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com HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTS Systems of ID 1. Branding and even maiming were used to mark the criminal; 2. Cutting of hand of thief; 3. Tattooing to identify and prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers; 4. Visual memories (camera eyes) to identify previously arrested offenders by sight; 5. Photography 6. Bertillon System: (1) photograph, (2) portrait parle, (3) anthropometry; proven inaccurate in Will and William West Case Fingerprints 7. Prehistoric o Nova Scotia - picture writing of a hand with ridge patterns o Babylon – fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. o Ancient China – thumb prints were found on clay seals. o 14th century Persia - various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions) 8. Personalities: o Marcello Malpighi (1686) – Treatise: ridges, spirals, & loops; Malpighi layer – layer of skin approximately 1.88mm thick. o John Evangelist Purkinje (1823) – Thesis: 9 fingerprint patterns; no mention about personal identification. o Sir William Herschel (1856) – First used fingerprints on native contracts in Jungipoor, India; no thought toward personal identification; noted that no changes in his fingerprints recorded over a person of 57 years. o Henry Faulds (1880) – Took up study of skin furrows; contribution: (1) fingerprint: a means of identification, and (2) method of classification; first o
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fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. Gilbert Thompson (1882) – Used his thumb print on a document to prevent forgery – first known use of fingerprints in the U.S. Alphonse Bertillon (1882) – Anthropometry Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) (1883) – Recognized value of fingerprints to personal identification in his fiction books. Sir Francis Galton (1888) – Fingerprints as a means of identification in 1880s; originated the 1 in 64 billion chance of two fingerprints being the same; ridge characteristics – minutiae or Galton’s details Juan Vucetich (1891) – Began fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types; made first criminal fingerprint identification in 1892 (Francis Rojas case); devised his own system of classification. Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose (1897) - Two Indian fingerprint experts credited with primary development of the Henry System of fingerprint classification (named for their supervisor, Edward Richard Henry). Sir Edward Richard Henry (1901) – Widely known for his Henry System of Classification. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest (1902) – Pioneers U.S. fingerprinting. Edmond Locard (1918) – Originated the 12 points in arriving at individualization.
Reference: German, E. (2012, January 21). The History of Fingerprints. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from Latent Print Examination: Fingerprints, Palmprints and Footprints: http://onin.com/fp/fphistory.html
Scientific Basis of Friction Skin Identification FINGERPRINT defined Fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridge of all or any part of the finger. SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0 http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver _1.pdf Tenets of Friction Skin Identification: (1) Unique & (2) Permanent
Nature of Friction Skin: 1. Undersides of fingers, palms, toes, & soles – corrugated skin structure: volar skin – biologist, friction skin – fingerprint examiner, and fingerprints – public 2. Friction skin: (1) ridges - elevated areas, and (2) furrows - depressions
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com 3. Friction skin; 2 main layers: (1) epidermis – outer layer, and (2) dermis - the inner layer. 4. Epidermis: (1) generating layer – innermost layer; creates new cells, and (2) outer layer mostly dead cells. Summary of Formation of Ridges General patterns on the volar areas are determined by heredity and genetic master plan. Friction ridges are randomly formed because of biological variation. Biological variations are due to environmental influences occurring during fetal development.
Environmental influences: pressures, stresses, and other physical factors such as disease and nutrition. Thus, no two areas of friction skin will ever be the same. Identical twins may have similar friction skin patterns but their individual ridge formations will not be the same. Ridges are formed and become unique and permanent during approximately the fourth month of fetal life. Reference: Leo, W. (2004). Fingerprint Identification. LawTech Custom Publishing, Inc.
