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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS
CFDT PROJECT
Steady Flow of an Incompressible Fluid in a
Lid Driven Cavity
Jason Ryan Picardo CH11D026
4/5/2012
Course: Computational Fluid Dynamics Tech
Course No: CH 6020
2
Table of Contents
Declaration
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4
2 The SIMPLE Method ......................................................................................................... 5
3 Discretization of the Governing Equations ........................................................................ 6
3.1 Momentum Equations ................................................................................................. 7
3.2 Pressure Correction Equation ...................................................................................... 9
3.3 Boundary Conditions................................................................................................. 11
3.4 UnderRelaxation of Pressure and Velocity Fields ................................................... 12
4 Results and Discussion ..................................................................................................... 13
5 Comparison of Results with Published Work................................................................... 16
6 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 17
Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 18
References ........................................................................................................................ 24
3
Declaration
The work presented in this report is the original work done by Jason Ryan Picardo, Roll
No. CH11D026 of the Chemical Engineering Department, IIT Madras towards partial
requirement for the completion of the course CH6020 Computational Fluid Dynamics Tech
in the JanMay semester of 2012.
Jason Ryan Picardo
4
1 Introduction
In this report a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution to the 'Lid Driven Cavity'
problem is presented. The steady flow of an incompressible fluid is considered. The SIMPLE
method (SemiImplicit Method for PressureLinked Equations), originally devised by
Patankar and Spalding,
1
to deal with incompressible steady flows, is adopted.
The 'Lid Driven Cavity' problem is a standard problem that is often used to test new CFD
codes and solution methods. The problem domain has a simple geometry with easily
implementable boundary conditions. These characteristics have made it a popular benchmark
problem. A standard twodimensional case consists of a rectangular cavity with its top lid
moving at a constant velocity (V
w
). A schematic of the problem is depicted in Figure 1. The
cavity is assumed to be infinite in the zdirection. The motion of the top lid creates a 2D
circulatory flow pattern inside the cavity. While the flow remains steady and laminar at
moderate Reynolds numbers (Re), it does exhibit vortices, which grow with Re, at the lower
sharp corners.
Figure 1. Schematic of the Lid Driven Cavity problem. V
w
is the constant velocity at which
the wall moves. The cavity has a height H in the y direction and a width W in the xdirection.
The special case of H = W corresponds to a square cavity.
The SIMPLE method is briefly described in Section 2. The discretized equations and the
pressure correction equation is presented in Section 3. Results for various Re are presented
and discussed in Section 4. In order to validate the present calculations, some results are
compared with the work of Ghia and coworkers
2
in Section 0. Several obstacles were faced
during the development of the code and the implementation of the SIMPLE method. This
lead to new learning and insights which are discussed in the Conclusions.
5
2 The SIMPLE Method
The SIMPLE method, first formulated by Patankar and Spalding,
1
has proved to be an
effective method for the solution of CFD problems involving incompressible fluids,
especially when the steady solution is of interest. The method is described in detail in a text
by Patankar.
3
It is essentially a pressure correction type method. For any given 'guessed'
pressure field, the velocity fields are readily computed using the NavierStokes (NS)
Momentum Equations (density is a constant for incompressible fluids). However, the
computed velocity fields will not, in general, satisfy continuity unless the guessed pressure
field is 'correct'. In a pressure correction method, a pressure correction equation is developed
which applies a correction to the initial guessed pressure such that the corresponding velocity
fields satisfy the Continuity Equation. In the SIMPLE method, the pressure correction
equation is only approximate, as shall be seen in Section 3.2. Moreover, the NS Momentum
equations are nonlinear and highly coupled. Thus an iterative method is necessary to arrive at
the final solution. A flow chart of the major steps in the SIMPLE method is presented in
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Flow Chart of the SIMPLE Method
Before the SIMPLE method can be implemented, the NS Momentum Equations must be
suitably discretized. The exact form of the pressure correction equation will depend on the
manner in which the Momentum equations are discretized. Suitable boundary conditions
must also be specified with a means to implement them in the CFD code. This is dealt with in
the next section.
6
3 Discretization of the Governing Equations
In this work a staggered grid is used, following Patankar.
3
This prevents the occurrence of
checkerboard oscillations. The pressure is calculated at the (i , j) nodes while the x and y
velocity components are calculated at (i+1/2 , j) and (i, j+1/2) respectively. Thus the grid for
the x velocity is staggered to the right (in the positive x direction) and the grid for the y
velocity is staggered to the top ( in the positive y direction) with respect to the pressure grid.
A typical staggered grid is depicted in Figure 3.
Figure 3. A typical staggered grid. The pressure is calculated at the (i , j) nodes while the x
and y velocity components are calculated at (i+1/2 , j) and (i, j+1/2) respectively.
The nondimensional continuity equation for an incompressible fluid and the NS
Momentum Equations in conservative form are presented below.
( ) ( )
0 =
c
c

