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Adapted from a presentation by
Miao Lu (firstname.lastname@example.org) Nancy Samaan (email@example.com)
SITE, Ottawa University
• GPRS Architecture
Bearer Services and Supplementary Services Mobility Management GPRS Limitations
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
• Reuse the existing GSM infrastructure • Introduce packet-switched routing functionality
• Better data transfer rates • Low cost and connectivity-oriented
• Migration Path to 3G Networks
Packet-switched technique vs. circuit-switched
In circuit-switching, resources (e.g. a channel) are allocated to user for duration of connection
• • •
Inefficient use of resources User pays for the whole connection High QoS: channel maintains real-time connection
In packet-switching, resources are allocated to user only for the time it takes to send each packet
• • •
A channel can serve many users User pays by the packet Ideal for bursty data connections
4kbit/s) Reserved bandwidth Fixed access time Unfriendly bill (based on duration) Limited application support • Large volumes 5 .Comparison Packet-switched Circuit-switched • • • • • High bit rates (up to 170kbit/s) Shared bandwidth Variable access times Friendly bill (based on volume) Robust application support • Frequent transmission of small volumes • Infrequent transmission of small or medium volumes • • • • • Low bit rates (14.
GPRS Architecture 6 .
Components New components introduced for GPRS services: • SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) • GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) • IP-based backbone network Old components in GSM upgraded for GPRS services: • HLR • MSC/VLR • Mobile Station 7 .GPRS Architecture .
Keeps track of the individual MSs’ location and performs security functions and access control. 8 .GPRS Architecture SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node At the same hierarchical level as the MSC. as well as mobility management functions. Detects and registers new GPRS mobile stations located in its service area Participates into routing. Transfers data packets between mobile stations and GGSNs.
Maintains the location information of the mobile stations that are using the data protocols provided by that GGSN.. Converts the GPRS packets from SGSN into the appropriate packet data protocol format (e. IP or X. Participates into the mobility management. Collects charging information for billing purpose.g.GPRS Architecture GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node Provides inter-working between PLMN and external packet-switched networks. 9 .25) and sends out on the corresponding packet data network.
10 . Protocol architecture based on the Internet Protocol (IP). All PDP (Packet Data Protocol) PDUs (Protocol Data Units) shall be encapsulated by GTP.GPRS Architecture Backbone Network Tunnels of data and signaling messages between GPRS support nodes. GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) used to tunnel user data and signaling between GPRS Support Nodes.
Border Gateway handles the packet transfer between GPRS PLMNs. 11 . Two intra-PLMN backbone networks are connected via the Gp interface using Border Gateways and an inter-PLMN backbone network. Inter-PLMN backbone network: The IP network interconnecting GSNs and intra-PLMN backbone networks in different PLMNs.GPRS Architecture Backbone Network (cont.) Two kinds of GPRS backbone Network: • • Intra-PLMN backbone network: The IP network interconnecting GSNs within the same PLMN.
GPRS Architecture Backbone Network Packet Data Network Inter-PLMN Backbone Gi GGSN BG Gp BG GGSN Gi Intra-PLMN Backbone SGSN SGSN Intra-PLMN Backbone SGSN 12 .
13 .GPRS Architecture HLR Enhanced with GPRS subscription data and routing information. Accessible from the SGSN via the Gr interface and from the GGSN via the Gc interface.
. e. 14 . • Paging for circuit-switched calls that can be • performed more efficiently via the SGSN Combining GPRS and non-GPRS location updates Receives location information from SGSN or sends paging requests to SGSN via the Gs interface.GPRS Architecture MSC/VLR Not needed for routing of GPRS data. Needed for the co-operation between GPRS and the other GSM services.g.
TE (Terminal Equipment). Could be one unit combing the functionalities of a MT and a TE. Typically a laptop or a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).GPRS Architecture Mobile Station GPRS MS includes two components: • MT (Mobile Terminal). Typically a handset • used to access the radio interface. 15 .
GPRS Architecture Mobile Station (cont. but the MS can only operate one set of services at a time.) Three types of MS: • Class-A: Could be attached to both GPRS and other GSM services. 16 • • . Class-C: Could be exclusively attached to one service type at a given time. and the MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and other GSM services. Class-B: Could be attached to both GPRS and other GSM services.
GPRS Architecture Interfaces MSC/VLR D Gs A Gb TE R MT Um Gn SGSN BSS SGSN Gp GGSN Other PLMN Gn GGSN Ga HLR Gr Gc Gi PDN Ga CGF Gf Billing System TE EIR • CGF(Charging Gateway) 17 .
Packet transfer Intra-PLMN backbone PLMN 18 .
such as HLR. packets to GGSN.Packet Transfer A laptop connects with a GPRS-capable handset. SGSN sends encaps. SGSN encapsulates packets Handset location information is updated in other GSM components. The handset communicates with GSM base station. 19 . Base station sends the GPRS packets to SGSN. GGSN decapsulates and sends to PDNs.
