the Rome Convention of 1,e1, the WlPO Copyright
Treaty of 1,,e, the WlPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1,,e
and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July :¡, 1,,1).
Tese rights and subject mauer take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in
whid the license terms are sought to be enforced according to the cor-
responding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions
in the applicable national law. lf the standard suite of rights granted
under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted
under this license, sud additional rights are deemed to be included in
the license; this license is not intended to restrict the license of any
rights under applicable law.
1¸e ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
Creative Commons Notice
Creative Commons is not a party to this license, and makes no warranty
whatsoever in connection with the Work. Creative Commons will not be
liable to You or any party on any legal theory for any damages whatsoever,
including without limitation any general, special, incidental or consequential
damages arising in connection to this license. Notwithstanding the foregoing
two (:) sentences, if Creative Commons has expressly identified itself as the
licensor hereunder, it shall have all rights and obligations of licensor.
lxcept for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is
licensed under the CCPl, Creative Commons does not authorize the use by
either party of the trademark “Creative Commons” or any related trademark
or logo of Creative Commons without the prior wriuen consent of Creative
Commons. Any permiued use will be in compliance with Creative Commons’
then-current trademark usage guidelines, as may be published on its website
or otherwise made available upon request from time to time. lor the avoid-
ance of doubt, this trademark restriction does not form part of the license.
Creative Commons may be contacted at http·//creativecommons.org/.
GIossary
o¡¡|eì An applet is a small program that runs in a panel. Applets provide
useful functions sud as starting a program, viewing the time, or accessing
the main menu.
Conon:co| Canonical, the financial bader of Ubuntu, provides support for
the core Ubuntu system. lt has over ¡1o paid staff members worldwide
who ensure that the foundation of the operating system is stable, as well as
deding all the work submiued by volunteer contributors. To learn more
about Canonical, go to http·//www.canonical.com.
cvr:or Te blinking cursor that appears aner the prompt in the terminal is
used to show you where text will appear when you start typing. You can
move it around with arrow keys on your keyboard.
Jecry¡ìeJ When you decrypt an encrypted file it becomes decrypted, and
viewable. lncrypted files on Ubuntu are not recognizable in any language,
they are just a string of random numbers and leuers until they are de-
crypted using a password.
Je:|ìo¡ en+:ronmenì A generic term to describe a cui interface for humans
to interact with computers. Tere are many desktop environments sud as
cxo·i, xii, xici and ixii just to name a few.
nncì inci stands for Dynom:c Ho:ì Configvroì:on Proìoco|, it is used by a
inci server to assign computers on a network an ii address automatically.
J:o|v¡ connecì:on A dialup connection is when your computer uses a modem
to connect to an isi through your telephone line.
J::ìr:|vì:on A distribution is a collection of sonware that is already compiled
and configured ready to be installed. Ubuntu is an example of a distribu-
tion.
Jvo||ooì:ng dual-booting is the process of being able to doose one of two
different operating systems currently installed on a computer from the
boot menu, once selected your computer will then boot into whidever
operating system you dose at the boot menu. Dual booting is a generic
term, and can refer to more than two operating systems.
Fì|erneì ¡orì An lthernet port is what an lthernet cable is plugged into
when you are using a wired connection.
c×omì cxo·i (whid once stood for cxu Network Object Model lnviron-
ment) is the default desktop environment used in Ubuntu.
cuì Te cui (whid stands for Graphical User lnterface) is a type of user
1¸8 ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
interface that allows humans to interact with the computer using graphics
and images rather than just text.
ì·ì isi stands for Inìerneì Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer, an isi is a company that provides
you with your lnternet connection.
|erne| A kernel is the central portion of a Unix-based operating system,
responsible for running applications, processes, and providing security for
the core components.
maximize When you maximize an application in Ubuntu it will fill the whole
desktop, excluding the panels.
MeMenv Te MeMenu in Ubuntu 1o.o¡ allows you to manage your presence
on social networking services. lt also allows you to publish status messages
to all of your accounts by entering updates into a text field.
m:n:m::e When you minimize an open application, the window will no
longer be shown. lf you clid on a minimized application’s panel buuon, it
will then be restored to its normal state and allow you to interact with it.
noì:ficoì:on oreo Te notification area is an applet on the panel that provides
you with all sorts of information sud as volume control, the current song
playing in Rhythmbox, your lnternet connection status and email status.
ovì¡vì Te output of a command is any text it displays on the next line aner
typing a command and pressing enter, e.g., if you type pwd into a terminal
and press Enter, the directory name it displays on the next line is the
output.
¡odoge Padages contain sonware in a ready-to-install format. Most of
the time you can use the Sonware Center instead of manually installing
padages. Padages have a .deb extension in Ubuntu.
¡one| A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen. lt contains applets
whid provide useful functions sud as running programs, viewing the
time, or accessing the main menu.
¡oromeìer Parameters are special options that you can use with other com-
mands in the terminal to make that command behave differently, this can
make a lot of commands far more useful.
¡orì:ì:on A partition is an area of allocated space on a hard drive where you
can put data.
¡orì:ì:on:ng partitioning is the process of creating a partition.
¡rom¡ì Te prompt displays some useful information about your computer,
it can be customized to display in different colors as well as being able to
display the time, date and current directory as well as almost anything else
you like.
cioss~iv 1¸,
¡ro¡r:eìory Sonware made by companies that don’t release their source code
under an open source license.
rovìer A router is a specially designed computer that using its sonware and
hardware, routes information from the lnternet to a network. lt is also
sometimes called a gateway.
:er+er A server is a computer that runs a specialized operating system and
provides services to computers that connect to it and make a request.
:|e|| Te terminal gives access to the shell, when you type a command into
the terminal and press enter the shell takes that command and performs
the relevant action.
So[+ore Cenìer Te Sonware Center is where you can easily manage son-
ware installation and removal as well as the ability to manage sonware
installed via Personal Padage Ardives.
ìerm:no| Te terminal is Ubuntu’s text only interface, it is a method of con-
trolling some aspects of the operating system using only commands en-
tered via the keyboard.
+:reJ connecì:on A wired connection is when your computer is physically
connected to a router or lthernet port with a cable, this is the most com-
mon connection for desktop computers.
+:re|e:: connecì:on A wireless connection involves no cables of any sort and
instead uses a wireless signal to communicate with either a router, access
point or computer.
Credits
Tis manual wouldn’t have been possible without the efforts and contribu-
tions from the following people·
Team Leads
Benjamin Humphrey—Team lead
Kevin Godby—lead T
l
Xnician
Jamin Day—Head of lditing
llya Haykinson—Authors coordinator
Josh Holland—Translation maintenance
Torsten Wilms—Design
Adnane Belmadiaf—Web development
luke Jennings—Qidshot developer
Neil Tallim—Qidshot developer
Simon Vermeersh—Qidshot developer
Authors
Joe Burgess
Tomas Cantara
Sayantan Das
Kelvin Gardiner
Mau Griffin
llya Haykinson
Wolter Hellmund
Josh Holland
Benjamin Humphrey
luke Jennings
llan Kugelmass
Ryan Macnish
Editors
Bryan Behrenshausen
Jamin Day
Kevin Godby
Benjamin Humphrey
Jason Cook
Chris Woollard
Alexander lancey
Designers
K. Vishnoo Charan Reddy
Wolter Hellmund
Benjamin Humphrey
David Nel
Torsten Wilms
DeveIopers
Adnane Belmadiaf
Kevin Godby
luke Jennings
Neil Tallim
Simon Vermeersh
1e: ci11ixc s1~i1ii wi1n unux1u 1o.o¡
TransIators
Vytautas Bačiulis
Dmitry Belonogov
lrancisco Dieguez
André Gondim
Jiri Grönroos
Mohamad lmran lshak
Martin Kaba
Te KandilUG Tamil
translating team
Kentaro Kazuhama
James Kelly
George Kontis
Shushi Kurose
Martin lukeš
Kostas Milonas
Anwar Mohammed
Abhijit Navale
lmmanuel Ninos
Robert Readman
Roth Robert
Daniel Sdury
Paulius Sladkevicius
Pierre Slamid
lredrik Sudmann
Muhd Syazwan
Ralph Ulrid
Chris Woollard
John Xygonakis
Konstantinos Zigourakis
…and many others
SpeciaI Thanks
Chris¸llias
Bo
underpass
jehurd
cl¸8
kjhass
djstsys
mozilla¸help¸view¸project
Joey-llijah Alexithymia
Jono Bacon
Manualbot
Chris Johnson
llan Kugelmass
llizabeth Krumbad
Josh levereue
Walter Méndez
Martin Owens
Tim Penhey
Andy Piper
Alan Pope
Mauhew Paul Tomas
Te Ubuntu Documentation Team
Te Ubuntu Community learning Project
!ndex
About GNOMl, :8
About Ubuntu, :8
AisleRiot Solitaire, :,
Appearance Preferences, ¡¡
apt, 1:¸
apt-get, 1:¸–1:,, 1¡,
Avant Window Navigator, ¡¡
Brasero, :8, 1o¸
Cairo-Dod, ¡¡
Calculator, :,
Canonical, 8
cd, 1:o, 1:¡, 1:¡
ci/ivi Creator, :,
Cheese, 1o8
cp, 1:¡
Debian, 8
Dell, 8, 11
Dody, ¡¡
ecryptfs-setup-private, 1¡¡
lmpathy, :¡, :,, ,e, 1o8
lvolution, :¸, :8, eo–e¡, e¸–,:, 1::
l-Spot, :,, 8¡
linder, :,
lirefox, :¡, :,, ¡¡, ¡8, ¡¡, ¸o, eo
gBrainy, :,
gedit, :,, 1:¸
gksudo, 1:¡
grub-install, 1¡e
Gufw, 1¡¡
Help and Support, :8
kernel, 8, ,
Kino, 1o,
lifesaver, 11e
linux, 8–,
ls, 1:¡
Mahjongg, :,
Mines, :,
mkdir, 1:¡
Movie Player, 8,
mv, 1:¡
Nautilus, :,–¡:, ¡¡, 1::, 1¡:
Network Connections, ¡¸
NetworkManager, ¡1, ¡:
OpenOffice.org Drawing, :,
Orca, ¡e
password, 1¡o
Pidgin, 1¡,
Pitivi, :8
pwd, 1:o, 1:¡
Qadrapassel, :,
Rhythmbox, :8, ,1
rm, 1:¡
rmdir, 1:¡
root, 1¡1
Seard for liles, :,, :,
Shuuleworth, Mark, 8
Simple Scan, :,
Skype, 1o8
Sonware Center, 111–11,
Sonware Sources, 11¡, 11,
Sound Recorder, :8
sudo, 1:¡, 1:¸
Sudoku, :,
Synaptic Padage Manager, :,, 111, 11¡,
11,, 118, 1:¸
system requirements, 1¡–1¡
System,e, 11
Take Screenshot, :,
Tomboy Notes, :,
Totem, :8
Ubuntu
definition of, ,
downloading, 11–1:
history of, 8
philosophy of, ,
Ubuntu lorums, ,
Ubuntu Help Center, :¡, :8, ¡8
Ubuntu One, ,¡, ,,
Ubuntu promise, ,
Ubuntu Sonware Center, 1o, :8, :,, ¡¡,
1o,, 111, 11,, 1:¸, 1¡,
Unix, 8, ,
VlC, 1o8
Windows lxplorer, :,
Wine, ,, 1o
XChat, 1¡,
coioinox
Tis book was typeset with X
Ǝ
l
A
T
l
X.
Te book design is based on the Tune-l
A
T
l
X document classes available at http·//code.google.com/p/tufte-latex/.
Te text face is linux libertine, designed by Philipp H. Poll. lt is an open font available at http·//linuxlibertine.sf.net/.
Te captions and margin notes are set in linux Biolinum, also designed by Philipp H. Poll and available at the same uii above.
Te terminal text and keystrokes are set in Bera Mono, originally developed by Bitstream, lnc. as Bitstream Vera.
Te screenshots were captured using Qidshot, available at http·//ubuntu-manual.org/quickshot.
Te cover and title page pictograms contain shapes taken from the Humanity icon set, available at https·//launchpad.net/humanity.
Te title page and cover were designed using lnkscape, available at http·//inkscape.org/.

Copyright ©  by e Ubuntu Manual Team. Some rights reserved. cb a is work is licensed under the Creative Commons Aribution–Share Alike . License. To view a copy of this license, see Appendix A, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/./, or send a leer to Creative Commons,  Second Street, Suite , San Francisco, California, , USA. Geing Started with Ubuntu . can be purased from http://ubuntu-manual. org/buy/gswue/en. A printed copy of this book can be ordered for the price of printing and delivery. An electronic copy of this book can be downloaded for free. We permit and even encourage you to distribute a copy of this book to colleagues, friends, family, and anyone else who might be interested. http://ubuntu-manual.org Second Edition Revision number:  Revision date: -- :: -

.

Contents Prologue  Welcome  Ubuntu philosophy  A brief history of Ubuntu  Is Ubuntu right for you?  Contact details  Conventions used in this book   Installation  Geing Ubuntu  Minimum system requirements  Installing Ubuntu  e Ubuntu Desktop  Understanding the desktop  Managing windows  Switing between open windows  Using the Applications menu  Using the System menu  Browsing files on your computer  Nautilus file browser  Searing for files on your computer  Customizing your desktop  Accessibility  Managing your computer  Geing help  Working with Ubuntu  Geing online  Browsing the web  Reading and composing email  Staying organized  Using instant messaging  Microblogging  Viewing and editing photos  Wating videos and movies  Listening to audio and music  Working with documents. and presentations    . spreadsheets.

 Taking notes  Ubuntu One  Seing up Ubuntu One  Ubuntu One Preferences  More information   Hardware  Using your devices  Hardware identification  Displays  Connecting and using your printer  Sound  Burning CDs and DVDs  Using a webcam  Scanning text and images  Other devices  Soware Management  Soware management in Ubuntu  Using the Ubuntu Soware Center  Managing additional soware  Synaptic Paage Manager  Updates and Upgrades  e Command Line  Introduction to the terminal  Ubuntu file system structure  Geing started with the command line  Introducing sudo  Managing soware through the terminal  Security  Why Ubuntu is safe  Basic Security concepts and procedures  System updates  Users and groups  Seing up a secure system  Troubleshooting  Resolving problems  Troubleshooting guide  Geing more help      .     .

   Learning more  What else can I do with Ubuntu?  Open Source Soware  Distribution families  -bit or -bit?  Finding additional help and support  License  Creative Commons Notice  Glossary  Credits  Team Leads  Authors  Editors  Designers  Developers  Translators  Special anks  Index  A .

.

Prologue
Welcome
Welcome to Geing Started with Ubuntu, an introductory guide wrien to help new users get started with Ubuntu. Our goal is to cover the basics of Ubuntu (su as installation and working with the desktop) as well as guide you through some of the most popular applications. We designed this guide to be simple to follow, with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots, allowing you to discover the potential of your new Ubuntu system even if you are a novice computer user or are migrating from another operating system for the first time. Please bear in mind that this guide is still very mu a work in progress and always will be. It is wrien specifically for Ubuntu . , and although we have aimed to not limit our instructions to this version, it is unavoidable that some things will ange over the life of Ubuntu. Whenever a new version of Ubuntu is released, we will incorporate any anges into our guide, and make a new version available at http://www.ubuntu-manual.org. Geing Started with Ubuntu . is not intended to be a comprehensive Ubuntu instruction manual. It is more like a qui-start guide that will get you doing the things you need to do with your computer quily and easily, without geing bogged down with tenical details. If you are aer more detail, there are excellent resources available at http:// help.ubuntu.com. Ubuntu’s built-in system documentation is also very useful for accessing help on specific topics, and can be found by cliing System ‣ Help and Support in Ubuntu. If something isn’t covered here, ances are you will find the information you are looking for in one of those locations. We will try our best to include links to more detailed help wherever we can.

More information about Ubuntu’s online and system documentation can be found in Chapter : Learning more.

Ubuntu philosophy
e term “Ubuntu” is a traditional African concept that originated from the Bantu languages of southern Africa. It can be described as a way of connecting with others—living in a global community where your actions affect all of humanity. Ubuntu is more than just an operating system: it is a community of people that come together voluntarily to collaborate on an international soware project that aims to deliver the best possible user experience.

The Ubuntu promise
‣ Ubuntu will always be free of arge, along with its regular enterprise releases and security updates.

    .

‣ Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from Canonical and hundreds of companies from across the world. ‣ Ubuntu provides the best translations and accessibility features that the free soware community has to offer. ‣ Ubuntu’s core applications are all free and open source. We want you to use free and open source soware, improve it, and pass it on.

A brief history of Ubuntu
Ubuntu was conceived in  by Mark Shuleworth, a successful South African entrepreneur, and his company Canonical. Shuleworth recognized the power of Linux and open source, but was also aware of weaknesses that prevented mainstream use. Shuleworth set out with clear intentions to address these weaknesses and create a system that was easy to use, completely free (see Chapter : Learning more for the complete definition of “free”), and could compete with other mainstream operating systems. With the Debian system as a base, Shuleworth began to build Ubuntu. Using his own funds at first, installation s were pressed and shipped worldwide at no cost to the end user. Ubuntu spread quily, the size of the community rapidly increased, and it soon became the most popular Linux distribution available. With more people working on the project than ever before, Ubuntu continues to see improvement to its core features and hardware support, and has gained the aention of large organizations worldwide. For example, in , Dell began a collaboration with Canonical to sell computers with Ubuntu preinstalled. Additionally, in , the Fren Police began to transition their entire computer infrastructure to a variant of Ubuntu—a process whi has reportedly saved them “millions of euros” in licensing fees for Microso Windows. By the year , the Fren Police anticipates that all of their computers will be running Ubuntu. Canonical profits from this arrangement by providing tenical support and custom-built soware. While large organizations oen find it useful to pay for support services, Shuleworth has promised that the Ubuntu desktop system will always be free. As of , Ubuntu is installed on nearly % of the world’s computers. is equates to millions of users worldwide, and is growing ea year.
Canonical is the company that provides financial and technical support for Ubuntu. It has employees based around the world who work on developing and improving the operating system, as well as reviewing work submied by volunteer contributors. To learn more about Canonical, go to http://www.canonical.com.

For information on Ubuntu Server Edition, and how you can use it in your company, visit http://www.ubuntu.com/server/ features.

What is Linux?
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of Linux, whi is a member of the Unix family. Unix is one of the oldest types of operating systems and has provided reliability and security in professional applications for almost half a century. Many servers around the world that store data for popular websites (su as YouTube and Google) run some variant of a Unix system. e Linux kernel is best described as the core, or almost the brain, of the operating system.



e Linux kernel is the shi manager of the operating system; it is responsible for allocating memory and processor time. It can also be thought of as the program whi mangages any and all programs on the computer itself. Linux was designed from the ground up with security and hardware compatibility in mind, and is currently one of the most popular -based operating systems. One of the benefits of Linux is that it is incredibly flexible and can be configured to run on almost any device—from the smallest microcomputers and cellphones to larger super-computers. Unix was entirely command line–based until graphical user interfaces (s) began to emerge in the early s. ese early s were difficult to configure and clunky at best, and generally only used by seasoned computer programmers. In the past decade, however, graphical user interfaces have come a long way in terms of usability, reliability, and appearance. Ubuntu is just one of many different Linux distributions, and uses one of the more popular graphical desktop environments called .

While modern graphical desktop environments have generally replaced early command-line interfaces, the command line can still be a quick and efficient way of performing many tasks. See Chapter : The Command Line for more information, and Chapter : The Ubuntu Desktop to learn more about  and other desktop environments. A desktop environment is a sophisticated and integrated user interface that provides the basis for humans to interact with a computer using a monitor, keyboard and a mouse. To learn more about Linux distributions, see Chapter : Learning more.

Is Ubuntu right for you?
New users to Ubuntu may find that it takes some time to feel comfortable when trying a new operating system. You will no doubt notice many similarities to both Microso Windows and Mac  , as well as some differences. Users coming from Mac   are more likely to notice similarities due to the fact that both Mac   and Ubuntu originated from Unix. Before you decide whether or not Ubuntu is right for you, we suggest giving yourself some time to grow accustomed to the way things are done in Ubuntu. You should expect to find that some things are different from what you are used to. We also suggest taking the following into account: ‣ Ubuntu is community based. at is, Ubuntu is made, developed, and maintained by the community. Because of this, support is probably not available at your local computer store. Fortunately, the Ubuntu community is here to help. ere are many articles, guides, and manuals available, as well as users on various Internet forums and Internet Relay Chat () rooms that are willing to help out beginners. Additionally, near the end of this guide, we include a troubleshooting apter: Chapter : Troubleshooting. ‣ Many applications designed for Microso Windows or Mac   will not run on Ubuntu. For the vast majority of everyday computing tasks, there are suitable alternative applications available in Ubuntu. However, many professional applications (su as the Adobe Creative Suite) are not developed to work with Ubuntu. If you rely on commercial soware that is not compatible with Ubuntu, yet still want to give Ubuntu a try, you may want to consider dual-booting. Alternatively, some applications developed for Windows will work in Ubuntu with a program called Wine.

A popular forum for Ubuntu discussion and support is the Ubuntu Forums, http:// ubuntuforums.org.

To learn more about dual-booting (running Ubuntu side-by-side with another operating system), see Chapter : Installation. For more information on Wine, go to http:// www.winehq.org/.

If you notice any errors or think we have le something out.net Bug Reports: http://bugs. and professional. and keyboard shortcuts.net : #ubuntu-manual on irc. Game developers usually design games for the largest market.org Conventions used in this book e following typographic conventions are used in this book: ‣ Buon names. and many high quality games can be easily installed through Ubuntu Soware Center. If you just like to play a game every now and then. See Chapter : Soware Management to learn more about Ubuntu Soware Center. then Ubuntu may not be for you. some games developed for Windows will also work in Ubuntu with Wine.ubuntu-manual. there is active game development within the community. “Choose the System menu.org/ Email: ubuntu-manual@lists. Contact details Many people have contributed their time to this project. whi means. If you are a heavy gamer. Our contact details are as follows: e Ubuntu Manual Team Website: http://www.     . text that the computer outputs (as in a terminal). menu items.launchpad. ‣ Menu sequences are sometimes typeset as System ‣ Preferences ‣ Appearance.” ‣ Monospaced type is used for text that you type into the computer. whi leads to larger profits. feel free to contact us. We do everything we can to make sure that this manual is up to date.freenode. and then select the Appearance menu item. informative. . ‣ Many commercial games will not run on Ubuntu. Additionally. most game developers will not allocate resources towards making their games compatible with Ubuntu. Since Ubuntu’s market share is not as substantial as Microso’s Windows or Apple’s Mac  .ubuntu-manual. then oose the Preferences submenu. and other  elements are set in boldfaced type.

See Chapter : Learning more for more information. it will work on Intel. refer to your operating system’s or manufacturer’s Torrents are a way of sharing files and information around the Internet via peerto-peer file sharing. If you are unsure what -bit means. Select the nearest download location to you in the drop-down box (to ensure maximum download speed). if you are unsure how to use torrents. feel free to skip to Chapter : The Ubuntu Desktop. is file is a  image—a bit like a snapshot of the contents of a —whi you will need to burn to a . If you had downloaded the -bit version. -bit is newer.ubuntu. Downloading Ubuntu e easiest and most common method for geing Ubuntu is to download the Ubuntu  image directly from http://www. Head to the website and cli the “Download Ubuntu” link at the top. and most recent computers will come with a -bit capable processor. Geing Ubuntu Before you can get started with Ubuntu. AMD. then cli “Begin Download. When a new version of Ubuntu is released. cli on “Alternative download options” and make your selection. you will be le with a file called ubuntu. To find out how to burn a  image on your computer. you may wish to download the torrent file by cliing “Alternative download options. . the filename would contain amd instead). -bit will work on most computers. While the -bit version of Ubuntu is referred to as the “AMD” version. If you are familiar with using torrents. if you know that your computer is capable of using -bit soware. Again. However. we recommend that you download the  image this way to take the load off the servers during periods of high demand. you may wish to try the -bit version instead. Burning the  image Once your download is complete. Downloading Ubuntu as a torrent When a new version of Ubuntu is released.com. Some options for doing this are outlined below. If you know how to use torrents. You may see significant improvements to your download speed. (-bit)” underneath the default download buon on the website. and will also be helping to spread Ubuntu to other users worldwide. simply proceed with the download. don’t worry. you will need to obtain a copy of the Ubuntu installation . If you already have Ubuntu installed on your computer. so if in doubt. and other compatible -bit processors. To do this. -bit and -bit are types of processor architectures. you can use the default download options on the website. sometimes the servers can get clogged up with large numbers of people downloading or upgrading at the same time.” -bit vs -bit You may notice the words “Ubuntu Desktop . Installation Many companies (such as Dell and System) sell computers with Ubuntu preinstalled. the Ubuntu servers can become very busy.-desktop-i.iso or similar (i here in the filename refers to the -bit version.” and obtain your copy of the  image this way instead.

Ubuntu will then start up. you will see the default desktop. your computer might be set to look for information from your hard drive first. Most computers are able to detect when a bootable  is present in your drive at startup—that is. you will be presented with the “Welcome” screen. Once your computer finds the Live . we want it to look for information from a  first. it means that the priority given to devices when your computer is starting needs to be changed.com/community/BurningIsoHowto. Using your mouse.com to request your free Ubuntu Desktop Edition . e  usually takes two to six weeks to arrive. To try out Ubuntu using the Live . Your computer reads information from a  at a mu slower speed than it can read information off of a hard drive. In order to run Ubuntu from the Live . Running Ubuntu from the Live  also occupies a large portion of your computer’s memory. running straight from the Live . However. Generally. whi would usually be available for programs to access when Ubuntu is running from your hard drive. and then to look for information on a  second. browse the Internet. You will be required to create a free online account with Launchpad before you can place your  order. In some cases. have limited bandwidth. then cli the buon labeled Try Ubuntu . and get a general feel for the operating system. and will start your existing operating system instead. and then burn it to a disc instead. If you need assistance to change the boot priority. see your computer manufacturer’s documentation for more information. running Ubuntu from the  is a great way to test things out and allows you to try the default applications. e Live  experience will therefore feel slightly slower than it does when Ubuntu is actually installed on your computer. See Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information on Ubuntu One. it will run whatever information is stored on this bootable . ere are no shipping costs or other arges when you order an Ubuntu . Changing your boot priority is beyond the scope of this guide. As your computer starts. or have a slow Internet connection.. Once you have Ubuntu installed and running. ubuntu. support documentation. but also as a Live . Once Ubuntu is up and running. Simply visit http://shipit. depending on your location and the current demand. a  that will temporarily take precedence over your usual operating system. is option may be preferred if you don’t have access to a  burner. and aer a qui loading screen. For example. it’s not illegal for people to sell it. Even though Ubuntu is free soware. A Live  allows you to test Ubuntu without making any permanent anges to your computer by running the entire operating system straight from the . a free  can be ordered from Canonical. rather than the information stored on your hard drive whi your computer usually looks for. Have a look around your local area or on the Internet to see if someone is selling it near you. you will need this account again for use with all Ubuntu One services. It’s also useful for eing that your computer hardware works properly in Ubuntu and that there are no major compatibility issues.     . . We It is possible to purchase Ubuntu on  from some computer stores or online shops. insert the Ubuntu  into your  drive and restart your computer. The Live  e Ubuntu  functions not only as an installation  for puing Ubuntu onto your computer. you may prefer to follow the instructions above for downloading the  image.ubuntu. Ordering a free  Alternatively. select your language from the list on the le. If you would rather start using Ubuntu sooner. your computer will not recognize that the Ubuntu  is present as it starts up. You can also find detailed instructions at https://help.

feel free to test things out. will talk more about how to actually use Ubuntu in Chapter : e Ubuntu Desktop. and then your computer will restart. but for now. ange seings and generally explore—any anges you make will not be saved once you exit. . refer to your computer’s documentation or speak to the manufacturer if you would like more information. restart your computer by cliing the “Power” buon in the top right corner of your screen (circle with a line through the top) and then select Restart. so you don’t need to worry about accidentally breaking anything. including removing the Live  and pressing Enter when instructed. When you are finished exploring. As long as the Live  is no longer in the drive. your computer will return to its original state as though nothing ever happened! Minimum system requirements Ubuntu runs well on most computer systems. Follow the prompts that appear on screen. Open some programs. the Live  is a great way to test things out first. If you are unsure whether it will work on your computer. The majority of computers in use today will meet the requirements listed here.  Figure . however.: The “Welcome” screen allows you to choose your language.

we do realize that some people may find the idea a lile daunting. Alternatively. we have included step-by-step instructions below. cli your location on the map to tell Ubuntu where you are. you will find the suggested option is satisfactory. ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣  MHz x processor   of system memory ()   of disk space Graphics card capable of × resolution Sound card A network or Internet connection Installing Ubuntu e process of installing Ubuntu is designed to be qui and easy. you should now be familiar with the initial “Welcome” screen that appears (refer to e Live  section above for more information). To help you get started. If you are unsure. select your language on the le-hand side.. Cli Forward when you are ready to move on. You can also oose your own keyboard layout from the list. Using your mouse. When the welcome screen is displayed select your language and cli the Install Ubuntu .   or more of free space is recommended. is will ensure that you will have plenty of room to install extra programs later on. and photos. However. Geing started To get started. At least   of free space on your hard drive is required in order to install Ubuntu. Again. This will start the Ubuntu installer. you can cli the Guess buon to have Ubuntu work out the correct oice by asking you to press a series of keys. e next screen will display a world map. along with screenshots so you can see how things will look along the way. you can use the drop-down lists underneath. however. below is a list of hardware specifications that your computer should meet as a minimum requirement. Clicking update this installer will search the Internet for any updates to the Ubuntu Live  that may have been released since your  was created. . For the more tenically minded. Clicking on the blue underlined release notes will open a web page containing any important information regarding the current version of Ubuntu. then cli Forward to continue. place the Ubuntu  in your  drive and restart your computer booting into Ubuntu. If you like.     . is allows Ubuntu to set up your system clo and other location-based features. you can also use your mouse to double-click the “Install Ubuntu . then cli the buon labeled Install Ubuntu . as well as store your own documents. you need to tell Ubuntu what keyboard you are using. Next. type something into the box at the boom to make sure you are happy with your selection. There are two other options presented on the “Welcome” screen: release notes and update this installer. If you have already tested out the Ubuntu Live . Usually. music. Alternatively.” icon that is visible on the desktop when using the Live ..