.

\

+
c
c
y
v
H
W
x
u
(1)
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
c

.

\

+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c

.

\

+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
1
y
u
H
W
x
u
Re x
P
y
vu
H
W
x
uu
t
u
(2)
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
c

.

\

+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c

.

\

+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
1
y
v
H
W
x
v
Re y
P
y
vv
H
W
x
uv
t
v
(3)
7
Here, the following characteristic scales are used to nondimensionalize the equations.
µ
µ
µ
W u
Re u P
u
W
t H y W x V v u
c
c c
c
c c c w c c
= =
= = = = =
2
(4)
The SIMPLE method elucidated by Patankar
3
is based on a Finite Volume Method (FVM)
discretization of the equations. Here we adopt a Finite Difference (FDM) discretization
scheme involving a fully implicit forward difference in time and central differences in space
for both the convective and diffusive terms. A similar scheme is presented in the discussion
of the SIMPLE method by Anderson.
4
The use of the conservative form of the NS equations
leads to a final set of discretized equations which are similar to those obtained using the
FVM.
4
In this problem we are interested in obtaining the steady flow solution. In spite of this we
use the unsteady NS Momentum Equations. It is much easier to converge to the solution
from an arbitrary initial guess of the pressure and velocity fields if the unsteady equations are
used. It must be noted that the SIMPLE method does not result in time accurate solutions.
Here, the discrete time steps should be interpreted as sequential iteration steps which
ultimately converge to the steady flow solution. The time step value (At) is simply a
parameter which affects the speed of convergence and the stability of the iterations. High
values can cause the iterations to become unstable. Anderson uses a fully explicit time
differencing scheme which makes the calculations of the velocity fields simple. However,
this makes the method susceptible to instability at relatively large values of the time step. In
this work, a fully implicit scheme is adopted. While this requires the simultaneous solution of
the equations at all grid points, it provides greater stability to the method.
3.1 Momentum Equations
Based on the previous discussion, a finite difference (FDM) based discretization of the X
Momentum equation yields
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
+ ÷

.

\

+
A
+ ÷
+
A
÷
÷ =
A
÷

.

\

+
A
÷
+
A
÷
+
÷ ÷
+
+
+
+ +
+
÷
+
+
+
+
 
+ ÷ +
+

+ +
+

÷
+ 
+
+  
+
+
+
2
1
1 2 1
1
2 1
1
1 2 1
2
2
1
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 3
1 1 2 1
1
1 2 1
1
2 1
1
2 3
1
2 1
1
2 1
2 2
1
2
2
y
u u u
H
W
x
u u u
Re
x
P P
y
u vs u vn
H
W
x
u u u u
t
u u
n
j , i
n
j , i
n
j , i
n
j , i
n
j , i
n
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i j , i
n
n ,
j , i
n
n ,
j , i
n n ,
j , i
n n , n ,
j , i
n
j , i
(5)
8
After collecting terms Eq. (5) results in a linear equation for the velocity at (i+1/2 , j) in
terms of the neighbouring nodes.
( )
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 1
2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1
2 1 1
2
2
1
1 2 1
2
2
1
1 2 1 2
2 1 1
2 1
2
2 3 1
2 3 2
2
2
1
2 1
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
n
j , i
n ,
n
j , i
n ,
j , i n
j , i
n ,
j , i n
j , i
n
j , i
v v
vs
v v
vn
with
t
u
x
P P
H
W
y Re H
W
y
vs
u
H
W
y Re H
W
y
vn
u
x Re x
u
u
x Re x
u
u
y Re H
W
x Re t
u

÷

÷ +


+

+ +


+
 
+

+
÷ +

+
+ +

÷ +
÷

+ +
+
+
+
+
=
+
=
A
+
A
÷
÷
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

A
+

.