Intranet SGSN GGSN Host 20 Brasche and Walke (adapted) Router .Internet.Communication betw. GPRS station and IP host Go red Return blue BSC BTS MS PLMN1 Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone BTS BSC SGSN SGSN Gn Border Gateway Inter-PLMN GPRS Backbone Gp Border Gateway Intra-PLMN GPRS Backbone PLMN2 Gn Gn GGSN Gi Packet Data Network(PDN) Eg.
that forwards to appropriate host PLMN2’s GGSN queries HLR and finds that MS is in PLMN1 Packet is encapsulated and sent to SGSN in PLMN1 SGSN decapsulates packet and delivers to MS • Note usefulness of inter-PLMN backbone so GPRS routing does not need to go through PDN • No encapsulation-decapsulation needed to traverse backbone host sends return packet to home PLMN2 of MS • • 21 . Web server) • • • • SGSN where sender MS is registered encapsulates IP packets Routes them through intra-PLMN backbone to appropriate GGSN GGSN decapsulates packets and sends them to IP network.g.Routing example MS located in PLMN1 sends IP packet to host (e.
Agenda Introduction Part I • GPRS Architecture Part II Bearer and Supplementary Services Mobility Management GPRS Limitations 22 .
Two different kinds of bearer services : • • PTP (Point-to-point) services PTM (Point-to-multipoint) services • Supplementary Services : SMS call. call forwarding on mobile subscriber not reachable (CFNRc). and closed user group (CUG) .Bearer and Supplementary Services of GPRS The bearer services of GPRS offer end-to-end packet switched data transfer. 23 . call forwarding unconditional (CFU).
and Database access. • Examples :Electronic mail.GPRS Bearer Services PTP services Two types : Connection-Oriented Network Service (PTP-CONS) : • A logical relation is established between users. • Examples : Credit card validations. Internet „s World Wide Web. • Multiple packets are sent between a single source and destination. • Supports bursty non-interactive applications. • Each packet is sent is independent of other packets. ConnectionLess Network Service (PTP-CLNS) : (ex: IP). Telnet. • No logical link required between users. • A datagram type service based on the connectionless network protocol 24 .25. • supports bursty transactional or interactive apps based on X.
• Group members must join the PTM-G call. • Example: Conferencing services. • Examples : Live multimedia transmissions. Multicast service (PTM-M): • Addressed to all subscribers in a geographical area group identifier indicating whether to all subscribers or to a specific PTM group • Example : News. IP Multicast (IP-M ): • Messages are transmitted to a specific group. • Group members must join the IP-M call.GPRS Bearer Services PTM Services enables the transmission of a single message to multiple destinations. Group call service (PTM-G): • Only a predefined group of subscribers controlled by a multicast server will receive the message transmitted. 25 . • Real time delivery. • Real time delivery. Weather and Traffic reports.
Mobility Management • Mobility management is the means by which GPRS keeps track of a mobile subscriber location while connected to the Network. • Main concepts : • GPRS mobility management states • GPRS network access. • Attachment. • Location management • Packet Data protocol PDP context • Detachment • Routing Example 26 .
Mobility Management Mobility Management States IDLE unreachable mobile Explicit Detach GPRS Detach READY reachable mobile PDU Transmission /Reception STANDBY 27 .
the MS is put on standby.e.MS and SGSN have established MM contexts. STANDBY State MS is attached to GPRS MM. . and receive PTM-P and PTM-G data. can receive paging message) PTP data reception and transmission.Mobility Management Mobility Management States (cont.) IDLE State GPRS MS is unreachable . MS can receive PTM-M and PTM-G data (i. and PTM-G data transmission are not possible 28 .MS may receive PTM-M message READY state MS can send and receive PDP PDU. A timer monitors the ready state and upon its expiry.
• The outcome is the establishment of a logical link between the MS and a single SGSN and the creation of a mobility management context. • The logical link is uniquely defined by the identifier TLLI and is used subsequently in messages exchanged between the MS and SGSN. 29 .Mobility Management GPRS network access • An MS can connect to the GPRS network by requesting a GPRS attach procedure. • This identifier is changed when the MS is served by a new SGSN.
copies the user profile from the HLR to the SGSN. The network checks if the user is authorized. Steps : • Inform the network for the MS’s request to be active • Network checks the Ms’s identity • Download MS’s subscription information from HLR to SGSN. • Update MSC/HLR 30 .Mobility Management Attachment Before a mobile station can use GPRS services. and assigns a packet temporary mobile subscriber identity (P-TMSI) to the user. it must register with an SGSN of the GPRS network.
Mobility Management Attachment GPRS Attach function : •Authenticate the mobile •Generate the ciphering key •Enable the ciphering •Allocate temporary identity (TLLI) •Copy subscriber profile from HLR to SGSN After GPRS attach •The location of the mobile is tracked •Communication between MS and SGSN is secured •Charging information is collected •SGSN knows what the subscriber is allowed to do •HLR knows the location of the MS in accuracy of SGSN 31 .
Cancel Location New old HLR MSC/VLR MSC/VLR 2. Update Location ACK 7a. Identification Response 6c. Insert Subscriber data 7f. Attach Complete 10. Update Location ACK 9. Location Update Request 7c.Mobility Management -Attachment  MS BSS New SGSN Old SGSN GGSN EIR 1. Location Update Accept 7e. Update Location 6b. TMSI Reallocation complete 32 . Cancel Location ACK 6d. Attach Accept 7h. Update Location 8. Insert Subscriber data ACK 7b.Attach Request 3. Identity Response 4.ACK 7b. Insert Subscriber Data 6d. IMEI check 6a. Identification Request 3. Authentication 5. Identity Request 3. Insert Subscriber Data ACK 6e. Cancel Location 7d.
• A PDP context activation procedure is initiated for each required PDP session. • Triggered by the MS or a request from a PDN. • Contains the parameters required to transfer packets between the MS and the PDN via a GGSN. 33 .Mobility Management Packet Data Protocol(PDP) Session • An MS can request to activate one or more PDP (Packet Data Protocol) contexts which specify the PDNs (Packet Data Networks) it want to access. • An MS can have more than one PDP context.
• Ms can be assigned static or dynamic addresses 34 . • At the MS a PDP context is identified by a Network Service Access Point Identifier(NSPAI). • The SGSN identifies the corresponding GGSN and make its aware of the MS.Mobility Management Packet Data Protocol(PDP) Session • An MS specifies its network service access point and the Access Point Name (APN) of the PDN it wants to connect to. • A two way point-to-point path (tunnel) is uniquely identified by a tunnel ID (TID ) and is established between the SGSN and the GGSN. used by the MS for data transfers.
IP).. • IP Addresses of the SGSN where the subscriber is localized.121. IP.. • The quality of service. 35 . • PDP Addresses of the terminal (x.Mobility Management Packet Data Protocol(PDP) Content • A PDP (PACKET Data Protocol) contains: • The type of network PDP used (X25.). • The access point to the service network used (NSAPI).
Mobility Management Packet Data Protocol(PDP) Session An MS with two PDP contexts Active 36 .
Access Point.PDP Address QoS Requested.… 37 . IMSI.QoS Negotiated.PDP Address. QoS Negotiated.PDP Address QoS Negotiated.… MS Activate PDP Context Accept PDP type.… Create PDP Context Response PDP type.… Create PDP Context Request PDP type.Mobility Management PDP context Activation  MS SGSN GGSN Activate PDP Context Request PDP type.Access Point.
IMSI) SM DEACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT(NSAPI) GTP DELETE PDP CONTEXT RESPONSE 38 .Mobility Management PDP context Deactivation  MS SGSN GGSN MS DEACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST(NSAPI) GTP DELETE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST (NSAPI.
Mobility Management Detachment Two types of Detachments : MS initiated Detachment: Network Initiated Detachment: (Ex : service Termination. Network congestion) 39 .
Mobility Management MS Initiated Detachment  40 .
Mobility Management Network Initiated Detachment  41 .
which may destroy the cost advantage that GPRS provides today. Requires major network modifications: Many network elements to be upgraded and totally new to be introduced Expensive: Not much time for invest to be returned due to upcoming 3rd generation technology • • • 42 . Operators may decide to charge based on time rather than volume.GPRS Limitations • • • Speeds Much Lower in Reality Support of GPRS Mobile Terminate by Terminals is Not Ensured Packet switching means that data packets can traverse different routes and then be reassembled in their final destination leading to potential transit delays affecting the Quality of Service.
“Formal Specification and Validation using a Scenario-Based Approach: The GPRS Group-Call Example”.  Christian Bettstetter.ObjecTime Workshop on Research in OO Real-Time Modeling.References (papers)  Dale R. 1998. Service Description Stage 2”. “GSM 03. IEEE Communication Surveys. 1999. Logrippo D.  ETSI.60 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase2+). 3. N. vol. 2001  Agilent Technologies. 99–118. 1998 43 . Canada. 2001. Incorporated. n. Protocols. pp. General Packet Radio Service. Service Description Stage 1”. “GSM Phase 2+ General Packet Radio Service GPRS: Architecture.  ETSI. Amyot.Hart and P. Shelton. “Understanding General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)”. and Air Interface”. Ottawa. Aether Systems.60 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase2+): General Packet Radio Service. Jan. “General Packet Radio Service”.  L. Hans-J¨org V¨ogel and J¨org Ebersp¨acher. 2. Forhan. “GSM 02. Technical report.
Logrippo. pp. Andriantsiferana and L. Logrippo. and Deployment”. 1. vol. Ghribi L. Interfaces. Jan. 77–92. pp. 1999. n.References (papers)  B. 2000. 1. Computer Networks. “Understanding GPRS: The GSM Packet Radio Service”.USA. “General Packet Radio Service (GPRS): Architecture. 763–779.  Herman Rao Yi-Bing Lin and Imrich Chlamtac. “Prototyping and Formal Requirement Validation of GPRS: A Mobile Data Packet Radio Service for GSM”. Working Confrence on Dependable Computing For Critical Applications (DCCA-7). 44 . California. san Jose.  B. Ghribi and L. pp. vol. 34. Journal of Wireless Communiations and Mobile Computing. Proceedings of 7th Int. 2001. 99–118.
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