Windows . Erase and use the entire disk Use this option if you want to erase your entire disk. Prepare disk space is next step is oen referred to as partitioning. as Ubuntu will automatically create the necessary partitions for you. you are essentially dividing up your hard drive into sections that will be used for different types of information. you will be given the option to select which operating system you want to use for that session. The laer is called dual-booting. su as Windows . is option is also useful if you have an empty hard drive. it does not have to be.  Figure . and install Ubuntu in its place. Ubuntu provides you with some options that greatly simplify this process. Ubuntu provides you with the option of either replacing your existing operating system altogether. is will delete any existing operating systems that are installed on that disk. Partitioning can sometimes seem complex to a new user. In fact. When you create a partition. Partitioning is the process of allocating portions of your hard drive for a specific purpose. such as Windows . or installing Ubuntu alongside your existing system. Whenever you turn on or restart your computer. or Mac  . .: Tell Ubuntu your location. however. Many people installing Ubuntu for the first time currently use another operating system on their computer. Windows Vista.

whilst keeping all your personal files and program seings intact in a separate partition. your personal files and configuration data won’t be lost. you will need to configure the partitions manually. oose the Install them side by side. . Ubuntu will automatically detect the other operating system and install Ubuntu alongside it. then in the event that you decide to reinstall Ubuntu or perform a fresh upgrade to the latest release.: Check your keyboard layout is correct.     . as it allows you to format and reinstall the operating system. Specifying partitions manually is option is for more advanced users and is used to create special partitions. we have omied the details from Ubuntu installs a home folder where your personal files and configuration data are located by default. oosing between them ea startup option. Figure . and want to install Ubuntu alongside it. If you choose to have your home folder on a separate partition. For more complicated dual-booting setups. Because this is quite an advanced task. is can be very useful in case you decide to reinstall Ubuntu. or format the hard drive with a filesystem different to the default one. It can also be used to create a separate /home partition. Guided partitioning If you already have another operating system installed on your hard drive.

.ubuntu. cli the Forward buon at the boom to move on.com/ community/HowtoPartition. You can see more information and detailed instructions on partitioning here: https://help. whi will be discussed further in Chapter : e Ubuntu Desktop. your desired username.  Figure . Once you are happy with the way the partitions are going to be set up. Your name will appear on the login screen as well as the MeMenu. what you want to call your computer. Enter your details Ubuntu needs to know some information about you so it can set up the primary login account on your computer. your desired password.: Choose where you would like to install Ubuntu. On this screen you will need to tell Ubuntu: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ your real name. this edition of Geing Started with Ubuntu.

you are required to stick with Latin leers. Figure . For extra security. Although you can choose your preferred username and computer name. Type in your full name under “What is your name?”. a strength rating will appear on the right that will tell you whether your password is “too short.” “fair. ‣ how you want Ubuntu to log you in. and uppercase/lowercase. is is best aieved by having a password that is at least six aracters long.” or “strong. Most people find it easiest to sti with this. and is the name that will be displayed at the Ubuntu login screen when you turn on your computer. You will receive a warning if non-acceptable symbols or other characters are entered.” “weak.     . . oose a password and enter it into the first password field on the le. or the name of your pet. spouse’s name. You will see this is automatically filled in for you with your first name. and is a mixture of leers. numbers. However. e next text field is where you select a username for yourself. and dots. symbols. then type the same again into the right field to verify. numbers.: Setup your user account. When both passwords mat. avoid obvious passwords like your birth date. hyphens. Next. it can be anged if you prefer.” You will be able to continue the installation process regardless of your password strength. but for security reasons it is best to oose a strong one. and until this is altered you will be unable to progress to the next screen.

Again. at the boom of this screen you have three options to oose from regarding how you want to log in to Ubuntu. If you oose this option. Require my password to login is option is selected by default. share their computer with other family members. Ea person will then have their own login name and password. meaning that files and folders must be decrypted using your password before they can be accessed. as it will prevent unauthorized people from accessing your computer without knowing the password you created earlier. including any anges that will be made to the partitions on your hard drive. Once the installation process has been completed.  Now you need to decide on your computer’s name. if your computer was stolen and the hard drive removed). Your home folder is where your personal files are stored. By selecting this option. it can be anged if you prefer. erefore if someone had physical access to your hard drive (for example. Anyone who can physically access your computer will be able to turn it on and also access your files. this will be filled in for you automatically using the login name you entered above (it will say something like “john-desktop” or “john-laptop. Finally. Ubuntu will automatically enable encryption on your home folder. account preferences. for example. Internet bookmarks.”). and personal storage space. this option is not recommended. It will cause complications with your encrypted home folder. However. refer to Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. but if privacy or security are important to you. they would still not be able to see your files without knowing your password. an additional login account can be created for ea family member. Confirm your seings and begin installation e last screen summarizes your install seings. be careful not to enable automatic login at a later date. is is a good option for those who. Log in automatically Ubuntu will log in to your primary account automatically when you start up the computer so you won’t have to enter your username and password. Note the warning about . and will potentially lo you out of important files. Your computer name will mainly be used for identifying your computer if you are on a home or office network with multiple computers. is makes your login experience quier and more convenient. Require my password to login and decrypt my home folder is option provides you with an extra layer of security. To learn more about seing up a network.

the installation will complete and you will be able to cli Restart Now to restart your computer and start Ubuntu. a slideshow will give you an introduction to some of the default applications included with Ubuntu. As the installation progresses. so remove it from your  drive and press Enter to continue. then press Enter or cli Figure .: Check that everything is set up right before Ubuntu is installed. ese applications are covered in more detail in Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. . now would be a good time to e that you have set up your partitions correctly. Cli your username and enter your password. Aer approximately twenty minutes. Ubuntu will now install. e  will be ejected. cli on Install to begin the installation process. You should not need to click the Advanced buon unless you wish to change your bootloader seings or network proxy. Once you have made sure that all the seings are correct. Wait while your computer restarts. These are more advanced tasks and beyond the scope of this guide. and you will then see the login window (unless you selected automatic login). data being destroyed on any removed or formaed partitions—if you have important information on your hard drive that is not baed up.     .

: You are now ready to restart your computer. Log in.  Figure .: The first slide in the installation slideshow. Figure . You will then be logged in to Ubuntu and will be presented with your new desktop! .

 Figure . .     .: The Ubuntu login window.

respectively). Places. things are visually oriented. To read more about other variants of Ubuntu. and perform most other tasks. whi means that it’s important for you to become familiar with where and what to cli in Ubuntu. move files. . you will see the  desktop. has an emphasis on “social from the start” and features social network integration in the desktop for sites like Twier and Facebook. whi is similar in function to the “system tray” in Windows. we will limit this guide to exploring your  desktop. In short. Xubuntu. you will see three menu headings—Applications. or accessing the main menu. and System—followed by two program icons. and is always at your fingertips by simply clicking this panel icon (or navigating to System ‣ Help and Support). Understanding the desktop At first glance. One of the most popular desktop environments is called . and  are other popular desktop environments (used in Kubuntu. ese applets provide useful functions su as running programs. The Ubuntu Desktop Ubuntu . there are a number of desktop environments available for use. e first of these icons will open the Firefox web browser (see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information). Ubuntu is highly customizable. even the main menu. you will notice there are two panels—one at the top of your desktop and one at the boom. although there are many more. A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen and contains various applets. you will notice many similarities between Ubuntu and other operating systems su as Windows or Mac  . and the next will open the Ubuntu Help Center. It provides a wealth of information about your Ubuntu system. The top panel Starting from the le. but for now let’s just explore the default layout that is in front of you. open programs. as is the  desktop. Everything on a panel is an applet. su as: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ the look and feel of your system how the desktop is organized the way the desktop is laid out how the desktop is navigated by the user In Linux distributions (su as Ubuntu). First. and Lubuntu. Desktop environments encompass many things. refer to Chapter : Learning more. is is because they are all based on the concept of a graphical user interface ()—that is. . . GNOME All -based operating systems use a desktop environment. whi the default in Ubuntu. On the right side of this panel you will find the notification area. viewing the time. Since Ubuntu uses . you use your mouse to navigate the desktop. When you first log in to Ubuntu aer installing it. or the “menu extras” The Ubuntu Help Center is a highly useful resource.

messaging. restarting. To add a new applet to a panel. . on the far right of the panel is the session menu. or shuing down completely. For example. In some cases right-cliing an icon will also perform another action related to that application. To remove an applet. whi will display your username (the name you entered during installation) and is used to update social network sites like Twier and Facebook as well as set your Instant Messaging status in Empathy. right-click on it and select Remove From Panel. Some programs will also place an icon in the notification area when you open them. default desktop. Finally.     . to adjust the New notifications of emails and instant messages appear in the messaging menu applet. whi provides menu options for loing your computer. the envelope icon will turn green. right-click in a clear area on the panel and select Add to Panel. volume adjustment. The notification area Inside the notification area you will find the network indicator. area on the Mac   menubar. When you have a new message. and the date and time applets. Bluetooth indicator (if your computer has Bluetooth capability). Figure .: The Ubuntu . Le-cliing icons in the notification area will bring up a list of options associated with the application. Next to this is the MeMenu. logging out.

whi will open a small world map when clied. You can empty it by cliing on the Empty Trash buon in the window that appears. is set up with four workspaces. simply click on the boxes in the workspace switcher or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+Left arrow or Ctrl+Alt+Right arrow to switch workspaces quickly.” or workspaces. cli Add. if not. giving you clear access to your desktop. To see the contents of the trash. is is the desktop baground or wallpaper and the one you see in front of you belongs to the default Ubuntu . To . then enter your location in the text field. or alternatively by right-cliing the trash icon in the boom panel and selecting Empty Trash from the menu. On the right side of the panel you will see some small boxes in a row.    volume. then cli Close at the boom when you are done. ese appear as horizontal buons whi can be clied to minimize or restore the corresponding windows (see Managing windows below for more information). By default. To switch workspaces. For example. When the calendar is expanded there is a buon labeled Locations. Ctrl+Alt+D The  desktop environment used in Ubuntu can provide two or more “virtual desktops. the icon farthest to the right is the trash. The desktop background In between the top and boom panels is an image that covers the entire desktop. If you live in a major city it may be on the list already. In the window that appears. Any files you delete are first sent to the trash. To show the desktop you can press On the far le of the boom panel is a small icon that resembles a desktop. is Show Desktop buon will minimize all open windows at once. Feel free to explore the other options available under the General and Weather tabs if you like. Cli the date and time applet to open a small calendar. If weather information is available for your home city. Make sure your time zone is selected. and then cli a specific date to add a reminder to your calendar through Evolution (see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information on Evolution). is is oen useful when you have many windows open at once and your desktop becomes cluered. Here you can further set up your location preferences by cliing Edit. cli on this icon. this is the Workspace Switer. whi performs a similar function to the Recycle Bin in Windows or the Trash in Mac  . Finally. theme known as Ambiance. Ubuntu . Using these workspaces can reduce cluer by opening windows on separate desktops. The boom panel Ubuntu uses most of the boom panel to display a list of all programs or windows that are currently open. without needing a separate monitor. you will now see the current temperature displayed alongside the date and time in the notification area. then cli OK to return to the preferences screen. is will permanently delete any files or folders that it contains. in order to organize your activities you may have your email open in one workspace and a text document you are working on in another. simply le-cli once on the volume icon and a volume slider will appear. you can enter your latitude and longitude manually If you don’t know this information try searing online for it. Cliing the buon again will restore the windows to their original position.

and minimizing windows To close a window. you are probably familiar with the concept of a “window”—the box that appears on your screen when you start a program. Additionally. minimize. Closing. the right-most buon of this group will maximize the window. the top part of a window (the titlebar) will have the title of the window in the center.     . From le to right. You can find the window on the boom panel taskbar and cli . the resize icon. place the mouse pointer over the window’s titlebar. then cli and drag the window while continuing to hold down the le mouse buon. If you have used another operating system before. see the section on Customizing your desktop below. and maximize buons are on the top-le corner of windows. You can also move a window by holding the Alt key and dragging the window Switching between open windows ere are at least three ways in Ubuntu to swit between open windows in a workspace. these buons close. restoring. Managing windows When you open a program in Ubuntu (su as a web browser or a text editor—see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information on using programs)—a window will appear on your desktop. and maximize the window.: The close. cli on the “×” in the upper le corner of the window —this will be the first buon on the le-hand side. Cliing this buon will restore the window to its original position. place the pointer on an edge or corner of the window so that it turns into a larger arrow. To resize a window. Immediately to the right of this is a downward-pointing arrow that is used to minimize the window to the boom panel of your desktop. su as Microso Windows or Mac  . making it fill the entire screen. indicating the program is still running in the baground. and three buons in the top le corner. you can right-cli anywhere on the titlebar for a list of other window management options. Moving and resizing windows To move a window around the workspace. maximizing. learn more about customizing your desktop including anging your baground. Cliing this buon again will return the window to its original size. but its corresponding buon in the boom panel will remain. Finally. You can then cli and drag to resize the window. Once minimized the window will no longer be visible. Figure . In Ubuntu. minimize.

If you enjoy card games. You may find that there are programs in the Applications menu that you don’t use frequently. Internet e Internet sub-menu is where you will find the Firefox web browser and the Empathy Instant Messenger client to allow you to talk to your friends and family. there’s gBrainy and Sudoku. OpenOffice. Also To learn more about OpenOffice. Another way to take a screenshot is to press PrtSc. Sear for Files (we’ll discuss that later).org and to get help with using the OpenOffice. e out AisleRiot Solitaire. you can cli any portion of it to raises it above all other windows. or spreadsheets. If the window is visible on your screen. visit http://openoffice. and Take Screenshot. including Calculator and Tomboy Notes. To hide those applications (without deleting the actual programs). edit and share pictures you’ve downloaded from your camera.org Drawing allows you to create images using the OpenOffice.org suite of applications.org suite to help you create formal documents. gedit Text Editor (similar to Windows’ Notepad and Mac  ’s TextEdit). you’ll find the F-Spot photo manager where you can view. Other programs in Accessories include the / Creator.org suite.    to bring it up on the screen. starting with the Applications menu. instantly. . Graphics Under the Graphics sub-menu. Office e Office sub-menu is where you will find most of the OpenOffice. Mines (similar to Windows’ Minesweeper game) and adrapassel (similar to Tetris). Find the programs in the right panel that you want to hide from the menu. Hold down the Alt key. and keep pressing the Tab buon until the window you’re looking for appears in the popup. Accessories e Accessories sub-menu has many programs that are suited for productivity. Let’s take a look at these in more detail. Using the Applications menu ere are three menu headers in the top panel. e Games menu also includes Mahjongg. See Chapter : Working with Ubuntu for more information about the included applications. and deselect them in the “Show” column. click on System ‣ Preferences ‣ Main Menu.org. Perhaps you’re looking for more of a allenge: in that case. or just don’t want to be displayed on the menu. and Simple Scan is a program for scanning images and documents from your scanner. Instant messaging () is a means of textbased communication where you can hold a conversation with someone over the Internet. Games Ubuntu has several games built in for your entertainment. presentation. whi allows you to take a picture of your desktop screen. or you can use Alt+Tab to select the window you wish to work on.

located on the top panel. When you open the Ubuntu Soware Center.org Presentation OpenOffice. for easy searing. See Chapter : Hardware for more information on seing up Ubuntu. just type the name into the sear box in the top right. you can explore the soware available using the categories listed on the le side of the window. contains two important submenus. su as: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Brasero disc burner Totem movie player Pitivi video editor Rhythmbox music player Sound Recorder More information on all of these programs can be found in Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. you can also open the Ubuntu Help Center (Help and Support).     . Using the System menu e System menu.org Drawing (located under the Graphics sub-menu) Sound and video e Sound and Video sub-menu has programs for working with multimedia. ese sub-menus. the main screen is similar to your Applications menu. If you’re simply curious as to what is available.org Word Processor OpenOffice. Ubuntu Soware Center At the very boom of the Applications menu is the Ubuntu Soware Center. e Ubuntu Soware Center keeps tra of programs that are installed on your computer. and find out more about Ubuntu in general (About Ubuntu). assign a default printer. Preferences You can use the Preferences sub-menu to modify the appearance of the desktop and windows. find out more about your  desktop environment (About GNOME). e full OpenOffice. is application gives you access to a library of soware that you can download. designate keyboard shortcuts. allow you to make modifications to Ubuntu’s appearance. rough the System menu.org Spreadsheet OpenOffice. If you know the name of the program you’re looking for. Preferences and Administration. under Office is the Evolution email client and an online dictionary. as well as the way it functions. Learn more about the Ubuntu Soware Center in Chapter : Soware Management. .org suite installed in Ubuntu by default consists of: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ OpenOffice.

If you want to edit them move them to you home folder. Nautilus file browser Just as Windows has Windows Explorer and Mac   has Finder to browse files and folders. Downloads. is sub-menu also has the Synaptic Paage Manager for locating and downloading soware paages. . Downloads. at same name is assigned to your home folder. Ubuntu uses the Nautilus file browser by default. Public. Administration e Administration sub-menu contains programs you can use to monitor computer performance. You can also use the Places menu on the top panel. We will now look at the features offered in Nautilus. Templates. You can use the Sear for Files tool in the Applications ‣ Accessories. When you installed Ubuntu. You should open the example content to see how different types of files are displayed in Ubuntu. You can also access the Sear for Files tool from the Places menu. You can also browse the disks on your computer by cliing Computer in this menu. You will note be able to edit them. Music. Aer entering your password you gain increased privileges. Documents. and manage how your computer receives updates from Ubuntu. edit network connections. and Videos. If you set up a home network. Music. Some applications will require you to click a buon to unlock it. This is a security feature to make sure that only authorized people are allowed to change system seings. and enter your password. you will find a menu item to access shared files/folders. and multimedia files. Your home folder e home folder is where ea user’s personal files are located. as well as browse a list of recently opened documents. When you open your personal folder. spreadsheets.    ange the entries listed in the Applications menu. To learn more about security in Ubuntu. and ange mouse seings. see Chapter : Security. is is a more tenical alternative to Ubuntu Soware Center and should be used by power users. Browsing files on your computer ere are two ways to locate files on your computer. activate third-party drivers. See the section below about the Nautilus file browser for more details. Pictures. ange disk partitions. Most of the applications in the System ‣ Administration menu will prompt you to enter your user password when you launch them. you will see that there are several folders inside: Desktop (whi contains any files that are visible on the desktop). you entered a name to set up your user account. Press this buon. and the Home Folder). Places e Places menu holds a list of commonly used folders (su as Documents. manage all installed printers. among other options. You will also see a link named Examples. Double-cli on that link to open a folder containing example documents.

bookmark commonly used folders and files. you can either double-cli on its icon or right-cli and select Open With (program).g. You can also retrace your steps by cliing on the name of a folder where it is listed just below the navigational icons. Navigating between directories To navigate between directories. the le pane will always contain the same folders. and view hidden folders and files. the Nautilus file browser window opens up. then name the folder that appears by replacing the default “untitled folder” with your desired label (e. e sear icon (whi looks like a magnifying glass) opens a field so you can sear for a file by name. ese menus allow you to modify the layout of the browser. ‣ Central Pane: e largest pane shows the files and folders in the directory that you are currently browsing. use the bookmarks in the le pane of the Nautilus file browser.. is le pane can be anged to display different features by cliing the down arrow beside “Places” near the top. A drop-down list gives you the option of switing the view from Icon View to List View or Compact View. Creating new folders To create a new folder from within Nautilus cli File ‣ Create Folder. You can also create a new folder by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N. No maer what folder you open. If you start typing a location starting with a / character. navigate. Nautilus will automatically change the navigation buons into a text field labeled Location. or alternatively by pressing Ctrl+H. “Personal Finances”).     . Hiding files with a dot (. You can cli on the locations to navigate ba through the file browser. If you bookmark a folder. Double-cliing on a visible directory will cause you to navigate to it in Nautilus. it will appear in the Places menu.) is not a security measure —instead it provides a way of keeping your folders organized and tidy. ‣ Le Pane: e le pane of the file browser has shortcuts to commonlyused folders. is is similar to the history function of most browsers. or by right-cliing in the file browser window and selecting Create Folder from the popup menu (this action will also work Note that you can easily view hidden files by clicking View ‣ Show Hidden Files. The Nautilus file browser window When you open a folder on the desktop or from the Places menu. It is also possible to convert the navigation buons into a text field by pressing Ctrl+L. . ‣ Additional Navigation Tools: Just below the toolbar. you will see a representation of where you are currently browsing. e standard browser window contains the following features: ‣ Menubar: e menubar is located at the top of the window. ‣ Toolbar: e toolbar has tools for navigation and a tool to make the contents of the window larger or smaller. Opening files To open a file. it appears in the le pane. it keeps tra of where you are and allows you to batra if necessary. When you bookmark a folder.

If you wish to hide certain folders or files.. holding the mouse buon down.    Figure .e. In Nautilus these folders can be hidden by creating a . make sure you’ve selected the file or folder you want to copy first (by le-cliing on it once). When you open Nautilus the folder will no longer be visible. Copying and moving files and folders You can copy files or folders in Nautilus by cliing Edit ‣ Copy. or by rightcliing on the item and selecting Copy from the popup menu. is “cli-drag” move is useful when you are selecting items that are grouped closely together. Make sure that ea file or folder is on a separate line. . on the desktop). In some cases it impossible to hide files and folders.e. Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to cut. and dragging the cursor across the files or folders you want. not on a file or folder). Multiple files can be selected by le-cliing in an empty space (i.) in front of the name (i. “. place a dot (.: Nautilus file manager displaying your home folder. copy and paste (respectively) files and folders. without prefixing them with a dot. To select multiple files You can also use the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+X.Personal Finances”). When using the Edit menu in Nautilus. Open the file and type in the name of the file(s) or folder(s) you wish to hide..hidden file.

or press F3 on your keyboard. You can also open a second pane in Nautilus so you can see two locations at once without having to swit between tabs or windows.” navigate to the desired location then cli Edit ‣ Paste (or right-cli in an empty area of the window and oose Paste) to copy them to the new location. Navigate to your desired location. or anging the look and feel of your desktop. hold down the Ctrl key while cliing on ea item individually. An alternative way to move a file or folder is to cli on the item. a copy will be placed in a new location. Paste will only affect the most recent item that was cut or copied. and the original will be removed from its current location. you will also find the Copy To and Move To buons. and cli and drag files or folders between tabs the same as you would between windows. When you “cut” or “copy” a file or folder. a small symbol will appear over the mouse cursor to let you know which action will be performed when you release the mouse buon. or folders that are not positioned next to ea other. is will open a new window. Search for files quickly by pressing Ctrl+F in Nautilus and then typing what you want to find. su as modifying the behavior of your panels.When one or more items have been “copied. and it will work for multiple files or folders at once.     . tabs or panes. allowing you to drag files and folders between two locations. at is. let’s take a look at customizing some of its features. the cut command can be used to move files and folders around. You can also use the Nautilus browser to sear for files. whereas a small arrow means the item will be moved. . then cli Edit ‣ Paste. When browsing a folder in Nautilus. cli File ‣ New Tab or press Ctrl+T. as explained above. Searching for files on your computer Earlier. In the Nautilus Edit menu. nothing will happen until you “paste” it somewhere. and can be useful if you are using panes (see below). These can be used to copy or move items to common locations. as well as the use of panes. to open a second window select File ‣ New Window or press Ctrl+N. To open a new tab. you can also perform this action using the right-cli menu. The default action will depend on the locations you are using. To move a file or folder. e option of tabs is also available in Nautilus. You can cli these tabs to swit between them. Customizing your desktop Now that you’ve been introduced to the  desktop environment. Note that it is unnecessary to use Paste when using these options. To open a second pane. cli View ‣ Extra Pane. Using multiple tabs and multiple Nautilus windows Opening multiple Nautilus windows can be useful for dragging files and folders between locations. A new row will appear above the space used for browsing your files containing two tabs—both will display the directory you were originally browsing. When dragging items between Nautilus windows. select the item you want to move then cli Edit ‣ Cut. and then drag it to the new location. While the copy command can be used to make a duplicate of a file or folder in a new location. As with the copy command above. dragging files and folders between panes is a qui way to move or copy items. Again. Once multiple files and/or folders are selected you can use the Edit menu to perform actions just like you would for a single item. A plus sign (+) indicates you are about to copy the item. we mentioned that you can sear for files on the computer by using the Sear for Files feature on the Places menu in the top panel.

Use the file selector to locate the baground image in your computer. Cliing one of these hide buons on the panel will slide it across the screen and out of view. leaving just the opposite hide buon in sight whi you can cli to bring it ba. By default. Use the Orientation drop-down box to select where you want the panel to be located. To add an applet. and can ange color. If you prefer. and ange the panel size (width). e panel will then shrink so that it is just long enough to accommodate any applets or program launers that are currently siing in it. or Cairo-Dock. Ubuntu requires that you maintain at least one panel on the desktop. These are all available in the Ubuntu Soware Center. then opening the color select window. and remain hidden until you move your mouse cursor ba to that screen edge. a panel covers the entire length of the desktop. Right-click on them and deselect the “Lock to Panel” check box. you can oose your own panel color by selecting the Solid color buon. You may want to spend some time exploring the different ones available—they can easily be removed from your panel by right-cliing on the applet and selecting Remove From Panel. right-cli the panel you want to modify and select Properties from the popup menu. right-cli on a panel then select Add to Panel… from the popup menu. Avant Window Navigator (). meaning that your desktop theme will dictate the appearance of the panel (we will look at how to ange your desktop theme below). which is discussed further in Chapter : Soware Management. A window will appear with a list of available applets. Alternatively.    Panels e panels (currently siing at the top and boom of your screen) can be moved from their default positions to the sides of the screen. and can also provide qui access to some tasks. e General tab has options to autohide. you can cli the Baground image buon if you have an image or paern stored on your computer that you would like to use as your panel baground. Alternatively. e Baground tab in the “Panel Properties” window allows you to ange the appearance of the panel. set to hide from view when not in use. An alternative way of hiding the panel is to do so manually. if you prefer a Mac   look you can keep a panel at the top and add an applications dock such as Docky. . Adding applets Ubuntu provides a selection of applets that can be added to any panel. If you prefer a Microso Windows feel. Tiing the Autohide buon will cause your panel to “fold” up into the edge of the screen when you are not using it. To access these features. whi can then be dragged to an empty space on a panel. Some applets will be locked and can’t be moved. To ange that. By default. By default these buons will display directional arrows. You can also set the panel transparency using the slider. By default. Cliing on Show hide buttons will add a buon to ea side of the panel that can be used to hide it from view. position the panel. then cli Open to apply the ange. a panel at the boom of the desktop can be set to start programs as well as select between open windows. you can select the Arrows on hide buttons option to remove the arrows and just have plain buons. you can deselect the Expand option. however. Applets range from the informative to the fun. and underneath this you can set the desired width (in pixels). this is set to None (use system theme).

To add a new one. and have the names displayed in the panel applet. Workspaces To modify your workspaces. right-cli on it and select Move. locate the file on your computer (using Nautilus) and drag it across to the emes window. e “Add to Panel…” window can also be used to add additional application launers to your panel.     . just as you did to add an applet previously. Your web browser will open and take you to http://art. just to the le of the Trash applet) and select Preferences. you can still ange between workspaces by moving the mouse over the workspace switer and scrolling the mouse wheel. You can also add program launchers to a panel by dragging them directly from the Applications menu. similar to the Firefox launer that sits to the right of the System menu. and whether these will be displayed on the panel in one or more rows. You can also customize any theme to your liking by selecting it then cli- . is will add it to your list of available themes. Move your mouse cursor to the desired location (this can even be a different panel) and the applet will follow.org/themes/. Program launers can also be removed and repositioned through their right-cli menu. where you can download new themes from a large selection. and other parts of the desktop. and a window will appear asking whether you want to apply the anges immediately. and the anges will take effect immediately. open the Appearance Preferences by navigating to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Appearances in the top panel. Appearance You can ange the baground. icons. but there are seven other themes you can oose from. fonts. In this case. you can also oose to just have the workspace you are currently using displayed in the panel. scroll bars. To reposition an existing applet. Just cli once on the theme you want to try. right-cli on the workspace switer applet (by default this is on the right side of the boom panel. You can download additional themes by cliing the “Get More emes Online” link at the boom of this window. then le-cli to drop it into place. In the window that appears you can oose how many workspaces you want in total. If you prefer.gnome. To begin. and window theme to further modify the look and feel of your desktop. Once you have downloaded a theme. Here you can select a theme that will control the appearance of your windows. Theme e “Appearance Preferences” window will initially display the eme tab when it opens. e “Ambiance” theme is used by default. in the le of the top panel. double-cli on Application Launer… near the top of the window. You can also rename ea workspace. panels. buons. Here you can navigate through your applications and drag them to your panel to create a new launer.

and window borders to create your own unique look. To ange the baground simply cli the picture you would like to use.: You can change the theme in the Theme tab of “Appearance Preferences”. and direct you to the http:// art. Desktop background Cli the Baground tab in the Appearance Preferences window to ange the desktop baground. cli the “Get More Bagrounds Online” link at the boom of the Appearance Preferences window. You can also change the background by right-clicking on the desktop and selecting Change Desktop Background from the pop-up menu. You’re not limited to this selection though. is link will open your web browser.org/backgrounds website. To use one of your own pictures. and navigate to the image you want. Here you can mix elements of different themes su as icons. cli the Add… buon. mouse pointers. buons. and the ange will take effect immediately. Doublecli it. If you are aer a larger selection of desktop bagrounds. Figure . Here you will see Ubuntu’s default selection of bagrounds.    ing the Customize… buon underneath.gnome. is image will also then be added to your list of available bagrounds. .