FINGERPRINT PATTERN INTERPRETATION In a Nutshell TYPES OF PATTERNS I. Arch (5%): a. Plain Arch b. Tented Arch II. Loop (60%): a. Radial Loop b. Ulnar Loop III. Whorl (35%): a. Plain Whorl b. Central Pocket Loop c. Double Loop d. Accidental Loop I. ARCHES: Plain Arch and Tented Arch 9. Plain Arch: (1) ridges enter upon one side, (2) make a rise or wave in the center, (3) and flow or tend to flow out upon the opposite side. o No (1) looping ridge, (2) an upthrust ridge, (3) an angle, or (4) a recurve. o Indicated by: (1) Capital “A” in fingers number 2 and 7; (2) Small “a” in fingers other than 2 and 7. 10. Tented Arch: possesses an (1) angle, (2) an upthrust, or (3) two of the three basic characteristics of the loop. o Angular Type Tented Arch: (1) formed by two ridges meeting at an angle; (2) one continuous ridge cannot form an angle; and (3) angle must be 90 degrees or less. o Upthrust Type Tented Arch: (1) an upthrust must be an ending ridge – a ridge which ends in space; (2) an upthrust must make a definite change of direction from the basic ridge. It must be an angle of forty-five degrees or more from base ridge; and (3) an upthrust must be as high as the surrounding ridges are thick. NOTE: Dots have no direction. o Loop Type (Lacking One Characteristic): (1) one which approaches the loop, (2) may have any combination of two of the three basic loop characteristics, (3) lacking the third. Note: These three loop characteristics are, to repeat: (a) A sufficient recurve. (b) A delta. (c) A ridge count across a looping ridge o Tented arches are indicated by: (1) Capital “T” in fingers number 2 and 7, and (2) Small “t” in fingers other than 2 and 7. II. LOOP PATTERNS: (1) one or more ridges enter upon either side, (2) recurve, (3) touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and core, and (4) pass out or tend to pass out upon the same side the ridges entered. 11. Basic Requirements of a Loop: (1) Sufficient recurve, (2) Delta, and (3) Ridge count across a looping ridge 12. Ridge Counting: Rules to Remember o Draw a line between delta and core. o As long as you touch or cross a ridge, you have a ridge count. o One ridge must be a looping ridge. o The delta and core are not included in the ridge count. o Fragments and dots are counted as ridges only if they appear as thick as the surrounding ridges. o If you cross a bifurcation, count each of its arms. o If the delta is on the only loop, there is no ridge count. 13. TYPES OF LOOPS o Ulnar loops flow toward the little finger – Ulna bone – Indicated by a diagonal line in the direction the loop flows. Remember: (1) Right hand ulna = Delta on left side; and (2) Left hand ulna = Delta on right side.
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com o Radial loops flow toward the thumb – Radius bone – Indicated by a Capital “R” in fingers two and seven and by a small “r” in all other fingers. Remember: (1) Right hand radial = Delta on right side; and (2) Left hand radial = Delta on left side. III. WHORL PATTERNS 14. Plain Whorl: (1) consists of one or more ridges which make or tend to make a complete circuit, (2) with two deltas, (3) between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, at least one recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. o Remember: (1) Two deltas and at least one ridge making a complete circuit or variant of a circle. (2) An imaginary line drawn from delta to delta must cut or touch at least one recurving ridge within the inner pattern area. 15. Central Pocket Loop Whorl: (1) consists of at least one recurving ridge, or (2) an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow, (3) with two deltas, (4) between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, no recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. o Recurving Type: Similar to plain whorl, two deltas and at least one ridge making a complete circuit. o Difference from a plain whorl – An imaginary line drawn from delta to delta must not cut or touch a recurving ridge in front of the inner delta. 16. Double Loop Whorl: (1) consists of two separate loop formations, (2) with two separate, and (3) distinct sets of shoulders and two deltas. o Remember: (1) 2 separate loop formations, (2) 2 separate and distinct sets of shoulders, and (3) 2 deltas. o No ridge count is needed for loops in a double loop whorl. o The appendage rule for double loops is the same as that for plain loops. Plain loop appendage rule – Sufficient recurve consists of the space between the shoulders of a loop, free of any appendages which abut upon it at a right angle on the outside of the recurve.