\

A
+
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

A
+

.

\

A
÷ +
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
+
A
+
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
+
A
÷ =
(
(
¸
(
¸
A

.

\

+
A
+
A
(6)
Similarly, the Y Momentum equation may be discretized to give the following equation
for the node (i, j+1/2)
( )
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 1
2 1 1 2 1
2 1 1 2 1
2 1 1
2
1
2 1 1
2
1
2 1 1
2
2
2 1 1
2 1
2
2
2 3 1
2 3 2
2
2
1
2 1
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
j , i
n ,
n
j , i
n ,
n
j , i
n ,
j , i n
j , i
n ,
j , i n
j , i
n
j , i
u u
ub
u u
uf
with
t
v
y
P P
x Re x
ub
v
x Re x
uf
v
H
W
y Re H
W
y
v
v
H
W
y Re H
W
y
v
v
y Re H
W
x Re t
v

÷

+ ÷


+

+ +


+
 
+

+
+ ÷

+
+ +

÷ +
÷

+ +
+
+
+
+
=
+
=
A
+
A
÷
÷
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
+
A
+
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
+
A
÷ +
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

A
+

.

\

A
+
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

A
+

.

\

A
÷ =
(
(
¸
(
¸
A

.

\

+
A
+
A
(7)
Clearly these equations must be solved simultaneously for all nodes. This may be done
using a GaussSiedel iterative solution method with underrelaxation. In the calculations an
underrelaxation factor of 0.7 is used. Thus given an initial pressure and velocity field
(denoted by superscripted asterisk) new velocity fields may be calculated which satisfy the
NS momentum equations. This takes care of the first step in the iterative loop in Figure 2.
9
However, the computed velocity field will not, in general, satisfy the continuity equation
since the pressure field was an initial guess value. The pressure correction equation is
necessary to rectify this by incorporating suitable corrections to the pressure and velocity
fields.
3.2 Pressure Correction Equation
In this section the discretized pressure correction equation is developed which enforces
conservation of mass on the calculated velocity fields. The Equation of Continuity (Mass
Conservation Equation) for an incompressible fluid is given in Eq. (1). The discretized
equation for the node (i , j) is presented below. Central differences are used for both
derivatives.
0
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
=
A
÷

.

\

+
A
÷
÷ + ÷ +
y
v
~
v
~
H
W
x
u
~
u
~
j , i j , i j , i j , i
(8)
u
~
and v
~
are velocity fields which satisfy continuity. The velocity fields computed from the
momentum equations, in the previous step, will not satisfy the continuity equation. A velocity
correction ( u' and v' ) is defined such that the corrected velocity field satisfies the continuity
Eq. (8).
v v v
~
u u u
~
' + = ' + =
(9)
The velocity correction ( u' and v' ) may be calculated from a corresponding correction to
the pressure field ( P' ).
P P P
~
' + =
(10)
If these two corrections are made to satisfy the NS Momentum Equations (Eqs. (6(7) then
the continuity satisfying velocity field ( u
~
and v
~
) and the corrected pressure field ( P
~
) will
satisfy the governing equations of fluid motion for incompressible flow. This would then be
the solution to the problem. However, to simplify calculations, only the direct effect of the
pressure correction on the velocity at any node is accounted for i.e. the terms involving
velocities at neighbouring nodes are dropped.
10
( )
( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
A

.

\

+
A
+
A
=
A
' ÷ '
÷ = '
A
' ÷ '
÷ = '
+
+
+
+
2
2
2
1
2 1
1
2 1
2 2 1
y Re H
W
x Re t
A
with
y A
P P
v
x A
P P
u
j , i j , i
j , i
j , i j , i
j , i
(11)
This simplification will lead to a velocity and pressure field which satisfy mass
conservation but not the NS momentum equations. This is step two in the SIMPLE
procedure (Figure 2). These fields are then taken as the new initial guesses and the process is
repeated. Finally, the iterations will converge to a solution that satisfies the governing
equations. The simplification in the pressure correction equation does not affect the final
steady flow solution.
The velocity correction is substituted into Eq. (8) along with the velocity field calculated in
Step 1 of Figure 2 from Eqs. (6)) and ((7) to yield a discretized equation for the pressure
correction.
(
(
¸
(
¸
A

.