You can find these tools by opening the System menu. When you select a screensaver. cli the Leave Fullscreen buon at the top of the screen. and comes preinstalled on Ubuntu. e le and right arrow buons at the top allow you to scroll through the different screensavers without leaving the full screen preview. Changing these may improve the appearance of text on different types of monitors. is will open the “Screensaver Preferences” window. window titles. In this case. Screensaver Ubuntu offers a selection of screensavers. You can adjust keyboard and mouse seings to suit your needs through the “Assistive Tenologies Preferences” window by cliing on the Keyboard Accessibility or Mouse Accessibility buons. documents. you can resume working on your computer by pressing any key or by moving your mouse. with the available screensavers listed on the le. To select a different screensaver. e slider can be adjusted to set the duration of inactivity before the screensaver appears. For added security. you can also select the Lo screen when screensaver is active option. . To return to the Screensaver Preferences window. you will see a mini-preview in the window. and for anything using fixed width fonts. You can individually set the font style and size for applications. or you can see how it will look on your full screen by cliing the Preview buon. Once it does. To run Orca. Ubuntu will ask you for your login password when you return to the computer. a blank screen will be displayed aer a short period of inactivity. then Preferences ‣ Screensaver. By default. en press Enter or cli Run. Fonts You can also ange the fonts used throughout your desktop through the Appearance Preferences window by cliing on the Fonts tab. e Rendering section at the boom of the Fonts tab gives you four options for anging the way that fonts are drawn on your screen. cli on the System menu in the top panel. Make sure that the Activate screensaver when computer is idle option is selected if you want to enable the screensaver. Orca’s voice synthesizer will activate and assist you through the various options su as voice type. desktop items. then selecting Preferences ‣ Assistive Tenologies. Other assistive technologies Orca is another useful tool for persons with visual impairments. press Alt+F2 and type orca into the command text field.     . Accessibility Ubuntu has built-in tools that make using the computer easier for people with certain physical limitations.

or shut down through the session menu on the far right side of the top panel. so it is very qui to suspend and resume from suspension. you can put your computer into suspend mode. restart. In addition to these options. voice language.: Assistive Technologies allows you to enable extra features to make it easier to use your computer.    Figure . Managing your computer When you have finished working on your computer. Braille. whi will save its current condition and allow you to start more quily while remaining on but using very lile energy. you can oose to log out. . Suspend To save energy. suspend. the Orca seings you ose will automatically run every time you use your computer. Logging out Logging out will leave the computer running but return you to the login screen. Once you have finished selecting your seings. is is useful for switing users. selecting high-contrast themes and larger on-screen fonts can further assist those with vision difficulties. you will need to log out of the computer (Orca will offer to do this for you). su as when a different person wishes to log in to their account.” You should save your work before logging out. or if you are ever instructed to “log out and ba in again. and screen magnification. You can also quily access these options by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+Del keys. When you log ba in. Suspending the computer spins down the hard disk and saves your session to memory.

is takes a lile longer. a website maintained by the Ubuntu community. Many programs have their own help which can be accessed by clicking the Help menu within the application window. If you can’t find an answer to your question in this manual or in the Ubuntu Help Center. select Restart from the session menu. but with the added benefit that hibernation uses no power while it is in a hibernated state. Other options From the session menu. You can lock your screen quickly by using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+L. has a built-in help reference.: Clicking the blue help icon in the top panel (just to the right of the System menu and the Firefox icon) will open Ubuntu’s built-in system help. Figure . You can also use the session menu to set up a guest session for a friend to try Ubuntu. Locking your screen is recommended if you move away from your computer for a short amount of time. and in turn provide support to others as they gain more knowledge. hibernate will save your session to the hard disk.     . Geing help Ubuntu. We encourage you to check any information you find on other websites with multiple sources when possible. . you can also select Lo Screen to require a password before using the computer again—this is useful if you need to leave your computer for some duration. Rebooting To reboot your computer. Shut down To totally power down your computer.ubuntu. you can contact the Ubuntu community through the Ubuntu Forums (http://ubuntuforums. Hibernate Hibernate is similar to suspend. or to swit users to log into another user account without closing your applications. just like other operating systems.com). Many Ubuntu users open an account on the forums to receive help. except that instead of saving your session to memory. Another useful resource is the Ubuntu Wiki (https://wiki. called the Ubuntu Help Center.org). but only follow directions if you understand them completely. cli on the help icon in the top panel. You can also access it by cliing Help and Support in the System menu. select Shut Down from the session menu. To access it.

: The built-in system help provides topic-based help for Ubuntu.    Figure . .

.

you will need to purase and install a wireless router or access point. To have your own. You can access all the functions of NetworkManager using its icon in the top panel. whi we will briefly discuss at the end of this section. try hovering your mouse over the icon until a short description appears near the cursor. is section of the manual will help you e your connection and configure it where necessary. wireless. In order to connect wirelessly. making it easy to access the Internet from different rooms in the house or when traveling. or dialup connection.: NetworkManager will display this icon in the top panel when you are connected to a wired network. Some locations may already have a publicly accessible wireless network available. and whether the connection is wired or wireless. you need to use the NetworkManager utility. A wired connection refers to when your computer is physically connected to a router or an Ethernet port with a cable. is is the most common connection for desktop computers. Working with Ubuntu Geing online If you are in a location with Internet access. It also supports some more advanced connection methods. NetworkManager allows you to turn all networking on or off. you must be in a location with a working wireless network.” Cliing this icon will bring up a list of network connections that are . A wireless connection is when your computer is connected to the Internet via a wireless radio network. If you are unsure whether your computer has a wireless card. A dialup connection is when your computer uses a modem to connect to an Internet service provider through your telephone line. and helps you manage your wired. wireless. you will want to make sure you are connected in order to get the most out of your Ubuntu operating system. Ubuntu can connect to the Internet using a wired. is will read “Wired network connection ‘Auto eth0’ active” (for example) if you have a working wired connection. and other connections. Figure . also known as Wi-Fi. NetworkManager In order to connect to the Internet in Ubuntu. or otherwise something else related to networking or connections su as “No connection” or “Networking disabled. Laptop computers commonly use Wi-Fi due to portability. is icon may look different depending on whether you currently have a working connection. check with your manufacturer. If you are unsure.

Are you already online? If the NetworkManager icon in the top panel shows a connection. is is usually the quiest and easiest way of establishing a connection between your computer and your  in order to access the Internet. Figure . is may be useful if you need to shut off all wireless communication.: This is the menu when you right-click the networking icon. or edit all connection seings.     . a router. Establishing a wired connection If you have an Ethernet cable running from a wall soet. although some s may provide what is called a static address instead. the e box next to “Enable Networking” is currently selected. view tenical details about your current connection. If so. You can also right-cli on the NetworkManager icon. If you are currently connected to the Internet.” and is a way for computers on your network to automatically receive configuration information from your Internet service provider (). you may wish to contact their customer service line to e. you need to know whether your network connection supports . In the image above.: Here you can see the currently active “auto eth0” connection listed in the NetworkManager menu. then you may have successfully connected during the installation process. If you are unsure whether your  supports . available to you. the name of this connection will be highlighted in bold. is will open a menu allowing you to enable or disable networking. Figure . then you will want to set up a wired network connection in Ubuntu. you can deselect it to disable all network connections. or some other device. su as when in an airplane. ey will also be able to provide you with information on your static address if one has been allocated to you (in many cases s only allocate static addresses to customers upon request). is stands for “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. . In order to connect with a wired connection. you do not need to follow the rest of this section.

If your  address is displayed as .. you will need to make sure that networking is enabled. If you are still not online aer following these steps. right-click on the NetworkManager applet and select Enable Networking from the popup menu. look below to see if an option labeled “Auto eth0” appears in the list. then your computer was not successfully provided with an address through . To e if you are online. . To e this. If it shows another address. you may already be set up for online access. When connecting through  this is likely to ange at An Internet Protocol () address is a numerical label assigned to devices on a computer network. Otherwise this option will be gray and you will not be able to select it through the right-click menu of the NetworkManager applet. More information on using Firefox can be found later in this apter. To enable networking. It is the equivalent of phone numbers for your house and allows your computer to be uniquely identified so you can access the Internet and share files with others. right-cli on the NetworkManager icon in the top panel and select the Connection Information option.    Automatic connections with DHCP If your network supports . then your computer is currently connected and probably already set up correctly for . To test out your Internet connection. it is most likely that your connection was automatically configured correctly. Figure . cli on the NetworkManager icon. you may need to try seing up your Internet configuration manually.: This window displays your  address and other connection information. You should see a window showing details about your connection. you may want to open the Firefox web browser to try loading a web page. If “Auto eth0” appears directly underneath. If “disconnected” appears in gray underneath the wired network section. ‣ An  address is a unique address used for identifying your computer on the Internet. or starts with . using a static  address. then you need to know a few items of information before you can get online. If so. ere should be a “Wired Network” heading in the menu that is displayed. Manual configuration with static addresses If your network does not support . cli on it to aempt to establish a wired connection. To access the “Connection Information” window...

However.com) into  addresses su as . ese servers convert standard web addresses (like http://www. select it and then cli the Edit buon. you first need to provide a name for the connection so you can distinguish it from any others that are added later. e list may already have an entry su as “Auto eth0.. right-cli on the NetworkManager icon and select Edit Connections. In the “Connection name” field... If you are adding a connection. ubuntu. If no connection is listed.” If you do not already have these seings. An  address is always given in the form of four numbers separated by decimal points. . If a connection is listed. but is usually something like .. It helps your computer connect or “talk” with their network.. whi acts as a “gateway” between your computer and the Internet. Make sure you are looking at the Wired tab inside the “Network Connections” window that is displayed...” or a similar name. is step allows your computer to “find” the correct web site when you type in the web address you wish to visit. oose a name su as “Wired connection . . times. e additional ones are used in case the first one fails.. ‣ e gateway is the  address at your ’s end.     .: In this window you can manually edit a connection. if your  has provided you with a static address then it will not. up to a maximum of three. To manually configure a wired connection. for example. A minimum of one  server is required. It takes the same form as an  address. ‣ e network mask tells your computer how large the network is that it belongs to. Figure . you will need to consult your network administrator or  customer support to receive them. ‣  servers are one or more  addresses of “Domain Name System” servers. cli the Add buon instead.

Swit to the v Settings tab. . your newlyadded connection should now be listed. cli on the NetworkManager icon. directly below the Netmask header. enter them all. you should be able to set up a wireless connection in Ubuntu. Wireless If your computer is equipped with a wireless (Wi-Fi) card and you have a wireless network nearby. If your network has more than one  server. Ea network will be shown with a name on the le. . this can be entered in the appropriate text field in the Wired tab of the editing window. Cli Apply to save your anges.. . you should be able to connect to a wireless network. and type in the address of your gateway. Cli on the Add buon next to the empty list of addresses. make sure that the Connect automatically option is selected. “.” . A signal meter looks To improve speed and reliability of your connection. To test if your connection is properly set up. A  address is a hardware address for your computer’s network card. separated by spaces or commas. Most laptop and netbook computers have a wireless network card. type in the addresses of your  server. you should see a list of available wireless networks. and type in your network mask. Cli Close to return to the desktop. Cli to the right of the  address. the NetworkManager icon should have anged to show an active connection. Connecting to a wireless network for the first time If your computer has a wireless network card. . Ubuntu is usually able to detect any wireless networks that are available within range of your wireless card.. directly below the Gateway header. Under the “Wireless Networks” heading. Type in your  address in the field below the Address header. When you have returned to the Network Connections screen. and a signal meter on the right. Cli to the right of the network mask. If you know the  address of your network card. Change the Method to “Manual. If your connection is configured correctly. and entering it is sometimes important when using a cable modem connection or similar. Under the connection name.” is the most common. try to move closer to your router or access point. To see a list of wireless networks. . . . In the  servers field below. refer to the instructions above for eing a  connection. If you are unsure of your network mask. .    To set up the connection: .

. enter it in the Password field. it will be obscured to prevent others from seeing it. If you are in a workplace or a location with a publicly accessible wireless network.     . A wireless network may be open to anyone to connect. the network signal meter does not display a padlo). is means that a password is required in order to connect. If you entered the wireless network’s password incorrectly. NetworkManager will aempt to establish a connection then return to the “Wireless Select the Show Password option to make sure you haven’t made a mistake when entering the password. If the network is unprotected (i. If you know the password. Ubuntu will display a pop up message in the upper right of your screen informing you that a connection was established. Aer you cli the Connect buon. If you have entered the correct password. e NetworkManager icon in the top panel will animate as Ubuntu aempts to establish a connection. a connection should be established within a few seconds. As you type your password. If the network is secured. Ubuntu will display a window called “Wireless Network Authentication Required” once it tries to connect. or may be protected with network security. If it connects successfully the icon will ange to display a signal meter. You will need to know the correct password in order to connect to these. A notification message in the upper right of your screen will also appear.e. To connect to a wireless network. you can select the Show password option to see the password as you type. like a series of bars—the more bars that are filled in. and then cli Connect. the stronger the connection will be. the NetworkManager icon in the top panel will animate as it tries to connect to the network. is will be the name that was used when the wireless router or access point was installed.: Type in your wireless network passphrase. Again. If you prefer. . Figure . the network name will usually make it easy to identify. A small padlo will be displayed next to the signal meter of any wireless networks that are protected. select the desired network’s name from the list. a connection will be established and the NetworkManager icon will ange to show signal meter bars. informing you that a connection was established.

so you can access them all in future by just remembering your keyring password. Choose the Connect to Hidden Wireless Network option. You can aempt to enter the correct password again. you will need to get the password from the network administrator. In this case. . ese hidden networks do not broadcast their names. . . is name is also known as a . You may also be prompted to select a keyring password here. Cli on your desired network. To connect to a hidden network: . Ubuntu may oose to connect to one of them. cli on the NetworkManager icon. Ubuntu will open the “Wireless Network Authentication Required” window. Connecting to a hidden wireless network In some circumstances. In addition. In order to be able to connect to a hidden network. while you may prefer to connect to another. e keyring stores network and other important passwords in the one place. the Connection field should show “New…”—you can leave this unanged. You should see a list of wireless networks in range. along with their signal meters. In this case. Cli on the NetworkManager icon in the top panel. Ubuntu should open the “Connect to Hidden Wireless Network” window. If you have many saved wireless networks that are in range. Once you have successfully established a wireless network connection. follow instructions in the previous section. you may need to connect to a hidden wireless network. . Ubuntu will store these seings (including the network password) in order to make it easier to connect to the same wireless network in future. Ubuntu will connect to the wireless network you ose. enter the name of the wireless network. is will work for both open and secured wireless networks. If you do not know the password to the network you have selected. is will allow you to connect to the same network without having to re-enter the password. By default. or cli Cancel to abort your connection. Ubuntu will automatically try to connect to a wireless network within range if it has its seings saved. If the password and other seings have not anged. Please enter the network name exactly as it was given to you. you will need to get its name and security seings from your network administrator. that connection’s password will be saved on your computer. Connecting to a saved wireless network If you have previously successfully established a wireless connection. If the password has ange. whi means that they will not show up in the list of wireless networks in the NetworkManager menu. In the Network name field.    Network Authentication Required” window.

Above the tabs. and then cli Edit. To edit a saved wireless network connection: .” If you do not know the correct seing for the network you will not be able to connect to the hidden network. Changing an existing wireless network At times. you may need to edit the  field. and cli on the Enable Wireless option to re-select it. . . right-cli on the NetworkManager icon. you may ange the Connection name field if you want to give the connection a more recognizable name . Ubuntu will then sear for nearby wireless networks and will connect to any saved networks within range. A  is the wireless connection’s network Some computers may have a physical switch or buon to turn off Wi-Fi. select one of the options. this list shows connections in the order of most recently used to least recently used. and deselect the Enable Wireless option. Disabling and enabling your wireless network card Wireless access in Ubuntu is enabled by default if you have a wireless network card in your computer. To turn wireless networking ba on. Find the connection you want to edit. Its password may have anged. Cli on the Wireless tab to see a list of saved wireless connections . Select or deselect this seing as needed. Your wireless network will be turned ba on. To do this. In the Wireless security field. . you may need or be required to turn your wireless radio off. leave this field as “None. By default. Right-cli on the NetworkManager icon and select Edit Connections… . . . A “Network Connections” window should open. Once set up according to the instructions above. e rest of the process should work exactly as in the section on the initial connection to wireless networks. . On the Wireless tab of the “Editing ⟨connection name⟩” window. Cli on the Connect buon. for example on airplanes. where ⟨connection name⟩ is the name of the connection you are editing. Ubuntu should open a window called “Editing ⟨connection name⟩”. Your wireless network will be turned off. If the network is open. and your computer will no longer sear for available wireless networks. Ubuntu will detect the wireless network but will not automatically connect to it without you oosing it from the NetworkManager menu. e window should display a number of tabs. In certain cases.     . If the Connect automatically option is not selected. right-cli on the NetworkManager icon. you may want to ange the seings for a wireless connection that you have previously saved. or your system administrator asked you to ange some networking or security seings. cli on it. the hidden network should show up in the list of saved networks.

    name—if set incorrectly. If your network uses this security mode. Finally. A selection of None means that you are using an open network with no security. ‣  &  Personal is the most common security mode for wireless network connections at home and at businesses. your network administrator should have provided you with a text passphrase—a password—to connect to the network. Aer making anges. On the Wireless Security tab of the “Editing ⟨connection name⟩” window. Once you select this security mode. . you may need to ange the Security field to the correct seing. You can also connect to s (Digital Subscriber Lines). e “Ad-hoc” mode is a computer-to-computer mode and is oen only used in advanced cases. . or  &  Enterprise security. you should see the Mode field. ‣ If your network administrator requires . your new seings should go into effect immediately. When you finish making anges to the connection. cli Close on the “Network Connections” window to return to the desktop. For seing up manual seings (also known as static addresses). Please make sure that the  is set according to your network administrator’s instructions. However. . Once you select this mode. you will need to enter a key in the Key field that should appear aer you select this mode. is is the most common mode for wireless networks. ‣  -bit Passphrase is the same older security seing as the entry above. With NetworkManager. you can also configure Mobile Broadband connections to keep online through your cellular or other mobile data carrier. you will need to enter a password in the Password field.” or one of the other methods. Dynamic . Other selections may require slightly different additional information: ‣  /-bit Key is an older security seing still in use by some wireless networks. You can cli Cancel to close the window without making anges. you will need to enter your passphrase in the Key field. whi are a method of Internet connection that uses your telephone lines and a “ modem. instead of a key. . . please see the section above on manual set up for wired network connections.” . you will need to have the administrator help you set up those security modes. you may need to ange the Method field from “Automatic ()” to “Manual. the network may not be detected and a connection may not be made. Below the . e “Infrastructure” mode means that you would be connecting to a wireless router or access point. On the v Settings tab. cli Apply to save your anges and close the window. Other connection methods ere are other ways to get connected with Ubuntu.

you can also press that buon to start Firefox. s are “Digital Subscriber Lines.: The default Ubuntu home page for the Firefox web browser. If your keyboard has a “” buon. you should be able to browse the web with Ubuntu.” a type of broadband connection. Figure . Mozilla Firefox is the default application for browsing the web in Ubuntu. s. e instructions for making connections using mobile broadband. are beyond the scope of this guide.” and is sometimes used to help secure connections. It’s also possible to use NetworkManager to establish a  (Virtual Private Network) connection. ese are commonly used to create secure connectivity to a workplace. To set other keyboard shortcuts or to change the shortcut for launching Firefox. A  is a “Virtual Private Network.     . Browsing the web Once you have connected to the Internet. or s. go to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard Shortcuts. Starting Firefox To start Firefox. . cli Applications ‣ Internet ‣ Firefox Web Browser.

By default.    Navigating web pages Viewing your homepage When you start Firefox. If you don’t know a . try typing something specific to the page you want to visit (for example a name or other sear request) into the Location Bar and press Enter. Navigating to another page To navigate to a new web page. Press Enter. is happens whenever the pointer is over a link. . you will see the Ubuntu Start Page. e  you type replaces any text already in the Location Bar. and take you to the web page that is the top result from the sear. To cli a link: .  stands for uniform resource locator and  stands for world wide web. you will see your home page. . To go to your home page quily. Cli on the Location Bar to select the  that is already there. Clicking a link Most web pages contain links you can cli to move to other pages. press Alt+Home. Type the  of the page you want to visit. s normally begin with “hp://” followed by one or more names that identify the address.ubuntu. press Ctrl+L. but buons and pictures on a web page can also be links. While Firefox locates the link’s page. To quily select the  of the Location Bar.: You can enter a web address or search the Internet by typing in the location bar. To navigate: . . is will sear your preferred sear engine—Google by default—for that term. . Retracing your steps If you want to visit a page you have seen before. One example is “http://www. Most links are underlined text. You can also press F6 on your keyboard to highlight the location bar in Firefox. Cli on the link once.com/”. Move the mouse pointer until it anges to a pointing finger. To go backwards and forwards you can also use Alt+Leftto go backwards or Alt+Right to go forwards. status messages will appear at the boom of the window. there are several ways to do Figure . you need to type its Internet address (also known as a ) into the Location Bar.

‣ To go ba or forward one page. cli on the small triangle next to the Forward buon. To do this. Cli on the folders to displays sub-folders. Opening new windows At times. Firefox should open a “Library” window. so. ‣ To see a list of any s you’ve typed into the Location Bar. . then oose New Window. cli on the Reload buon or press Ctrl+R. Once a new window has opened. Cli on a page’s title to view that page. You should see a list of pages you’ve recently visited. ‣ Press Ctrl+N. ere are two ways to create a new window: ‣ On the menubar. select it from the list. To return to a page. To reload the current page or to get the most up-to-date version. ere are two ways to open a link in its own window: ‣ Right-cli on a link to open its popup menu. Choose the Open Link in New Window option. or separate web pages that you are viewing for different reasons. you may want to have more than one browsing window. open the History menu and oose Show All History. open the File menu. open the History menu and oose from the list in the boom section of the menu. To view a page. is may help you organize your browsing session beer. containing the web page for the link you clied. A new window will open.     . but do not want the original page to close. cli on the Ba or Forward buon. ‣ To go ba or forward more than one page. ‣ To oose from pages you’ve visited during the past several sessions. Stopping and reloading If a page is loading too slowly or you no longer wish to view a page. ‣ To oose from pages you’ve visited during the current session. select it from the list. you may want to cli on a link to navigate to another web page. or titles of web pages you’ve visited in the past. you can open the link you’d like to cli in its own window. you can use it just like the first window —including navigation and opening tabs. Opening a link in a new window Sometimes. cli on the Stop buon. cli on the down arrow at the right end of the Location Bar. whi shows a list of folders.

you can use Tabbed Browsing to navigate the web. ‣ On the menubar.    ‣ Press-and-hold the Shift key while cliing a link. ‣ Cli on a link. containing the web page for the link you clied. but do not want the original page to close. Drag the link up to a blank space on the tab bar. cli on the link with the middle mouse buon or wheel. ea displaying in its own tab. open the File menu. ‣ Press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliing the le mouse buon on the link. Tabbed browsing If you would like to visit more than one web page at a time. You can alternate quickly between different tabs by using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Tab. and reload web pages in one place without having to swit to another window. A new tab will open. To do this. ere are many ways to open a link in its own tab: ‣ If your mouse has a middle buon. Start typing a web address () or other sear term to open a website in the new tab. and then oose New Tab. You can open. and release the mouse buon. you can open the link you’d like to cli in its own tab. ‣ Right-cli on a link to open its popup menu. Opening a link in its own tab Sometimes. When you create a new tab. and keep holding down the mouse buon. is frees up space on your desktop since you don’t have to have a window open for every web page you’re currently visiting. A new tab should open. containing the web page for the link you clied. A new tab should open. it will contain a blank page with the Location Bar focused. Choose the Open Link in New Tab option. . ‣ Press Ctrl+T. holding both le and right mouse buons. Opening a new blank tab ere are three ways to create a new blank tab: ‣ Cli on the New Tab buon on the right side of the last tab. you may want to cli on a link to navigate to another web page. A new tab should open. containing the web page for the link you dragged. containing the web page for the link you clied. close. is will also open the web page in a new window. Tabbed browsing lets you open several web pages within a single Firefox window. or a wheel. ‣ Cli on the link with the le mouse buon.

or the mouse wheel. you may close the wrong tab by accident. To bring ba a tab you’ve closed. When you release the mouse buon. ‣ Cli on the tab you want to close with the middle mouse buon. Closing a tab Once you are done viewing a web page in a tab. While you are dragging the tab. To move a tab from one window into its own window. Searching You can sear the web. oose Recently Closed Tabs. . ‣ Press Ctrl+W. remember to save your work before doing this. and then oose Close Tab. Restoring a closed tab Sometimes. To move a tab from one Firefox window to another already open window. the tab will be aaed to the new window. or other collections. you can move an open tab to a different window. open the History menu. When moving a tab to a new window it may reload the page. if you have one. ‣ Press Ctrl+Shift+T to re-open the most recently closed tab. you can close that tab. and then oose the name of the tab you want to restore. Moving a tab between windows If you have more than one Firefox window open. cli-and-hold on the tab and drag it to the tab bar on the other Firefox window. drag it there using your mouse. Cli-and-hold on the tab and drag the tab to a new place on the tab bar. the tab will become a new window. Firefox will sear the web using the Google sear engine. ere are four ways to close a tab: ‣ Cli on the Close buon on the right side of the tab you want to close. Changing the tab order To move a tab to a different location on the tab bar. or want to bring ba a tab that you’ve recently closed. ‣ Cli on the tab with both mouse buons. ‣ On the menubar. open the File menu. cli-and-hold on the tab and drag the tab below the tab bar. do one of the following: ‣ On the menubar.     . Firefox will display a small indicator to show where the tab will be moved. You can also split a tab off to become its own window. By default. When you release the mouse buon. from within Firefox without first visiting the home page of the sear engine.

    Searching the web To sear the web in Firefox. like Amazon. Firefox allows you to sear the web for words you select within a web page. cli on the icon on the le side of the Sear Bar. Press Enter to sear. . The Ubuntu home page’s search bar uses Google by default. For example. Some sear engines. .: These are the other search engines you can use—by default—from the Firefox search bar. Instead of copying and pasting the phrase into the Sear Bar. sear the whole web. To ange the sear engine. . . Cli on the Sear Bar. If you do not want to use Google as your sear engine in the Sear Bar.” Your typing replaces any text currently in the Sear Bar. others.com. type a few words into the Firefox sear Bar. like Google. you can ange the sear engine that Firefox uses. but will automatically use Yahoo if Yahoo is selected in the Search Bar. you may want to sear for a phrase that appears on a different web page. Right-cli on the text you’ve highlighted to open a popup menu. Sear results from Google for “Ubuntu” should appear in the Firefox window. Searching the web for words selected in a web page Sometimes. Highlight any words in a web page using your le mouse buon. Selecting search engines Figure . . Choose the option Sear [Sear Engine] for “[your selected words]”. Choose one of the other sear engines in the list. Type the phrase “Ubuntu. if you want to find information about the Ubuntu: . only sear specific sites.

Press Ctrl+F or oose Edit ‣ Find to open the Find Toolbar at the boom of Firefox. or save the page or part of a page as a file on your computer. you can use Full Screen mode.     . . ‣ Cli on the Highlight all buon to highlight occurrences of your sear words in the current page. Enter the text you want to find into the Find field in the Find Toolbar. Firefox should open a new tab containing sear results for your highlighted words. Copying and saving pages With Firefox. e sear automatically begins as soon as you type something into the field. Searching within a page You may want to look for specific text within the web page you are viewing. ‣ Cli Previous to find text that is above the current cursor position. found using the currently selected sear engine. simply oose View ‣ Full Screen or press F11. Full Screen mode condenses the Firefox’s toolbars into one small toolbar. you can: ‣ Cli Next to find text in the page that is below the current cursor position. To find text within the current page in Firefox: . . To enable Full Screen mode. you can copy part of a page so that you can paste it elsewhere. Viewing web pages full screen To display more web content on the screen. To find the same word or phrase again. Once some text has been mated on the web page.: You can search within web pages using the Find Toolbar. Figure . press F3 or oose Edit ‣ Find Again from the menubar. . ‣ Select the Mat case option to limit the sear to text that has the same capitalization as your sear words.