o “S” type whorls and “interlocking loops” are not double loop whorls. 17. Accidental Whorl: (1) consists of a combination of two different types of patterns with the exception of the plain arch, (2) with two or more deltas, or (3) a pattern which possesses some of the requirements for two or more different types or a pattern which conforms which conforms to none of the definitions. o Remember: (1) combination of two different types of patterns with the exception of the plain arch, (2) two or more deltas. Only pattern which may possess two or more deltas, (3) patterns possessing some of the requirements of two or more different types, with the exception of the plain arch. o Patterns conforming to none of the definitions. 18. WHORL SYMBOLS: (1) Plain Whorl – W, (2) Double Loop – D, (3) Central Pocket – C, (4) Accidental – X o For classifying and general searching, “W” is used to indicate all whorl types below the fingerprint block. o Type of whorl should be indicated in the upper left hand corner of the fingerprint block. 19. WHORL TRACINGS o Trace from left delta to a point opposite the right delta. o Trace from the farthest left delta to a point opposite the farthest right delta when there are three or more deltas present. o Drop down at ending ridges. o Follow the lower fork at a bifurcation. o Stop at a point opposite the right delta and count ridges between that point and the delta. o Do not count delta or tracing ridge. The tracing ridge is the ridge where the tracing stopped opposite the right delta. o It is not necessary to count more than three ridges. References: (1) The Science of Fingerprints, FBI, (2) Henry Fingerprint Classification and Identification, Sirchie Crime Scene Technology School Youngsville, North Carolina
RULES IN THE SELECTION OF TYPELINES, CORE & DELTA TYPELINES: (1) two innermost ridges that start or go parallel, (2) diverge and surround or tend to surround the pattern area: (a) core, (b) delta and (3) ridges which are used in the classification of a loop. RULES 1. Typelines are not always two continuous ridges, but are often broken. When there is a definite break in a typeline, the ridge
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com immediately outside of it is considered as its continuation. 2. When locating typelines, it is necessary to keep in mind the difference between a divergence and a bifurcation. 3. The arms of a bifurcation on which the delta is located cannot be used for typelines. 4. Angles cannot be considered for typelines. THE DELTA: (1) point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of divergence of two typelines, and (2) is located at or directly in front of the point of divergence. DELTA RULES (1) When there are two or more possible bifurcation deltas that conform to the definition, the one nearest the core should be chosen. (2) The delta may not be located in the middle of a ridge running between type lines towards the core, but at the end nearest to the core. (3) A dot may be used as a delta. A dot has no direction. (4) The delta may not be located at a bifurcation that does not open toward the core. (5) When there is a choice between a bifurcation and another type of delta, the bifurcation is selected.
THE CORE: (1) Approximate center of the pattern. (2) It is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient recurve. CORE RULES: (1) The core is located on the shoulder of the innermost loop farthest from the delta. (2) The core is located on the spike or rod in the center of the innermost recurve, provided the spike or rod rises high as the shoulders. (3) If there is an even number of spikes or rods shoulder-high, the core is located on the end of the farthest of the innermost spikes from the delta, whether or not the spike or rod touches the inside of the recurve. (4) If there is an odd number of spikes or rods at shoulder-height, the core is located on the end of the center spike, whether or not it touches the inside of the recurve. (5) Interlocking loops: Join the two loops with an imaginary recurve, making one loop with a rod or rod inside. Count the rod(s) shoulder-high and then fix the core. Reference: Latent Fingerprints: From Crime Scene to Courtroom, Sirchie Fingerprint Laboratories, Inc.
FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION FORMULA - “Blocking Out” step – identifying all 10 fingers as to pattern type. o Index Fingers (No. 2 and No. 7) – capital letter to indicate the pattern type except an ulnar loop: (1) Arch: A, (2) Tented Arch: T, (3) Radial Loop: R, (4) Ulnar Loop: in any finger are designated by a diagonal line slanting in the direction of the loop, and (5) Whorl: W o All other fingers – small letter except for ulnar loops. All whorls – capital “W”: (1) Small Letter Designation: a, t, r; (2) Ulnar Loop: Right Hand \, Left Hand / - The classification formula is composed of the following divisions: (1) Primary, (2) Secondary, (3) Subsecondary (may be replaced by the “Small Letter” classification.), (3) Major, (4) Final, (2) Key plus Extensions Classification line: Key, Major, Secondary, Sub-secondary, and Final Primary, Primary Classification: Whorl Division – based on the appearance of whorl. - Predetermined number: (1) Fingers 1 & 2 = 16; (2) Fingers 3 & 4 = 8; (3) Fingers 5 & 6 = 4; (4) Fingers 7 & 8 = 2; and (5) Fingers 9 & 10 = 1 - Predetermined number will only be considered if WHORL appears - Add all the odd numbered fingers plus 1; add all the even numbered fingers plus 1. - Evenumerator and Oddenominator - If no whorls are present on the even fingers, the value given is 1. If no whorls are present on the odd fingers, the value is 1. - There are 1,024 possible Primary combinations. Secondary Classification. 1. Capital Letter: type of pattern appearing on the index fingers (Fingers No. 2 and 7). Capital letters are used to indicate patterns: (1) A – Plain Arch, (2) T – Tented Arch, (3) R – Radial Loop, (4) U – Ulnar Loop, (5) W – Whorl (all types)
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com 25 possible combinations in the Secondary. b. Placed to the right of the Primary in the classification formula. c. The right hand is placed above the line and the left hand is below the line. 2. Small Letter: small letter patterns of the ART: arches, radial loops, and tented arches on fingers No. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. a. The dash (-) indicates absence of ART. b. No dash (-) in thumbs if they are not ART c. If two or more small letter patterns exist consecutively, you may use a number to indicate the series such as: Sub-secondary Classification: Found thru examination of fingers 2,3,4,7,8,9. - Not necessary for most filing systems if a Small Letter classification was possible. - Even one Small Letter such as a plain arch, tented arch or radial loop out of ten fingers is enough to eliminate this step. - Only loops (ridge count) and whorls (ridge trace) are considered. - Loop: (1) Index: (a) Inner (I) = 1-9, (b) Outer (O) = 10+; (2) Middle: (a) Inner (I) = 1-10, (b) Outer (O) = 11+; Ring: (a) Inner (I) = 1-13, (b) Outer (O) = 14+; - Whorls: “I” (Inner) = ridge trace (RT) going inward with 3 or more intervening ridges between RT and Delta; “M” (Meeting) = RT going inward or outward with less than 3 intervening ridges between RT and Delta; “O” (Outer) = RT) going outward with 3 or more intervening ridges between RT and Delta - The sub-secondary is brought up to the classification line to the right of the Secondary. The Major Division: concerned only with the thumbs (Fingers No. 1 and 6). - There are two formulas for the right thumb. - These formulas are used when there are loops or at least one whorl on either thumb. - Eliminated if a Small Letter Classification was possible. - When loops and/or whorls are present on the thumbs, ridge-count the loops and ridgetrace the whorls. - If both thumbs are whorls, perform a ridge tracing on each and place the resulting I, M, or O on the classification line to the left of the primary. - The right hand tracing goes above the line, and the left hand goes below the line. - When a Loop appears on either or both thumbs, proceed as follows: a.
a. Look at the left thumb first b. If the ridge count on the left thumb is from 1 to 11, it is given the designation of “S” (Small). If the count is 12 -16, it is an “M” (Medium), and if the count is 17 or more, it is an “L” (Large). c. Now look at the right thumb. When the left thumb is 16 or less or it is a whorl, use the following formula: No. 1: 1 – 11 = S; 12 – 16 = M; 17 or more = L When the left thumb is 17 or over, use the following: No. 2: 1 – 17 = S; 18 – 22 = M; 23 or more = L Note: If the left thumb is a whorl and the right thumb is a loop, use formula No. 1 above.