\

+
A
+
A
=
A
÷

.

\

+
A
÷
=
+


.

\


.

\

A
' +


.

\


.

\

A
'

.

\

A
' +

.

\

A
' =
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

A
+
A
'
÷ + ÷ +
÷ +
÷ +
2
2
2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1 2 1
2
2 2
2 2 1
1 1
1 1 2 2
y Re H
W
x Re t
A
y
v v
H
W
x
u u
) j , i ( q
with
) j , i ( q
H
W
y A
P
H
W
y A
P
x A
P
x A
P
H
W
y A x A
P
j , i j , i j , i j , i
j , i j , i
j , i j , i j , i
(12)
This is a pressure correction formula which has the form of a Poisson equation for the
corrected pressure. q(i , j) is a source term which is in fact the residuals from the continuity
equation of the incorrect velocity field at every node. When q(i , j) is identically zero, it
implies that the field computed at Step 1 of Figure 2 satisfies continuity and is in fact the
solution. This is reflected by the fact that the pressure corrections calculated from Eq. (12)
will be zero. Hence the values of q(i , j) serve as a useful criteria to check for convergence.
In this work the root mean square value ( o ) of q(i , j) across all nodes is used as the
convergence criterion (Eq. (13)).
11
 
y
v v
H
W
x
u u
) j , i ( q
with
) j , i ( q
j , i j , i j , i j , i
j , i
A
÷

.