. . The homepage can also be set by entering the addresses that should be open in the Home Page. Choose Copy Link Location. Navigate to the page that you would like to become your new homepage. Firefox should open the “Save Image” window. . Right-cli on the link or image to open a popup menu. close the other tabs and repeat Steps -. If you had more than one tab open then all the tabs will be opened when Firefox starts. and cli Save. Right-cli on the image to display a popup menu.    Copying part of a page To copy text from a page: . You can paste the text into other programs. Position the pointer over the link or image. To ange your homepage: . Firefox will show the Ubuntu Start Page when you start Firefox. Highlight the text and/or images with your mouse. Choose File ‣ Save Page As from the menubar. You can paste the link into other programs or into Firefox’s Location Bar. with a pipe—|—separating pages to be opened in a new tab . Firefox should open the “Save As” window. . Type a file name for the page. Enter a file name for the image and cli Save. To save an image from a page: . Choose Edit ‣ Preferences from the menubar. To copy a text or image link () from a page: . Saving all or part of a page To save an entire page in Firefox: . cli on the Use Current Page buon. you will need to ange your homepage preference. . If you prefer to view another page when you start Firefox. . In the “Startup” section on the General tab. . Choose a location for the saved page. . Choose Edit ‣ Copy from the menubar or press Ctrl+C. Cli Close. . Changing your homepage By default. Choose a location for the saved image. Choose Save Image As. . . . If you prefer to have one page open. whi is shown by default. Position the mouse pointer over the image.

e Downloads window can be hidden entirely. and lists files downloaded in the past. or set to hide when downloads finish. You can also set the behavior of Firefox’s Downloads window. and cli on the Done buon. Bookmarking a page Aer navigating to a web page you can save its location by bookmarking it. You can tell Firefox where to place downloaded files. Figure . or to ask where ea time. It can be used to open or re-download files. oose Bookmarks and then Bookmark is Page.: You can change Firefox seings in this window. In Firefox. The Downloads window shows the progress of currently downloading files. A window will open. . Download seings In Edit ‣ Preferences you can ange how Firefox behaves with downloads. Provide a descriptive name for the bookmark. Bookmarks When browsing the web you may want to come ba to certain web pages again without having to remember the . whi are saved in the web browser and whi you can use to navigate ba to your pied web pages. ere are two ways to bookmark a page: ‣ From the menubar. you can create bookmarks.     .

  



‣ Press Ctrl+D. A pop-up will appear. Provide a descriptive name for the bookmark, and cli on the Done buon. Navigating to a bookmarked page To navigate to a bookmarked page, open the Bookmarks menu from the menubar, and then oose your bookmark’s name. Firefox should open the bookmark in the current tab.
You can also press Ctrl+B to display bookmarks in a sidebar on the le side of the browser window. Press Ctrl+B again to hide the sidebar.

Deleting a bookmark If you would like to delete a bookmark that you have previously made, open the Bookmarks menu from the menubar, and then right-cli on your bookmark’s name. Firefox should open a popup menu for your bookmark. Choose the Delete option from the menu. Your bookmark should then be deleted.

History
Whenever you are browsing the web, Firefox is saving your browsing history. is allows you to come ba to a web page that you have recently visited, without needing to remember the page’s , or even bookmarking it. To see your most recent history, open the History menu from the menubar. e menu should then display several of the most recent web pages that you were viewing. Choose one of the pages to return to it. To see the web pages you have visited recently, press Ctrl+H. Firefox will open a “sidebar” on the le side of the browser window, that contains your browsing history, categorized as “Today,” “Yesterday,” “Last  days,” “is month,” the past  months (listed month by month), and finally “Older than  months.” Cli on one of the date categories in the sidebar to expand it. en it will reveal the pages you visited during that period. en, once you find the page you need, cli on its title to return to it. You can also sear for a page by its title. Enter a few leers, or a word, in the Sear field at the top of the history sidebar. e sidebar should then display a list of web pages whose titles mat your sear words. Cli on the title of the page you need to return to it. If you would like to hide the history sidebar again, press Ctrl+H again.

Clearing private data
At times, you may want to delete all private data that Firefox stores about your browsing history. While this data is stored only on your computer, you may want to remove it if you share access to your computer.



    .

To delete your private data, open the Tools menu from the menubar, and oose Clear Recent History. In the drop down list for the Time range to clear, oose how far ba you would like Firefox to delete. If you would like more control over what you clear, cli on the Details text to display a list of options. When done, cli on the Clear Now buon.

Using a different web browser
Figure .: You can change the default browser with the ”Preferred Applications” utility. To use it, open the System ‣ Preferences ‣ Preferred Applications.

If you install a different web browser on your computer, you may want to use it as the default browser when you cli on links from emails, instant messages, and other places. To ange your preferred web browser, open the System menu from Ubuntu’s main menubar. en, oose System ‣ Preferences ‣ Preferred Applications. Ubuntu should then open the “Preferred Applications” window. In the “Web Browser” section, oose your new preferred web browser, and cli Close.

Reading and composing email
To send and receive email in Ubuntu, you can use the Evolution mail application. To start Evolution, open the Applications menu, then oose Office and then Evolution Mail and Calendar. In addition to email, Evolution also can help manage your contact list, your calendar, and a list of tasks.
Although Evolution can be used with many webmail systems, su as Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail, and Gmail, you may prefer to use the Firefox web browser to access them.

  



Running Evolution for the first time
When you start Evolution for the first time, you will need to configure it to connect to your email account. When Evolution starts, you should see the “Evolution Setup Assistant” window, welcoming you to Evolution. Cli Forward to continue with the setup. Next, on the “Restore from baup” screen, Evolution may ask you to restore from a previous baup. Since this is the first time you are running Evolution, you can cli Forward to skip this step. On the next screen, “Identity”, you need to enter your name and the email address you wish to use with Evolution. Enter your full name in the Full Name field, and the full email address in the Email Address field. You can fill in the optional information, or leave it unanged if you desire. Cli Forward when you are done. Next, you should see the “Receiving Email” screen. On this screen, you need to provide Evolution with the details of your email servers. If you do not know these details, you will need to ask your network administrator or e with your email provider. ere are two common types of Internet email connections: , and . ese are described below. In work environments there are sometimes other types, su as Microso Exange or Novell GroupWise—for more information on those types of connections, please see the documentation for Evolution located in the Help ‣ Contents menu. Seing up an IMAP connection  connections allow you to manage your email remotely—the actual email and folders reside on your email server, while Evolution allows you to view, edit, and delete the messages and folders as needed. If your email provider recommends an  connection, oose IMAP from the Server Type drop-down list. In the Server field, enter the Internet address or  of your mail server. for example imap.example.com. In the Username field; enter the username that you use to log into your email system, for example joe.x.user or joe.x.user@example.com, as specified by your email provider. Your email provider may specify the security seings you will need to use in order to receive email. If your connection does not use security, leave the Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. Otherwise, oose either  encryption or  encryption, as specified by your email provider. Aer oosing these options, cli Forward to proceed to the “Receiving Options” screen. While it is normal to leave all options unselected, you may want to select the Che for new messages option to have Evolution automatically e email on a regular basis.

mail. e messages will be deleted from the server. e most common type of sending connection is .x.user. In the Server field. You can adjust the number of days that Evolution keeps the messages. and store them in folders on your computer. While it is normal to leave all options unselected. is is common for commercial email providers. Otherwise. is will allow you to use another computer to re-download all of your new messages. If your email provider recommends a  connection. For example.example. you will need to configure your connection for sending email through your email provider.com.     . whi determine what Evolution does aer downloading email to your computer. type in the name of the outbound mail server (also known as the  server). or joe. Here. oose POP from the Server Type drop-down list. In the Username field. In the Server field. for example pop. leave the Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. you may want to select the Che for new messages option to have Evolution automatically e email on a regular basis. .example. Seing up a POP connection  connections let you manage your email locally—Evolution will connect to your email provider and download any new messages you may have received. enter the username that you use to log into your email system. and delete them aer a while. whi is the default server type selected. cli Forward to continue to the next screen.user@example. When you are finished seing the options. Select the Leave messages on server option to have Evolution keep the messages on your email system aer downloading them.com. When you are finished seing the options. If your connection does not use security. Your email provider may specify the security seings you will need to use in order to receive email. as specified by your email provider.x. oose either  encryption or  encryption. Select the Delete aer  days option to have Evolution keep the messages for a few days.com. as described by your email provider. Aer oosing these options. If your email provider requires authentication. cli Forward to proceed to “Receiving Options” screen. You may also wish to adjust the Message Storage options. cli Forward to continue to the next screen. for example joe. Seing up your sending options e next screen should be the “Sending Email” screen. enter the Internet address or  of your mail server. select the Server requires authentication option.

On the le side of the window is the folder list. or joe. Calendars. When finished. or mating your sear request. the Mail buon is selected. Your email provider may specify the security seings you will need to use in order to send email. e other buons take you to those other parts of Evolution. e menubar lets you access most of the functionality of Evolution. e message list shows all of the messages in the currently selected folder. for example.user. Cli No if you plan on installing or using a different email program. “Account Management”.    In the “Authentication” section of the screen. When working with email. joe.com. Otherwise. At the top are the menubar and toolbar. and the message preview beneath it. Otherwise. oose the type of authentication from the Type drop-down list—the most common authentication type is “.x. Aer you finish setup. Below the folder list on the le side of the window are the Mail. cli Forward. Contacts. If you believe that you’ve entered the correct options. is should open the “Done” screen. cli Ba to go ba one or more screens to correct your seings. cli Forward to proceed to the next screen. enter your username. Cli Yes if you plan on reading and sending email only with Evolution. leave the Use Secure Connection drop-down list set to No encryption. its contents are shown in the message preview pane below. On the right side of the window are the message list. If you set up more email accounts with Evolution the name provided here will help distinguish those accounts.x. Every message that you send or receive will reside in one of the folders in this list. enter a descriptive name for this account. Around the Evolution workspace e Evolution window is divided into four parts. Finalizing your account options On the next screen. Aer oosing these options.” Below that. If a message is selected in this list. If your connection does not use security. in the Username field. e first group of folders in the list is titled “On is Computer. or cli Cancel to abort setup and discard your account seings.user@example. and Memos buons. cli Apply to finish setup.” ese are . oose either  encryption or  encryption. while the toolbar provides convenient shortcuts to some of the most frequently used features. Understanding the folder list e folder list is the way that Evolution separates and categorizes your email. as specified by your email provider. Tasks. Evolution may ask you if you would like to make it your default email client.

but whi have not been sent yet. contacts and tasks. if you are in an airplane or another location without an Internet connection. Junk mail is also known as “spam. but have not yet sent.” ‣ Outbox contains messages that you’ve finished composing. all email messages in the Outbox will be sent out. ‣ Junk stores messages that have been identified as unsolicited email that you did not want.: Evolution allows you to manage your mail. ‣ Dras stores messages that you’ve worked on.     . . Once you can send and receive messages. Ea of the initial folders in the list is special: ‣ Inbox stores your incoming messages. You can cli on any folder to see its contents appear in the message list on the right side of the window. and will remain there until the next time you are able to send and receive messages. you can still cli the Send buon once you’ve finished writing an email. any new message will be placed in the Inbox local folder. For example. e message will be moved to the Outbox. If you use  servers to retrieve your email. Figure . your local folders—they reside on your computer only.

select the parent folder. ‣ Templates stores any email message templates you have saved. cli on the Create buon to create the folder. Evolution will show a list of “Sear Folders. cli on the Delete buon. select the new parent folder. You can also right-cli on a folder.” ese are special folders that represent certain messages that mat sear rules. the trash will be emptied every time you exit Evolution. cli on the folder that you would like to move. from the list of folders below. e heading for ea folder list uses the name you gave to that account. If you use an  server to retrieve your email. A template is a partial message. a blank invoice. below the “On is Computer” section. if you would like your new folder to be placed under the Inbox then select the Inbox folder. and the number of unread messages will be displayed in parentheses following the folder name.    ‣ Sent contains copies of messages that have been sent successfully. the folder’s name will be displayed in bold. open the Folder menu. you can create your own folders to manage your email. Please see the section on Finding Messages for more on sear folders. You can move folders that you have created. Enter a name for the folder that you would like to create. and drag the folder to a new parent folder. If a folder contains any unread messages. Your new folder should now be in the folder list. Once the mouse cursor highlights a new parent folder. right-cli on the folder and oose the Delete option.” then your new folder will be placed under “On is Computer” in the folder list. and then oose New. To create a new folder. then your remote  folders will also be shown in the folder list. Managing folders In addition to the initial folders. If you select “On is Computer. Ea -enabled account has its own Inbox for new messages. . release the mouse buon to finish the move. Once you’ve made your selection. for example. By default. and cli on the Move buon. it is copied to the Sent folder. and oose the Move… option. To confirm that you want to delete the folder. en. Once a message from an Outbox is sent. For example. hold down the mouse buon. To delete a folder. en. Towards the boom of the folder list. that can be used as the starting point for other messages. To do so. ‣ Trash contains messages that you have deleted.

If you wish for Evolution to remember this password and not ask you in the future. When you cli on a message. the sixth column is the date that the email was sent. e first column is a read/unread indicator. Evolution will need to know your email account password. or just the email address. may be displayed in this column. Here. In the “Enter Password” window.     . Evolution will first try to connect to your email provider to e your email. By default. its contents will be displayed in the preview pane below the message list. Checking and reading messages Checking mail When you finish setup. or mating your sear terms. the icon will show a closed envelope. e second column is an aament indicator. Figure . you can . the message list shows six columns of information for ea message. e fourth column contains the sender of the message. Evolution will show an icon of a paperclip in this column. If a message has been read. If someone sends you a message marked with high importance. and will ask you for it. If a message has not been read. Evolution will then show a “Send & Receive Mail” window. you can see email messages for your currently selected folder. showing the progress of the operation su as how many messages are being retrieved. Once you select a message by cliing it. In order to connect. the column shows an icon of an open envelope. enter your password and cli OK. Both the name and email. Listing messages e top right portion of the Evolution window is the message list. Otherwise. the column will be blank. this column will be blank. e third column is an importance indicator. Evolution will show an exclamation mark in this column. or when you start Evolution in the future. e fih column contains the subject of the email message. Finally. Otherwise. If a message contains an aaed file.: You need to enter your password to authenticate your account. you can select the Remember this password option.

or forward them to a new recipient). Evolution will open a menu with actions that you can perform for the message. You can use the Show drop-down list to filter your view to show only unread messages. In addition to the buons on the toolbar. Sometimes. may automatically classify some mail as Junk. you may wish to take an action on multiple email messages (for example. Note that loading images may provide a way for the sender to track your receipt of the message. To display the missing images. recipients. You can also cli on the Trash buon in the toolbar to put the message in the Trash folder. e sear options will be covered in a later section. double cli a message in the message list. e message should then open in a separate window. e top of the preview pane will show the message header. You can also cli on one message to select it. you can right-cli on a message in the list. Below the header.    cli on the Reply buon in the toolbar to begin composing a reply message to be sent to the sender. right-cli on one of them to perform your desired action. Directly above the message list are the Show drop-down list. you may want to display multiple messages at the same time. Evolution shows the contents of the message itself. whi contains the sender. delete multiple messages. its contents will be shown in the preview pane below the message list. or only messages with aaments. press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliing on multiple messages—the messages you cli on will be selected. as well as the date the message was sent. or your mail server. or cli on the Reply to All buon to begin composing a reply message to be sent to the sender and other recipients of your selected message. if needed. and subject of the message. . open the View menu from the menubar. you can open ea message in a separate window instead of just viewing it in the preview pane. All messages in the list between the original selection and the one you just clied on will be selected. Previewing messages When you select an email message. then press-and-hold the Shift key and cli on another message in the list. If a message was sent with  formaing. We do not recommend loading images in messages that you suspect are Junk. etc. and the sear options. some of the images may not be displayed when a message is previewed. or on the Junk buon to move the message into the Junk folder. Once you have multiple messages selected. If your Internet connection is active. the missing images should then load. Opening messages At times. Note that Evolution. then Load Images. You can go ba to the message list and open another message. or press Ctrl+I. To do so. To open a message in its own window. To do this in Evolution.

” “Current Account. To use Advanced Sear. To return to the folder display. Evolution will use the “Current Folder” option and will only show you results within the folder you’ve got selected in the folder list on your le. For example. Finding messages ere are three ways to sear for messages in Evolution: you can use the sear option at the top of the message list. you may want to find a message from a particular user with some specific words in the subject of the message. open the Sear menu from the menubar and then oose Clear.: To use more search terms you can use the advanced search window. To use message list sear. e list of messages will ange to show only those messages containing the text you entered. you can edit the text and try searing again. In the open message window. If you have multiple email accounts added to Evolution. If you oose the “Current Account” option. delete it.” and “All Accounts. enter the text you want to find in the Sear field at the top right of the message list.     . categorize it. and press Enter. you can use the options in the menubar or on the toolbar to reply to the message. In Evolution. or instead erase all the text you’ve entered in the Sear field and press Enter. In some cases. oosing the “All Accounts” option lets you sear for messages in all of your accounts.” By default. To the right of the sear field you should be able to see a drop-down list of options su as “Current Folder. or create a sear folder. If no messages mat the text you’ve entered. In the middle section of the Figure . Evolution should open the “Advanced Sear” window. . depending on your email setup. you can perform this sear using the Advanced Sear function. Evolution will sear for messages in all folders within the current email account—su as all the folders “On is Computer” or in your  folders. as well as perform other message actions. use the Advanced Sear function. oose Sear ‣ Advanced Sear. you may want to sear for messages using multiple criteria.

Evolution allows you to create Sear Folders. pi whi folders should be seared by this sear folder—for example. If you subscribe to a folder. en. Please refer to the Evolution help documents for more information. From the Server drop-down list oose your account name. e message list should then only display messages that mat your advanced sear criteria. to find messages from myfriend@example. or ange the drop-down with “contains” selected by default in order to have a different type of a mat.com in the text field to the right of the drop-down list with “Sender” selected. When you are finished. Below the criteria. Evolution should open the “Folder Subscriptions” window.com that contained “boat” in the subject. Choose the folders you would like to subscribe to by selecting the e . To help with this type of a sear. For our example. specify sear criteria in the same way as in Advanced Sear. you will need to subscribe to them. If you cli on the sear folder to select it. Evolution should then show a list of folders in the list below. you should see a set of folders in the folder list on the le side of the window that is titled with the name of your  account. In some cases. For example.    window. you may want to perform the same sear request on a regular basis. You can also ange the selection in the drop-down list at the beginning of ea line to specify a different field to be eed. you can cli on the Add Condition buon to add additional lines. If you have other folders in your  account. Evolution will download messages for that folder whenever you e your email. oose Sear ‣ Create Sear Folder From Sear from the menubar. Dras. specify your sear criteria. you should be able to see a list of messages that mat your sear criteria. Folders like Inbox. and would enter boat in the text field to the right of the drop-down list with “Subject” selected. When specifying the criteria for advanced sear. To subscribe to a folder select Folder ‣ Subscriptions from the menubar. cli OK. cli on Remove to the right of all lines that are unused. Junk and others should be displayed in the folder list. you can oose “All local and active remote folders” to sear in all of your account’s folders. en. and cli OK to perform the sear. you would enter myfriend@example. you may want to always be able to see all messages from myfriend@example.com regardless of whi folder you’ve used to store the message. e new sear folder should now be added to the list of sear folders towards the boom of the message list. Give the folder a name by entering it in the Rule name field at the top. To create a sear folder. Subscribing to IMAP folders If you use  to retrieve your email.

To enable Bcc. Composing new messages To compose a new message. you can also select the contacts from your address book. select View ‣ Bcc Field from the menubar. Any contacts entered in the Bcc: field will receive the message. and cli on the Remove buon. or Bcc: fields located on the right of the screen. box to the le of the folder name. If you would like to send an email to some contacts without disclosing to whom your email was sent. Your selected contact will be added to that list.     . of the contacts you are addressing in the message. Composing and replying to messages In addition to reading email. Cc:. you can address them by name. Evolution will display the list of mating contacts below your text. If a contact that you are addressing is in your address book. In the To: field. Start typing the name of the contact. To do so. or Bcc. Enter a subject for your email. cli Close. Contacts on the To: and Cc: lines will receive the email. cli their name in the list on the right. en. Once you identify the contact you would like to address. or compose new messages. cli on the Add buon to the le of either the To:. but none of the recipients will see the names or emails of contacts on the Bcc: line. Instead of typing the email addresses. If you’ve added the contact in error. and will see the rest of the contacts to whom an email was sent. enter their email addresses in the Cc: field in the same manner as the To: recipients. Cc: or Bcc: buons to the le of the text fields. cli on the To:. or names. Once you see the contact you intend to address. If there is more than one contact to whom you are writing. When you are finished. enter the email address of the destination—the contact to whom you are sending this email. e folders will be updated the next time you e your email. or type a few leers from your contact’s first or last name in the Sear field to filter the list to only show mating contacts. Evolution should open the “Select Contacts from Address Book” window. If you would like to carbon-copy some contacts. separate multiple recipients with commas. A Bcc: field should appear below the Cc: field. you will likely want to reply to the email you read. When you are finished piing contacts. cli on the New buon on the toolbar. you can send a blind carbon-copy. Use the list on the le side of the window to select your contact. cli on their name in the list. Messages should have a subject to help the . Evolution should open a “Compose message” window. cli Close to return to the composing screen. cli on their email address or use the down arrow key and then Enter to select the address.

ere is no practical limit on the amount of text you can include in your message. Your message will be placed in the Outbox. Enter the contents of your message in the big text field below the subject. you may want to reply to messages that you receive. as well as anyone else on the To or Cc lines. cli the drop-down list buon on the le side directly above the text field for the message contents. Evolution will warn you about this. and will be sent when you next e your email. if you do not include a subject. Change the selection from “Plain Text” to “” to enable advanced formaing. is means that no formaing or graphics will be shown to the recipient. cli on the Send buon on the window’s toolbar. To send files. cli on the message to whi you want . To aa a file to an email you are composing. Aaching files At times. ‣ Reply to All—sends your reply to the sender of the message. to some other contacts. new messages will be sent in “Plain Text” mode. To swit to this mode. and your selected file should be listed in a section below the Add Attament buon. you will need to aa them to your email message. with any additional comments you may add.    recipient to identify the email while glancing at their message list. ‣ Forward—allows you to send the message. but the message is least likely to be rejected or displayed illegibly to the recipients. you can send them messages that include formaing. To use any of these methods. Evolution should show the “Add aament” window. When you have finished composing your email. ere are three types of email replies: ‣ Reply (or “Reply to Sender”)—sends your reply only to the sender of the message to whi you are replying. you may want to send files to your contacts. Evolution will return you to the email message window. Replying to messages In addition to composing new messages. cli on the Add Attament buon at the boom right of the email message window. When using  mode. a new toolbar should appear right under the mode selection that will allow you to perform advanced font styling and message formaing. By default. If you know that your recipient uses a contemporary computer and a modern email program. Select the file you would like to include in your message and cli on the Atta buon.

Subject. select Composer Preferences and then select the Signatures tab. to reply and then cli the Reply. Evolution allows you to use a “signature. as well as keep tra of tasks and memos that you can create for yourself. If you have already set up Evolution with an email account. Give your signature a name. When composing of replying to a message. Staying organized e Evolution application in Ubuntu can let you keep and manage a list of your contacts. Evolution should then open the “Edit Signature” window. open the Applications menu. Cli on the Add to add a new signature. and will be sent when you next e your email. Note that the two dashes are added automatically by Ubuntu. . open the “Evolution Preferences” window by selecting Edit ‣ Preferences from the menubar. and a task list. so there is no need to include them in your custom signature. If you do not wish to use Evolution for email. and enter the contents of your signature in the big text field below. Cc. When finished. Evolution will add two dashes. and main message content fields should be filled in from the message to whi you are replying. Edit the To. Evolution should open the reply window. maintain a calendar. then oose Office and then Evolution Mail and Calendar. To start Evolution. and then your name and email address to the boom of the email message. or Forward buon on the toolbar. Reply to All. cli on the Signature dropdown list below the toolbar just above the To: field. cli on the Save buon on the toolbar (the buon’s icon looks like a floppy disk). If you select Autogenerated. Close the preferences window. as well as an “Autogenerated” signature. When your reply is finished. you can still use it for managing your contacts or maintaining a sedule.” Signatures in email are a bit of standard text that is added to the boom of any new messages or replies. is window should look mu like the window for composing new messages. is list should contain any signatures that you have created.     . but the To. Your signature should now show up in the drop-down list in the compose/reply window. Subject or main body as you see fit. Your message will be placed in the Outbox. you do not need to do any further setup to use these features. Ea line in the message should be prefixed with a “>” aracter. Cc. To create a signature. Using signatures In order to give your messages a footer. You can also specify some custom signatures. On the le side of the Evolution Preferences window. Your new signature’s name should appear in the list in preferences. cli on the Send buon on the toolbar. Bcc.

or on a remote server. as well as other information. edit. Cli on an address book. It can either be stored on your computer. To view contacts.” e right side of the window will display a list of contacts. e folder list on the le will be replaced by a list of address book types. cli on the Contacts buon below the folder list on the le side of the Evolution window. though only the “Ubuntu One” address book is synronized to your Ubuntu One account. . for example “Personal.    Managing your contacts If you would like to keep a list of your contacts—personal or professional contact information for people and organizations—you can manage these contacts in Evolution. Ubuntu One is a free service you can use to sync and store contacts. For more information on Ubuntu One see the dedicated section later in this chapter.: You can view. and an “Ubuntu One” address book. An address book is a collection of contacts and contact lists. Cli a contact to show the contact’s details in the lower portion of the right side of the window. Figure . You can add contacts to either address book. and add contacts. If you use Ubuntu One. you may have two address books—a “Personal” address book stored on your computer.

is will allow you to compare sedules on different days. You can double-cli on the event to open its details. You may also wish to see more than one day at a time. showing all the hours of the current day. e middle of the window should now show a view of the current day. and a mini-calendar showing the current month. Evolution allows you to manage more than one calendar. Evolution will show the event in the day view between the hours when the event starts and finishes. find the contact in the list and doublecli on the entry. To view your calendar. and press Enter. Swit between the different tabs in the contact editor to make anges to the contact. Evolution will then display that day in the day view. you can cli on a different day on the mini-calendar on the le side of the screen. Cli on one of the calendars in the list. In the day view. For example. You can also subscribe to the calendar of a friend or family member who may oose to share their calendar with you. or find a free day for an event you wish to sedule. or drag the event to a different time or date to resedule it. Evolution should open a “Contact Editor” window for the contact. e list below should ange to only show contacts whose name mates your sear term. Adding or editing a contact To make anges to an existing contact. cli on the Calendars buon below the folder list on the le side of the Evolution window. Cli on the Month buon on the toolbar to see a view of the entire month—if an event . If the calendar already has some events. you can cli on the Work Week or Week buons on the toolbar to see an entire week at the same time.     . cli on the New on the toolbar. In Evolution. By default. Searching for contacts To find a contact. Enter the contact’s details in the contact editor window. and cli OK when finished. Cli OK when you have finished making your anges. Evolution should open the “Contact Editor” window. To add a new contact. you can maintain this sedule in Ubuntu using Evolution. type in a few a few leers from the contact’s first or last name in the sear text box on the upper right of the window. you could have a personal calendar and a sool or work calendar. e folder list on the le will be replaced by a list of calendars. you should have a “Personal” calendar in the list. Managing your schedule If you like to manage your sedule with a computer.

cli on the Save buon on the toolbar to save this new event (the buon looks like a hard drive. Finally. containing the text that you are typing. the List buon on the toolbar shows upcoming appointments in a list. Evolution should open the “Appointment” window. and begin typing. If you want to add a longer event. enter a short title for the event as you want it to appear on the calendar. On the right side of the window. To create a meeting invitation. cli on the New buon on the toolbar. In the Summary field. are as you want them.: You can stay organized by adding events to your calendar. Evolution displays a list of tasks and memos. You can add a new task or memo to Evolution Adding a new event e simplest way to add a new task is to cli a time in the day view. and is the first buon on the toolbar). To add a new event without using the day view. . Finally. as well as the duration. allowing you to see all of your upcoming appointments at a glance. Evolution can assist you in sending out an invitation and processing replies. drag your mouse from the first time slot to the last before starting to type. Optionally specify the location and enter a longer description if you would like. oose File ‣ New ‣ Meeting from the Figure . An event “bubble” will appear. you can hover your mouse over the event to have Evolution show the full title of the event. Make sure that the time and date.    is difficult to read due to the small space alloed to ea day. Scheduling a meeting If you would like to sedule a meeting with one of your contacts.

Google Talk. Depending on the account type that you oose. You will then need to add aendees to this meeting. Specify the subject. enter your account details in the field below. then oose Internet and then Empathy IM Client. e invitations will be sent the next time you e email in Evolution. Ubuntu includes the Empathy application that lets you use instant messaging features to keep in tou with your contacts. Cli Send to send out these invitations. Cli on that buon to mark your contact as aending the meeting. and cli . Choose the option corresponding to your situation. open the Applications menu from the menubar. Silc. cli on the Save buon on the toolbar. Using instant messaging Instant messaging allows you to communicate with people you know in real time. Evolution should then ask you if you would like to send meeting invitations to your selected participants. oose your account type from the drop-down list below What kind of at account do you have?. cli on the Add buon. menubar. Evolution will add a new row —type the aendee’s email address or contact name. To add an aendee. I’ll enter my account details now option. or Zephyr. In the body of the email message. en. Sametime. If you have another account to add then select the Yes option. If you do not remember your account information. followed by a password. Groupwise. Empathy may request that you enter a username. time and duration. MySpace. . you will need to visit the website of the instant messaging network to retrieve that information. When Empathy starts you will see the “Welcome to Empathy” window. To start Empathy. On the next screen. Empathy lets you connect to many instant messaging networks. . location. If your contact ooses to reply to the meeting invitation. and description as when you create a regular event. Running Empathy for the first time When you open Empathy for the first time you will need to configure it with the details of your instant messaging accounts. Evolution will display an Update Attendee Status buon. en. QQ. cli Forward to continue. or an  for your account. Gadu-Gadu. . You have an account If you have an account that you have used previously with another instant messaging program then select the Yes. . Evolution will show you a new email message.     . You can connect to . Yahoo. Jabber. When you are finished adding aendees. In the list of aendees.