The Final: The Final is taken from the little fingers, Fingers No. 5 and 10. - If both little fingers are loops, Finger No. 5 has priority. - When a loop and a whorl occur, the loop is given priority. - If no loops occur, a whorl is used. - A whorl pattern is treated as an ulnar loop (if no loops are present), and ridges are counted. o Thus, a whorl on the right hand is ridgecounted from the left delta. A whorl on the left hand is ridge counted from the right delta. o Special Whorl Situations: Horizontal double loop whorls are counted from the delta (selected per the above) to the nearest core. A vertical double loop whorl is counted from the left delta to the upright loop. If there are two or more cores (accidental whorls), the ridge count is made from the left delta (right hand) or right delta (left hand) to the nearest core. - A loop on Finger No. 5 eliminates the need to ridge-count a whorl on Finger No. 10. - Note: If Fingers No. 5 and 10 are arches or tented arches, there is no final The Key: found by ridge-counting the first loop appearing on the fingerprint record card – beginning with the right thumb – exclusive of the little fingers (which are used for the Final). The Key, no matter where it is found, is always placed to the extreme left of the numerator of the classification formula: Extensions: used only when filing systems become (1) too large or (2) cumbersome
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com WCDX Extension: Used for large Whorl Groups such as: 32/32 o W,C,D,X (capital letters) – whorl pattern on index fingers. o w, c, d, x (lower case letters) – whorl pattern on all other fingers. o Placed above the sub-secondary (instead of using a second sub-secondary). -
Second Sub-Secondary: used when a group of fingerprints becomes too (1) cumbersome and (2) unwieldy. - Placed directly above the Sub-Secondary. Use the following chart (based on ridge counts): Index – 1-5=S, 6-12=M, 13 or +=L; Middle – 1– 8 = S, 9–14 = M, 15 or + = L; Ring – 1–10=S, 11–18=M, 19 or more=L The NCIC Classification System: second classification system currently in use in the U.S.
National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Classification System. Computerized database that allows law enforcement agencies nationwide access to among other thing, wanted bulletins and warrants for outstanding suspects and fugitives. Developed and used as a short cut to the Henry System; individual suspected of being a subject of want or warrant could be eliminated quickly. Letter or Number Codes: (1) Plain arch=AA, (2) Tented arch=TT, (3) Ulnar loop=The ridge count, (4) Radial loop=The ridge count plus 50, (5) Plain whorl=P plus the tracing I, M, or O, (6) Central Pocket loop=C plus the tracing I, M, or O, (7) Double loop whorl =small d plus tracing I, M, or O, (8) Accidental=X plus the tracing, I, M, or O, (9) Missing finger=XX, (10) Scar or mutilation=SR
Classification of Scarred Patterns—Amputations—Missing at Birth Classification of scarred patterns Rule 1. (So) Scarred Impression – Characteristics: - general type of pattern; or - ridge tracing; or cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy - ridge count Classification: general classification and subclassification is that of the corresponding finger of the other hand. Rule 2. Partially Scarred (general type cannot be determined) – Characteristics: - large scar around the core - general type cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy - ridges can be accurately subclassified by ridge tracings or counting Characteristics: primary value of the pattern of the corresponding finger and the subclassification value as indicated by the ridges of partially scarred impressions. Rule 3. Partially Scarred (general type can be determined) – Characteristics: - general type of pattern can be determined with reasonable accuracy; - ridges cannot be traced or counted so as to fall within the proper subsecondary classification Classification: ridge count or tracing value of the corresponding finger of the other hand, if the corresponding finger is of the same general type. scarred impression should be given the probable value and referenced to all other possibilities, If the corresponding finger is not of the same general type.
Rule 4. (So) Scarred (general type and ridge tracing and count cannot be determined) – Characteristics: - general type of pattern and ridge tracing or count cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy; - corresponding finger of the other hand is similarly scarred. Classification: whorls with meeting tracings. Application of the Rule 1. It looks like any pattern 2. If opposite finger is
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com a. an arch or tented arch or whorl, classification is arch, tented arch, or whorl (with the same tracing). (Rule 1) b. small-count loop, classification is loop of the same count. (Rule 1) c. scarred in the same fashion or were amputated or missing, classification is whorls with meeting tracings. (Rule 4) Classification of amputations and fingers missing at birth Rule 1. Amputation Group; Statement of Amputation or Missing of Finger - Separate filing of fingerprint cards having one or more amputations - (Amputation) Card must contain express statement of subject about amputation of finger or missing of finger since birth. Rule 2. One Amputation; Classification Corresponds to Opposite Finger - If one finger is amputated, classification corresponds with the opposite finger and referenced to every other possible classification. Rule 3. Two or More Amputations; Classification Corresponds to Opposite Fingers - If two or more fingers are amputated, classification corresponds with the opposite fingers and with no additional references. Rule 4. Opposite Amputated Fingers; Classification is whorls with meeting tracings. - If amputated fingers are opposite each other, classification is whorls with meeting tracings. Rule 5. Missing Fingers Treated as Amputations Rule 6. All 10 Fingers Amputated or Missing at Birth - If all 10 fingers are amputated or missing at birth, classification is: M 32 W MMM. M 32 W MMM
Rule 7. Both Hands Amputated or Missing at Birth - If both hands are amputated or missing at birth, footprints should be taken, i.e., if the police maintains a footprint file such as the FBI. Rule 8. Partially Amputated Fingers - Partially amputated fingers are left to the discretion of the classifier as there was no definite rule to this effect. - General Guidelines Half or more than half of the pattern area missing: classification of the opposite finger. Two or more fingers with half or more than half of the pattern area missing. Classification of the opposite fingers and governed by the rules concerning amputations. Tip Amputation (less than half of the first joint amputated) – classified as it appears and referenced to the opposite finger. Classification of bandaged or imprinted fingers Rule 1. Recently Injured, Bandaged Not Sufficient to File Fingerprint Card - If the injury is temporary, and if possible, these prints should not be taken until after healing. Rule 2. Injured Fingers Impossible to Ink - If injured fingers are impossible to ink, classification of unprinted fingers correspond with the opposite fingers. - If injured fingers which are impossible to ink, classification is whorls with meeting tracings. Reference: (1)Latent Fingerprints: From Crime Scene to Courtroom, Sirchie Fingerprint Laboratories, Inc. (2) Leo, William, Fingerprint Identification, LawTech Custom Publishing, Inc. (3) Federal Bureau of Investigation, The Science of Fingerprints, United States Government Printing Office.
FINGERPRINT RECORDING (Methods and Recommended Procedures)
Some methods: (1) an ink slab and roller;
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com (2) PRINTMATIC™ Roller; (3) Porelon® Pads, PRINTMATIC™ Impeccable Ceramic, Thermoplastic and Flawless Pads; and (4) KlearInk™ Ceramic Pads. WORK TABLE HEIGHT: 39" from the floor. CARD SIZE: 8" x 8" PREPARING THE INK SLAB Slab and Roller Method: - Amount of ink: about ¼" (0.6cm) - Roller is lifted off the slab after each stoke and returned to starting point - Do not use a back-and-forth motion with the roller. -
Repeat several times until a thin film of ink forms on roller.
INKING AND ROLLING THE FINGERS - To avoid smearing: inking and rolling the fingers on the right hand. - Each finger is inked and rolled individually - After the right hand, ink and roll the fingers on the left hand. - Record the plain impressions of both hands. - Thumbs in (toward body of subject) - Other fingers out (away from body of subject) Reference: Technical Information: Fingerprint Taking Procedures and Methods, SIRCHIE® Laboratories, Inc., Youngsville, N.C.
LATENT PRINT DEVELOPMENT Purpose of developing fingerprints: to make is visible so that it may be preserved and compared. Types of fingerprints: (1) visible, (2) plastic, or (3) latent prints.
Powder can be classified into two: traditional and advanced. 1. Traditional Powder – includes black, white, silver, red, and gray. The choice of powder depends on the kinds of surface on which the print is found. But when in doubt as to which powder is used, a practical rule of thumb is to make a test print on the same or similar surface first. 2. Advanced Powders – include, but are not limited to the following: a. Magnetic Powders – are composed of some 98% iron filings with only one to two percent (1-2%) developing powder. They can develop better prints on the following surfaces: shiny magazine covers, boxes with a coated surface, and some plastic materials. b. Fluorescent Powder – Fluorescent
Composition of Latent Fingerprints: Types of Glands 1. ECCRINE GLANDS – found all over the body but higher density on friction ridge surfaces (palms & soles). Secretions: mostly water, amino acids, proteins, and lipids. 2. SEBACEOUS GLANDS – dermis layer of skin; found throughout the body; associated with body hair: on scalp, face, anus, nose, mouth, and external portions of ear. 3. APOCRINE GLANDS – secretions from coarse hair of armpits and pubic area. POWDERING METHOD Types of Powders c. powder is composed of 98% Anthracene d. and 1% aluminum dust. It is suitable for rough, contaminated and multi-colored surfaces. Latent prints treated with this powder can only be seen after exposing the print to radiation. e. Bichromatic Powder – Bichromatic powder can be used on either light or dark surface. It appears black when used on a light colored surface and silver on a dark colored surface. When a print developed by a bichromatic powder is lifted with tape and placed on a white backing card, the latent print will appear dark. Magneta Flake – coated with milled ironflaked powder with amino acid to a specific
weight. Every particle of the powder is guaranteed to react with latent prints as it contains amino acid. Chemical Method of Developing Latent Prints In choosing a chemical developing technique, the investigator must be aware of the type of surfaces upon which latent prints are suspected to be present. For this purpose, surfaces are divided into three: 1. Porous surface – where water can absorb into 2. Non-porous surface – water cannot absorb into
Review Notes in Fingerprint Identification Compiled by MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim www.criminologyreviewer.weebly.com 3. Semi-porous superficially Styrofoam. Porous Surfaces surface – absorbed water such is as
1. Iodine Fuming – used for paper, cardboard and similar surfaces. Iodine crystals are converted to vapors without going into the process of liquefication when subjected to heat, a process known as sublimation. When using this process, an investigator should have a ready camera to take photograph of the developed prints as the same is not permanent. It should be used before Ninhydrin or silver nitrate. 2. Ninhydrin – prints treated with this chemical will appear purple in color. In performing this developing technique, paper and other similar surfaces are sprayed, soaked or brushed with Ninhydrin solution. Development is seen with ridges of purple color gradually appearing. Care should be taken not to handle treated material with bare hands to avoid investigator’s prints from contaminating into the material. 3. Physical Developer – a silver-based reagent that reacts with components of fingerprint residue. The reaction is shown by gray color reaction on paper, cardboard, and similar surfaces. Physical developer is usually used on paper previously treated with Ninhydrin. 4. Silver Nitrate – This technique should be used as a last process. This is done by spraying, soaking or brushing the materials with silver nitrate solution. Development takes place after exposing the treated material with strong light such as ultraviolet light. As soon as the prints appear, photograph should be taken immediately as the reaction will continue, resulting to paper and other similar surfaces turning into dark. Non-Porous Surfaces Super Glue Fuming (Cyanoacrylate Ester) Super glue is a household name for bulldog, mighty bond, quicktite and other adhesive of cyanoacrylate composition available in the market. When heated, cyanoacrylate fumes are released and polymerized on latent prints. Development is seen as a white blob. MISCELLANEOUS Fingerprint Classification Systems
1. The Henry Classification System – developed by Henry in the late 1800s. 2. Icnofalangometric System – the original name of the system developed by Vucetich in 1891 3. Dactiloscopy – the new name of the system developed by Vucetich. 4. The Oloriz System of Classification – developed by Oloriz. Identakey – developed in the 1930s by G. Tyler Mairs. 5. The American System of Fingerprint Classification – developed by Parke in 1903. 6. The Conley System. The Flack-Conley System – developed in 1906 in New Jersey, an improved Conley System. 7. NCIC Fingerprint Classification System. Collins System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in Scotland Yard in the early 1900s. 8. Jorgensen System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in the early 1900s. 9. Battley System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in the 1930s. Related Friction Ridge Identification Poroscopy – refers to the examination of the shape, size and arrangement of the small opening on friction ridge through which body fluids are secreted or released. Podoscopy – a term coined by Wilder and Wentwrth which refers to the examination of the soles and their significance in personal identification. Chiroscopy – It is the examination and thorough study fo the palms of the human hand as a point in identifying persons. Edgeoscopy – the study of the morphological characteristics of friction ridges; shape or contour of the edges of friction ridges. Ridgeology – describes the individualization process of any area of friction skin using all available detail. Reference Agas, Bautista, Guevara, and Tatoy, Ma. Paulina Corazon S., Criminalistics, 2009, Wiseman’s Books Trading, Inc., Quezon City. Asbaugh, David R., Ridgeology: Modern Evaluative Friction Ridge Identification, Forensic Identifciation Support Section, Royal Canadian Mounted Police.