\

+
A
÷
=
=
÷ + ÷ +
¿
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2
o
(13)
As discussed in Section 3, the solution at various 'time steps' does not correspond to any
physically relevant transient solution due to the approximation in the pressure correction
equation. They should be interpreted solely as iteration steps which converge to the steady
solution.
4
Nevertheless, if the velocity correction is not relaxed, then the SIMPLE procedure
converges to the final solution via a series of intermediate velocity fields which satisfy
continuity. As Patankar
3
points out, this is advantageous in terms of numerical stability and
for the calculation of scalar transport variables (heat, concentration etc.) as they can be
calculated based on velocity fields which satisfy mass conservation.
3.3 Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions must be specified for the momentum equations (Eqs. (6) and (7)) and
the pressure correction equation (Eq. (12)). The velocity components are zero everywhere
along the stationary walls from the noslip condition and the kinematic condition. Along the
top moving wall the yvelocity is zero while the xvelocity is taken to be that of the wall (1 in
dimensionless variable form see Eq.(4) and Figure 1).
A homogeneous Neumann condition is applied for the derivative of the pressure correction
field. This is justifiable since the normal components of velocity are zero at all the walls
according to the kinematic condition.
3,
4
1 0 0
1 0 0
, y at
y
P
, x at
x
P
= =
c
' c
= =
c
' c
(14)
12
3.4 UnderRelaxation of Pressure and Velocity Fields
The iterations may become divergent for many problems. To ensure convergence an under
relaxation factor may be used while updating the pressure and velocity fields.
v v v
u u u
P P P
v
n n ,
u
n n ,
P
n , n ,
' + =
' + =
' + =
+ + 
+ + 
 + 
o
o
o
1 1
1 1
1
(15)
The value must be between zero and one for underrelaxation. A value of zero corresponds
to no correction. Patankar recommends values of o
P
= 0.8 and o
u
= o
v
= 0.5. Anderson uses a
more conservative estimate of o
P
= 0.1 for solution of the Couette flow problem. In this
work, a value of o
P
= 0.1 , 0.05 is used depending on Re and the number of grid points.
Smaller values of relaxation are required at higher Re and a larger number of grid points. o
u
and o
v
are both set to one. Thus the intermediate velocity field at various iterations satisfies
mass conservation.
The At value also acts as an additional relaxation factor and can be adjusted to affect
convergence rate and stability. For the Couette problem Anderson uses a small value of At =
0.001 since an explicit time differencing scheme is adopted in that work. Here, a larger value
of At = 0.01 is used as a fully implicit scheme of time discretization has been adopted
(Section 3.1).
13
4 Results and Discussion
A code is developed in MATLAB based on the previously outlined solution method. A
sample code for a particular case of Re = 100 and a 80 X 80 grid is given in the Appendix.
Two simulations were carried out for the case of a square cavity. The first at a Re = 100 and
the second at Re = 400. An 80 x 80 grid was used for the first case and a 81 X 81 grid was
used for the second. These computations took about 16 and 24 hrs respectively. The
convergence history of the computations are presented in Figure 4. Here, o is the
convergence criterion defined in Eq. (13).
Figure 4. Convergence history for the calculations for the cases of (a) Re = 100 on 80 X 80
grid and (b) Re = 400 on 81 X 81 grid.
Streamline plots of the velocity field for both cases are presented in Figure 5. The
circulatory flow pattern is clearly visible. The vortices formed at the lower edges of the cavity
due to boundary layer separation grow as the Reynolds number is increased. This is due to
the dominance of inertial forces over the viscous forces. In both cases, the top lid has a
positive scaled velocity of 1 (in the positive x direction).
In Figure 6, contours of the x and y velocity components are displayed for the case of Re =
400 on 81 X 81 grid. The velocity components switch direction across the cavity, as is
consistent with a circulatory flow. Contours of pressure are displayed for the same case in
Figure 7. The stagnation point is clearly visible at the top right corner of the cavity where the
pressure is highest. The vortex regions at the two lower corners of the cavity are at a
relatively higher pressure. This is characteristic of boundary layer separation situations.
14
Figure 5. Streamline plots for (a) Re = 100 on 81 X 81 grid and (b) Re = 400 on 81 X 81
grid.
Figure 6. Contours of the x and y components of velocity for the case of Re = 400 on 81 X
81 grid.
Figure 7. Contours of the pressure for the case of Re = 400 on 81 X 81 grid.
15
First, an interesting variant of the present problem is briefly considered. That is the case
when both the top and bottom plates are moved at constant velocities, in the same direction.
The resultant flow field will have some relation to the flow field inside slugs/drops moving
within a second, immiscible, continuous fluid. Both fluids flow in a channel of diameter
comparable to the slug/drop diameter. Such a scenario arises in two phase flow in
microchannels and has several technological applications. In particular, mass transfer in
liquidliquid extraction in micro channels is enhanced due to the circulatory flow inside the
slugs/drops.
5
Figure 8 displays the streamlines for a first computation at Re = 5 and a grid of
40 X 40. This low Re is typical for the case of a microchannel flow.
Figure 8. Streamlines for the two moving wall problem reminiscent of circulation in
drops/slugs. Re = 5 with a grid of 40 X 40.
The flow field is symmetric as expected, with two counter rotating central vortices. No
secondary vortices are formed since Re is very small. The velocity contours are presented in
Figure 9 below. Here, both the plates are moved in the negative x direction uniformly.
Figure 9. Contours of the x and y components of velocity for the the two moving wall
problem. Re = 5 with a grid of 40 X 40.
16
5 Comparison of Results with Published Work
In this section, the calculations done using the SIMPLE scheme are compared with the
results of Ghia and coworkers.
2
The authors use a vorticitystream function formulation of
the 2D NS Momentum Equations with a coupled strongly implicit multigrid method. Tabular
results of velocity are presented which allows for convenient comparison. Figure 10 displays
the comparison of results for Re = 100 and Re = 400. Ghia and coworkers
2
use a
comparatively fine mesh of 129 X 129 grids. The results of the present work compare well
for the case of Re = 100 , considering the coarse 81 X 81 grid used. However, at the higher
Re = 400 a discrepancy is observed in the results. Clearly, a finer mesh must be used. This
will require a longer computation time.
Figure 10. Comparison of results of the present work with the results of Ghia and co
workers.
2
Comparisons are depicted for Re = 100 on 80 X 80 grid and Re = 400 on 81 X 81
grid with the corresponding results of Ghia et. al. on a 129 X 129 grid.
17
6 Conclusions
The SIMPLE method is successfully applied to solve the 'Lid Driven Cavity' problem. A
finite difference scheme with a fully implicit time discretization is used. The method is
implemented as a code in MATLAB. The calculations were found to converge
monotonically. The results calculated for Re = 100, 400 on relatively coarse grids are
compared with the published work of Ghia and coworkers
2
. The comparison reveals a
satisfactory agreement for lower Reynolds numbers (Re = 100). While a finer mesh must be
used for better results, particularly at high Re, the SIMPLE approach is found to be adequate
to solve this steady, incompressible fluid flow problem.
An important point is the use of the unsteady NS Momentum Equations as opposed to the
steady state equations. In prior attempts at developing a SIMPLE based CFD solution, the
steady state equations were also used without much success by the author. It is found that the
SIMPLE method with the steady NS Momentum equations does not converge for problems
with Re > 50 and/or with a grid larger than 20 X 20. Even when the iterations converge, a
very small relaxation factor of o
P
= 0.001. This is to be contrasted with the value of 0.1/0.05
which is successfully used in the calculations with the unsteady equations. It seems that the
SIMPLE method based on the unsteady equations is much more suited to the calculation of
the final steady flow field via a series of iterations beginning with an arbitrary initial guess.
The values of the variables at successive iterations do not correspond to a transient solution
since the SIMPLE pressure correction equation is only approximate. Hence the time step, At
is a factor similar to a relaxation factor which controls the rate of convergence and the
stability of the iterations. It must be noted that large values of At result in a set of discretized
equations which tend to the steady state discretized equations. Thus, based on the previous
discussion, small values of At should be used to ensure convergence.
An interesting variant of the problem occurs when both the top and bottom plates are
moved at constant velocities, in the same direction. The resultant flow field is reminiscent of
the flow field inside slugs/drops moving within a second, immiscible, continuous fluid. This
flow field arises in microchannel flows and has much technological relevance.
Since the computation time is quite large, this report presents only the first results of the
application of the SIMPLE method to the Lid Driven Cavity problem. However, there are
several aspects which entail further calculations. Firstly, simulations should be run for higher
grid sizes in an attempt to establish grid independency. These results should then be
compared with published work.
18
7 Appendix
A sample MATLAB code for a particular case of Re = 100 and a 80 X 80 grid.
% This code solves the moving lid problem. The steady state solution is
% computed for the case of incompressible viscous flow via the SIMPLE
% algorithm of Patankar and Spalding.
% Author Details
% Jason Ryan Picardo CH11D026
% Chemical Engg Dept IIT Madras
%TIME IMPLICIT
clear all
%Problem Parameters
Uw=1; %velocity of moving lid (m/s)
W=1; %Width of cavity (m)
H=1; %Height of cavity (m)
Re=100; %Reynolds No
%Convergence array
convergence=zeros(1,2000);
k=0;
%Grid Properties
np=80;
nu=np1;
nv=np1;
% x is alligned along the width (index i) origin at bottom left
dx=1/(np1);
% y is alligned along the height (index i) origin at bottom left
dy=1/(np1);
%artificial time
dt=0.01;
%Initialization
Pstr=zeros(np,np);
Ustr=zeros(np,nu);
Vstr=zeros(nv,np);
%A(j,i)
Ustr(np,:)=Uw;
qsum=1;
%

%SIMPLE LOOP
while sqrt(qsum)>10^3
k=k+1;
U=zeros(np,nu);
U(np,:)=Uw;
V=zeros(nv,np);
relax=0.7;
%Calculation of U field from Pstr and Ustr and Vstr
U(np,:)=Uw; % top boundary moving, all other boundaries are at 0
residual1=1;
residual2=1;
19
while residual1>10^(8)
if(residual1>residual2&&residual1>100)
display('U cal failed')
display(residual1)
break;
end
residual2=residual1;
for i=2:nu1
for j=2:np1
Vnstr=(Vstr(j,i+1)+Vstr(j,i))/2;
Vsstr=(Vstr(j1,i+1)+Vstr(j1,i))/2;
U(j,i)=(1
relax)*U(j,i)+relax*((1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2))*(Ustr(j,i
)/dt+U(j,i+1)*(Ustr(j,i+1)/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+...
U(j,i1)*(Ustr(j,i1)/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+U(j+1,i)*(
Vnstr/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)+U(j
1,i)*(Vsstr/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)...
1/(dx)*(Pstr(j,i+1)Pstr(j,i))));
end
end
delF=ones(1,(nu2)*(np2));
c=1;
for i=2:nu1
for j=2:np1
Vnstr=(Vstr(j,i+1)+Vstr(j,i))/2;
Vsstr=(Vstr(j1,i+1)+Vstr(j1,i))/2;
delF(c)= U(j,i)
(1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2))*(Ustr(j,i)/dt+U(j,i+1)*(
Ustr(j,i+1)/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+...
U(j,i1)*(Ustr(j,i1)/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+U(j+1,i)*(
Vnstr/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)+U(j
1,i)*(Vsstr/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)...
1/(dx)*(Pstr(j,i+1)Pstr(j,i)));
c=c+1;
end
end
sum=0;
for c=1:length(delF)
sum=sum+delF(c)^2;
end
residual1=sqrt(sum/length(delF));
end
%display('U calculation')
%display(residual);
%Calculation of V field from Pstr and Ustr and Vstr
residual1=1;
residual2=1;
relax=0.7;
while residual1>10^(8)
if(residual1>residual2&&residual1>100)
20
display('V cal failed')
display(residual1)
break;
end
residual2=residual1;
for i=2:np1
for j=2:nv1
Ufstr=(Ustr(j+1,i)+Ustr(j,i))/2;
Ubstr=(Ustr(j+1,i1)+Ustr(j,i1))/2;
V(j,i)=(1
relax)*V(j,i)+relax*((1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2))*(Vstr(j,i
)/dt+V(j,i+1)*(Ufstr/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+...
V(j,i1)*(Ubstr/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+V(j+1,i)*(
Vstr(j+1,i)/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)+V(j1,i)*(Vstr(j
1,i)/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)...
1/((dy*H/W))*(Pstr(j+1,i)Pstr(j,i))));
end
end
delF=ones(1,(nv2)*(np2));
c=1;
for i=2:np1
for j=2:nv1
Ufstr=(Ustr(j+1,i)+Ustr(j,i))/2;
Ubstr=(Ustr(j+1,i1)+Ustr(j,i1))/2;
delF(c)= V(j,i)
(1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2))*(Vstr(j,i)/dt+V(j,i+1)*(
Ufstr/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+...
V(j,i1)*(Ubstr/(2*dx)+(1/Re)/dx^2)+V(j+1,i)*(
Vstr(j+1,i)/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)+V(j1,i)*(Vstr(j
1,i)/(2*(dy*H/W))+(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2)...
1/((dy*H/W))*(Pstr(j+1,i)Pstr(j,i)));
c=c+1;
end
end
sum=0;
for c=1:length(delF)
sum=sum+delF(c)^2;
end
residual1=sqrt(sum/length(delF));
end
%display('V calculation')
%display(residual)
%Updating velocity fields
Ustr=U;
Vstr=V;
%calculation of error in continuity from Ustr and Vstr
Q=zeros(np,np);
qsum=0;
for i=2:np1
for j=2:np1
Q(j,i)=(Ustr(j,i)Ustr(j,i1))/dx+(Vstr(j,i)Vstr(j1,i))/(dy*H/W);
qsum=qsum+Q(j,i)^2;
21
end
end
display(k)
sqrt(qsum)
convergence(k)=sqrt(qsum);
if(k>2&&convergence(k)>1.5*convergence(k1))
display('Iterations are diverging')
break;
end
if(sqrt(qsum)<10^3)
display('convergence achieved to 10^3 in continuity')
break
end
save('Re_V4_100_np_80_con
v_o3','Ustr','Vstr','Pstr','convergence','k','Re','np','dx','dy')
%Calculation of P correction from Pstr and Ustr and Vstr
Pcor=zeros(np,np);
relax=0.7;
residual1=1;
residual2=1;
while residual1>10^(8)
if(residual1>residual2&&residual1>100)
display('Pcor cal failed')
display(residual1)
break;
end
residual2=residual1;
A=(1/(dx))*(1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2));
B=(1/((dy*H/W)))*(1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2));
for i=2:np1
for j=2:np1
if(i==2&&j==2)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*
Pcor(i,j+1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(i==2&&j==np1)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*
Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(i==np1&&j==2)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i
1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(i==np1&&j==np1)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(+A/dx*Pcor(i
1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(i==2)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(A/dx+2*B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(i==np1)
22
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(A/dx+2*B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(j==2)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(2*A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+A/dx*Pcor
(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+Q(i,j)));
elseif(j==np1)
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(2*A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+A/dx*Pcor
(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j)));
else
Pcor(i,j)=(1
relax)*Pcor(i,j)+(relax)*(1/(2*A/dx+2*B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+A/dx*Pc
or(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j)));
end
end
end
delF=ones(1,(np2)*(np2));
c=1;
for i=2:np1
for j=2:np1
if(i==2&&j==2)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)
1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(i==2&&j==np1)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)
1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(i==np1&&j==2)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i
1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(i==np1&&j==np1)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)1/(A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(+A/dx*Pcor(i
1,j)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(i==2)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)
1/(A/dx+2*B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(i==np1)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)1/(A/dx+2*B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i
1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(j==2)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)
1/(2*A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+A/dx*Pcor(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+Q(i,j));
elseif(j==np1)
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)
1/(2*A/dx+B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+A/dx*Pcor(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j));
else
delF(c)=Pcor(i,j)
1/(2*A/dx+2*B/(dy*H/W))*(A/dx*Pcor(i+1,j)+A/dx*Pcor(i1,j)...
+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j+1)+B/(dy*H/W)*Pcor(i,j1)+Q(i,j));
end
c=c+1;
23
end
end
sum=0;
for c=1:length(delF)
sum=sum+delF(c)^2;
end
residual1=sqrt(sum/length(delF));
end
Pcor(1,:)=Pcor(2,:);
Pcor(np,:)=Pcor(np1,:);
Pcor(:,np)=Pcor(:,np1);
Pcor(:,1)=Pcor(:,2);
%display('Pcor calculation')
%display(residual);
Pcor;
Ucor=zeros(np,nu);
Vcor=zeros(nv,np);
for i=2:nu1
for j=2:np1
Ucor(j,i)=(1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2))*...
(1/(dx)*(Pcor(j,i+1)Pcor(j,i)));
end
end
for i=2:np1
for j=2:nv1
Vcor(j,i)=(1/(1/dt+2*(1/Re)/dx^2+2*(1/Re)/(dy*H/W)^2))*...
(1/((dy*H/W))*(Pcor(j+1,i)Pcor(j,i)));
end
end
alp=0.1;
al=1;
Ustr=Ustr+al*Ucor;
Vstr=Vstr+al*Vcor;
Pstr=Pstr+alp*Pcor;
%calculation of error in continuity from Ustr and Vstrtest
% Q=zeros(np,np);
% qsum=0;
% for i=2:np1
% for j=2:np1
% Q(j,i)=(Ustr(j,i)Ustr(j,i1))/dx+(Vstr(j,i)Vstr(j1,i))/dy;
% qsum=qsum+Q(j,i)^2;
% end
% end
% qsum;
end
save('Re_V4_100_np_80_conv_o3','Ustr','Vstr','Pstr','convergence','k','Re',
'np','dx','dy')
24
8 References
1. Patankar, S. V.; Spalding, D. B. A calculation procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum
Transfer in ThreeDimensional Parabolic Flows. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 1972, 15,
17871806.
2. Ghia, U.; Ghia, K. N.; Shin, C. T. HighRe Solutions for Incompressible Flow using the
NavierStokes Equations and a Multigrid Method. J. Comput. Phys. 1982, 48, 387411.
3. Patankar, S. V. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow; Hemisphere: New York, 1980.
4. Anderson, J. D. J. Computational Fluid Dynamics. The basics with applications.;
McGrawHill: New York, 1995.
5. Fries, D. M.; Voitl, T.; Rohr, P. R. Liquid Extraction of Vanillin in Rectangular
Microreactors. Chem. Eng. Technol. 2008, 31 (8), 11821187.
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