Enter your first name in the First name field. Choose the account type that you would like to create from the drop-down list below What kind of at account do you want to create? You can create either a Jabber or a Google Talk account. Note: If you wish to create another account type then you will need to visit the relevant website and create the account. . and repeat the above process. I want a new account option. and cli Forward. Cli Forward to display the next set of options. If you would like to set up another account then select the Yes option. select the I don’t want to enable this feature for now option and cli Apply. enter the account name that you would like in the text field. you will be able to communicate with people who are on your local network either at home or in an office.    Figure . When you have entered all the accounts leave the No. Next. then you can create one by selecting the No. and in the proceeding text field enter a password of your oice. Type in a way that you would like to be identified on your local network in the Niname field. Next. Empathy should display the “Please enter personal details” screen. If you oose to fill out this information. When you have entered all the accounts leave the No. and your last name in the Last name field. You would like an account If you don’t have an account that you can use. that’s all for now option selected. cli Apply. If you don’t want to communicate with people on your local network. When you have filled all of the information.: Creating a new instant messenger account in Empathy. Forward to repeat the above process. that’s all for now option selected. and cli Apply to finish the setup process. Then follow the “You have an account” section.

If you don’t want to talk to people on your local network then select the I don’t want to enable this feature for now option and cli Apply. then you should select the No. cli Forward.     . Providing this information allows you to communicate with people who are on your local network either at home or in the workplace. In the Niname field enter a niname by whi you would like to be identified. When you have filled all of the text fields. en enter your First name in the text field. Changing account seings If you need to add more accounts aer the first laun. and enter your Last name in the next field. then oose Accounts. Empathy should display the “Please enter personal details” window. Empathy will then display the “Accounts” window. then open the Edit menu. . I just want to see people online nearby for now option. You want to talk to people nearby If you would only like to communicate with people on your local network either at home or in the workplace. When you have filled all of the text fields cli Apply to save your seings. Enter your First name in the text field. Cli Forward to display the next set of options. and enter your Last name in the next field.: You can talk to people nearby by entering your information. Figure . In the Niname field enter a niname by whi you would like to be identified.

en enter your password in the Password text field. Next. you will need to enter their login .” Likewise if the contact’s email ends in “@hotmail. their username. Cli Add to add the contact to your list of contacts.com. In the Account drop-down list oose the account that you want to add the contact to. Select the account you want to ange on the le side of the “Accounts” window. For example if your contact’s address ends in “@googlemail.com. Empathy should display some options on the right hand side of the window. Removing an account To remove an account select the account on the le hand side of the window and cli on the Remove buon.com” then you would need to add it to an account ending in “@hotmail. Empathy should open the “New Contact” window. in the Alias text field. then oose Add contact. Editing contacts Adding a contact To add a contact open the Chat menu. then oose Contact. Removing a contact Cli on the contact that you want to remove and then open the Edit menu. When creating a contact you must select a service that mates the service you contact is using.” Aer oosing the account you wish to add the contact to. Editing an account You might need to edit an account if you ange the password or get the password wrong. is will open the “Remove contact” window. cli Save.    Adding an account To add an account cli on the Add buon. . then Remove. Finally cli on the Log in buon to save and verify your seings. Choose your account type from the Protocol drop-down list. their screen name or their email address in the Identifier text field. Cli on the Remove buon to confirm that you want to remove the account.com” then you will need to add it to an account that ends in “@googlemail. enter your account name in the first text field. enter the name that you would like to see it in your contact list. Once you have made your anges. Empathy should open the “Do you want to remove” window. en. Empathy should show the current seings for the account. or cli Cancel to keep the account.

Cli on the microphone icon to open a popup menu. You can finish the conversation by cliing on the Hang up buon. You can finish the call by cliing on the Hang up buon. To send a message to the contact. Cli on the Remove buon to confirm that you want to remove a contact. open the Contact menu and then oose Send file. Audio If your contact has audio capabilities then there will be an icon of a microphone next to their name. Sending and receiving files Sending a file When you are in a conversation with a contact and you would like to send them a file.     . Communicating with contacts Text To communicate with a contact. Choose the Video call option from the menu. Cli on the icon to open a popup menu. and proceed with the audio conversation. Empathy should then open the “Call” window. Find the file that you wish . is window shows your webcam view in the top right and your contact’s webcam will be in the middle. When you have typed your message press the Enter key to send the message to your contact. type your message in the text field below the conversation history. Empathy should then open the “Call” window. Empathy should open the “Select file” window. Ensure that your microphone and speakers are connected. and see a record of previously exanged messages. Empathy should open a new window where you can type messages to your contact. If you are communicating with more than one person then all of the conversations will be shown in tabs within the same window. or cli Cancel to keep the contact. Choose the Audio call option from the menu. is window shows your picture on the right and your contact’s picture on the le. If you don’t have a webcam then your picture will be shown instead. select the contact in Empathy’s main window and double-cli their name. Video If your contact has video at capabilities then there will be an icon of a webcam next to their name.

whi are “Available. the status icon to the le of the contact’s name will flash with an icon of a paper plane. open transferred files by cliing on the Open buon. Microblogging You can connect several microblogging services by opening the Applications menu. Empathy should open the “Select Your Avatar Image” window. . you can close the “File Transfers” window. Changing your picture Your picture is what your contacts will see next to your name in their contact list. e same drop-down list lets you set a custom status by oosing “Custom Message…” next to the icon that mates your status.” and “Off-line. You can use the standard statuses. Find the file containing your picture.” ese can be anged in the main Empathy window from the drop-down list at the top of the window. To receive the file double-cli the contact’s name. e “File Transfers” window shows you the progress of current file transfers. cli on the No Image buon instead. then oosing Internet and then Gwibber Social Client. You can ange your picture by opening the Edit menu. You can stop file transfers by cliing on the Stop buon. Choose a location where you would like Empathy to save the file. then oosing Personal Information. and cli Save.” “Invisible. Changing your status You can use your status to show your contacts how busy you are or what you are doing. When the file transfer is complete.    to send and cli on the Send buon.” “Away. and cli on the green e mark. and cli Open. A “File Transfers” window will open showing the osen file and its transfer progress.” “Busy. Receiving a file When a contact wants to send you a file. the “Social Accounts” window will open. If you would like to return it to the default avatar. then cli on the picture on the right hand side of the window. and clear the list of completed transfers by cliing on the Clear buon. Empathy will open the “Select a destination” window. Until you add accounts. Type what you would like your status to say. From the Account drop-down list oose the account that you want to ange. Empathy should open the “Personal Information” window. Empathy should open the “File Transfers” window. e default picture is the outline of a person.

FriendFeed.: Gwibber lets you add many different account types. Twier. Facebook: Cli Authorize. If you want to be able to post on Facebook from Gwibber. Digg. e details that you require for ea account is detailed as follows. Qaiku: You will need an  key.” in the box below your name you can type a message to post on the sites that you have set up with Gwibber. StatusNet: A login . you will see the “MeMenu. this opens the “Broadcast Accounts” window. domain and password is needed. ea account will need you to enter your account details. Aer you have added accounts you will see the “Social broadcast messages” window. MeMenu If you cli your name in the top panel. Figure . Facebook. then enter your email address and password and cli Connect. instructions for this are provided in the Gwibber window. the “Social Accounts” window will open. cli Allow publishing.     . Qaiku.ca. In this window in the Add new drop-down list you can oose the from Flir. Flir: To set up a Flir account all you need is the account login . . and Identi. otherwise cli Don’t allow. Twitter: Requires a user name and password. StatusNet. Cli Edit then Accounts. You can also ange your account seings by cliing Broadcast Accounts…. Changing accounts To add more accounts aer you have already added some. You will also need your login . Adding accounts In the “Social Accounts” cli Add….

if you don’t want Gwibber to be able to update your status. then oose Components. is can be set at the boom of the “Social broadcast message” window—ea of the accounts that you can post with will have an icon. then F-Spot Photo Manager. you will have to authorize it ea time you use it. How Gwibber displays accounts Gwibber allows you to post to either all. To allow constant authorization cli Allow. Gwibber provides information on where to get one from.ca: A login  and password is required for Identi. Selecting ea one of these icons allows you to do tasks for that specific account. F-Spot displays your photos by date. cli Don’t allow. Ea one of your accounts will have a set of icons to go with it. open the Applications menu. then cli Send. If not. In order for Gwibber to interact with Facebook ea time it is used. you can use the F-Spot Photo Manager application. When you start F-Spot for the first time. Identi. it will need to have constant authorization. Viewing and editing photos To view and edit photos in Ubuntu. By default. is guide oen refers to the side bar on the le. and oose Sidebar—making sure the option is selected. ese icons are displayed on the le hand size of the “Social broadcast message” window. Removing accounts In the “Broadcast Accounts” window cli the account that you want to remove and cli Remove. then oose Graphics.    If you want Gwibber to show your news feed. one or a selection of accounts. You will also need to allow status updates—cli Allow status updates.ca. To start F-Spot. Cliing on an icon so that it is disabled (appears gray) means that you will not post to that account. e set of icons that goes with an account has a baground color. open the View menu. otherwise cli Don’t allow. Once you have decided on whi accounts you want to post to you can type your message in the text field above the icons. FriendFeed: A remote key is required for friend feed. If you can’t see it. You can view photos from a specific month by cliing on that month in the timeline near the top of the window. You will also need a login . Digg: A login  is all that is required for Digg. you will see the “Import” window—how to use this is covered in ‘Importing’. You can also play slide shows of your pictures by cliing on the Play buon on the toolbar (this buon looks like a green triangle). . you will need to cli Allow access.

A new version will then be created. cli on the photo that you want to ange. Figure . then cliing on the Edit Image buon. then cli on the Edit Image buon. You might want to rename a version so that you remember whi version is whi. is opens the “Create New Version” window. In the boom le. You can create a new version by opening the Photo menu. and edit your photos. Open the Photo menu. Version system When you edit a photo. then oosing Create New Version…. is anges the side bar on the le to the “Edit” side bar. is anges the side bar on the le to the “Edit” side bar. F-Spot creates a new version so that the original is not lost. then oose Rename Version. is will open the “Rename Version” window. Enter the new name in the New name text field. the Version dropdown list allows you to oose previous versions of the photo.     . tag. In the boom le the Version drop-down list lets you oose the version of the photo that you want to rename. To rename a version. . You can view previous versions of photos by cliing on the photo that you wish to view.: F-Spot lets you store. In the Name text field you can type what you would like to call the version and then cli OK.

e pictures are then sorted by year. cli Cancel. When the loading bar says “Done Loading” all the photos in that folder and any sub-folders are then displayed in the “Import” window. oose Select Folder from the Import Source drop-down list. To do so.    then if you want to rename the version cli OK. cli on the gray X to the right of the blue Find. If you want to use multiple tags then separate them with a comma. Duplicates are automatically detected when the Detect duplicates option is selected. To delete a version. If you want to delete the version cli Delete. then cli on the Edit Image buon. the Copy files to the Photos folder option determines where the photos are saved. If you don’t want to delete the version. press-and-hold the Ctrl key while cliing the photos you do not want to import. Importing When you laun F-Spot for the first time you will see the “Import” window. All of the photos are imported by default. is anges the side bar on the le to the “Edit” side bar. Aer the first laun you can import more photos by cliing on the Import buon. . You can exclude importing photos from sub-folders by deselecting the Include subfolders option. en open the Photo menu. is will open the “Really Delete?” window. month and then date. cli on the photo that you want to ange. you may make a mistake and may decide to remove that version as you no longer need it. To show all of your photos. only the photos that you have just imported are shown. When editing photos. but you can oose to import only some photos. In the boom le the Version drop-down list oose the version of the photo that you want to delete. Navigate to the folder containing your photos and cli Open. If you don’t want to rename the version. Choosing where F-Spot saves photos When importing pictures in the “Import” window. is opens the “Import” window. then oose Delete Version. If the Copy files to the Photos folder option is selected then F-Spot will copy the photos into the Photos folder. When you import some photos. cli Cancel. You can aa tags by typing the names of the your current tags in the Atta Tags text field. whi is within your Pictures folder. If the Copy files to the Photos folder option is unselected then F-Spot will not copy the pictures into the Photos folder. Importing from file To import photos that are saved on your computer.

. cli on the Import buon. the progress bar will display Download Complete. cli OK to show your photos in F-Spot. and turn your camera on. Once you have osen the photos that you want to import. cli on the Copy buon. and will show the copying progress. For more information about tags see Organizing photos. Ubuntu should open a new window prompting you to import photos. Finally. When copying is complete. You can aa tags to all of them by cliing on the Atta tag option and oosing the tag in the Atta tag: drop-down list. From digital camera To import photos from a digital camera. A “Select Photos to Copy from Camera…” window will open. You can then cli the photos that you want to copy. plug your camera into the  port of your computer. In the Import Source drop-down list oose the option that looks like …Camera. e “Transferring Pictures” window should open.     . If your camera is detected.: You can import all of your photos. All of the photos are selected by default but you can add or remove individual photos by pressing-and-holding the Ctrl key while cliing on photos to deselect them. Once you have osen the photos that you want to import. is will show the “Import” window. Ensure that Open F-Spot is osen in the drop-down list and cli OK. Figure . You can ange where the files are saved in the Target location drop-down list. e default is the Photos folder—this is where F-Spot saves the photos.

Straighten. De-saturate. Cli Add to place a new entry on the le of the window. You can apply as many tags to a photo as you like. so that the photo is not streted. All ratios work in portrait and landscape mode. then in the Select an area to crop drop-down list oose the ratio that you would like to crop with.    Organizing photos F-Spot makes finding photos of the same type easier by using tags. some discoloring. You can make new tags by opening the Tags and oosing Create New Tag…. cli on the photo that you want to edit and then cli on the Edit Image buon. move the cursor to one corner of the section of the photo that you want to keep. For example. and Adjust Colors. Enter the name of the tag in the Name of New Tag: text field. So Focus. You can create custom constraints if one of the defaults does not meet your requirements. first select the photos. You can aa tags when importing photos. Cli on the Crop on the le panel. is anges the side bar on the le of the “F-Spot” window. is opens the “Selection Constraints” window. Once you have osen your constraint. Cli-and-hold the le mouse buon and drag it to the opposite corner of the section that you want to keep. e panel will show eight options: Crop. move the mouse until an arrow points to the side of the cropping selection box that you want to move. To ange between the two. To edit a photo. as covered in the “Importing” section. Auto Color. or straighten a photo. and move the mouse until the edge is in the right place. Release the the mouse buon to finish your cropping selection. Cli-andhold the le mouse buon. Some of these options are explained in more detail in the next section. you may want to remove something at the edge. fix red eyes. e Parent Tag: drop-down list allows you to oose the “parent” tag for your new tag. is is done by oosing Custom Ratios from the Select an area to crop drop-down list. Sepia Tone. is will open up the “Create New Tag” window. en right-cli on the photos and oose Atta Tag. Editing Images You may want to edit some of the photos you import into F-Spot. You might want oose the ratio that mates the ratio that you would like to print. you need to cli on the edge of the cropping selection box as if you . Cli the tag you want add to your photos. Cropping photos You might want to crop a photo to ange the framing or remove part of the edge of the photo. To resize the cropping selection box. Red-eye Reduction. To apply tags to photos.

move the mouse until an arrow points to the side of the red eye selection box that you want to move. When the box covers all of the red in one eye. Straighten If you have a photo where the subject is at an angle.     . cli on the Red-eye Reduction buon. When it is in the correct place you can release the le mouse buon. . To resize the box. Move the cursor to the one corner of the subject’s eye and cli-andhold the le mouse buon as you drag the cursor to the opposite corner of the eye. then oosing Export to and cliing the service that you require. is will allow you to upload pictures to this service. First. en. Auto Color To automatically correct the coloring of a photo. Folder or  and the following services: SmugMug. Cli-and-hold the le mouse buon. is box can be moved by placing the cursor into the middle of the red eye selection box until a hand cursor is shown. You can export to these services by selecting a picture and then opening the Photo menu. You will need to repeat the process for ea of the subject’s eyes that is affected. cli-and-hold the le mouse buon and move the selection box into the correct place. you can straighten the photo with F-Spot. cli on the Auto Color buon. were to resize the box. Flir. hq and Zooomr. move the mouse until the edge is in the right place. Picasa Web. F-Spot will auto crop the picture to remove any white parts that occur due to the rotation. cli on the Straighten buon. Exporting to web services F-Spot allows you to export you photos to a Web Gallery. cli the Fix buon. When you are happy that the picture is straight. you can fix this problem in F-Spot. is will open a window in whi you can enter your account name and password for the service. Red-eye Reduction If you have taken a photo and the flash caused the subject to have red eyes. en move the slider until the picture is straight again. First. Moving the cursor between top right and boom le swites between portrait and landscape modes. cli on the Straighten buon. en. release the mouse buon.

. you will need to install some codecs. Codecs Wating s may require Ubuntu to install a “codec. Legal Notice: Patent and copyright laws operate differently depending on whi country you are in.    Watching videos and movies To wat videos or s in Ubuntu. you can use the Movie Player application. So that you can play all videos and s. ese are located within the Multiverse repository. open the Applications menu.” whi is a piece of soware that allows your computer to understand the contents of the . is will open the “Movie Player” window. and display the video. To start the Movie Player. then oose Sound & Video. then oose Movie Player.: Totem plays music and videos. Figure . Please obtain legal advice if you are unsure whether a particular patent or restriction applies to a media format you wish to use in your country. is is now enabled by default.

Playing a DVD When you insert a  in the computer. To finish codec installation. enter your password then cli Authenticate to start the installation process. then oose Open…. open Movie menu. then oose Ubuntu Soware Center. Playing videos from file Open the Movie menu.-plugins-ugly gstreamer. then oose Accessories and then oose Terminal. When you enter your password in a terminal. Wait for the process to finish. Usually. you also need to run a command in the terminal.-ffmpeg gstreamer. Type the command as shown below.     . open the Applications menu.-plugins-good libdvdread libdvdnav When you find ea one.-plugins-bad gstreamer. sudo is presented in a window for you to enter your password. Once it has finished you can close the “Terminal” window. . e “Movie Player” window will open and the movie will start.sh For more information on the terminal see Chapter : The Command Line Once you have typed the command. Ubuntu should open the “You have just inserted a Video . use the sear box in the top right and sear for the following: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ gstreamer. Find the file or files that you want to play and cli on the Add buon. Make sure that Open Movie Player is osen in the drop-down list and then cli OK. is will open the “Terminal” window.-plugins-base gstreamer. Open the Applications menu. type in you password and press Enter. such as installing new soware. $ sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css. then oose Play Disc… and the movie will start. press Enter. When the “Ubuntu Soware Center” window opens. it will not be shown. is may open an “Authenticate” window. You will be asked for your password—to authorize this action.-plugins-bad-multiverse gstreamer. is will open the “Select Movies or Playlists” window.-plugins-ugly-multiverse gstreamer. select it with a double-cli and then cli the Install buon. e video or videos will start playing. If so. To install the codecs. If the “Movie Player” window is already open. Choose what application to laun” window. Sudo is a way to gain temporary administrative rights to perform certain tasks.

Starting Rhythmbox To start Rhythmbox. oose Music ‣ it or press Ctrl+Q.    Listening to audio and music Ubuntu comes with the Rhythmbox Music Player for listening to your music. and Previous) are available from the Rhythmbox Music Player icon in the notification area (typically the top right of your screen). then Rhythmbox Music Player. Playing music Figure . streaming Internet radio. To quit Rhythmbox. then oose Sound & Video. Next. Rhythmbox will continue to run if you oose Music ‣ Close or close the window. and purasing songs. You can also oose it from this menu to quit Rhythmbox. open the Applications menu. A few Rhythmbox tools (su as Play. managing playlists and podcasts.: Rhythmbox with a  in. .

fm. ese include Internet broadcast stations (Radio from the Side Pane) as well as Last. Cliing on the Play buon again will pause the song. you must first import music into your library. You can review information about the . e Rhythmbox toolbar contains most of the controls that you will use for browsing and playing your music. Next and Previous buons are next to the Play buon. Shuffle (Control ‣ Shuffle or Ctrl+U). select a tra and cli on the Play buon on the toolbar (you can also oose Control ‣ Play from the menubar or press Ctrl+Space). Listen to shared music If you are on the same network as other Rhythmbox users (or any music player soware with  support). Listening to streaming radio Rhythmbox is preconfigured to enable you to stream radio from various sources. make any anges if needed. If you want to play a song. . Select the  in the Devices list. configure your Account Settings. When you insert a  into your computer. album. e toolbar will display additional options to reload album information. Features will vary depending on the player but common tasks like transferring songs and playlists should be supported. To listen to music from Last. oose the tra and press Play. Rhythmbox will aempt to find the correct artist. oose a station from the list and cli Play. select the  in the Devices list.     . you can share your music and listen to their shared music. Streaming radio are radio stations that are broadcast over the Internet. to let soware share media across a network. Usually shares will be listed automatically but some stands for “Digital Audio Access Protocol. Enable and disable the Side Pane by oosing View ‣ Side Pane or F9. the Artist/Album browser (View ‣ Browse or Ctrl+B). eject the . To listen to an Internet radio station. Press the Copy buon to import the songs. or deselect songs that you do not want to import. Choose Music ‣ Import Folder or press Ctrl+O on your keyboard to import a folder of songs or Import File for single songs. it will appear in the list of Devices in the Side Pane. You can cli on these buons to play the next and previous songs in your library.fm. Connected players will appear in the Devices list.” and is a method designed by Apple Inc. and copy the tras to your library. and Visualization. and tra names. To import the songs into your library. Choose Shared from the Side Pane for a list of shared libraries on your network. e Rhythmbox toolbar also has options to enable or disable Repeat (Control ‣ Repeat or Ctrl+R). To play the songs on the . Connect digital audio players Rhythmbox can connect with many popular digital audio players. In order to play music.

Choose Music ‣ New Podcast Feed. en cli Add. Manage podcasts Rhythmbox can manage all of your favorite podcasts. You can also delete episodes. Cliing a shared library will enable you to browse and play songs from other computers. Podcasts will be automatically downloaded at regular intervals or you can manually update feeds.: You can add and play your podcasts in Rhythmbox. Select an episode and cli Play. Figure . e toolbar will display additional options to Subscribe to a new Podcast Feed and Update all feeds. en enter the IP address and the port number. Ctrl+P. To do this cli Music ‣ Connect to DAAP share…. Select Podcasts from the Side Pane to view all added podcasts. . or press the Subscribe buon in the toolbar to import a podcast .    times you will be required to add the IP manually.

and the Preferred format for imported music. Other song information su as Title. Automatic Playlists are created almost the same way as static playlists —oose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Automatic Playlist. Artist. oose Music ‣ Playlist ‣ New Playlist or Ctrl+N and give the new playlist a name. ‣ General options include music filtering and sorting options and a configuration seing for toolbar buon labels. To create a playlist. and Podcasts. or right-cli on the file and oose Properties. Alt+Enter. Playlists contain references to songs in your library. Rhythmbox supports seing song ratings.     . Playba. the Library Structure of how folders are created based on your imported music. Choose Edit ‣ Preferences to alter the application seings. Managing your music Rhythmbox supports creating playlists. Cli Close to save any anges. oose . If you remove a song from a playlist (Remove from Playlist). Playlists are either static lists of songs that are played in order or can be automatic playlists based on your specific filter criteria. ‣ Playba options allow you to customize the crossfading feature and define the buffer seing for streamed music from sources su as Internet radio and shared libraries. You can then either drag songs from you library to the new playlist in the side pane or right-cli on songs and oose Add to Playlist and pi the playlist. If you ever want to move a song (for example to another computer). Music. Rhythmbox preferences e default configuration of Rhythmbox may not be exactly what you want. is will move the song file to your trash. e Preferences tool is broken into four main areas: General. Select a song in your library and oose Music ‣ Properties. Finally. You can add multiple filter rules. Automatic Playlists will appear in your side pane with a different icon than any static playlists. it will remain in your library. select it in your library and oose Edit ‣ Move to Trash or right-cli on the song and oose Move to Trash. Next. ‣ Music options define the Library Location on your computer where imported music is added. Select the Details tab and set the rating by piing the number of stars. ey do not contain the actual song file. cli Close and give the new automatic playlist a name. To delete a song. You can update any playlist by right-cliing on the name and oosing Edit…. define the filter criteria. ‣ Podcasts options define the Download location podcast episodes and the frequency to Che for new episodes. and Album can be anged from the Basic tab.

  



the song (or group of songs) from your library and drag it to a folder or to your desktop. is will make a copy in the new location.

Rhythmbox plugins
Rhythmbox comes with a variety of plugins. ese are tools that you can enable and disable that add more features to Rhythmbox. Examples include Cover art, Song Lyrics, and various music stores. A few plugins are enabled by default. To view the list of available plugins, oose Edit ‣ Plugins. e Configure Plugins window allows you to enable or disable individual plugins, view descriptions, and configure additional options if they are available for the plugin.

Music stores
Rhythmbox has three music stores whi give you access to an extremely large catalog of music with a variety of licensing options. e Jamendo store sells free, legal and unlimited music published under the six Creative Commons licenses. You can browse the catalog and play songs by oosing Jamendo in the Stores list in the side pane. More information about their catalog can be found at http://www.jamendo.com/. e Magnatune store sells music from independent musicians. ey work directly with artists and hand-pi the songs available. eir catalog is composed of high quality, non- (no copy protection) music and covers a variety of genres from Classical and Jazz to Hip Hop and Hard Ro. You can browse the catalog and play songs by oosing Magnatune in the Stores list in the side pane. More information about their catalog and subscription service can be found at http://www.magnatune.com/. e Ubuntu One Music Store sells music from major and minor music labels around the world. e store offers non- (no copy protection) songs encoded in either high quality  or  format. Ubuntu does not come with support for  playba, but the store will install the proper codecs automatically for free. You can browse the catalog, play previews, and buy songs by oosing Ubuntu One in the Stores list in the side pane. e Ubuntu One Music Store integrates with the Ubuntu One service. All purases are transferred to your personal cloud storage and then automatically copied to all of your computers so an Ubuntu One account is required. e catalog of music available for purase will vary depending on where you live in the world. More information about the Ubuntu One Music Store can be found at http://one.ubuntu.com/music/.



    .

Audio codecs
Different audio files (e.g., , , ) require unique tools to decode them and play the contents. ese tools are called codecs. Rhythmbox will aempt to detect any missing codecs on your system so you can play all of your audio files. If a codec is missing, it will try to find the codec in online resources and guide you through installation.

Rhythmbox support
Rhythmbox is used by many users throughout the world. ere are a variety of support resources available in many languages. ‣ Choose the Help buon for a variety of support options and information about reporting Rhythmbox bugs. ‣ e Rhythmbox website: http://projects.gnome.org/rhythmbox/ ‣ e Multimedia & Video category of Ubuntu Forums: http://ubuntuforums. org/forumdisplay.php?f=

Working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
ite oen, you may need to use your computer for work. You may have a need to use a word processor to write a document. You may need to work on a spreadsheet, do calculations on a table of data or create a data art. You may want to work on slides for a presentation. In Ubuntu, you can use the OpenOffice.org suite of applications for these tasks.

Working with documents
If you need to work with documents, you can use the OpenOffice.org Word Processor. To start the word processor, open the Applications menu, oose Office, and then oose OpenOffice.org Word Processor. Ubuntu should then open the main window for the word processor.
The OpenOffice.org Word Processor is also known as the OpenOffice.org Writer. Spreadsheet is also known as Calc, and Presentation is known as Impress.

Working with spreadsheets
If you need to work with spreadsheets, you can use the OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet. To start the spreadsheet application, open the Applications menu, oose Office, and then oose OpenOffice.org Spreadsheet.

Working with presentations
If you need to work with slides for a presentation, you can use the OpenOffice.org Presentation. To start the presentation application, open the Applications menu, oose Office, and then oose OpenOffice.org Presentation.

  



Geing more help
Ea of these applications comes with a comprehensive set of help screens. If you are looking for more assistance with these applications, press the F1 key aer starting the application.

Taking notes
You can take notes in a program called Tomboy Notes. You can use it to make a shopping or a to do list. Cli Applications, then cli Accessories and cli Tomboy Notes.

You can sear all of your notes by typing a word in the Sear: text field in the main tomboy window.

Figure .: You can record information that you need to remember.

Making notes
To create a new note cli File, then cli New. e “New Note” window will open.

Once you have typed the notebook name cli the Create buon. e notebook will now show up in the sidebar of Tomboy Notes. en cli Preferences. then Notebooks. You can cli and hold on the note of your oice and drag it on top of the notebook that you want to move it to. If you want to synronize the notes again cli Tools and cli Synronize Notes. cli the close buon. To synronize your notes cli the Edit. Organizing notes You can organize your notes in Tomboy using “Notebooks. You can also access them from https://one. then in the Computer Name text field enter a name that reminds you of that computer and cli the Add is Computer buon. Cli the Synronization tab and then in the Service drop down cli Tomboy Web. and cli New Notebook…. Firefox will then display a page that says something similar to “Tomboy Web Authorization Successful. e “Create a new notebook” window will open. Synchronizing You can synronize your notes with your Ubuntu One account. e “New Note” window will contain a blue title “New Note”—this can be deleted and anged to a title that makes the note more memorable. Once the synronization is complete cli the Close buon. is will open a “Really delete this note?” window. is will open a web page in Firefox you will need to enter the email address that you use for Ubuntu One and your password. When they are done. type the name of the notebook in the Notebook name: text field.” Once you have entered your text just close your note as all anges are automatically saved. otherwise cli the Cancel buon. If you do want to delete the note cli the Delete buon. Your notes will start synronizing. e main content of the note can be typed where it says “Describe your new note here.” Ba at the “Tomboy Preferences” window cli the Save buon.ubuntu.com/.” is makes finding you notes quier and in a more logical location. You can add a note to a notebook by cliing the Notebook buon and cliing the option next to the notebook that you want to move the note to. en cli the Continue buon. To create a new note book cli File. To delete the note cli the red delete note buon.” Cli the Yes buon and the “Synronizing Notes…” window will show. . whi means that you can access them across all of your Ubuntu computers. is will open the “Tomboy Preferences” window.     . Next cli the Connect to Server buon. A new window will pop up asking if you want to “synronize your notes now.

bookmarks. then Ubuntu One. In addition. Ubuntu One provides all Ubuntu users with   of storage for free. and your computer will be setup for synronization. then oose Preferences.    Ubuntu One It is common for many people to use multiple computers in the course of their work. Ubuntu One can help you keep your digital life in sync. If this is your first time running the Ubuntu One Preferences application. All of your documents. sool. first open the System menu. Ensuring that all of your files are accessible no maer what computer you’re using is quite a difficult task. Tomboy notes. . address book contacts. When you’re finished. You can also remove computers and mobile phones from your Ubuntu One account. Aer you set up Ubuntu One you can continue to use your computer as you normally would. Seing up Ubuntu One To set up Ubuntu One. or Firefox bookmarks in sync.com/). If you don’t already have an Ubuntu  account. e same could be said for the complexity of keeping your Evolution address book. e Account tab displays your account information like name and email address and links to more account management and tenical support resources. and notes stay in sync across all of your computers. Ubuntu One Preferences e Ubuntu One Preferences application shows how mu of your storage capacity you are currently using as well as provides account management tools. For the computer that you are currently using. with Ubuntu One taking care of making your data appear on all your other computers with Ubuntu One installed. you will have an Ubuntu  account. you can adjust how mu of your bandwidth is used by synronization and connect or reconnect to Ubuntu One. More storage capacity and contacts synronization with mobile phones is available for a monthly fee.ubuntu. You might have a desktop at your office as well as a laptop for traveling or just going to a coffee shop. and personal life. Ubuntu One uses the Ubuntu Single Sign On () service for user accounts. Devices are either computers or mobile phones. a free Ubuntu One subscription. e Devices tab lists all of the devices that are currently added to synronize with your account. the setup process will let you create one. they’re all stored in your personal cloud so you can use a web browser from any computer to access all of your stuff from the Ubuntu One website (http://one. music. it will add your computer to your Ubuntu One account.

purased music. More information For more information about Ubuntu One.     . and bookmarks. visit the Ubuntu One website at http://one.ubuntu. You can enable or disable the synronization of files. its services.com/.com/blog for news on the latest features. contacts. and tenical support resources. Follow the Ubuntu One blog at http://one.ubuntu. e Services tab is where you manage what Ubuntu One features synronize with your cloud storage and other computers. .

. Every component in a computer requires a driver to function. your graphics device is doing the hard work behind the scenes.” Now select the Application cli Install and enter your password to install the application. /. or graphics card. To run the application. the drivers that are used by default for powering graphics devices are open source. and support for new hardware improves with every release. use the sear box in the top right and sear for the following: “sysinfo. e Sysinfo program will then open a window with information about the hardware that is part of your system. and  Corp. Hardware Using your devices Ubuntu supports a wide range of hardware. A majority of graphics cards are manufactured by three well known companies: Intel. When the “Ubuntu Soware Center” window opens. Ubuntu comes with support for graphics devices manufactured by the above companies. SysInfo is one su program that you can use to find relevant information about your System devices. You can find your card manufacturer by referring to your computer manual or looking for the specifications of your particular model on the Internet.  player. your particular device may not be supported by the open source Your graphics card is the component in your computer that powers your display. Hardware identification To identify your hardware you can install the following application: Cli Applications. in some cases the proprietary driver (restricted driver) provided by the company may provide beer performance or features that are not present in the open source driver wrien by the developer community. oose Applications ‣ System Tools ‣ Sysinfo. scroll down to Ubuntu Soware Center. hard disk. Ubuntu takes care of it on its own. whether it’s the printer. e Ubuntu Soware Center houses a number of programs that allow detailed system information to be obtained. In keeping with Ubuntu’s philosophy. at means that you don’t have to find and install any drivers by yourself. out of the box. However. and many others. In other cases. When you’re watching videos on YouTube or s or simply enjoying the smooth transition effects when you maximize/minimize your windows. whi tells your computer how to utilize a piece of hardware. Displays Hardware drivers A driver is some code paaged in a file. is means that the drivers can be modified by the Ubuntu developers and problems with them can be fixed.

cli System in the top panel.g. Each pixel displays a different color. Ubuntu does not install restricted drivers by default but allows the user to make an informed oice. is will display the “Printing-localhost” window.com). e Monitors application shows you your monitor name and size. are not maintained by Ubuntu. due to a huge variety of devices available. . and plugged into your computer with a  cable or connected to your network. To set up or just e your screen resolution. is process will require an active Internet connection and will ask for your password. drivers yet. Ubuntu development is extremely fast and it is likely that your device will be supported by open source drivers. You can simply cli Activate and use the driver if you want. Cliing on the displayed resolution (e. The native screen resolution is a measure of the amount of actual pixels on your display.. Adding a local printer If you have a printer that is connected to your computer with a  cable then this is termed a local printer. Another useful resource is the official online documentation (http://help. Problems caused by those drivers will be resolved only when the manufacturer wishes to address them. Seing up your screen resolution One of the most common display related tasks is seing up your screen resolution. In those scenarios.ubuntu. remove. the screen resolution and refresh rate. Ubuntu correctly identifies your native screen resolution by itself and sets it for you. Connecting and using your printer You can add. To see if restricted drivers are available for your system. However. sometimes it can make a mistake and set up an undesirable resolution. you may want to install the restricted driver provided by the manufacturer. Displays are made up of thousands of tiny pixels. You can add a printer by cliing on the Add Printer buon. go to Administration and find Hardware Drivers. e Ubuntu developers prefer open source drivers because they allow the problem to be identified and fixed by anyone with knowledge in the community.     . If a driver is provided by the company for your particular device. For both philosophical and practical reasons. “× (:)”) would open a drop-down menu where you can select the resolution of your oice. Remember that restricted drivers. and ange printer properties by navigating to System ‣ Administration ‣ Printing. When you want to add a printer. you will need to make sure that it swited on. and when combined they all display the image that you see. which contains detailed information about various graphics drivers and known problems. go to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Monitors. You can use the Ubuntu Live  to e for your device compatibility before installing Ubuntu or go online in the Ubuntu forums to ask about your particular device. unlike the open source drivers for your device. it will be listed there.

right-click the printer that you want to set as default and then click Set As Default. If Ubuntu cannot detect the printer automatically. ey can be anged by right-cliing a printer and oosing Properties. You can also add your network printer by entering the  address of the printer. If your printer can automatically do double sided printing it will probably have a duplexer. You can now specify the printer name. description and location. Ea of these should remind you of that particular printer so that you can oose the right one to use when printing. it will ask you to enter the make and model number of the printer. If your printer is found automatically it will appear under Network Printer. type in the  address of the printer in the box that reads Host: and press the Find buon. Adding a network printer Make sure that your printer is connected to your network with an Ethernet cable and is turned on. description and location. Finally cli Apply. paper size and media type. In the text fields you can now specify the printer name. e “New Printer” window will open. The default printer is the one that is automatically selected when you print a file. You can now specify seings by anging the drop-down entries. Ubuntu will find the printer and add it. Media Size is is the size of the paper that you put into your printer tray. cli Apply. Media source is is the tray that the paper comes from.  In the le hand pane of the “New Printer” window any printers that you can install will be listed. Color Model is is very useful if you want to print in Grayscale to save on ink. Ea of these should remind you of that particular printer so that you can oose the right one to use when printing. Changing printer options Printer options allow you to ange the printing quality. Some of the options that you might see are explained. Cli the “+” sign next to Network Printer. . or Inverted Grayscale. Cli the printer name and then cli Forward. Finally. e “Printer Properties” window will show. You can add a printer by cliing Add Printer. or to print in Color. To set a printer as default. If you do have a duplexer you will need to make sure the Duplexer Installed option is checked and then click the Forward buon. Please refer to the instructions that came with the printer if you are unsure. Most printers are detected by Ubuntu automatically. Select the printer that you would like to install and cli Forward. in the le pane oose Printer Options. Select Find Network Printer.



    .

Media type Depending on the printer you can ange between: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ Plain Paper Automatic Photo Paper Transparency Film  or  Media

Print ality is specifies how mu ink is used when printing, Fast Dra using the least ink and High-Resolution Photo using the most ink.

Sound
Ubuntu usually detects the audio hardware of the system automatically during installation. e audio in Ubuntu is provided by a sound server named PulseAudio. e audio preferences are easily configurable with the help of a very easy to use  whi comes preinstalled with Ubuntu. A volume icon, siing on the top right corner of the screen, provides qui access to different audio related functions. Le cliing on the volume icon shows up a slider buon whi you can move horizontally to increase/decrease volume. Le cliing on the volume icon also allows you to oose between muting the sound and Sound Preferences. Selecting Sound Preferences opens up another window whi provides access to sound themes, hardware, input and output preferences. Sound Preferences can also be found if you go to System ‣ Preferences ‣ Sound. e first tab whi shows up by default is sound themes. You can disable the existing sound theme or configure it with the options available. e hardware tab will have a list of all the sound cards available in your system. Usually there is only one listed, however, if you have a graphics card whi supports  audio it will also show up in the list. is section should be configured only if you are an advanced user. e third tab is for configuring input audio. You will be able to use this section when you have an inbuilt microphone in your system or if you add an external microphone. You can increase/decrease and mute/unmute input volume from this tab. If there is more than one input device, you will see them listed in the white box whi reads Choose a device for sound input. e output tab is used for configuring the output audio. You can increase/decrease and mute/unmute output volume and select your preferred output device. If you have more than one output device, it will be listed in the section

You can add new sound themes by installing them from Soware Center (e.g., Ubuntu Studio Sound theme.) You will get the installed sound themes from the drop down menu. You can also enable window and buon sounds. A microphone is used for making audio/video calls which are supported by applications like Skype or Empathy. It can also be used for sound recording. You should note that by default in any Ubuntu installation, the input sound is muted. You will have to manually unmute to enable your microphone to record sound or use it during audio/video calls. By default, the volume in Ubuntu is set to maximum during installation. If you change your sound output device, it will remain as default.

 

whi reads “Choose a device for sound output.” e default output hardware, whi is automatically detected by Ubuntu during installation will be selected. e Applications tab is for anging the volume for running applications. is comes in very handy if you have multiple audio programs running, for example, if you have Rhythmbox, Totem Movie Player and a webbased video playing at the same time. In this situation, you will be able to increase/decrease, mute/unmute volume for ea application from this tab.

Burning CDs and DVDs
To create a  or  go to Applications ‣ Sound and Video ‣ Brasero Disc Burner. is opens Brasero, whi gives you five options to oose from. Ea one of these is explained below.

Figure .: Brasero burns music, video, and data s and s.

Universal options
ese options apply for all projects except Disc copy and Burn Image.



    .

Adding files to a project To add files to the list, cli the Green + buon, whi opens the “Select Files” window. en navigate your way to the file you want to add, cli it, and then cli the Add buon. Repeat this process for ea file that you want to add. Saving a project To save a project so that you can finish it later, oose Project ‣ Save. e “Save Current Project” window will be opened. Choose where you would like to save the project. en, in the Name: text field, enter a name for the project so that you will remember it. Now cli the Save buon. Removing files If you want to remove a file from the project, cli the file in the list and cli on the Red - buon. To remove all the files in the list cli on the Broom shaped buon. Burning the disc When you cli the burn buon you will see the “Properties of …” window. You can specify the burning speed in the Burning speed drop down. It is best to oose the highest speed. To burn your project directly to the disc, select the Burn the image directly without saving it to disc option. With this option selected, no image file is created and no files are saved to the hard disk. e Simulate before burning option is useful if you encounter problems burning discs. Selecting this option allows you to simulate the disc burning process without actually writing data to a disc—a wasteful process if your computer isn’t writing data correctly. If the simulation is successful, Brasero will burn the disc aer a ten second pause. During that ten second pause, you have the option to cancel the burning process. Blanking a disk If you are using a disc that has  wrien on it and you have used it before, then you can blank it so that you can use it again. Doing this will cause you to lose all of the data currently on the disc. To blank a disc, open the Tools menu, then oose Blank. e “Disc Blanking” window will be open. In the Select a disc drop down oose the disc that you would like to blank. You can enable the Fast blank option if you would like to shorten the amount of time to perform the blanking process. However, selecting this option will not fully remove the files; if you have any sensitive data on your disc, it would be best not to enable the Fast blank option. Once the disc is blank the you will see e disc was successfully blanked. Cli the Close buon to finish.
 stands for Re-Writable which means that disc can be used more than once. Icons of a broom are oen used in Ubuntu to represent clearing a text field or returning something to its default state.

Temporary files are saved in the /tmp folder by default. Should you wish to save these files in another location, you will need to change the seing in the Temporary files drop down menu. Under normal conditions, you should not need to change this seing.

is opens the “Copy /” window. In the Select disc to copy drop-down oose the disc to copy. You can slice files into parts by cliing the Knife buon. Disc copy You can copy a disc cliing Project. is can be done by cliing the file and then cliing the || buon. If you want to add a folder you can cli the Folder picture. If you have two / drives you can copy a disc from one to the other. then you may want to transfer this music onto an audio  so your friends and family can listen. the disc that you want to copy to must be in the / drive. You can start a data project by cliing Project then cliing New Project and then New Data Project. is opens a “Split Tra” window. e Method drop down gives you four options ea one of these lets you split the tra in a different way. You can start an audio project by cliing Project. So that ea file does not play straight aer ea other you can add a two second pause aer a file. Video project If you want to make a  of your family videos it would be best to make a video project. In the drop down at the boom of the main “Brasero” window make sure that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. . In the drop down at the boom of the main “Brasero” window make sure that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to. en cli the Burn buon. Once you have split the tra cli OK. then New Project and then New Video Project. You can start a video project by cliing Project. then New Project and then Disc copy. en cli the Burn buon. In the drop down at the boom of the main “Brasero” window make sure that you have selected the disc that you want to burn the files to.  Audio project If you record your own music. If you have only one drive you will need to make an image and then burn it to a disc. then type the name of the folder. en cli the Burn buon. then New Project and then New Audio Project. Data project If you want to make a ba up of your documents or photos it would be best to make a data project. In the Select a disc to write to drop-down either oose image file or the disc that you want to copy to.

Place what you want to scan on the scanner. Ubuntu will simply detect your scanner and you should just be able to use it.     . To use a  webcam. You can configure webcams for individual applications su as Skype and Empathy from the application’s setup menu. To scan a document.com/Webcam for help. cli on it. Ba in the “Copy /” window cli Create Image. then cli Create Image. also have webcams built into the monitors. . Scanning text and images Most of the time. Some computers. plug it into an open  port in your computer. . visit https://wiki. . and then Burn Image. . Cli the Paper Icon to add a another page. For webcams whi do not work right away with Ubuntu. Navigate your way to the image you wish to burn. You can install these from the Ubuntu Soware Center. Almost all new webcams are detected by Ubuntu automatically. You can edit the name of the file in the Name: text field.ubuntu. Once you have osen where you want to save it cli Close. . Cli Save to save. Burn image To burn an image. Go to Applications ‣ Graphics ‣ Simple Scan. Cli on the Cli here to select a disc image drop-down and the “Select Disc Image” window will appear. e rest of the webcams typically use  connections. and then cli Open. open the Project ‣ New Project. Using a webcam Webcams oen come built into laptops and netbooks. Cheese can capture pictures with your webcam and VLC media player can capture video streaming from your webcam. Brasero will open the “Image Burning Setup” window. you can ange this by cliing the + next to Browse for other folders . When the process is complete cli Close. There are quite a few applications which are useful for webcams. su as Apple desktops. cli on the disc to whi you’d like to write. e default save location is your home folder. Brasero will open the “Creating Image” and will display the job progress. In the Select a disc to write to drop-down menu. follow these steps: . Cli Scan. this shows the “Location for Image File”. Image file You can ange where the image file is saved by cliing Properties.

listening to music. . It is usually located next to the volume icon. If you want to setup a new device su as a mobile phone to synronize with your computer. Le-cliing on the Bluetooth icon opens a popup menu with several oices. it is likely that it will just work. ‣ e driver for your scanner is not being automatically loaded. Simply plug it in. If you want to import video from your camcorder you can do so by connecting your camcorder to the Firewire port. Ubuntu will open the second screen whi will show you how ..  Does my scanner work with Ubuntu? ere are three ways to see if you scanner works in Ubuntu: .  project listing of supported scanners.kinodv. visit http:// www. su as an option to Turn off Bluetooth. If it is a newer  scanner. mobile phones. To find out more about Kino. When you cli Forward. Ubuntu can’t find my scanner ere are a few reason why Ubuntu may give you a “No devices available message”: ‣ Your scanner is not supported in Ubuntu. playing games and for various other activities. Bluetooth Bluetooth is widely used on  devices. Ubuntu will then open a window for new device setup. e most common type of scanner not supported is old parallel port or Lexmark All-in-One printer/scanner/faxes. .. Other devices Firewire Firewire is a special type of port that makes use of Firewire tenology to transfer data.ubuntu. is port is generally used by camcorders and digital cameras. You can access the Bluetooth preferences by le-cliing on the Bluetooth icon on the right hand side of the top panel. You will need to install a program called Kino whi is available in the Ubuntu Soware Center.org/. oose the option that reads Setup new device. desktops and laptops for data transfer. music players. e  (Scanner Access Now Easy) project provides most of the ba-ends to the scanning soware on Ubuntu.com/HardwareSupportComponentsScanners to find out whi scanners work with Ubuntu. headsets. e Bluetooth preferences can also be accessed from System ‣ Preferences ‣ Bluetooth. Che https://wiki. mouses. All modern operating systems support Bluetooth and Ubuntu is no exception.

Once the device has been paired. your computer is hidden by default for security reasons. ree predefined  numbers are available but you can create a custom  if you like. whi means that every device will be displayed as soon as it is found. select the  number by selecting PIN options. You will have to enable the option. You can do this by selecting the option “Make computer discoverable” in Bluetooth preferences. many Bluetooth devices are present within the range of your system. if you want your Bluetooth device to find your Ubuntu system. Ubuntu will open the “Setup completed” screen. You will need to enter this  on the device you will be pairing with Ubuntu. en. In Ubuntu. e scan and display is in real time. e list of available devices might take a minute or so to appear on the screen as your system will be scanning for the devices.     . Figure . is means that your Ubuntu system can sear other Bluetooth enabled systems but they cannot sear for your Ubuntu system.: The Bluetooth applet menu. You can also add a fancy name for your Bluetoothenabled Ubuntu system by anging the text under Friendly Name. Cli on the required Bluetooth device from the list of devices. .

 Soware Management Soware management in Ubuntu As discussed in Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. the quiest and easiest way to find and install new applications is through the Ubuntu Soware Center. additional repositories can be added later in order to access more soware. Ubuntu keeps tra of many different soware paages. set up a different email client. and try any that cat your interest. Ea icon represents a department. For example. You will need to use the Synaptic Package Manager (discussed towards the end of this chapter) to install these packages. You automatically have access to the official Ubuntu repositories when the operating system is installed. followed by the user proceeding through a number of installation prompts and options. such as programming or running a server. To start the Soware Center. A repository can be thought of as a catalog of paages that are available for downloading from a single location. Differences from other operating systems Most other operating systems generally require a user to purase commercial soware (online or through a physical store). . e Soware Center window has two parts—a list of sections on the le. is is a central location for accessing new soware.” e sections on the le side of the window represent your current view of the Soware Center’s catalog. Alternatively. Cli the Get Soware buon on the le to Some soware packages have more advanced purposes. While at times a similar process may be used for installing soware in Ubuntu. and finding and installing what you are aer is designed to be as qui and easy as possible. and is based on the concept of repositories. At some point you may decide to test out an alternative web browser. and a set of icons on the right. e correct installation file must then be downloaded and located on the computer. or otherwise sear the Internet for a free alternative (if one is available). however. and cannot be installed using the Soware Center. or try some new games (for example). open the Applications menu and oose Ubuntu Soware Center. and to do any of these you will need to install new soware. you may prefer to browse through the extensive library of available applications. the “Games” department contains “Sudoku. a range of default applications are available in Ubuntu that are suitable for many everyday tasks. whi is a category of soware. Using the Ubuntu Soware Center e Soware Center can be used to install most applications that are available in the official Ubuntu repositories. edit an audio file.

. you can browse the Soware Center catalog by cliing on the department that reflects the category of soware you are aer. Some departments have sub-categories—for example. the “sound and video” category includes a number of different soware applications su as video converters. To help you find the right application. and music players).: You can install and remove applications from your computer using the Soware Center. or alternatively use the built-in sear at the top-right of the window to look for specific names or keywords. or otherwise you may just have a general category in mind (for example. When you select a department. and Installed Soware to see a list of soware that is already installed on your computer. “underbird” is a popular email client).” Check out the Featured Applications department to see a list of highly recommended applications. audio editors. see soware that is available to install. the “Games” department has subcategories for “Simulation” and “Card Games. Finding soware If you are looking for an application.     . you will be shown a list of applications that fit within that category. Figure . you may already know a specific name (for example.

you can now go ba to the main browsing window and queue additional soware paages to be installed by following the steps above. Cli the Install buon to the right of the selected paage. in order to prevent someone without administrator access from making unauthorized anges to your computer. is is the same password you use to log in to your account. Installing soware Installing applications is practically only one cli away. this may mean that your account is not authorized to install soware on the computer. Ubuntu will usually place an entry in your Applications menu under the relevant sub-menu—its exact location will depend on the purpose of the application. First. you will need to purge it. Type your password into the authentication window that appears. If you receive an “Authentication Failure” message aer typing in your password. you can also cli Install from this page. first cli on More Info. as well as a screenshot and a web link when available. If you like. and then: . cliing the In Progress buon on the le will take you to a summary of all operations that are currently processing. you will see an animated icon of rotating arrows to the le of the In Progress buon in the sidebar. and will appear under the In Progress section in the sidebar. . Here you can also cli the X icon to cancel any operation. check that you typed it correctly by trying again. which is discussed further in the Synaptic Package Manager section below. If the error continues. Removing soware Removing applications is very similar to installing them. You can do this with the more advanced Synaptic Package Manager. During the installation (or removal) of soware paages. Removing soware also requires that you enter your password to help protect your computer against unauthorized anges. At any time. is will take you to a short description of the application. Scroll down to the application you wish to remove (or use the sear field to quily find it). Once the Soware Center has finished installing an application. it is now ready to be used. cli on the Installed Soware buon in the Soware Center’s sidebar. as well as the navigational buons (oen referred to as “breadcrumbs”) next to these. Wait until the paage is finished installing. Note that you will need to be connected to the Internet for the Soware Center to work. Once you have found an application that you would like to try: . To completely remove a package and all its configuration. e paage will then be queued for removal. In some cases an application will appear in one of the System ‣ Preferences or System ‣ Administration menus instead. see Chapter : Working with Ubuntu. Type your password into the authentication window that appears. Cli the Remove buon to the right of the selected application. If you would like to read more about the soware paage before installing it. . . You are required to enter it whenever installing new soware. . To learn how to set up your connection.   To move through categories you can use the ba and forward buons at the top of the window. If you wish to proceed.

we will look at how to manage your repositories through Soware Sources. a particular application you are aer may not be available in these repositories. and multiverse. Updates. First. ‣ Soware restricted by copyright or legal issues (multiverse): is repository contains soware that may be protected from use in some states or countries by copyright or licensing laws. and usually only concerns developers. it will not be covered in this manual. Repositories can be added or removed through the Soware Sources application. Authentication. Closed-source packages are sometimes referred to as non-free. su as downloading an installation file manually from the Internet. e Source code option should not be selected unless you have experience with building applications from source. initially only those paages available within the official Ubuntu repositories are listed. universe. Managing the official repositories e Ubuntu Soware tab lists the five official Ubuntu repositories. or if trying to use the latest version of an application before it is released for Ubuntu. then the “Soware Sources” window will open. ‣ Proprietary drivers for devices (restricted): is repository contains proprietary drivers.     . Managing additional soware Although the Soware Center provides a large library of applications to oose from. and Statistics. four of these are enabled—main. Soware Sources e Soware Center lists only those applications that are available in your enabled repositories. Payment is not required to use these packages. By using this repository you assume responsibility for the usage of any paages that you install. You will be asked to enter your password. Removing a paage will also update your menus accordingly. When Ubuntu is first installed. Simply go to Edit ‣ Soware Sources. To open this. ‣ Canonical-supported open source soware (main): is repository contains all the open-source paages that are maintained by Canonical. As this is a more advanced area. or adding extra repositories. . You can also open Soware Sources from the Soware Center. it is important to understand some alternative methods for accessing and installing soware in Ubuntu. cli System ‣ Administration ‣ Soware Sources in the top panel. whi may be required to utilize the full capabilities of some of your devices or hardware. Other Soware. ‣ Community-maintained open source soware (universe): is repository contains all the open-source paages that are developed and maintained by the Ubuntu community. rather than monetary cost. This is a reference to freedom of speech. ere are five tabs at the top of this window: Ubuntu Soware. At times. If this happens. restricted. Building applications from source is an advanced process for creating packages. ‣ Source code: is repository contains the source code that is used to build the soware paages from some of the other repositories. You may also require source files when using a custom kernel. ea containing different types of paages.

you will need to use the Other Soware tab in the “Soware Sources” window. oose your location in the “Server Selection” window. and other applications. These are online repositories used to host the latest versions of soware packages. cli the Select Best Server buon in the upper right. they host an exact copy of all the files contained in the official Ubuntu repositories. you will see a heading to the le called “Adding this PPA to your system. Finally. and applications will be installable straight from the  through the Soware Center. and select Other from the menu. Ubuntu can install some soware paages straight from your installation . the connection speed may vary. To do this. e most common repositories added to Ubuntu are called s. Once this e box is tied. Your computer will now aempt a connection with all the available servers. then select the one with the fastest speed. select one then cli Choose Server when you are finished. A  is a Personal Package Archive. third-party repositories to your list of soware sources. Providing you know the web address of a ’s Launpad site. digital projects.” Underneath will be a short paragraph containing a unique  in the form of ppa:test-ppa/example. insert the disc into your computer’s  drive. When selecting a server. then select the e box next to Installable from the /. the disc will be treated just like an online repository. Choosing a server that is close to your location will oen provide the best connection speed. you can select the server that will give you the best possible download speeds. if you do not have a working Internet connection. If there are multiple servers available in your location. ese allow you to install soware paages that are not available in the official repositories. adding it to your list of soware sources is relatively simple. then right-cli and oose copy. Highlight this  by selecting it with your mouse. Depending on the physical distance between you and a server. Ubuntu provides a tool for selecting the server that provides the fastest connection with your computer. To select a server by country. In the “Server Selection” window that appears. First. ‣ Location. If you are happy with the automatic selection. In the Ubuntu Soware tab. you may want to consider the following: ‣ Connection speed.   Selecting the best soware server Ubuntu grants permission to many servers all across the world to act as mirrors. cli the dropdown box next to “Download from:” in the “Soware Sources” window. and automatically be notified whenever updates for these paages are available. at is. To do so. On the Launpad site for a . Adding more soware repositories Ubuntu makes it easy to add additional. cli Choose Server to return to the “Soware Sources” window. .

Figure . . Return to the “Soware Sources” window. Cli Add Source to return to the “Soware Sources” window. When it has finished. and in the Other Soware tab cli Add… at the boom.: This is an example of the Launchpad page for the Lifesaver PPA. and wait while Ubuntu refreshes all of your enabled repositories (including this new one you just added). Congratulations. You will see a new entry has been added to the list of sources in this window.” is is because you have just added a new repository to Ubuntu.     . you have just added a  to your list of soware sources. You can now open the Soware Center and install applications from this . Cli Reload. If you cli Close in the boom right corner of this window. by adding this PPA to your list of soware sources. A new window will appear. and you should see the  appear that you copied from the s Launpad site earlier. Right-cli on the empty space in this text field and select Paste. with a tied e box in front meaning it is enabled. However. a message will appear informing you that “e information about available soware is outof-date. Lifesaver is an application that is not available in the official Ubuntu repositories. and it now needs to connect to that repository and download a list of the paages that it provides. and you will see the words “Apt line:” followed by a text field. the window will close automatically. it would then be easy to install and update this application through the Soware Center.

‣ Update a paage when a newer version is released. although this option is only available if there are multiple versions in the repository. ‣ Important security updates: ese updates are highly recommended to ensure your system remains as secure as possible. but also allows for more control over your paages. and usually depends on your preferences around stability. is may be useful if you wish to revert a paage to its default state. including any stored preferences or configuration files (whi are oen le behind when a paage is removed). Updates and Upgrades Ubuntu also allows you to decide how to manage paage updates through the Updates tab in the Soware Sources window. navigate to System ‣ Administration ‣ Synaptic Paage Manager. If you want to read more information on how to use this program.   in the same way you previously installed programs from the default Ubuntu repositories. It can be used to perform the same tasks as the Ubuntu Soware Center. or require more support managing the soware on your system. or repair any conflicts or damaged files. contained files. su as installing and removing applications. ‣ Che properties of any paage. su as the version number. Ubuntu updates In this section. Synaptic Package Manager e Synaptic Paage Manager is a more advanced tool for managing soware in Ubuntu. To open the Synaptic Paage Manager.com/community/SynapticHowto. ‣ Purge a paage to completely remove it. versus having access to the latest developments. head to https://help. dependencies. As explained above. Synaptic is a more complex tool than the Soware Center. paage size. . and more. ‣ Remove any paage you no longer need. ‣ Reinstall a paage. In many cases you can even select whi version of a paage to install.ubuntu. ‣ Fix broken paages. For example. you are able to specify the kinds of updates you wish to install on your system. ese are enabled by default. it provides the following options: ‣ Install any paage in your repositories. and generally not essential for a new user just geing started with Ubuntu.

or just notify you about them. therefore this option is not enabled by default. is option is recommended for normal home users. ‣ Long Term Support releases only: Choose this option if you need a release that will be more stable and have support for a longer time. These are called normal releases. Canonical will release a new version of the Ubuntu operating system. Long Term Support releases are intended to be the most stable releases available. . su as the frequency with whi it es for new paages. If you use Ubuntu for business purposes. Every four normal releases—or  months —Canonical releases a Long Term Support (LTS) release. is option is also enabled by default. but will mean your paages always have the most recent bug fixes or minor updates that have been tested and approved. download them only. ‣ Normal releases: Choose this if you always want to have the latest Ubuntu release. regardless of whether it is a Long Term Support release or not. as well as whether it should install important updates right away (without asking for your permission). ‣ Recommended updates: ese updates are not as important for keeping your system secure. you may want to consider selecting this option. at the risk of installing an update that has unresolved bugs or conflicts. ‣ Unsupported updates: ese are updates that have not yet been fully tested and reviewed by Canonical. Release upgrade Here you can decide whi system upgrades you would like to be notified about. ‣ Never: Choose this if you would rather not be notified about any new Ubuntu releases. Automatic updates e middle section of this window allows you to customize how your system manages updates. Note that it is possible that you will encounter problems with these updated applications. Some bugs may occur when using these updates. if this happens it is possible to “roll-ba” to a previous version of a paage through Synaptic Paage Manager. However. ‣ Pre-released updates: is option is for those who would rather remain up-to-date with the very latest releases of applications. and are supported for a longer period of time. and so this option is also not enabled by default.     . Every  months.

. It is a method of controlling some aspects of Ubuntu using only commands that you type on the keyboard. followed by the current directory. followed by a blinking blo. When the terminal window opens. in order to fully realize the power of Ubuntu. type of interface is the command-line interface (). In  environments the term “directory” is used to describe the same thing and this metaphor is exposed in many commands (i. windows. There are different types of shells that accept slightly different commands. it will be largely blank apart from some text at the top le of the screen. If you are interested in becoming a developer or an advanced Ubuntu user. is text is your prompt—it displays your login name and your computer’s name. the terminal is a powerful and invaluable tool that can be used to perform many useful tasks. e terminal is Ubuntu’s command-line interface. system administration. The most popular is called “bash. we have focused primarily on the graphical desktop user interface. have two types of user interfaces. The Command Line Introduction to the terminal roughout this manual.” and is the default shell in Ubuntu. cd or pwd) throughout this chapter. e second. menus. most day-to-day activities can be completed without ever needing to open the terminal. Opening the Terminal You can open the terminal by cliing Applications ‣ Accessories ‣ Terminal.e. ‣ Learning the command-line interface is the first step towards more advanced troubleshooting. However. knowledge of the command-line will be essential. For example. resulting in the desired action. and toolbars that you cli to get things done. ‣ A command-line interface is sometimes a faster way to accomplish a task. it is oen easier to perform operations on many files at once using the terminal. What is the terminal? Most operating systems. including Ubuntu. e first is a graphical user interface (). However. For example: ‣ Troubleshooting any difficulties that may arise when using Ubuntu sometimes requires you to use the terminal. and mu older. and soware development skills. In  environments the term “folder” is commonly used to describe a place where files are stored. e tilde (~) means that the current directory is your The terminal gives you access to what is called a shell. is is the desktop. Why would I want to use the terminal? For the average Ubuntu user. you may want to learn how to use the terminal. When you type a command in the terminal the shell interprets this command. .

Ubuntu file system structure Ubuntu uses the Linux file system. Oen some output will be displayed that confirms the action was completed successfully. Finally. e rest of this apter covers some very common uses of the terminal. whi is based on a series of folders in the root directory. that change how the command itself is interpreted. although this depends on the command. the blinking blo is the cursor—this marks where text will be entered as you type. In fact. possibly followed by some parameters. and press Enter to perform the specified action. e terminal should display /home/yourusername. particularly when discussing steps involved in troubleshooting and the more advanced management of your computer. as well as a list of any other parameters that can be used with that command. for example.: The default terminal window allows you to run hundreds of useful commands. and the output that was displayed shows the current directory. Parameters are extra segments of text. roughout the second part of this manual we will continue to refer to the command line. but will not display any output. However. is text is called the “output. For example. home directory. there are almost infinite possibilities available to you when using the command-line interface in Ubuntu. These usually take the form of -h or --help. Type in the name of a command. All commands in the terminal follow the same approa.     . using the cd command to ange your current directory (see below) will ange the prompt. Ea of these folders contain important system files that cannot be modified unless you are running as the root user or use sudo. --help can be added to most commands to display a short description of the command. Figure .” You have just used the pwd (print working directory) command. To test things out. type pwd and press Enter. usually added at the end of a command. is restriction exists for both security and safety reasons: computer viruses will .

Below are some of the most important directories.dll files on Windows /media: Removable media ( and  drives) will be mounted in this directory /root: is contains the root user’s files (not to be confused with the root directory) /usr: Pronounced ‘user’. it contains most program files (not to be confused with ea user’s home directory) /var/log: Contains log files wrien by many programs /bin /etc: Figure .: Some of the most important directories in the root file system. similar to . Here are the contents of some system essential directories: ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ ‣ & /sbin: Many essential system programs System-wide configuration files /home: Ea user will have a subdirectory to store personal files (for example /home/your-username) /lib: Library files. and users should not be able to accidentally damage anything vital. . e root directory—denoted by /—contains all other directories and files.    not be able to ange the core system files.

a  flash drive. unless you oose to do so from the command line. Most File Managers will automatically add a shortcut to the mounted device in its side bar so it’s easy for you to get to. can be broken down into a few pieces: . Any time you add storage media to your computer—an internal or external hard drive. /—indicates that the path starts at the root directory . When you are done using a device. your-username/—from the home directory. Mounting and unmounting removable devices. allowing you to navigate to the directory to access the device’s files. Unmounting a device means to disassociate the device from its directory. the directory /home/your-username/Desktop contains all the files that are on your Ubuntu desktop. In the Nautilus you can show hidden files and directories by selecting View ‣ Show Hidden Files. Every directory has a path. Mounting a device means to associate a directory name with the device. allowing you to eject it. When a device su as a  flash drive or a media player is mounted in Ubuntu. the path goes into the yourusername directory . home/—from the root directory. e path is a directory’s full name—it describes a way to navigate the directory from anywhere in the system. a —it needs to be mounted before it is accessible. For example. e path. /home/your-username/. the path goes into the home directory . you can unmount it. the path ends up in the Desktop directory Every directory in Ubuntu has a complete path that starts with the / (the root directory) and ends in the directory’s own name. ese are usually only visible with a special command or by selecting a specific option. You shouldn’t have to physically navigate to the media directory in Ubuntu. ere are many hidden directories in your home folder used to store program preferences.     . Desktop—from the your-username directory. For example. /home/your-username/Desktop. . or by pressing Ctrl+H. Directories and files that begin with a period are hidden directories. a folder is automatically created for it in the media directory and you are given the appropriate permissions to be able to read and write to the device.evolution stores preferences used by the Evolution mail application.

if your current working directory is /home/your-username then typing cd . ere are some special directory names. For example: $ mv grux.mp3 baby-blue. e name . $ ls alligator-pie. For example.. $ mv /dmb/big-whiskey/grux. you will need to put quotation marks around the path: $ cd ~/"Music/The Beatles/Sgt. . otherwise the command will not work.mp3 /home/john You can also use the mv command to rename a file. (two periods) is a special name that refers to the directory’s “parent”—the directory one level above it in the directory tree. You can type cd ~ to navigate to your home directory from anywhere in the system. $ cd /directory/you/want/to/go/to/ If there are spaces in one of the directories. if you have a directory called Directory1.    Geing started with the command line Navigating directories e pwd command is short for print working directory. For example.mp3 Note that the terminal is case-sensitive.mp3 squirm.mp3 frub.. $ pwd /home/your-username/ e cd command is short for ange directory. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band/" If you leave out the quotation marks. will navigate to the /home directory. Geing a list of files e ls command is used to get a list of all the files and directories that exist inside the current directory. e cp command is used to copy a file from one directory into another. Note that the prompt (the text just before the blinking cursor) also displays your current directory. ~ is a special name that always refers to your home directory.mp3 Moving things around e mv command is used to move a file from one directory to another. the terminal will think that you are trying to ange to a directory named ~/Music/The. It allows you to navigate from your current working directory to another of your oosing. It can be used to display the directory you are currently in. you must remember to include the capital leer whenever referring to it in the terminal.

and instead make one called newdirectory inside a hypothetical directory called /tmp/example/: $ mkdir /tmp/example/newdirectory You could then navigate to this new directory by using the cd command. and a “root” account that operates behind the scenes. use the following command: $ rm /tmp/example/deleteme. $ rmdir /tmp/example/newdirectory/ Introducing sudo When you installed Ubuntu. the system automatically created two user accounts: your primary user account. For example.txt located in the current directory: $ rm deleteme. to delete a file named deleteme.e. this command would delete the directory called newdirectory that we created earlier.     . and is used to create a new directory in the current directory or another specified location. In other words. whereas your primary user account does not. $ cd /tmp/example/newdirectory Deleting files and directories e rm command is used to delete files. For example. For example. $ cp /dmb/big-whiskey/grux.txt To delete a file located in another directory (i. you can use the sudo command (for command line applications) and gksudo to borrow root account privileges .txt e rmdir command is similar to the rm command.txt located in the /tmp/example/ directory. to delete the file deleteme.mp3 /media/ipod Creating directories e mkdir command is short for make directory. except it is used to delete folders.. you would need to include the path to the file. is root account has the necessary privileges required for modifying system files and seings. not inside your current working directory). you are specifying the file’s location. For example. this command will make a directory called newdirectory inside the current directory: $ mkdir newdirectory e following command will ignore your current directory. Rather than logging out of your primary user account and then logging ba in as root (whi can be very dangerous).

e sudo command gives you virtually unlimited access to important system files and seings. you will be prompted to enter your password. as this will ensure you are geing the most recent updates available for your soware. Using apt-get e apt-get command is used for installing and removing paages from your system. e password you use with sudo is the same password that you use to log in to your primary account. since they typically require root privileges. and is set up during the Ubuntu installation process. It can also be used to refresh the list of paages available in the repositories. It is best to run apt-get update prior to running apt-get upgrade. the following command would open Ubuntu’s default text editor gedit with root privileges. $ gksudo gedit [sudo] password for username: Opening gedit.    for performing administrative tasks su as installing or removing soware. or other characters appearing in the terminal as you type your password—this is an extra security feature to help protect your password from any prying eyes.. For example. as well as any additional repositories added by the user (see Chapter : Soware Management for more information on repositories). You will not see any dots. and modifying system files. e apt command is extremely versatile and encompasses several tools. however. creating or removing new users. . When using sudo in the terminal. $ sudo apt-get update You can then use apt-get upgrade to download and install any available updates for your currently installed paages. the most commonly used of whi is apt-get. You can find out more about using sudo in Chapter : Security. stars. You will then be able to edit important system files that would otherwise be protected. It is important you only use sudo if you understand what you are doing. e various apt commands should be prefixed with the sudo command. Updating and upgrading e apt-get update command can be used to quily refresh the list of paages that are available in the default Ubuntu repositories. many people prefer to use the apt command (Advanced Paaging Tool) to manage their soware from within the terminal. as well as download and install any new updates for your soware. Managing soware through the terminal In Ubuntu there are many ways to manage your soware. Graphical tools su as the Ubuntu Soware Center and Synaptic Paage Manager were discussed in Chapter : Soware Management..

press y and then Enter. so expect to see sudo appearing frequently. 24. Cleaning up your system Oen soware in Ubuntu depends on other paages being installed on your system in order to run correctly. Done The following packages will be upgraded: tzdata 1 upgraded. Adding extra soware repositories Sometimes you might want to install some soware that isn’t in the official repositories but may be available in a what’s called a . the download size. you would type: $ sudo apt-get remove vlc [sudo] password for username: Notice the sudo command before the apt-get command. and how mu extra disk space will be used (or freed).     . Need to get 683kB of archives. or personal . taking up disk space. and then ask you to confirm before continuing. $ sudo apt-get upgrade Reading package lists. and the upgrades will be downloaded and installed for you. If you do not want to proceed with the installation. 0 newly installed. ese paages sit in your system and can build up over time. After this operation.. When you remove a paage in Ubuntu. In most cases it will be necessary to use sudo when installing soware. any dependencies that were installed alongside the original paage are not also automatically removed. is will select and remove any paages that were automatically installed but no longer required. press n and then Enter. 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.. as you will be modifying protected parts of your system. Do you want to continue [Y/n]? e terminal will give you a summary of what paages are to be upgraded. To proceed with the installation..6kB disk space will be freed. Done Building dependency tree Reading state information. Ubuntu will automatically download and install them for you at the same time (provided the correct paages can be found in your repositories). $ sudo apt-get autoremove Another useful cleaning command is aptget autoclean which removes cache files le over from downloading packages. If you aempt to install a new paage and these dependencies are not already installed. Installing and removing e following command would be used to install  media player using apt-get: $ sudo apt-get install vlc [sudo] password for username: To remove .. Many of the commands we will be using from here on require root access. A simple way to clean up your system is to use the apt-get autoremove command. s.

    paage arives. contain soware that you can install by adding that  to your system. . To add a PPA repository: $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:example/ppa Once you have installed the  you may install soware from it in the usual way using the apt-get install command.

.

‣ Soware for Ubuntu is kept in a secure online repository.com/ community/FilePermissions. and other files. visit https://help. ea user can have separate seings. Ubuntu controls access to files on your computer through a system of “permissions. is way. Permissions In Ubuntu. ‣ Open-source soware like Ubuntu allows security flaws to be easily detected. Why Ubuntu is safe Ubuntu is secure by default for a number of reasons: ‣ Ubuntu clearly distinguishes between normal users and administrative users. or run them. For instance. it is automatically configured for a single person to use. To learn more about modifying permissions. See Users and groups to learn more about creating additional users accounts. . whi contains no false or malicious soware.ubuntu. If necessary. ‣ Many viruses designed to primarily target Windows-based systems do not affect Ubuntu systems. modify. but do not want those users to be able to edit the file. documents. ea person should have her or his own user account. ‣ Security pates for open-source soware like Ubuntu are oen released quily. you can also protect files from being viewed or modified by users without administrative privileges. If more than one person will use the computer with Ubuntu. Basic Security concepts and procedures When Ubuntu is installed.” Permissions are seings that you can configure to control exactly how files on your computer are accessed and used. files and folders can be set up so that only specific users can view. Security is apter discusses ways to keep your Ubuntu computer secure. you might wish to share an important file with other users.

and be sure you know exactly what you’re installing on your computer. System updates Good security depends on an up-to-date system. Using only recognized sources su as a project’s site. By default. the minimum length of a password in Ubuntu is four aracters. Ubuntu provides free soware and security updates. Additional repositories are available from sites su as getdeb. you may want to lo the screen. Loing your screen prevents anyone from using your computer until your password is entered. or when you need a newer version of the one available in the Ubuntu repositories. it is occasionally necessary to add soware from other sources. . . You can download the  paages for some applications from their respective project sites on the Internet. you will add applications to your computer via the Soware Center. is keyboard shortcut can be anged in System ‣ Preferences ‣ Keyboard Shortcuts. When using a third party source.     . Alternately.net) is more secure than downloading applications from an arbitrary (and perhaps less reputable) source. We recommend a password with more than the minimum number of aracters. whi can be added as described in Chapter : Soware Management. common words or common phrases. you can build applications from their source code (an advanced method of installing and using applications). To lo the screen: ‣ Cli the session menu icon in the right corner of the top panel. Trusting third party sources Normally. or ‣ press Ctrl+Alt+L to lo the screen. Locking the screen When you leave your computer unaended. then select Lo Screen. However. You should apply these updates regularly. or various community repositories (su as getdeb. you may need to do this when an application is not available in the Ubuntu repositories. whi downloads soware from the Ubuntu repositories as described in Chapter : Soware Management. See Chapter : Soware Management to learn how to update your Ubuntu computer with the latest security updates and pates. consider its trustworthiness. Passwords You can use a strong password to increase the security of your computer.net and Launpad s. For example. Your password should not contain names.

Fill in the requested information. cli System ‣ Administration ‣ Users and Groups.” You will need to input your password in order to make anges to user and group seings. A user can also be a member of additional groups. Figure . You can configure some files and folders to be accessible only by a user and a group. a user’s files are only accessible by that user. Managing users You can manage users and groups using the Users and Groups administration application.: Add. e “Short Name“ field is for the actual username. A window will appear that has two fields. Every user in Ubuntu is a member of at least one group—the group’s name is the same as the name of the user. system files are only accessible by the root user. Adding a user Cli the Add buon whi appears underneath a list of the current user accounts that have already been created. A new dialog box will appear asking you to enter a password for the user you have just created. then cli OK. Ubuntu allows you to create separate user accounts for ea person that use the computer. To find this application. Ubuntu also supports user groups. e “Name“ field field is for a friendly display name. whi allow you to administer permissions for multiple users at the same time. Fill out the fields. By default. remove and change the user accounts. then cli OK.  Users and groups Like most operating systems. To adjust the user and group seings cli the keys icon next the phrase “Cli to make anges. . Privileges you grant to the new user can be altered in “Users Seings”.

then cli on the Change… buon.html . see the Ubuntu Server Guide at hps://help. select a group and cli Delete. For more information on using the command line to modify users and groups. Using the command line You can also modify user and group seings via the command line. Modifying a group To alter the users in an existing group. or right-cli on the file or folder and oose Properties./serverguide/C/user-management. Deleting a user Select a user from the list and cli Delete. cli Add. Managing groups Cli on the Manage Groups buon to open the group management dialog. Ubuntu will deactivate the user’s account. Modifying a user Cli on the name of a user in the list of users.com/. Cli OK to save the anges. either select the folder and oose File ‣ Properties from the menubar. Deleting a group To delete a group. We recommend that you use the graphical method above unless you have a good reason to use the command line.ubuntu. then cli OK to apply the anges. select a group and cli on the Properties buon.     . Adding a group To add a group. whi appears next to ea of following options: ‣ Account type: ‣ Password: For more advanced user options cli on the Advanced Settings buon. open the Nautilus file browser and navigate to the appropriate file or folder. In the dialog that appears. cli on the Permissions tab and select the desired group from the Groups drop-down list. en close the window. enter the group name and select the names of users you would like to add to the group. Select and deselect the users as required. Change the details as required in the dialog that appears. en. Applying groups to files and folders To ange the group associated with a file or folder. In the Properties dialog that appears. and you can oose whether remove the user’s home folder or leave it.

or use encryption. Firewall A firewall is an application that protects your computer against unauthorized access by people on the Internet or your local network. It is a program that runs from the command line. then you will need to open the ports these services use. you will likely not need to open any additional ports. By default. To open a port cli on the Add buon. to further increase the security of your system. If you are running server soware on your Ubuntu system (su as a web server. is apter will discuss two of these. financial records—by encrypting it. see Ubuntu Community Help documents at hps://help. start Gufw by cliing System ‣ Administration ‣ Firewall configuration. If you are not familiar with servers. and the Advanced tab can be used to allow access on a range of ports. Encrypting a file or folder essentially “los” that file or folder by encoding it with an algorithm that keeps it scrambled until it is properly decoded with a password. Encryption You may wish to protect your sensitive personal data—for instance. For further information on using encryption with either single files or email. For most purposes. select the Enable option. See Chapter : Soware Management to learn more about installing the Gufw paage. but a program called Gufw allows you to use it with a graphical interface. or an  server). Once it’s installed. Firewalls blo connections to your computer from unknown sources. To enable the firewall.  Seing up a secure system You may also want to use a firewall. is seing should be suitable for most users.ubuntu. Uncomplicated Firewall () is the standard firewall configuration program in Ubuntu. is helps prevent security breaes. Encrypting your personal data ensures that no one can open your personal folders or read your private data without your private key. Ubuntu includes a number of tools to encrypt files and folders. all incoming connections are denied.com/community. e simple tab can be used to allow access on a single port. . the Preconfigured tab is sufficient. Select Allow from the first box and then select the program or service required.

it is possible to encrypt a user’s home folder. Aer the Private folder has been set up.     . To do this. Home folder When installing Ubuntu. Enter your account’s password when prompted. ese are required if you ever have to recover your data manually. Either oose a mount passphrase or generate one. Use the terminal to run ecryptfs-setup-private to set up the private folder.com/community/EncryptedPrivateDirectory. See Chapter : Installation for more on encrypting the home folder. . it is possible to encrypt a single folder—called Private—in a user’s home folder. follow these steps: . . . . ubuntu. any files or folders in it will automatically be encrypted. Private folder If you have not osen to encrypt a user’s entire home folder. . Install the ecryptfs-utils soware paage. Record both passphrases in a safe location. . Log out and log ba in to mount the encrypted folder. If you need to recover your encrypted files manually see https://help.

You can easily restore —and regain the ability to oose your operating system—by using the same  you used to install Ubuntu. making sure to have your computer start the operating system that is on the  itself (see Chapter : Installation). su as Ubuntu. thus removing the ability to oose whi operating system you’d like to use. documenting anges you make to your Ubuntu system at every step. If you exhaust the troubleshooting advice below. First. While this is supported by Ubuntu. Ubuntu fails to start aer I’ve installed Windows Occasionally you may install Ubuntu and then decide to install Microso Windows as a second operating system running side-by-side with Ubuntu. cli Accessories. it replaced  with its own bootloader. see Geing more help to learn about seeking support from the Ubuntu community. we offer a guide to resolving basic problems that users may encounter while using Ubuntu. Troubleshooting guide e key to effective troubleshooting is working slowly and methodically. and then cli the Terminal item.0 GB. On the Applications menu. you installed an advanced bootloader called  that allowed you to oose between the various operating systems on your computer. You will need to type some code to restore your bootloader. When you first turn on your computer. 120034123776 bytes A bootloader is the initial soware that loads the operating system when you turn on the computer. Wait while the soware loads. you may find that aer installing Windows you may no longer be able to start Ubuntu. However. you will always be able to roll ba your work—and give fellow users information about your previous aempts. is way. Next. Luily. when you installed Windows. . oose your language and select Try Ubuntu. things simply do not work as they should. problems encountered while working with Ubuntu are easily fixed. Enter the following: $ sudo fdisk -l Disk /dev/hda: 120. Below. When you installed Ubuntu. in the unlikely event that you should need to turn to the community for support. a program called a “bootloader” must start Ubuntu or another operating system. Windows and others. Troubleshooting Resolving problems Sometimes. insert your Ubuntu  into your computer and restart it.

please note that your Ubuntu installation uses Grub. Check if this is correct or not. https://help. is guide may not work for all Ubuntu users due to differences in system configuration. then you should see the following: $ ls /media/root bin dev home lib mnt root srv usr boot etc initrd lib64 opt sbin sys var cdrom initrd. 63 sectors/track. When following the instructions. for restoring the  bootloader. fix it and re-run the script grub-install. To do this. and the most successful method.com/community/ RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows. If following this guide does not restore  on your computer. replacing /dev/sda with the name of your Linux device. first create a place to manipulate your Ubuntu installation: $ sudo mkdir /media/root The device (/dev/sda. We need to rectify this by telling the computer to boot to the Linux device instead.ubuntu. Modify the instructions below if necessary. etc) we are looking for is identified by the word “Linux” in the System column. No error reported. (hd0) /dev/sda Finally. you can reinstall : $ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/root /dev/sda Installation finished. and enjoy your Ubuntu system once again. Still.com/community/ RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows. reboot your computer.     . on whi Ubuntu is based) is installed on device /dev/sda. If any of the lines is incorrect. Please consider starting with the third section.ubuntu. This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/device. /dev/sda. Next.map. this is the recommended method. 255 heads. remove the Ubuntu disc from your  drive. 14593 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Boot /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sda4 * Start 1 1225 2441 14532 End 1224 2440 14593 14593 Blocks 64228+ 9767520 97618972+ 498015 Id 83 a5 5 82 System Linux Windows Extended Linux swap Partition table entries are not in disk order is output means that your system (Linux. link your Ubuntu installation and this new folder: $ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/root If you’ve done this correctly. is guide replicates the method described in the first section of the referenced web page. .img media proc selinux tmp vmlinuz Now. please consider trying some of the other troubleshooting methods at https://help. but your computer is booting to /dev/sda (where Windows is located).

Wait while Ubuntu starts up. Press and hold Control. Instead.  Ubuntu doesn’t present the login screen when my computer boots e simplest and easiest way to correct this issue is to order Ubuntu to reset the graphics configuration. shut down your computer. Enter your username. Don’t worry —this behavior is normal and was implemented for security purposes). Your password will be needed again. Enter your desired password.” To start Recovery mode. (Characters will not appear on the screen as you enter your password. You should now see a bla and white screen with a prompt for your username and password. I forgot my password If you forget your password in Ubuntu./xorg. you will be presented with a terminal prompt that looks something like: root@something# To reset your password.conf_old $ sudo service gdm stop $ sudo X -configure $ sudo mv . press Enter. As the computer starts up. (Ubuntu asks for your password twice to make sure you did not make a mistake while typing). enter: $ passwd username Replace “username” above with your username. pressing enter aer you are done. . Select the Recovery mode option using the arrow keys on your keyboard.new . then power it up. Recovery mode should be the second item in the list. press enter and then type your password again. Ubuntu will prompt you for a new password. and then enter your password. return to the normal system environment by entering: $ init 2 Login as usual and continue enjoying Ubuntu. you will need to reset it using “Recovery mode.conf . Next.conf $ sudo reboot now Ubuntu will reboot. and your login screen should be restored./xorg. $ sudo cd /etc/X11 $ sudo mv . Once you have restored your password. Alt and F. press Shi (Grub) Esc (Grub) when you see the white-on-bla screen with a countdown (the  prompt). enter the following commands./xorg./xorg. You will not see a normal login screen.conf.

     . To remove items from this folder and restore them to your computer. This is a known issue and will be resolved in the next version of . select Places ‣ Computer from the top panel. is is a special folder where Ubuntu stores deleted files before they are permanently removed from your computer. The Wastebasket could also be know as the “Deleted Items Folder“. I accidentally deleted some files that I need If you’ve deleted a file by accident. Figure . The Wastebasket is called different things in various parts of the desktop. or otherwise drag them wherever you would like (we recommend a memorable location. right-cli on the items you want and select Restore. you may be able to recover it from Ubuntu’s trash folder.: This is the grub screen in which you can choose recovery mode. su as your home folder or desktop). then oose Trash from the list of places in the le-hand sidebar of the window that appears (alternatively. . This could cause confusion. cli on the trash applet at the far right of the boom panel). To access the trash folder.

meaning they are not free to use.  How do I clean Ubuntu? Over time. this cae can grow quite large. Ubuntu’s soware paaging system can accumulate unused paages or temporary files. or other files. To clear the cae. When the Soware Center finds the appropriate soware. also called caes. Sear for ubuntu-restricted-extras by typing “ubuntu restricted extras” in the sear box on the right-hand side of the Ubuntu Soware Center’s main window. If you find yourself in need of a proprietary format. users can easily configure Ubuntu to use these proprietary formats. ensure that you have Universe and Multiverse repositories enabled. or the autoclean option for a command-line program called apt-get. See the Synaptic Paage Manager section to learn how to do this. Before initiating this command. you can use either the clean. then wait while Ubuntu installs the appropriate soware. You can remove it with autoremove. To run clean. Ubuntu does not include the capability to use these formats by default. ese temporary files. Once Ubuntu has successfully installed soware. music. open Terminal and type: $ sudo apt-get clean Paages can also become unused over time. Removing them allows you to reclaim space on your computer’s hard drive for storing your documents. If a paage was installed to assist with running another program—and that program was subsequently removed—you no longer need the supporting paage. erefore. Load Terminal and type: $ sudo apt-get autoremove to remove the unnecessary paages. e clean command will remove every single caed item. see Chapter : Learning more. cli the arrow next to its title. however. modify and distribute with an open-source operating system like Ubuntu. contain paage files from all of the paages that you have ever installed. you may install the files necessary for using this format with one command. I can’t play certain audio or video files Many of the formats used to deliver ri media content are proprietary. . photographs. Open the Ubuntu Soware Center by selecting it from Applications. For more information about the differences between open source and proprietary soware. while the autoclean command only removes caed items that can no longer be downloaded (these items are oen unnecessary). Cli Install. your ri media content should work properly. Eventually.

 How can I change my screen resolution? e image on every monitor is composed of millions of lile colored dots called pixels. Open it by oosing System from the Main Menu.     . cli Close. Your display will usually be sharpest when your operating system uses a resolution that mates your display’s native resolution. then oosing Preferences and then Monitors.” whi is a resolution that most closely mates the number of pixels in the monitor. A dialog box will also be displayed. Typically the highest resolution will be the native resolution. e Ubuntu configuration utility Monitors allows users to ange the resolution. but will also tend to make them smaller. Most monitors have a “native resolution. Figure . Selecting a resolution and cliing Apply will temporarily ange the screen resolution to the selected value. e opposite is true when screen resolution is decreased.: You can change your display seings. It allows you to revert to the previous resolution seing or keep the new resolution.is feature was implemented to prevent someone from being loed out of the computer by a resolution that distorts the monitor and makes it unusable. those with larger numbers) will increase the resolution.” Increasing the resolution will make the displayed images sharper. Piing options higher up on the list (for example. . When you have finished seing the screen resolution. restoring the old resolution. e dialog box will disappear in  seconds. e resolution can be anged using the drop down list within the program. Changing the number of pixels displayed on your monitor is called “anging the resolution. You can experiment with various resolutions by cliing Apply at the bottom of the window until you find one that’s comfortable for you.

com/HardwareSupport. . If you are having trouble installing or using Ubuntu on your Apple notebook computer. please see Geing more help for more troubleshooting options or information on obtaining support or assistance from an Ubuntu user. including problems with wireless cards.com/community/EeePC. You can select the appropriate guide aer identifying your computer’s model number.com/community/MacBook.  Figure . You can find the complete hardware troubleshooting guide on Ubuntu’s support wiki. e Ubuntu community offers documentation to help you troubleshoot many issues that may arise from this situation. Luily. Ubuntu is not working properly on my Asus EeePC When installed on netbook computers from Asus—su as the EeePC— Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in components. the Ubuntu community offers documentation on fixing these and other problems. e Ubuntu community offers documentation on enabling these components and fixing other problems.ubuntu. scanners. accessible at https://wiki. please follow the instructions at https://help.: You can revert back to your old seings if you need to.ubuntu. including the iSight camera and the Airport wireless Internet adapter. If you are having trouble installing or using Ubuntu on your Asus EeePC. please follow the instructions at https://help. My hardware is not working properly Ubuntu occasionally has difficulty running on certain computers. For instructions on doing this. mice and printers. Ubuntu is not working properly on my Apple MacBook or MacBook Pro When installed on notebook computers from Apple—su as the MacBook or MacBook Pro—Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computer’s built-in components. If your hardware problems persist. is documentation page contains information pertaining specifically to EeePC netbooks. visit the web page above. ubuntu. generally when hardware manufacturers use non-standard or proprietary components. including the keyboard shortcut keys and the wireless Internet adapter.

com/support . Geing more help is guide does not cover every possible workflow. More information is available here: http://www.ubuntu. buy professional support services. you can find a variety of support opportunities online. You can access extensive and free documentation. query the community for free support or explore tenical solutions.     . If you require assistance beyond the information in the manual. task or issue in Ubuntu.

they needn’t pay to obtain this license. Ubuntu is specifically licensed to promote sharing and collaboration. mu is. The source code of a program is the collection files that have been wrien in a computer language to make the program. Open source soware differs from proprietary soware—soware whose source code is patented and is therefore not freely available for modification or distribution by anyone but the rightsholder. open source soware is updated. In fact. you should be able to use your Ubuntu desktop for all your daily activities—su as browsing the web and editing documents. In this apter. enhanced. While not all open source soware is free of monetary costs. run.org/docs/ definition. While users must adhere to the terms of an open source licensing agreement when installing and using Ubuntu.Microso Windows and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary soware. for instance. we’ll provide you with more detail about versions of Ubuntu that are specialized for certain tasks.opensource. Computer users can modify open source soware to suit their individual needs. Proprietary soware is soware that cannot be copied. and made more secure every day as programmers all over the world continue to improve it. Unlike proprietary soware programs. open source soware also has economic benefits. we’ll first discuss the tenologies that make Ubuntu a powerful collection of soware. the terms of many open source licensing agreements make it illegal not to do so. Because open source soware is developed by large communities of programmers distributed throughout the globe.php. But you may be interested in learning about other versions of Ubuntu you can integrate into your digital lifestyle. or translate it into other languages—provided they release these modifications so others can do the same. or share it for any purpose they wish. Open Source Soware Ubuntu is open source soware. see the Open Source Initiative’s open source definition. Learning more What else can I do with Ubuntu? By now. improve it. To learn more about open source soware. it benefits from rapid development cycles and speedy security releases (in the event that someone discovers bugs in the soware). In other words. But first. share it. Aside from these tenical advantages. available at http://www. modified. . or distributed freely. e legal rules governing Ubuntu’s production and distribution ensure that anyone can obtain.

Next. ‣ Ubuntu Studio. openSUSE. For more information about paage management. . e most significant difference between Debian-based and Red Hat-based distributions is the system ea uses for installing and updating soware. and ‣ Ubuntu Server Edition. ‣ Kubuntu. Four other derivatives of Ubuntu are available. while Red Hat soware paages are  files. or “distributions. whi is designed for use in sools. several distributions are subsequently based on Ubuntu. whi uses the  graphical environment instead of the  environment found in Ubuntu. Four derivative distributions are officially recognized and supported by both Canonical and the Ubuntu community. as are Linux Mint. Linux distributions can be divided into two broad families: the Debian family and the Red Hat family. and Mandriva.”Debian soware paages are  files. Distributions in the Red Hat family include Fedora. whi is designed for use on servers. Some of these are made for general use. Xandros. and CrunBang Linux.” is a operating system made from open source programs. and ea differs with respect to the soware included as part of the distribution. bundled together to make them easier to install and use. we’ll describe these versions of Ubuntu and explain the uses for whi ea has been developed. and organize soware installed on computers with open source operating systems like Ubuntu. Package management systems are the means by which users can install. see Chapter : Soware Management. whi is designed for creating a home theater  with MythTV (an open source digital video recorder). whi is optimized for netbook computers. remove. “Debian” refers to both the name of a distribution as well as the family of distributions derived from Debian. Others are designed for specialized uses. For example. While other versions of Linux. and ‣ Mythbuntu. whi is designed for creating and editing multimedia. A distribution. whi uses the  graphical environment instead of the  environment found in Ubuntu. Distribution families Ubuntu is one of several popular operating systems based on Linux (an open source operating system). ese are: ‣ Ubuntu Netbook Edition.     . they share similar aracteristics because of their common roots. Ubuntu is part of the Debian family of distributions. or “distro. Ea family is named for a distribution on whi subsequent distributions are based. ese include: ‣ Xubuntu. You will also find distributions that have been specialized for certain tasks. ‣ Edubuntu. ese systems are called “paage management systems. and typically is not used as a desktop operating system because it doesn’t have a graphical interface. Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its derivatives Just as Ubuntu is based on Debian.” may look different from Ubuntu at first glance.

or “serve. visit http://ubuntustudio. television shows. refer to the manual at http://www.com/ server.org/home. Ubuntu Netbook Edition sports a unique interface and features a collection of soware applications particularly useful to on-the-go users. low-power notebook computers designed chiefly for accessing the Internet. see http://www. It helps users organize and view various types of multimedia content su as movies. A server is a computer that’s been configured to manage. Ubuntu Studio is derivative of Ubuntu is designed specifically for people who use computers to create and edit multimedia projects. Mythbuntu Mythbuntu allows users to turn their computers into entertainment systems.ubuntu. you may wish to use this specialized server distribution in conjunction with server hardware. If you would like to learn more about Ubuntu Studio (or obtain a copy for yourself). is manual does not explain the process of running a secure web server or performing other tasks possible with Ubuntu Server Edition. and video podcasts.ubuntu. Users with  tuners in their computers can also use Mythbuntu to record live video and television shows. it features applications to help users manipulate images. . Ubuntu Server Edition e Ubuntu Server Edition is an operating system optimized to perform multiuser tasks when installed on servers. While users can install these applications on computers running the desktop version of Ubuntu. For details on using Ubuntu Server Edition. Ubuntu Studio makes them all available immediately upon installation.com/community/Installation/ FromImgFiles. For instance. Ubuntu Netbook Edition Ubuntu Netbook Edition is a version of Ubuntu designed specifically for netbook computers. If you are planning to use a computer to perform tasks like these. Netbooks are low-cost.” files many people wish to access.com/project/derivatives.Su tasks include file sharing and website or email hosting. visit https://help. Ubuntu Netbook Edition allows users to install it on their computers using  flash drives. ubuntu. compose music.It is optimized for computing devices with small screens and limited resources (like the energy-saving processors and smaller hard disks common among netbooks). Because many netbooks do not contain  drives. and edit video.   For more information about these derivative distributions. To learn more about using a flash drive to install Ubuntu Netbook Edition on a netbook computer.

     .mythbuntu. cli the Help icon on the top panel. troubleshooting tenical issues. You can access these at http://help. we’ll discuss a few of these resources—located both inside the operating system and on the Internet—so you can learn more about Ubuntu or other Linux distributions. Ubuntu and its derivatives are available in two versions: -bit and -bit. The Ubuntu Forums e Ubuntu Forums are the official forums of the Ubuntu community. To create .org/. Online Ubuntu help e Ubuntu Documentation team has created and maintains a series of wiki pages designed to help both new and experienced users learn more about Ubuntu. Why oose one over another? Pay aention to the version you select in the following cases: ‣ If your computer is fairly old (made before ). then you may need to install the -bit version in order to use all the installed memory. or asking questions about your computer.com. these computers gain performance enhancements by running -bit soware. ‣ If your computer has more than   of memory (). Millions of Ubuntu users use them daily to seek help and support from one another. is is also the case for most netbooks. Computers capable of running -bit soware are able to process more information than computers running -bit soware. To learn more about Mythbuntu. You can create an Ubuntu Forums account in minutes. however. -bit systems require more memory in order to do this. visit http://www. then you may want to install the -bit version of Ubuntu. Because Geing Started with Ubuntu . Nevertheless. Ubuntu’s built-in help guide covers a broad range of topics in great detail. is difference refers to the way computers process information. Below.ubuntu. or navigate to System ‣ Help and Support. System help If you need additional help when using Ubuntu or its applications. we encourage you to take advantage of Ubuntu’s vast community when seeking further information. Finding additional help and support is guide is not intended to be an all-encompassing resource filled with everything you’ll ever need to know about Ubuntu. -bit or -bit? As mentioned earlier in this manual. could never answer all your questions.

an open source code repository and user community. net/ubuntu/+addquestion. answer questions and promote Ubuntu in their communities by hosting regular events.com/. hundreds of user volunteers can answer your questions or offer you support in real time. Ask a question by visiting Launpad at https://answers. Launchpad Answers Launpad.freenode.launchpad.   an account and learn more about Ubuntu from community members.net. Here. visit http://ubuntuforums. you can use at clients su as XChat or Pidgin to join the annel #ubuntu on irc. Signing up for a Launpad account requires only a few minutes. you will oen find third-party help available on the Internet. some could be misleading or outdated.” Spread throughout the world. It’s always best to verify information from third-party sources before taking their advice. provides a question and answer service that allows anyone to ask questions about any Ubuntu-related topic.com/support/ community. visit http://loco. In addition to official Ubuntu and community help. To locate and contact the LoCo team nearest you. these teams offer support and advice. Live chat If you are familiar with Internet relay at (). . Community support If you’ve exhausted all these resources and still can’t find answers to your questions. visit Community Support at http://www. While these documents can oen be great resources.ubuntu. LoCo teams Within the Ubuntu community are dozens of local user groups called “LoCo teams.ubuntu.org.

.

su as a translation.org/compatiblelicenses that has been approved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this License. or adapted including in any form recognizably derived from the original. A work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined below) for the purposes of this License. or performances.        /   .             . adaptation. arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or artistic work. by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents. su as encyclopedias and anthologies. performance or phonogram. constitute intellectual creations. derivative work. or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations or any other form in whi the Work may be recast. ea constituting separate and independent works in themselves. whi together are assembled into a collective whole. where the Work is a musical work. whi. (b) “Collection” means a collection of literary or artistic works.            . meaning and effect as the License . in whi the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more other contributions. transformed. or upon the Work and other pre-existing works. phonograms or broadcasts. at a minimum. because that license: (i) contains terms that have the same purpose.A License   (  )             (“”  “”).                  .         . For the avoidance of doubt. . the synronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image (“syning”) will be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. including. or other works or subject maer other than works listed in Section (f) below.                  . Definitions (a) “Adaptation” means a work based upon the Work. except that a work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. (c) “Creative Commons Compatible License” means a license that is listed at http://creativecommons.

an illustration. and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors. individuals. painting. and. ShareAlike. pamphlet and other writing. entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified. deliver. address.     . “Work” means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this License including without limitation any production in the literary. engraving or lithography. a broadcast. su as a book. declaim. a cinematographic work to whi are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography. a phonogram. “Original Author” means. (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds. or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation. interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or expressions of folklore. sing. the individual. a work of applied art. a performance. “Publicly Perform” means to perform public recitations of the Work and . a lecture. and. sculpture. (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Elements of this License. musicians. the publisher. a dramatic or dramatico-musical work. through sale or other transfer of ownership. aritecture. “You” means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work. sket or three-dimensional work relative to geography. sermon or other work of the same nature. map. play in. in the case of a literary or artistic work. whatever may be the mode or form of its expression including digital form. singers. a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work. the organization that transmits the broadcast. aritecture or science. or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work. individuals. and other persons who act. a work of drawing. (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of adaptations of works made available under that license under this License or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same License Elements as this License. scientific and artistic domain. a musical composition with or without words. (iii) in the case of broadcasts. as appropriate. “Licensor” means the individual. dancers. a photographic work to whi are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography. a oreographic work or entertainment in dumb show. “License Elements” means the following high-level license aributes as selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Aribution. plan. topography. “Distribute” means to make available to the public the original and copies of the Work or Adaptation. entity or entities that offer(s) the Work under the terms of this License.

” or a modification could indicate “e original work has been modified. Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide. including by public digital performance. the Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect su royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License. (b) to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any su Adaptation. Waivable Compulsory License Semes. (k) “Reproduce” means to make copies of the Work by any means including without limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work. License Grant. Fair Dealing Rights. For example. In those jurisdictions in whi the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing seme can be waived. to perform the Work to the public by any means or process and the communication to the public of the performances of the Work. ii. to make available to the public Works in su a way that members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a place individually osen by them. royalty-free. limit. demarcate or otherwise identify that anges were made to the original Work. . (e) For the avoidance of doubt: i. including by wire or wireless means or public digital performances. (d) to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations. Non-waivable Compulsory License Semes. the Licensor waives the . takes reasonable steps to clearly label. Nothing in this License is intended to reduce. and. including any translation in any medium. a translation could be marked “e original work was translated from English to Spanish. (c) to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections. In those jurisdictions in whi the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing seme cannot be waived. to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections. and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections. to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License. . sounds or images. including storage of a protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic medium. or restrict any uses free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or exceptions that are provided for in connection with the copyright protection under copyright law or other applicable laws. perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below: (a) to Reproduce the Work. by any means or process.  to communicate to the public those public recitations.”. non-exclusive.

upon notice from any Licensor You must. If you license the Adaptation under one of the licenses mentioned in (iv). . You may not sublicense the Work. e license granted in Section  above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions: (a) You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You must include a copy of. and.g. remove from the Collection any credit as required by Section (c). (b) You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the terms of: (i) this License. upon notice from any Licensor You must. whether individually or. or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for. is Section (a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection.. (ii) a later version of this License with the same License Elements as this License. If You create a Collection. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. exclusive right to collect su royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License. all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved. (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible License. iii. in the event that the Licensor is a member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing semes. you must comply with the terms of that license. e above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereaer devised.     . Voluntary License Semes. from any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work. Subject to Section (f). (iii) a Creative Commons jurisdiction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the same License Elements as this License (e. Aribution-ShareAlike . e above rights include the right to make su modifications as are tenically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. US)). to the extent practicable. this License with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. remove from the Adaptation any credit as required by Section (c). as requested. e Licensor waives the right to collect royalties. via that society. If You create an Adaptation. Restrictions. If you license the Adaptation under . to the extent practicable. You may not impose any effective tenological measures on the Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. as requested.

(IV) when You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Adaptation. but this does not require the Collection apart from the Adaptation itself to be made subject to the terms of the Applicable License. by exercising Your rights under this License. that in the case of a Adaptation or Collection. (c) If You Distribute. or the URI for. the URI. you must comply with the terms of the Applicable License generally and the following provisions: (I) You must include a copy of. (III) You must keep intact all notices that refer to the Applicable License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work as included in the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform.g. keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide. You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or . the Applicable License with every copy of ea Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform.  the terms of any of the licenses mentioned in (i). (ii) or (iii) (the “Applicable License”). You must. if any. if a credit for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears. in the case of an Adaptation.” or “Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author”). terms of service or by other reasonable means. or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations or Collections. unless su URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work. You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of aribution in the manner set out above and. You may not impose any effective tenological measures on the Adaptation that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Adaptation from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License. a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Adaptation (e. publishing entity. e credit required by this Section (c) may be implemented in any reasonable manner.g. and (iv) . journal) for aribution (“Aribution Parties”) in Licensor’s copyright notice. consistent with Ssection (b). For the avoidance of doubt. a sponsor institute. is Section (b) applies to the Adaptation as incorporated in a Collection. (ii) the title of the Work if supplied. reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym. however. (II) You may not offer or impose any terms on the Adaptation that restrict the terms of the Applicable License or the ability of the recipient of the Adaptation to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License. the name of su party or parties. then as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. unless a request has been made pursuant to Section (a). if applicable) if supplied. that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work. at a minimum su credit will appear... provided. and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e. (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable. “Fren translation of the Work by Original Author.

. in whi any exercise of the right granted in Section (b) of this License (the right to make Adaptations) would be deemed to be a distortion. . . . mutilation.     .                 .  . . if You Reproduce. and  will survive any termination of this License. Licensor and/or Aribution Parties. . this Section. . Licensor agrees that in those jurisdictions (e. mutilate. . Licensor and/or Aribution Parties. . without the separate.     . Representations. of You or Your use of the Work.g. Warranties and Disclaimer          .            . . Japan). . modification or other derogatory action prejudicial to the Original Author’s honor and reputation.   . .        . (b) Subject to the above terms and conditions. however. Individuals or entities who have received Adaptations or Collections from You under this License.        . imply any connection with. Limitation on Liability. will not have their licenses terminated provided su individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations or Collections.               .        . (d) Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise permied by applicable law.     . as appropriate.          . modify or take other derogatory action in relation to the Work whi would be prejudicial to the Original Author’s honor or reputation. to the fullest extent permied by the applicable national law. Sections . the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). the Licensor will waive or not assert. You must not distort.  . . to enable You to reasonably exercise Your right under Section (b) of this License (right to make Adaptations) but not otherwise. express prior wrien permission of the Original Author. sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author.                . .   . as appropriate. . Termination (a) is License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any brea by You of the terms of this License.       .

ese rights and subject maer take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in whi the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable national law. su additional rights are deemed to be included in the License. su provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make su provision valid and enforceable. and without further action by the parties to this agreement. is License may not be modified without the mutual wrien agreement of the Licensor and You. and the subject maer referenced. (d) No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no brea consented to unless su waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be arged with su waiver or consent. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You.  Notwithstanding the above. in this License were draed utilizing the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as amended on September . If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted under this License. the WIPO Copyright Treaty of . ere are no understandings. agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. . and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above. (f) e rights granted under. (c) If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law. ). . Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License. however that any su election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been. this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable law. it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License. Miscellaneous (a) Ea time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection. the Rome Convention of . the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License. or is required to be. granted under the terms of this License). the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of  and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July . provided. (e) is License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. (b) Ea time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation. ). Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time.

and makes no warranty whatsoever in connection with the Work. Creative Commons Notice Creative Commons is not a party to this License. incidental or consequential damages arising in connection to this license. as may be published on its website or otherwise made available upon request from time to time. Except for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is licensed under the CCPL. including without limitation any general.     . if Creative Commons has expressly identified itself as the Licensor hereunder. Creative Commons does not authorize the use by either party of the trademark “Creative Commons” or any related trademark or logo of Creative Commons without the prior wrien consent of Creative Commons. . Creative Commons will not be liable to You or any party on any legal theory for any damages whatsoever. Creative Commons may be contacted at http://creativecommons. Any permied use will be in compliance with Creative Commons’ then-current trademark usage guidelines. For the avoidance of doubt.org/. this trademark restriction does not form part of the License. special. Notwithstanding the foregoing two () sentences. it shall have all rights and obligations of Licensor.

Ubuntu is an example of a distribution. provides support for the core Ubuntu system. cursor e blinking cursor that appears aer the prompt in the terminal is used to show you where text will appear when you start typing. . go to http://www. ere are many desktop environments su as . they are just a string of random numbers and leers until they are decrypted using a password. To learn more about Canonical.Glossary applet An applet is a small program that runs in a panel.com. and can refer to more than two operating systems. Encrypted files on Ubuntu are not recognizable in any language. Ethernet port An Ethernet port is what an Ethernet cable is plugged into when you are using a wired connection. You can move it around with arrow keys on your keyboard.  and  just to name a few. as well as eing all the work submied by volunteer contributors. Canonical Canonical. Applets provide useful functions su as starting a program.canonical.  e  (whi stands for Graphical User Interface) is a type of user . It has over  paid staff members worldwide who ensure that the foundation of the operating system is stable. distribution A distribution is a collection of soware that is already compiled and configured ready to be installed. dual-booting dual-booting is the process of being able to oose one of two different operating systems currently installed on a computer from the boot menu. the financial baer of Ubuntu. once selected your computer will then boot into whiever operating system you ose at the boot menu. decrypted When you decrypt an encrypted file it becomes decrypted.   stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. it is used by a  server to assign computers on a network an  address automatically. viewing the time.   (whi once stood for  Network Object Model Environment) is the default desktop environment used in Ubuntu. Dual booting is a generic term. or accessing the main menu. and viewable. desktop environment A generic term to describe a  interface for humans to interact with computers. dialup connection A dialup connection is when your computer uses a modem to connect to an  through your telephone line.

     . and providing security for the core components. this can make a lot of commands far more useful. processes.g. viewing the time. It also allows you to publish status messages to all of your accounts by entering updates into a text field.deb extension in Ubuntu. an  is a company that provides you with your Internet connection. notification area e notification area is an applet on the panel that provides you with all sorts of information su as volume control. . minimize When you minimize an open application. it can be customized to display in different colors as well as being able to display the time. allows you to manage your presence on social networking services. MeMenu e MeMenu in Ubuntu . panel A panel is a bar that sits on the edge of your screen. it will then be restored to its normal state and allow you to interact with it. kernel A kernel is the central portion of a Unix-based operating system. responsible for running applications. partitioning partitioning is the process of creating a partition. if you type pwd into a terminal and press Enter. the window will no longer be shown. parameter Parameters are special options that you can use with other commands in the terminal to make that command behave differently. maximize When you maximize an application in Ubuntu it will fill the whole desktop.. It contains applets whi provide useful functions su as running programs. If you cli on a minimized application’s panel buon. your Internet connection status and email status. output e output of a command is any text it displays on the next line aer typing a command and pressing enter.   stands for Internet Service Provider. date and current directory as well as almost anything else you like. paage Paages contain soware in a ready-to-install format. or accessing the main menu. excluding the panels. prompt e prompt displays some useful information about your computer. Paages have a . Most of the time you can use the Soware Center instead of manually installing paages. e. the current song playing in Rhythmbox. interface that allows humans to interact with the computer using graphics and images rather than just text. partition A partition is an area of allocated space on a hard drive where you can put data. the directory name it displays on the next line is the output.

terminal e terminal is Ubuntu’s text only interface. Soware Center e Soware Center is where you can easily manage soware installation and removal as well as the ability to manage soware installed via Personal Paage Arives. access point or computer. wired connection A wired connection is when your computer is physically connected to a router or Ethernet port with a cable. when you type a command into the terminal and press enter the shell takes that command and performs the relevant action.  proprietary Soware made by companies that don’t release their source code under an open source license. this is the most common connection for desktop computers. wireless connection A wireless connection involves no cables of any sort and instead uses a wireless signal to communicate with either a router. It is also sometimes called a gateway. it is a method of controlling some aspects of the operating system using only commands entered via the keyboard. shell e terminal gives access to the shell. router A router is a specially designed computer that using its soware and hardware. . routes information from the Internet to a network. server A server is a computer that runs a specialized operating system and provides services to computers that connect to it and make a request.

.

Credits is manual wouldn’t have been possible without the efforts and contributions from the following people: Team Leads Benjamin Humphrey—Team Lead Kevin Godby—Lead TEXnician Jamin Day—Head of Editing Ilya Haykinson—Authors coordinator Josh Holland—Translation maintenance orsten Wilms—Design Adnane Belmadiaf—Web development Luke Jennings—ishot developer Neil Tallim—ishot developer Simon Vermeersh—ishot developer Authors Joe Burgess omas Cantara Sayantan Das Kelvin Gardiner Ma Griffin Ilya Haykinson Wolter Hellmund Josh Holland Benjamin Humphrey Luke Jennings Elan Kugelmass Ryan Macnish Editors Bryan Behrenshausen Jamin Day Kevin Godby Benjamin Humphrey Jason Cook Chris Woollard Alexander Lancey Designers K. Vishnoo Charan Reddy Wolter Hellmund Benjamin Humphrey David Nel orsten Wilms Developers Adnane Belmadiaf Kevin Godby Luke Jennings Neil Tallim Simon Vermeersh .

     . Translators Vytautas Bačiulis Dmitry Belonogov Francisco Dieguez André Gondim Jiri Grönroos Mohamad Imran Ishak Martin Kaba e KaniLUG Tamil translating team Kentaro Kazuhama James Kelly George Kontis Shushi Kurose Martin Lukeš Kostas Milonas Anwar Mohammed Abhijit Navale Emmanuel Ninos Robert Readman Roth Robert Daniel Sury Paulius Sladkevicius Pierre Slami Fredrik Sudmann Muhd Syazwan Ralph Ulri Chris Woollard John Xygonakis Konstantinos Zigourakis …and many others Special Thanks Chris_Ilias Bo underpass jehurd cl kjhass djstsys mozilla_help_view_project Joey-Elijah Alexithymia Jono Bacon Manualbot Chris Johnson Elan Kugelmass Elizabeth Krumba Josh Leveree Walter Méndez Martin Owens Tim Penhey Andy Piper Alan Pope Mahew Paul omas e Ubuntu Documentation Team e Ubuntu Community Learning Project .

 Unix.  Simple Scan.  Finder.  pwd.  apt.  Doy. .  Ubuntu One. . .  Shuleworth. . . . .  XChat.Index About GNOME. –.  . .  gedit. .  Network Connections.  Ubuntu definition of.  downloading.  mv.  ecryptfs-setup-private.  gBrainy. . – history of.  Cairo-Do. . .  AisleRiot Solitaire. .  Skype. Help and Support.  Totem.  Avant Window Navigator.  Firefox.  Ubuntu Soware Center. . .  philosophy of.  Cheese.  Pidgin. . .  Soware Center. . .  kernel.  Kino. .  NetworkManager.  Calculator.  cp.  apt-get. .  Sound Recorder. . . – Soware Sources.  Synaptic Paage Manager.  Brasero. .  Movie Player. .  rm.  Sear for Files. password.  OpenOffice.   Empathy. . .  Ubuntu Help Center.  Windows Explorer.  adrapassel. . .  Rhythmbox.  Ubuntu Forums.  Appearance Preferences.  VLC. .   Gufw. .  cd. .  root. . . Mark.  Wine.  Lifesaver.  mkdir.  / Creator.org Drawing.  Canonical.  About Ubuntu. –.  Pitivi.  grub-install. .  Mines. . .  Ubuntu promise.  Take Screenshot.  gksudo.  F-Spot.  Tomboy Notes.  Debian. –.  Linux.  rmdir. . – System.  Nautilus. .  Evolution. .  Dell.  sudo.  Mahjongg.  Orca. –. .  Sudoku. . – ls.  system requirements. . .

available at http://ubuntu-manual. e text face is Linux Libertine. Poll. also designed by Philipp H.sf. e title page and cover were designed using Inkscape. designed by Philipp H. as Bitstream Vera. e screenshots were captured using ishot.google. Poll and available at the same  above. A e book design is based on the Tue-LTEX document classes available at http://code. originally developed by Bitstream. available at http://inkscape.net/humanity.org/. It is an open font available at http://linuxlibertine. available at https://launchpad.org/quickshot. e cover and title page pictograms contain shapes taken from the Humanity icon set. e captions and margin notes are set in Linux Biolinum.net/. .com/p/tufte-latex/. e terminal text and keystrokes are set in Bera Mono. Inc. A is book was typeset with XƎLTEX.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful