THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.) Desv 177 1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.2. 1.2.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1.2.2.1.2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.3.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.1.2.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2-Sieves 1.2-Thermometers 1.1.2.5.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.1.1.1.4.Types of Stomata 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1.2.2.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.

1-Powder Fineness 2.3.1.3.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.Weights and Measures 5.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Refractive Index 2.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3.2.2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3 Limit Tests 2.1.

1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.I. Part-I. accordingly. II. Vol. 1930 and the Poisons Act. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. II would be official. II.). If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.P. Vol. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982).LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Vol. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Part-I. In general. the Dangerous Drugs Act.

substances or processes described in Appendix.GENERAL NOTICES Title . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. distribution and method of collection. If the odour persists to be discernible. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Italics . Purity and Strength . Hindi. indicated in monograph. if any. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Introductory Para . Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Identity. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. English.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Weights and Measures .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. When the term “drop” is used. it is described as having odour. viii .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Odour and Taste . Mesh Number . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Synonyms .

0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. ix .In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. and Identity. Purity and Strength.soluble extractive. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.In defining standards. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. water-soluble ash. Standards . even by applying known reference standards. statements appearing in the API. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. alcohol-soluble extractive. according to circumstances. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. colour. the expression per cent (%). those of definition of the part and source plants. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter.For statutory purpose. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. V. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method.) . However. with one of the four meanings given below. However. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. total ash. and show no abnormal odour. wherever given. pests. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents.Under this head. which he uses. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. under Description. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. Constant Weight .g.L. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. pesticides. sliminess. Vol. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. shall constitute standards. in 100 grammes of product. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. ether-soluble extractive. moisture content. mould or other evidence of deterioration. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. is used. fungi. The quantitative tests e. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. acid-insoluble ash. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. and other animal matter including animal excreta. Constituents . if of equivalent accuracy. Percentage of Solutions . Part-I. water. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. arsenic and heavy metals. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . micro-organisms.C.

The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Percentage of alcohol . Statements of solubilities. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. are intended to apply at that temperature. Reagents and Solutions . Temperature .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. fibres. thermometric scale.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Solubility . at a stated temperature. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Solutions .000 parts More than 10. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. such as fragment of filter papers.56 oC. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.000 parts x . all solutions are prepared with purified water. and dust particles.

Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 0. g. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . mm. µ. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Part –I and Part-II. 1M. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. l. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. IN. PS. mg. ml. unless otherwise stated. 0. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.5 N. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0.1 N.P. cm. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. Kg. TS.I. Fam.

Sansk. Rt. Fr. St. Tam. Ori. Beng. xii . Bk. Wd. St. Assam. Rt. Rz. Wd. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Sd. Guj. Tub. Ht. Lf. Kan. Kash. Bk. Mal. Eng. Tel. Pl. Mar. Wh. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Punj.

Akalakarabha. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. an annual. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. brown. external surface rough. elongated. bark upto 3 mm thick.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. xylem fibres thick-walled. tapering slightly at both ends.231 µ in 1 . parenchymatous cells. Akallakara. 7-15 cm in length.1. b) Microscopic Root .8 µ in width. vessels pitted.2 . Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. many of which developed as sclerenchyma.37-28. 1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. odour. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. 53. (Fam. Asteraceae). a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. characteristically astringent and pungent. shrivelled. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. cambium 2-5 layered. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. Akravu Akkalakara. Akarakara Akkaraka. not easily separable. thin-walled. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. Akarakarabha (Rt. cylindrical. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. slightly aromatic. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. taste. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially.

Udararoga. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.2. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.length having narrow lumen. also gives positive tests for inulin. Danta¿£la DOSE . shows vessels having scalariform thickening. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. D¢pana. 2. 2.2. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.2.Kum¡ry¡sava. CONSTITUENTS . secondary phloem and medullary rays. Aj¢rna. á£laroga. NaÀ¶¡rtava. Grdhras¢. 2. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex.4.7. running straight. Appendix 8 percent.3. radially elongated. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.6. Appendix 10 percent. Appendix 2 percent. V¡jikara.0. 2. áotha. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). of the drug in powder form. secondary phloem.Ash coloured. Appendix 22 percent. Powder . Appendix 2.Prati¿y¡ya.2. Svedakara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 -1 g. bi to tri and multiseriate. áv¡sa. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Buddhivardhaka. uniseriate rays very rare.2. ray cells thick-walled.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. K¡sa. medullary rays numerous. 2 . áukrala. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. IDENTITY.

slightly curved. (Fam. oily sweet.Shows 1-2 layered. Juglandaceae). parenchymatous cells. Sailabhava. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. Cotyledon . coriaceous. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. odour.) large deciduous. thin-walled. followed by more or less compressed.Cream coloured. parenchymatous cells. Powder . Akshoda (Cotldn. thin-walled.2. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. endosperm mostly single layered. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. creamish-brown. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. taste. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. broken pieces. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. radially elongated. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. not distinct. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. 3 . collapsed. under this. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. irregularly corrugated.

2. CONSTITUENTS .7. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. 2. KÀaya.2.25 g. 2. Sara. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.4. 4 .6. V¤Àya. 2. Appendix Not less than 7. Balya. 2.3. Appendix Not less than 10.0 percent. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Kaphakara.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. áukral. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. DOSE .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10 .5 percent.IDENTITY.Walnut oil and Tannin. B¤´ha¸a. V¡taroga.0 percent. Appendix 2. Appendix Not more than 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.KÀata.2.2. ViÀ¶ambhi.

non Gamble (Fam. tangentially elongated. Ambalam.3. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. parenchymatous. Anbalamu. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Amra. a small aromatic. parenchymatous cells.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Ranamba. and 5 . Marka¶¡mra -Amada. curved. with reddish-brown contents.. Jangli Aam Ambate. external surface smooth. acuminata Roxb. Ambado. S. Stem Bark. f. S. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Anacardiaceae). Ranambo Ambada. Wild Mango Ambeda. Kurz. internal surface reddish-yellow. deciduous tree. mangifera Willd. Syn. laminated. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. upto 27 m high and 2. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. fracture. Amrata (St. thin-walled cells. Ambazham. grey having lenticels. Ambadam Amratakamu. Jangali Ambo. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Mampuiti. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Amvara -Mampusli.Bk. thin. a few outer cells exfoliated. consisting of tangentially elongated.5 m in girth. radially arranged.

0. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.96 (blue).7.KÀata. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4.87 (blue) and 0. lignified.Light brown. Raktapitta. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Rucik¤t. 0. Pittakara.V. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.L. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. 0.L. 0. CONSTITUENTS .(greyish brown). shows cork cells. Ka¸¶hya. T. prominent lysogenous cavities are present.. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.40 and 0.C.96. Appendix Not more than 0. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. 0. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.6.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. simple. 2. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. V¡tahara. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.2.2. Powder . 2. KÀaya. IDENTITY.2.33. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.87 (all greyish brown). Not more than 1 per cent. 6 . containing rosette crystals and starch grains.33. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.2.5 per cent.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. D¡ha DOSE . Under U. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. thick-walled. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. of the drug in powder form for decoction.75-14 µ in dia.5-10 g.2.C. 2.

contorted or quincuncial. (Fam. stamens 5. Stem . slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. Kharamaµjar.9 m high herb. Leaf . 7 .) Amaranthaceae). áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. numerous.0 cm in thickness. membranous. Flower . cylindrical. filament short. bracteate with two bracteoles. the perianth lobes.3-0. bisexual. a stiff.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. decussate. dorsifixed. obovate. rough due to presence of some root scars.5 cm in cut pieces. hypogynous.3 . exstipulate. actinomorphic.0.Simple. opposite.free. slightly ribbed. hairy. sessile. 0.1-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. erect. greenish-white. wavy margin. subsessile. opposite.P.0. branched. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. Apamarga (W. odour. not distinct. gradually tapering. yellowish-brown. secondary and tertiary roots present. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. solid. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. yellowish-brown. 0.4. two celled. one spine lipped. May£raka.Cylindrical tap root. hollow when dry. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. erect. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . PratyakpuÀpa. anther. perianth segments 5.

vessels annular. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. thin-walled cork cells. single. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. perianth and bracteoles. thin-walled cork cells. epidermis single layered. Stem . truncate at the apex. parenchymatous cells. oval to rectangular. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. round at the base. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. scalariform and pitted. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma.Sub-cylindric. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. thin layers of cambium. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. unilocular with single ovule. tangentially elongated. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. fibres being absent. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. style. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. elongated. two medullary bundles. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. fibres pitted. 2-5 celled.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. brown.Shows crescent-shaped outline. endospermic. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. on both surfaces. ovary superior. thin-walled. followed 8 . which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. spiral. Seed . xylem composed of usual elements. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. capitate. LeafPetiole . composed of parenchymatous cells. cortical and pith cells. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. present in pith.Shows a single layered epidermis.gynoecium bicarpellary. syncarpous. rectangular. Midrib . epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. either separate throughout or found in some cases. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. Fruit . demarcating the xylem rings. vessels simple pitted. stigma. cortex 6-10 layered. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. lignified. 3-4 celled stalk.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. thin-walled epidermal cells. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.3.0 on upper surface. stomatal index 4. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.0-11. Udara Roga. Powder . uniseriate hair with bulbous base. P¡cana.Light yellow. vessels with annular.2. spiral. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.2. 2. of the drug for decoction. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.7. Ar¿a. Ka¸·u. rectangular. Appendix 2. shows fragments of elongated. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. IDENTITY. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.20-50 g. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.5-9. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.0-20. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. non-lignified cells. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. Tikta Sara. 9. aseptate fibres. palisade ratio 7.2. Medoroga DOSE . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Gu·apippali. 9 . V¡tahara.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Medohara. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.Shows single layered.2.4. scalariform and pitted thickening. Kaphahara.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Apac¢.6. mm.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. slightly elongated in upper.á£la.0 on lower surface. Lamina . Chedana. V¡maka. 2.

fracture.5. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. thin-walled. Fabaceae). colour. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. a few solitary fibres also present. cylindrical. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. polygonal. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. a few showing slit-like pits. bitter. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. medullary 10 . b) Microscopic Root . a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. (Fam. lightbrown. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. very long. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. 1-5 mm in thickness. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. vessels pitted with oblong. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. fibrous. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. Aparajita (Rt. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. taste.

2.1 .54 and 0.rays 1-5 cells wide.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. Tikta.C. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áotha.2. IDENTITY.4.3.C.2. shows simple and compound starch grains. 2. Powder . Appendix 2.Tannin. Appendix per cent.79 (grey). M£traroga. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. 2. 0.2. oblong and pitted. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.L.Yellowish-brown. Medhya. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. 2.79 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.79 (both yellow). Under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Kaphahara. phloem and xylem parenchyma. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.3 g. T. Appendix per cent. Vra¸a DOSE . 0.. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. of the drug in powder form. found in secondary cortex. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. 0. Buddhiprada. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . 11 . Appendix per cent. Starch..6.2. KuÀ¶ha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.V. ViÀahara.2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Pittahara.L. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 0. 2.á£la.7. Resin.Mi¿raka Sneha. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.

Rhizomes are dug in January-February. Adrak Injee. taste. tangentially elongated. colourless. widely cultivated in India.Shows a few layered. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. radially arranged cells of inner cork. irregularly arranged. reaching up to 90 cm in height. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal.5-6. short with projecting fibres. (Fam. pieces 5-15 cm long. Ardraka (Rz. gingery. Allam. lakottai.5 cm thick. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. thin-walled.) Zingiberaceae).6. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. odour. oblique branches on upper side. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . fracture. pungent Rhizome . 1. Inji Allamu. Ale -Adi. isodiametric. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. buds and roots are removed and washed well.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. each having a depressed scar at its apex.

0. 0.03.35 (light violet).L.63. Appendix 8 per cent.76. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.2. collateral. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.6.L. small cells of sieve tube.08 (violet).92 (violet). 0. 0..69 (all light yellow).dia.69 (light violet). CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.16 (blue). reticulate and spiral vessels. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. septate fibres with oblique. free from starch.7.V. Appendix 90 per cent. 0. 0.2. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 13 .47.47 (light violet). gingerosol in the oleo-resin.92 (all yellow). bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.5 per cent.l6 (brownish violet). Appendix 2 per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. larger bundles consists of 2. Under U.2. Powder -Light yellow.2. 2. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. numerous closed.4. vessels showing reticulate. 0.13.63 (grey) & 0. 0. composed of xylem. 0. filled with abundant starch grains. 2. vessels 2-5 in number.69 (grey). scalariforrn and spiral thickening. Appendix 1 per cent. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. 2. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.83 & 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 0. 0. 0. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.9 T.69.63 (light violet). phloem. 0. 2. 0. Appendix 2.7 vessels. 0.2. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.3.63 & 0.35. walls of oil cells suberised.76 (violet) & 0. Appendix 5 per cent. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. oleo-resin cells abundent. conjoint. 0.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.08. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.16.C.35. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.C. 0.2. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. elongated pits on their walls.2. endodermis single layered.16.

H¤dya. V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.á£la. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Ën¡ha. Svarya. Rocana. áopha. V ¤Àaya.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. RukÀa. Kaphahara. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Vibandha. Ka¸tharoga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 14 .

found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. hard. internally light brown to reddish-brown. not distinct.5-1 cm thick. all traversed by medullary rays. fracture. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. Fabaceae). fibrous. Velvelam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. thinwalled cortical cells.7. rough. Pilobaval. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. stone cells and phloem cells. incurved. lignified. phloem fibres thin-walled. secondary phloem wide. (Fam. Arimeda (St. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd.Bk. consisting of sieve elements. fibres and crystal fibres. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. upto 3 m in height. with tapering 15 . Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. odour and taste. square to rectangular cells. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. Sadabala -Haramibaval. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. parenchyma. exfoliating in irregular scales. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. characteristic of dry regions. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma.

Reddish-brown. 0 to 0. Appendix 1 per cent.2. KuÀ¶ha.e.91 (yellow).2.3. Appendix 13 per cent. 2.3-5 g in powder form. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Appendix 11 per cent.4. Meda¿oÀaka.2. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. radially elongated cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.78 and 0. Udardapra áamana DOSE . Ka¸·u.39 and a spot at Rf.C.6. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. T. Dantaroga. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.7. K¡sa. K¤mi. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.0. P¡¸·u.n-Hexacosanol. Appendix 14 per cent.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . β -Amyrin.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.áopha.ends. crystal fibres elongated. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. shows groups of cork cells. composed of thin-walled. Visarpa. Atis¡ra.39 and a spot at Rf. IDENTITY. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). fibres. Appendix 2.LC.2.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. 0. ViÀajavra¸a. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.40 g for decoction. Meha. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.2.0 to 0.91 (both blue). 16 . sclereid.L. 0. Mukharoga.

0. (Fam. flat. Kellemasuthu. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. recurved. curved. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. consisting of sieve tubes.& A. bitter and astringent. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Mathichakke. Neermatti.5 cm thick. P¡rtha. fracture. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Arjuna (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. Arjuna. Torematti Arjuna. Vellamaruthi. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 .8. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad.2-1. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. a large deciduous tree. in the middle and outer phloem region.) Combretaceae). secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Bilimatti. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Mattimora. taste. channelled to half quilled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. traversed by phloem rays.Bk. companion cells.

THERAPEUTIC USES ..2. shows fragments of cork cells. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Vya´ga. Pittahara. Appendix 20 per cent. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. µ Powder . Prameha. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. alata).. Vra¸a.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. 2. IDENTITY. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. elliptic. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. KÀatakÀaya. Appendix 20 per cent.Medoroga.Reddish-brown. Appendix 2. elliptical. 4-12 cells high.2. T¤À¡. 18 .6. Appendix 1 per cent. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.2. fibres. starch grains simple and compound. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. sometimes upto 5 components.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. uniseriate phloem rays. mostly simple. 2. 2.. alternating with fibres.3-6 g. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. a few rhomboidal crystals. DOSE .2. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. 2. H¤dya.4. Appendix 25 per cent.in dia.3. Arjuna Gh¤ta. starch grains. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.2. H¤droga. round to oval. Vra¸an¡¿ana. round to oval. compound of 2-3 components.

some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. mesocarp a very broad zone. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. (Fam. mesocarp and endocarp. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. Scramkotati Nallajidi. 19 . obliquely ovoid.9. Bhallataka (Fr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Fruit .) Anacardiaceae). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Nallajidiginga Baladur. smooth. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. shining with residual receptacle. drupaceous.5-3 cm long. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. dark brown.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. nut 2. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. 30-40 layers thick.

Note . lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Part-I 20 . Appendix 0.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).2.2. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.1. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. chloroform. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Ën¡ha. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.2. 2. Ka¶u. DOSE .2 g. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Appendix 2. Krimi. ether. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2.Dark-brown.F. innermost prismatic. KuÀ¶ha. Powder . 2. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. V¡tahara. very much elongated radial walls. Kaphahara.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.. being highly thickened. Appendix 5 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. Graha¸¢.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. 2. P¡cana.6.I. CONSTITUENTS . Snigdha. Chedi.4. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.5 per cent.Ar¿a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.. Appendix 11 per cent. Tikta.7.2.3. Bhedi.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.2. IDENTITY.

(Fam.Solitary or 2. disc flowers 21 .2 . occasionally rooting at nodes. white. 30 . 2. sub-entire. much branched. obtuse or acute. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. cylindrical. Karisalai Guntakalagara. occasionally brownish. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.P.10. M¡rkava. greenish.Opposite. not toothed.3 cm wide. ovate. Leaf . greyish. ligule small.. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm long. Gurugada. branched. Soppu. strigosely hirsute. Tekar¡ja. usually oblong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. cylindrical or flat.50 cm high. Knnunni Bhangra.2. herbaceous. Kesuriya. strigose with oppressed hairs. sub-acute or acute.2 . lanceolate. spreading. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Asteraceae). scarcely as long as bracts. together on unequal axillary peduncles. rough due to oppressed white hairs. erect or prostrate. Bhangro Bhangara. Karisalanganni. Bhangaraiya Garujalu.8. involucral bracts about 8. ray flowers ligulate. node distinct. 1. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. sessile to subsessile.Herbaceous. Bhringaraja (W. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Keshavardhana. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m.Well developed. Flower . Kesari -Bhangaro.) herbaceous annual. often rooting at nodes. Bhringiraja. Bh¤´ga. Stem . strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. upto about 7 mm in dia.

0. trichomes of two types. externally covered with cuticle. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. dark brown. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. phloem rays broader towards periphery. 1-5 celled. vessels numerous.Achenial cypsella. ovary inferior. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. one seeded. pitted. Fruit . consisting of rounded cells. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. covered with striated cuticle. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. brown. xylem ray distinct. warty. Midrib . parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. fibre tracheids. epidermis followed by wide cortex.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. ray cells pitted. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. in macerated preparation vessels small. b) Microscopic Root . traversed by xylem rays. covered with warty excrescences. pistil bicarpellary.tubular.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. corolla often 4 toothed.0. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. rarely slightly oblique. free. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. Leaf- Petiole . run straight in tangential section. and with pointed apical cell. non-glandular. found scattered throughout wood. filaments epipetalous. with a narrow wing.2 .1 cm wide. drum-shaped. stamen 5.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. xylem composed of vessels. Seed . consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . pappus absent. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. tangentially elongated cells.25 cm long. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. fibres and xylem parenchyma. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. with very pointed tips. simple. hairy and non endospermic. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. 0. epidermis followed by cortex. uniseriate. fibre tracheids. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. cuneate. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. unilocular with one basal ovule. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.

xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. septa thick-walled. wide at the base. uniseriate. trichomes entire or in pieces. collateral.collenehymatous cells on both sides. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. pointed tips and pitted walls. while the section cut at apical region.5 -26.5. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. externally covered with cuticle. pericyclic fibres distinct. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina.0 on lower surface. vascular bundles in a ring. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. some elongated with simple perforations. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pointed. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. normally biseriate and uniseriate. epidermis single layered. xylem consists of large number of vessels. Powder . middle cells longest. secondary cortex composed of large. the cork where formed. stomatal index 20. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. more abundant on lower surfaces. pitted with spiral thickening. arranged in tangential strands. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells.shows a dorsi ventral structure. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma.8 -4.5 on upper and 23. hairs stiff. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. xylem fibres with wide lumen. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. Stem . anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. Lamina . xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. externally covered with cuticle. palisade ratio 3.Dark green. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. endarch. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. 23 . shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. peg-like outgrowth. warty.0-22. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. about 3 celled.

K¤miroga.2.2. Dantya. áv¡sa. Appendix per cent. K¡sa. 2.Alkaloids. P¡¸·u. Yak¤droga. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. V¡tahara. CakÀusya.2. áirah á£la.2. Ras¡yana. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Ke¿ya.IDENTITY. H ¤droga. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.36 g. Kaphahara. Ëmahara. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .6 ml of the drug in juice form. 12 . DOSE . Ecliptine and Nicotine. of the drug in powder form for decoction. 24 .4. 2. Tvacya. ViÀahara.7.3 . Tikta RukÀa. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.6.3. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.2.2. Tekar¡ja marica.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. CONSTITUENTS .áotha. Appendix per cent. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

prostrate or creeping annual herb. Leaf ..Thin. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.) H. Syn. sessile. (Fam.) Wettst.Thin. green or purplish green. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. axillary and solitary. nodes and internodes prominent. branched creamish-yellow. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. Scrophulariaceae). opposite. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. glabrous. Brahmi (W. wiry. soft. obovate-oblong. a glabrous. slightly bitter. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Stem .& K. succulent. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. ovoid and glabrous. 25 . Ondelaga. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. found throughout India in wet and damp places.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Brahmi. taste. small. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu.P.Simple.Small. small.Capsules upto 5 mm long. taste. decussate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Fruit . slightly bitter. 1-2 cm long.B.11. about 1-2 mm thick. green. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Valabrahmi. Flower .

Matiprada.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. round to oval. 2.0 x 2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Yellowish-brown. no distinct midrib present. 2. and 8. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. Praj¡sth¡pana. Powder . 2. Tikta. glandular hairs sessile.Shows a single layer of epidermis. Appendix 2.0-14. simple.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2.6. ViÀahara. endodermis single layered..7. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. vascular ring continuous.5-9. Ras¡yana. IDENTITY.Root . measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. round and oval starch grains. ËyuÀya. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Stem . Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. glandular hairs.2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.0 µ in dia.2. cortex having large air cavities. Medhya. b) Microscopic 26 . V¡tahara. pericycle not distinct. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. respectively. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2.3. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix per cent.2. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. starch grains simple. endodermis single layered. Svarya. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. Appendix per cent.4.

KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ratnagiri Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 27 . P¡¸·u. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Jvara. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.1-3 g in powder form.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Prameha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . áopha.

mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. fracture. short and splintery.15 layers of thin-walled. Putirichunda Dorli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. pale yellowish-brown. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. Brihati (Rt.12. oval and tangentially elongated cells. 1-2. (Fam. tangentially elongated. thin-walled.8 m high.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Chichuriti. Solanaceae). Badikateri Kirugullia. woody. traversed by phloem rays. Ubhibharingani. b) Microscopic Root . isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. cork cambium single layered. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. upto 1. Papparamulli. much branched perennial under shrub. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. ribbed. no distinct odour and taste. secondary cortex composed of 5 . Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. long. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. parenchyma and stone cells. a number of secondary roots and their branches present.9 layers of thin-walled. varying greatly in shape and size. Heggulla. phloem parenchyma much abundant. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. a very prickly.5 cm in dia. cylindrical.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn.

2.2. Jvara.7.2. Appendix Not more than 6. 2. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. shows groups of thin-walled.á£la. V¡tahara.6 µ in diameter.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. cells radially elongated and pitted. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. DOSE . Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . thick-walled.5 per cent.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. traversed by xylem rays. IDENTITY. all elements being lignified.2. measuring 5. áv¡sa. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. xylem rays uni to biseriate. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. P¡cana. tracheids. parenchymatous cells.5 . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. measuring 5.6 µ in diameter. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Kaphahara. rounded to oval starch grains. 2.2. Powder .10-20 g.4. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.11.5 -11.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Cream coloured.6. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Agnim¡dya. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. phloem and medullary rays. vessels with simple pits. aseptate fibres.3. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. H¤droga. 29 . 2. H¤dya. Appendix 2. of the drug for decoction.

Piperaceae). taste. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. short. nodes and internodes distinct.5-2. cork cambium not distinct. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays.13. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. odour. officinarum DC. cultivated mainly in Southern India. plenty of simple starch granules present. Syn. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. fleshy climber. secondary cortex a wide zone. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fracture. oval to rectangular. (Fam. greyish-brown. chaba Hunter non Blume. thin-walled. peppery. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. brownish cells. acrid. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles..Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. endodermis single layered. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . tracheid. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. P. a glabrous. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Chavya (St.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. consisting of round.0 cm in width. P. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem .

Pl¢h¡ Roga.Ar¿a.4. round to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¢pana. Recana. medullary rays multi seriate. á£lal DOSE . RukÀa. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. filled with simple.6.1-2 g. Kaphahara.3. Appendix 6 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .pitted and reticulate thickenings.2.2. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. P¡cana. Glycosides and Steroids. Powder . 2. cells thin walled. 2. IDENTITY. starch grains.2.5 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Krimi. Ën¡ha.Alkaloids. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.7. CONSTITUENTS . round to oval.2. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Gulma.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Appendix 10 per cent.Greyish-brown. 31 . 2. Appendix 1. fibres and simple. Udara Roga. shows fragments of vessels.2.

5-0. Punicaceae). beneath this.14. taste. Powder . thin walled. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. Maadalai. 0.6 cm long.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country.2 cm wide. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. round to oval. (Fam. sweetish-sour. LohitapuÀpa.Reddish-brown. starch grains present in testa. consisting of oval to polygonal. simple. Madalam Danimma Anar. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified.1-0. found growing wild in the warm valley. 0. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Seed . wedge-shaped. Dadima (Sd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. oil globules. containing a few oil globules. triangular and rectangular. shows stone cells. round. angular. oval. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. endosperm absent. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. parenchymatous cells. 32 . cotyledons coiled. outer hills of Himalayas between 900.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

crenate. (Fam.Light greenish-yellow. calyx. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.25 cm long.P. 1.) Lamiaceae).Cylindrical. 1-2. taste.16. characteristic. subacute. thin. about 2-3. Dronapushpi (W. corolla. long with numerous wiry. size variable. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. hairy on upper part.35 cm wide.5 cm wide. ovate or ovate. globose. an annual. scaberulous.5 cm long and 0. slightly bitter. glabrous in lower part.7-2 cm 37 . white. stout herb. upto 4 mm thick. more or less pubescent. taste.Yellowish-green. pungent. taste.6-0. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. surface rough. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1. Inflorescence . Leaf . fine rootlets. slightly curved. hairy. Gumma. lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. 3-9 cm long. tubular.Sessile. crowded in dense. 1-2.3-0. 10 dentate with a villous throat. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. white. acute. smooth.9 m in high. erect. fibrous. ciliate.5 cm across. nodes and internodes distinct.lanceolate. serrate. about 0. zig-zag.2-1. Stem . fracture.

dark brown.long. vessels long with spurs. parenchymatous cells. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. secondary xylem consists of vessels.0. tracheids. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. nutlets 3 mm smooth. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. endoderm is single layered. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. trigonous. upper lip about 4 mm long. followed by round to oval parenchyma.tangentially elongated. Lamina . cortex consisting of single layered. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. 4 .Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Midrib . thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. composed of oval to rectangular. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.7 layered. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. b) Microscopic Root . some having simple pits.shows a single layered epidermis. tangentially elongated. thin-walled cells. smooth. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole . round to angular collenchyma. upto 8 cells high. irregular. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.3 cm long and 0.Schizocarpic carcerule. vessels and tracheids have simple pits.1 cm wide. vascular bundles 4. thin-walled 38 . 3-4 layers towards upper surface. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. consists of a single layered epidermis. consisting of barrel shaped. parenchymatous cells. Stem . palisade single layered. oblong. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. thin-walled cells. Seed . wooly. tracheids. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. bilipped. Fruit . lateral lobes small. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. fibres and xylem parenchyma. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. brown.vascular bundle arc-shaped. present in centre.

4.Alkaloid.6. ViÀamajvara DOSE . 2. 2. palisade ratio 7-9. stomatal index 16. 2.2. stomata diacytic. aseptate fibres. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Dull yellow. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.2. 16. IDENTITY.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. Powder .5 on lower surface. Agnim¡ndya. Ka¶u Guru.cells.3.2. Glycoside. Pittakara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. present on both surfaces.2. 2. a few veins present in this region. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Bhedani. THERAPEUTIC USES . Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Tamaka áv¡sa.áotha.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.2. Appendix 2. K¡sa.7 on upper surface.6-30. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡takara. 39 .5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.2. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.6-40. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. pitted and spiral vessels. K¡mal¡. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. RukÀa.7. Lava¸a. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.

consisting of single layered epidermal cells. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. cotyledons two. -Kakur. C. (Fam. Hastipani. creamish-yellow. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. parenchymatous cells. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi.17.3-0. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Ervaru (Sd. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. straight.7-10 cm long. shows stone cells. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Hastipani. mesophyll cells thinwalled. 0. Karka¶¢. B¤hatphala. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. sweetish oily. 0. covered with thick cuticle. Cucurbitaceae). more or less ellipsoid. an annual creeping herb. glossy. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda.4 cm wide. surface smooth. rounded and tangentially elongated. parenchymatous. utilissimus Roxb.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. thin-walled. Vellarika Kakadi. cultivated in many parts of the country. 40 . taste. radially elongated to squarish.

0.97 (all yellow) .2.58. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. Rucya.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 0. 0.3.19.V. T¤À¸¡.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. 0.77.IDENTITY.91 and 0.Oil & Sugars. CONSTITUENTS .6. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Pittahara. 41 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.26.91 and 0. RaktadoÀakara. 2. 0.2. 0.2. Raktapitta.97 (all grey). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. 2.26. A¿mar¢.5 per cent.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T.L.83. Tikta Guru.64. 2. V¡takara.3-6 g. Appendix 5 per cent.0. 0.83.7.0. 0. 2. Kaphakara.35. 0.C. Gulma. Appendix 0.D¡ha. 0. D¢pana.77.51.58. 0.L.19. 0. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. of seeds. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.35.2. (366 mm).64.C.51.91 (blue) under U.0.2. Jvara. 0.

Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. a large epiphytic climber.Kidney-shaped.0 cm in diameter and 2.0-3. thin-walled.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. 42 . greyish-brown with a dent. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. 0.5 cm thick. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . cut surface has a central core. Seed .3-0. Gajapippali (Fr.Shows more or less loosely arranged.0-3.4-0. 0. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. shiny. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. odour and taste not disticnt.6 cm long. Araceae).18.4 cm wide. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. smooth. odour and taste not distinct. rough and scaly. Orissa.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. b) Microscopic Fruit . brownish-grey.

0. oval to polygonal.27. thick-walled. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 0.2.5 per cent.65. 2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 0. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Three spots appear at Rf. 2.2. Agnivardhaka. THERAPEUTIC USES .áiv¡gutik¡. 0.2. 0. shows lignified. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Punarnav¡sava.27. thin-walled.Glucosides viz.3.2. K¤miroga.93 (all yellow).L. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix T. Kaphahara. 2.L. IDENTITY. 0.6. 2-4 layered.2. 0.V.93 (brown).Atis¡ra. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. Ka¸ha Roga.Seed .2.73 and 0. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.93 (all blue) are visible. oval to polygonal.4. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. 2.65. Powder .73 and 0.Dark brown. Sugars & Fixed Oil. 43 . Malavi¿oÀana. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.C.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U.65.2-3 g. DOSE . pitted and with concentric striations. thick-walled. CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸¶hya. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. V¡tahara.7. 0. 0. non-lignified. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. áv¡sa. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.65 and 0. in extract (Phant) form. T. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. Stanya.73 (both light brown) and 0. oval to polygonal.Shows a single layered.C.20. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

radially 44 . Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. thin-walled cells. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. cotyledons consisting of single layered. 0. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. (Fam. black.A drupe.6 cm wide. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Verbenaceae). tangentially elongated. Hannu -Kumbil. ovoid.0 cm long.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. K¡¿marya.4-0. parenchymatous cells. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. parenchymatous cells.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. Seed . Sr¢par¸¢. seed coat thin. Seed .Seed ovate.5-2. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. light yellow. crinkled. 1.5-1 cm long. P¢takarohi¸¢. multilayered. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. taste. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . taste. fleshy mesocarp.) unarmed tree. Gambhari (Fr. b) Microscopic Fruit . surface smooth. oily. sometimes one seeded. two seeded. 0. sweetish sour. papery. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled.19. Shivani. thin-walled. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari.

CONSTITUENTS .2.2.2.22. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Appendix 2. 0. Under U.94 and 0.26.52.98 (all blue). Alkaloid. 0. Resin and Saccharine.Blackish-brown.2. KÀata. Medhya. 0. T. shows stone cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.L. Sara.4.2. Tartaric acid.98 (yellow) in visible light. 2.L.6.18. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ras¡yana. Ke¿ya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.03.1-3 g. 2. 0. M£trak¤cchra.93 and 0.3.12. Appendix 6 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. IDENTITY. KÀaya. Powder . 0.7. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.03. H¤droga. Amla. H¤dya. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.D¡ha. Appendix 0.C.42. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Appendix 25 per cent. 0. 2. 0.98 (all yellow).Arvind¡sava. 2. 0. of the drug in powder form.08. KaÀ¡ya Guru. T¤À¸¡.. oil globules and aleurone grains.2. 0.elongated epidermal cells. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.4 per cent.C. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 45 . Rakta Pitta DOSE . 0. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.98 (orange). 0.V.Butyric acid.

occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. a shrub 0. consisting of tangentially elongated.6-1. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. channelled.Shows a wide cork. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. radially arranged cells. secondary cortex wide. consisting of 12-20 layered. fibrous. 46 . Tiliaceae). b) Microscopic Stem Bark . secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Grewia populifolia Vahl.0 m high. fracture. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. oval. blunt tips and moderately long in size. mucilaginous. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. moderately large in size. rectangular. a few stone cells. arranged in radial groups. Syn. (Fam. external surface smooth. Gangeru (St. light yellow.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk.Bk.) Aschers & Schwf.5-5 cm long. thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces.20. taste. fibrous. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. 1. elliptical. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. traversed by wide phloem rays..

17 (light violet).C.88 (light violet).88 (all yellow). Amla. 2.55 (blue) & 0. 0. 0.L. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.48 (violet).3. β-amyrin etc.27. Appendix 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.35. 0. Appendix per cent.). Two spots are seen at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2.2. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 0.V.17.2. 0. 0.13 (blue). 0.35 (dark blue). 0. 0. T.2-3 g. 0.L. 2. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug in powder form. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.08 (violet).48. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 0.41.Light yellow and fibrous.2. 2.08 (blue) 0. Appendix per cent.2. 0. 0.68 (light violet) & 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. Appendix per cent.29 (blue). α-amyrin. 0. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Ka¶u.J¢rak¡di Modaka. 0.Sugar. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Pittavik¡ra.64 (blue). under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 47 .08.C.35 (violet).68 & 0.6. 0.61. Appendix per cent.55.2.17.7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Under U. 0.27 (light violet).Vra¸a. Tikta. 0.Powder .35 (both light yellow) in visible light. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. DOSE .

exfoliating in small flakes. (Fam. Ghungchi Guluganji.21. Chanothee. pitted walls. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Gurivinda Ghongchi.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. feebly sweetish. gulagunja -Kunni. odourless. slightly corky. cork cambium. spreading throughout the plains. composed of 1-2 cells wide. b) Microscopic Root . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . taste. some with brownish content. bark thin. a climber. Kundumani Guriginga. simple or branched. becoming mildly bitter. soft.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Chonotee Ratti. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. present at short intervals. when distinct. cylindrical. Fabaceae). fruits ripen during winter. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. most often irregularly curved. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Gunja (Rt. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. tangentially elongated cells. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. light brown. flowering in August-September. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. smaller than stone cells. thinwalled. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati.

parenchyma thin-walled.5-13. pitted walls.2. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. Pittahara. Appendix 2. 2. small groups of sclerenchyma. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.Indralupta. THERAPEUTIC USES . áula.3 g.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.1 . CONSTITUENTS . wood composed of narrow concentric. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.2. Appendix 9 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent.5 per cent. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.2. 2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. 2. shows fragments of cork. groups of sclerenchymatous cells.2.5 -13.3. Mukha¿oÀa.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). Appendix 2. xylem vessels with pitted walls.75 µ in diameter.4.Greyish-brown. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta á¢ta. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.75 µ in diameter. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.2. of the drug in powder form. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. IDENTITY. vessels of varying sizes with thick. thin-walled and rectangular.7. stone cells. numerous xylem fibres.2. Powder .6. DOSE . medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.diverging towards periphery. 49 .

more numerous and closer towards periphery. besides the xylem and phloem elements. lignified. Serdi Ikha. 50 . scattered throughout the ground tissue.) shrub. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. cylindrical. with. smooth. odour. taste. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. juicy and sweet. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. solid. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. characteristic. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. conjoint. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. closed type of vascular bundles. Ikshu (St.22. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. distinct node and internode. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. b) Microscopic Stem . (Fam. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. Poaceae).

2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. M£tra KÀaya.7. vessels and sclerenchyma. shows pieces of epidermis. Appendix Not more than 2. 2.Sucrose. 51 .5 per cent. Balya.2. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. ground tissue.3. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Powder .2.4. V¤Àya.200 . V¡tahara. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.400 ml in the juice form. IDENTITY.2.2. Appendix 2.6. Kaphahara. DOSE .2.Raktapitta. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Sara.Powder light brick red.Bal¡ Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

composed of sieve elements. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. parenchyma and medullary rays. fibres aseptate.5-7. Gav¡kÀ¢. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal.5 cm thick. tangentially elongated cork cells. thin walled. a few filled with dark brown contents. occurring throughout the country.) Cucurbitaceae). Indravarana Gothakakucti. pitted. Varithummati. Indrayanalata. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. consisting of vessels. thick walled. Valiya Pekkumatti. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Indramanoa. fibres. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Tumbi Paikamatti. Paythumatti. áatakratulat¡.5 µ in dia.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. 0. elongated with pointed ends. cylindrical. Indravaruni. parenchymatous cells.23. Havumakke. short. (Fam. longitudinal fissures present. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. Indravaruni (Rt. tangentially elongated.2-2. an annual or perennial. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. xylem forms bulk of root. taste. Tuntikai. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Bitter apple Indravaran. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. slightly twisted. thick-walled. parenchyma and medullary rays. lying around vessels. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. fracture. intensively bitter. dull yellow. Indrayan. b) Microscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

b) Microscopic Powder . attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured.) Skeels Syn.800 m. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. astringent. smooth. Eugenia jambolana Lam.. thin-walled. 57 . compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. E. (Fam. cuminii Druce. Jambu (Sd. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. brownish-black. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. taste.Brown coloured. 1 cm long. Myrtaceae). found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. oval or roundish.. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. coriaceous covering. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. 1 cm wide. rounded starch grains. Seed . Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. a large evergreen tree. oval. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains.25.

0.20.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.3-6 g.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.30 and 0.95 (all violet). KaÀ¡ya Guru.95 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.3. THERAPEUTIC USES . three spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.20. Pittahara.C.30 and 0.2. 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.L. 0.4. Amla. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. Appendix 2.95 and 0.12.Glycoside (Jamboline). DOSE . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent. Udakameha. 0.Madhumeha. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form.V.6. Kaphahara.IDENTITY.30 (blue). Tannin. 2. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.L. 0.2. ViÀ¶ambhi.2. Appendix per cent.7. 58 . 2. T.2.

Mahamaram. stone cells. and phloem rays. elongated. Jambu (St. Jambu. Eugenia jambolana Lam. lower cork thin and colourless.5 cm thick. Raja Jambu Merale. oval to angular.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Jamneralae. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Neralamara -Njaval.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Myrtaceae). Jambuda Jomuna. cork cambium not distinct. rough. cuminii Druce.800 m. forming a rhytidoma. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. and reddish brown. fibres aseptate.26. fracture. younger bark mostly channelled. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.) Skeels Syn. a large evergreen tree. stratified and reddish-brown. taste. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. E. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Jam Jammu Naaval.. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. short and splintery. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . internal surface fibrous. astringent. light grey to ash coloured. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.5-2. Navval Sambu. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. upper few layers thick. 0. (Fam. Jamu.Bk.

region. round to oval starch grains. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara.2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. oval to angular.2. elongated.Light brown. Appendix per cent. reddish-brown content.7. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta. Stambhaka. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.U¿¢r¡sava.Atis¡ra.4.2. stone cells. V¡tala. Appendix 2.2. aseptate fibres. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. Pittahara. 2.10-20 g. IDENTITY. DOSE . of the drug for decoction. 2. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.6. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2.3. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. 2. 60 . round to oval starch grains. single or in groups.2. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.

thin-walled cells. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa.Shows a hard testa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. b) Microscopic Seed . Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. 5-7 m high. Nervala -Nervalam. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. consisting of an epidermal layer. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. ovate. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. slightly quadrangular. (Fam. dull cinnamon-brown. found throughout tropical India. Japala. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. Neervalam. Tinti·¢phala. oblong. Japal beej. slightly bent at middle. Jayapala (Sd. kernel yellowish and oily. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. no marked odour. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape.27. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Euphorbiaceae). Neervalam Jepal. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. filled with brownish content.) small evergreen tree. consisting of a large endosperm. 61 . Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo.

Appendix 0. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 15 per cent. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.49. 2. 0.2. 0.29. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Appendix 7 per cent.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 0. Powder .5 per cent. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.63 and 0.54 and 0.Jvara. 62 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4.39.10.2. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.V.L. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.84 (all violet). 0. 2. Vibandha DOSE . (366 nm) three spots at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.L.6-12 mg. 2.C. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.2.White with black particles of testa. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.34.6. 0. Pittahara. Resins & Phorbol esters.84 (brown). 0.2. T.90 (all yellow).C. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.Fixed oil. 0.3.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. 0.54 (yellow). Udararoga.2.34 (grey). under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.

) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. entire. 1. jayata Arinintajinamgi. paripinnate.3 cm long. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. -Semp. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. pith small.8-6 m high. opposite. Lamina . very shortly stalked. Jayanti (Lf. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis.) Merr. Jay¡. Fabaceae).3-0. present on both surfaces. aegyptiaca Pers. Atti. having secretory cavities in phloem.5 cm long.Syn.28. Karijimangai. linear.7 layered round. parenchymatous cells.8 cm wide.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. a quick growing. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. S. oblong. Jalugu. 0. (Fam. mucronate to acuminate. palisade single layered. consisting of thin-walled. 63 . 7.5-15. Arishimajingai. leaflets 6-16 pairs. 1. glabrous. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. polygonal. stomata anisocytic. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath.0-3. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. Jayanti Jaita. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. short lived shrub. á£kÀma patra.

48. 0.48.Protein. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.37. 0.97 (all grey).2. 0. Pittahara.19. 0. shows spongy parenchyma.3-6 g. Appendix per cent. Powder .L. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.2.C.19.6. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Calcium and Phosphorus. ViÀaroga. Appendix per cent. Galaga¸·a. in powder form.05. 0.4.2. 64 . palisade ratio 3.37.C.56. 2. T. 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.Dull green. 0. 0. 2.2. 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.05. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.L. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.11. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . palisade cells.11. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.7. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. 0. IDENTITY. 2.97 (all yellow). 0.56. 0. Ras¡yana.91 and 0.69.25-4. DOSE . V¡tahara.91 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .56 (all pink) and 0.29. Appendix 2.V.05.97 (yellow).2. 2. 0.29.19.11.Ratnagiri Rasa.M£trak¤cchra. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. 0.3.2.29. Appendix per cent. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.

seed without aril also prescent. Jyotishmati (Sd. light to dark brown.5-3. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. collapsed. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Seed . unpleasant.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. Celastraceae). mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. brownish-orange. colour. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. Gangunge beeja. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . (Fam. taste. a large climbing shrub. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. bitter. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. surface generally smooth and. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril.hard. odour.35 mm in breadth. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. ripe seeds.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin.29. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. Gangunge humpu.

thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.35. Powder . Appendix 9 per cent. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light.composed of polygonal. Appendix 1.2. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.35. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. stone cells. 0. UÀ¸a. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).2.2. áirovirecanopaga.2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.89 (all yellow). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.54 (both blue). 0.82 (pink) & 0.5 per cent. 0.15. 0.C. Appendix 45 per cent. 2. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. (all blue) & 0.L. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.6.C.54. 2.2.Oily.04.4. 2. 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS .20.94 (yellow).89 (both greenish blue). V¡maka. Appendix 2.3. 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.82.2.V.82 & 0. 0. Virecaka.63. 0.Alkaloids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Oil and Tannins.V.8 IDENTITY.89. Meddhya 66 . Kaphahara. 0. D¢pana. V¡tahara. 2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Tikta Sara. Appendix 6 per cent. Under U.54.82. dark brown. 0.L.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. 0. Appendix 20 per cent.7.

THERAPEUTIC USES .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. Sm¤tidaurbalya. ávitra. Oil : 5-15 drops.Seed: 1-2 g. DOSE .V¡tavy¡dh¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 67 .

Kadam Kadam. Indulam. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadamba mara. Vellaikhadambu. bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Kadappai. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadambu Needam. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces..30. Kadamba Nipo. Kadavala. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. A.Bk. indicus A. Vellai Kadambam. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. large tree. composed of thin-walled. taste. a deciduous. rectangular cells. a few cells with brown contents. Priyka Roghu. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Syn. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Rubiaceae). (Fam. Rich.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. some cells contain chlorophyll. elongated cells of phloem rays. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadamba Kadamba. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. Kadamba (St.

KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. 69 .Alkaloids. fibres. 0.70 (orange yellow). Lava¸a.5 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells.0.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES .4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.83 and 0. Vra¸a.2. 0. Powder .2.6.64. 2. 0.90 (grey). 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. L C.3. 0. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.2. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡ha. Raktapitta. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.1. of the drug in powder form.Brown. Appendix 1. phloem cells. DOSE .7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.57.13.5 g.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 .5:10) shows under U.21.03.2.63 (yellowish grey). 2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Steroids. T.31.2. 0. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.L. cells distinct and slightly elongated.C. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.79.phloem fibres. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. V¡tahara.79 (grey) and 0. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0. Appendix 2. Appendix 9 per cent. 2. YonidoÀa. Vra¸aropa¸a.

ovate or oblong.2-2. externally smooth. ovary globose. oblong. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. five lobed. 3-8 flowered cymes.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. a herbaceous annual weed. flattened. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. slender. 30-45 cm high. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. obtuse. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . hairy in lower part. 1. corolla 4-8 mm long.5 cm wide. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. glabrous. Pikachia. Ganikesopu. Manatakkali. Ganikegida. very slender.P. extra-axillary.5 mm long. toothed or lobed. Flower . Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. petiolate. calyx 2-3 mm long.) Solanaceae). road sides and gardens. white or pale violet. found throughout the country in dry parts. Kakamachi (W.31. Stem . yellowish. bark thin.25 mm long. oblong. narrowed at both ends. 70 . thin. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. Manitakkali. quite common in cultivated lands. Leaf . Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. glabrous. obtuse notched at apex. peduncles 6-20 mm long. anther 1. pedicels 6-10 mm long. (Fam. pale brown. filaments short. ganike.5-8. 2. style cylindric. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali.5 cm long and 2. sub-umbellate. Manaththakkali. sinuate. green.Simple.Erect. slightly woody and branched. glabrous or pubescent.Small. hairy at base.

a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. uniseriate. endoderrnis single layered. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. LeafPetiole . composed of thin-walled.. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. trichomes multicellular. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. oval to round starch grains. Midrib . two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. phloem rays uniseriate. central vascular bundle shallow.A berry. radially elongated cells. covered with striated cuticle. trichomes similar to those found on petiole.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. arc71 . glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. smooth. xylem rays homogenous. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.5-11 µ in dia. parenchyma 4-6 layered. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains. in small or large patches. rays composed of thin-walled. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. polygonal cells.' oval parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. 1. uniseriate. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.Shows single layered. uniseriate. cambium 2-4 layered. filled with starch grains. minutely pitted. Stem . embedded in perimedullary zones. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.5-8. slightly striated cuticle.. obtuse. but 4. slightly elongated. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. single or with two or rarely 3 components. arcshaped.25 µ in dia. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. measuring 2.Discoid.. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. internal phloem. conjoint and open. smooth shining Seed .10 layered in angular parts. measuring 2. pith large. usually accompanied by fibres. phloem consists of thin-walled. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls.5 mm in dia. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. compactly arranged. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. yellow or black.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. yellow. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows.. 6mm in dia. covered with thick. vascular bundles-collateral. tangentially elongated. covering trichomes. bicollateral. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. covered with striated cuticle. epidermis single layered. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. cortex of large.Fruit .

stomata anisocytic.7. 2. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. papery epicarp. Powder .34 (both brown) in visible light. palisade single layered. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.5 .Alkaloids and Saponins. Lamina .2. unicellular hairs.C. 0. Fruit . Under U. 0. 72 . both upper and lower epidermis single layered. 0.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. 2. epidermis with irregular outline. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.06 & 0. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. palisade ratio 2-4.97 (all yellow). single.Shows thin. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. measuring 2. Appendix per cent.dorsiventral. a few broken pieces of pointed. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. Appendix 2. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.06 & 0. vein islet number 7-10.Creamish-green.34 (both pink). a few vessels with spiral thickenings. 034 and 0.2. Appendix per cent.2. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.V.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. 2. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Appendix per cent.C.4. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.11 µ in diameter.2.2. T. 2. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.L. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.2. CONSTITUENTS .06.6.

Sara. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Tikta Laghu. DOSE . 73 . H¤droga. Pittahara.áotha. H¤dya.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ras¡yana. Kaphahara. Svarya. Ka¸·u. Chardi. Ar¿a. Netraroga. V¡tahara.5 -10 ml. of the drug in juice form. Prameha. Jvara. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Hikk¡.

32. 74 . occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. crimp led. erect. broken pieces also occur. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. black. Tavare. embedded in a creamy. extended into clavate appendages. Tavaregedd -Tamara.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. free. Kamalam. petals numerous. obtuse. Thamaraipoo.4-2 cm long. anther. starchy and large. Venthamara. Chenthamara. finely veined. Padma. Kamala (Fl. carpels many. 3-5 cm long.3-2 cm wide. androecium. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. aquatic herb with creeping stem. gynoceium apocarpous. comprising of calyx. Naidile.5-3 cm wide. 2-4 cm long. (Fam. elliptic. crimpled. gynoecium and thalamus. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Aravindan. membranous. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Sitopala. sepals leaf-like.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 1. Kamal. a large. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. yellowish-brown. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. Sarojam Kaluva.. Aravinda. seed hard. dark brown. Syn. corolla. Kanwal Kamal. Nymphaeaceae). linear 1. Kalh¡ra. Paduman. 1. Pamposh Tamarai.

followed by ground tissue of oval.2. 2. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.Aravind¡sava. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. vascular bundle single. columnar. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. parenchymatous cell. Appendix per cent. Sant¡pahara. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. 2. IDENTITY.2. two on either sides. yellow pollen grains. Tikta. ViÀavik¡ra. composed of thin-walled. Appendix 2. 2.3. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. spherical.Raktapitta.2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Anther .Dusty brown. having smooth exine and intine. 2. M£tra Virajan¢ya. Powder . Pittahara.2. Appendix per cent. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. Stamen Filament .filament appears circular in outline.shows four chambered anther. . measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells.12 -24 g. of the drug for decoction. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. angular.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.2.2. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.7. rectangular. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.6.4. Visarpa.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). Appendix per cent. spore sac contains yellow.

Rutaceae). measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. straight. often cultivated in many parts of India. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Pulp. parenchymatous cells. 76 . axillary thorns. Kapittha (Fr. Bilvara. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. Powder . aromatic. taste. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. slightly triangular and oval. Syn. Kavita Wood apple Kotha.) Swingle. rough. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. elephantum Correa (Faro. stone cells.33. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Kavataleal. odour. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp .shows irregular. a deciduous. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. sour. found in groups. found throughout the plains of India. stone cells.Reddish-brown. sharp. hard. reddish brown. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. semicircular. Belada hannu. Balada. Siwalik range and forests. glabrous tree with strong. Belalu. thin-walled. F.

Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.C. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. DOSE .12 (brown). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.V.14 (sky blue).7. KaÀ¡ya. 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.3.95 (violet) .C.50.2. Vra¸an¡¿aka.Citric acid and Mucilage. Pittav¡tahara. Ripe-T¤À¡. 77 .37 (brown).50 (violet). (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.IDENTITY.91 (grey) in visible light. 0. of the drug in powder form.06. Sangr¡h¢.91 (violet) and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.95 (blue).91 and 0. Hikk¡.6.12. 0.2. 2.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. Appendix per cent. Under U.2. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Lekhana.2.95 (all yellow).áv¡sa.2. Unripe Pulp: Amla. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 2. 6. 0. 0.2. 0. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2.L.37.L. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Amla. 0. V¡mi. Gr¡h¢. T. 0.91 (blue) and 0. Agnim¡ndya.

Greyish-brown. shows single and groups of stone cells. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. simple and compound starch grains.) Apocynaceae). (Fam . 78 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn.Bk. starch grains simple. and compound having 2-3 components. sometimes cultivated. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. rough due to longitudinal striations. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. short. light in weight. internal surface grey and smooth. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. met throughout India in wild state. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. flat or slightly curved pieces. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Powder .34. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. fracture. Karamarda (St. tubular. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. external surface brownish-grey. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places.

0. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. Pittakara. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .6.IDENTITY. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2. 2.58 (both light grey).97 (violet).2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. 79 .4.3.90 (pink) and 0.35.C.L. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.V.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.48 g.2. T.52 (light sky blue). 2. Appendix per cent.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. 0. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.C. 0. 2.2.2. Appendix per cent. of the drug for decoction.KuÀthahara.2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. DOSE . Appendix 2.L. Appendix per cent.

Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. secondary phloem very wide. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. Karanja (Rt. (Fam. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. thin-walled. Syn. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. single cells of varying shape and size. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. 3-11 µ in dia. P. traversed by phloem rays. Nakt¡hv¡. Naktam¡la. fracture. Bk. a glabrous tree. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. tangentially elongated. internally..35. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. cells. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. fibrous. Fabaceae).) glabra Vent. tangentially elongated cells.) Merr. due to peeling off. most of phloem 80 . composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. very bitter. external surface rough.

radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.04 (blue). 0. Tikta. 0.L.37 (greenish yellow). KuÀtha.6. 2. 0.51.1-3 g.42 (sky blue).2.2. IDENTITY. 81 . CONSTITUENTS . mostly straight. T. 0. Ëntravidradhi. 0. V¡tahara. 0.Flavones Kanugin. Appendix 17 per cent. 0.7. 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.09.31. 0.13 (Sky blue).25 (sky blue). similar to those present in secondary cortex.3. Ka¸·£ghna.18 (blue) 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. Appendix 3.37. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.80 and 0. shows thin-walled. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Ka¸·u. THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. similar to those present in secondary cortex.2.18.08 (greenish blue).V. ViÀaghma.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.80 (light blue). 0. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.47.31 (sky blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.51 (light blue). phloem rays many.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. 0.2. 2. cork cells. Powder -Creamish-yellow. Yoniroga.K¤miroga. 2.C. parenchymatous cells.47.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. consisting of thin-walled. DOSE . Appendix 2 per cent. Pittahara. Prameha.2. 2. of the drug for decoction.47 (greenish yellow). 0. 0. 0.2.4. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.5 per cent. phloem fibres.C. Appendix 11 per cent. 1-2 seriate. Appendix 2.98 (all yellow). most of ray cells contain starch grain.

consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. Syn. consisting of 82 .) Vent. Karanja (Rt. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. secondary phloem a very wide zone. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. rough due to the presence of numerous. bark does not easily separate from xylem. tangentially elongated. a glabrous tree. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. bark. (Fam. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. internally light yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. irregularly distributed. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. rounded to oval in shape.) Merr.36. reddish-brown or dull brown. tangentially elongated cells. Fabaceae). Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. bitter. P. Nakt¡hv¡. 1-2 seriate. light in weight. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.. taste. Karaµjaka. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. cells. thin-walled. 3-11 µ in dia. fracture. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.

K¤miroga. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.1-2 g. Appendix per cent.radially elongated. of the drug in powder form. ViÀaghna. starch grains. V¡tahara. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated towards outer region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . 2. Vidradh¢. Prameha.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Demethoxy-kanugin. Yoniroga. more. 2. Ka¸·£. Kanugin. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.3.2. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha.2. Pittahara. rounded to oval in shape. DOSE . Powder -Light yellow. fibres and parenchyma. 2. consisting of 2-3 components. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.. Tikta. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Ëntravidradh¢. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. shows fibres in singles or groups.2.DuÀ¶avra¸a. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.Karanjin.Methylfisetin. Vra¸a¿odhana. Kaphahara.4. 83 .2.2. Appendix per cent. thin-waned cells towards inner region. IDENTITY. tracheids. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.2-1 cm thick. Karaµjaka. thick-walled cells. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. (Fam. slightly quilled. more or less smooth. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. phloem parenchyma. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. alternating with stone cells. Fabaceae). usually 0. unpleasant. odour. b) Microscopic Bark . arranged in a tangential manner. taste. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. at some places lenticels also appear.) glabra Vent.. short and fibrous. traversed by medullary rays. Nakt¡hv¡. lenticellate pieces. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. composed of rectangular. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. bitter. forming a continuous or discontinuous band.Bk. Karanja (St. phloem fibre and stone cells. recurved. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fibre small. 84 . Syn. Karanja.37. fracture. P. filled with reddish-brown content.) Merr. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.

4. phloem parenchyma and rays cells.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vidradh¢. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. starch grains simple. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS . oil globules. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Appendix 2.6. IDENTITY. Ka¸·u. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 1.polygonal.. medullary rays wavy. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. 2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. Tikta.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Pinnatin. 2. Ëntravidradh¢. elongated. Kaphahara.2. rounded to oval. Appendix 18 per cent. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Appendix 13 per cent. 2.2. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. of the drug in powder form. Ka¶u. measuring 3-14 µ in dia.1-2 g. Kanugin. 5Methoxyfurano (2". 2. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. KuÀ¶ha. and rarely. Demethoxy- kanugin.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Gamatin. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II.7. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. aseptate fibre and stone cells. Powder -Yellowish-cream. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. present in secondary cortex.2. Pongapin. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. thin-walled and aseptate. simple and compound starch grains.5 per cent. ViÀaghma. Yoniroga DOSE . Pittahara. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2".2. V¡tahara. usually 2-4 cells wide. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. 3". 85 .3. 3" 7 : 8).2.

38. traversed by xylem rays.5-0. Dithouri Honge. Ungu. Karanja. Pongana Ganuga. (Fam. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. xylem vessels arranged radially. dark green. Unu. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. P.circular in outline. isodiametric..11. Karanja (Lf. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.) Vent. 6. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule .9-8. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Kanajo Karuaini. leaflets 2-3 pairs. a glabrous tree.3 cm wide.2 . 0. Nakt¡hv¡. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.8 cm. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. covered with cuticle. consisting of xylem and phloem. Karaµjaka. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. consistig of tabular cells. 86 . arcshaped. Syn. vascular bundle single. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.) Merr. petiolule short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Fabaceae). Hulagilu -Pungu. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. epidermis single layered.5 cm long and 3. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. cortex consisting of angular.

Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. palisade two layered.2.5". Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.2. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring.6. Tikta.2.(4". stomatal index 12.2. shows spiral xylem vessels. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.6. consisting of tabular cells. stomata anisocytic. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.4. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . collateral. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . 5" . V¡tahara. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Appendix 10 per cent. cortex consists of round to oval.5-50. Appendix 2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.5-20. palisade ratio 3. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. .2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".shows single layered epidermis. Appendix 16 per cent.5) . Ka¶u. covered with thick cuticle. 5". Ka¸·ughna. 2. Powder -Green. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.6.Mid rib .3. present in lower surface.7. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. phloem and pith. Appendix 11 per cent. 2. vascular bundle. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.5 per cent.A new Furanoflavone -3' . Pittavardhaka.2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. K¤imihara. mesophyll cells. 2. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Appendix 3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 7) -flavone. 2.

DOSE .K¤miroga.For external use only. Vra¸a. 88 .J¡ty¡di Taila. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·au. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. upto an altitude of 1500 m.2. Kakiral.2. Nil Appendix 8. Appendix 0.7. Appendix 2. Appendix 6 per cent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.2.6. extremely bitter.2.) Cucurbitaceae). 2.5 per cent. Appendix 28 per cent.4. usually pointed or beaked. 2.25 cm long. 2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Karavallaka (Fresh.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. 3 valved at the apex when mature. surface rough. pendulous. taste. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.Fr.39.5 . IDENTITY. 2. K¡ravall¢. Varivall¢.6 per cent.2. oblong. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. fusiform. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. Kathilla. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.3.

0.98 (red & sky blue). KuÀ¶ha. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.61 (light sky blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.60. 90 . DOSE .98 (all yellow).43.34. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. P¡¸·u.C.15 ml. CONSTITUENTS .75. Raktavik¡ra. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.46. THERAPEUTIC USES .03.L.96 (sky blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. 0. 0.V.L.98 (all blue).Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. juice of fresh drug. 0. 0.50. Prameha.T.81 and 0. 0. K¡mal¡. 0. K¡sa.23 (red). 0.C. 0.17.67 and 0. Kaphahara. 0. Aruci. V¡tahara. K¤miroga. T. H¤dya. 0. 0. 0. D¢pana.áv¡sa.16. Jvara. 0.10 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Katuka (Rz. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. bitter. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Kaurohi¸¢. mostly attached with rhizomes. Katuka rohini Kutki. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. short. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. fracture.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. subcylindrical. Katuku rohini. short. pleasant.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. Kav¢. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. Kauka. Kalikutki Katuki Karru.05-0. fracture. bitter. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . b) Microscopic Rhizome . externally greyish-brown. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. taste. Tiktarohi¸¢. pleasant. 5-10 cm long. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.1 cm in diameter. a perennial. odour. Rohi¸¢. suberised cells. (Fam. cork cambium 1-2 layered. taste.2. kaur Katuka rohini. Katki. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. primary cortex persists 91 . cortex single layered or absent. dusty grey. Sutiktaka. straight or slightly curved. inner surface black with whitish xylem. 0. cylindrical. . Scrophulariaceae). Root . odour.40.Thin.

7.6. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.in some cases. 2.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. tracheids.17. 0. tracheids. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. 0. Powder . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 2. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.Dusty grey. T. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.62. hypodermis single layered.84 (all brownish grey). vessels have varying shape and size. cortex 8-14 layered. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. tracheids long. 0. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. parenchymatous cells. 0. secondary xylem consists of vessels.17.41.2. measuring 25 .C. starch grains.V. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. 2.05 (blue). thick-walled. starch grains. 0.2. 0.84 (all yellow). centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0.05. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. thick-walled. 0. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. IDENTITY. 92 . parenchyma. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.C. secondary phloem poorly developed.41 and 0.L.30.2. fibres aseptate. some cylindrical with taillike. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends.21.4.30 (blue) and 0. simple round to oval. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 2.2. thick-walled.30.10. thick-walled.72 and 0. abundantly found in all cells. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.3. Appendix per cent.. cambium 2-4 layered. thick-walled cells of endodermis. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10. tapering ends.21. simple round to oval. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. 0. parenchyma and fibres. 0. 0. lignified.L.104 µ in diameter. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. consisting of oval to polygonal.35 (green). 0.2.37. Appendix per cent.

K¡mal¡.áv¡sa.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Jvara.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Arocaka. DOSE . Pittahara.1 . Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. 93 . KuÀ¶ha.CONSTITUENTS .3 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bhedin¢. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. of the drug in powder form. D¡ha. D¢pan¢. ViÀamajvara.

Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. acute. Kettu. Hygrophila spinosa T. 0. no characteristic odour and taste. subsessile.Yellowish-brown. widely 2 lipped. upper sepal 1. tube 1. swollen at nodes. Leaf . Kokilaksha (W. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Kolavankal ---. lanceolate.P. Culli. Nirchulli. Kolarind. whitish to brown.Mostly adventitious.Acanthaceae).6 cm long. entire and hairy. Syn. which are 1. IkÀuraka.5-1 cm wide. abruptly swollen at top.41. all linear-lanceolate. fasciculate.Usually unbranched. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. with long white hairs. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. 1-7 cm long. bracts about 2.5 cm long. a spiny. second pair 94 . usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.Anders (Fam.3 cm long. calyx 4-partite. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Stem . broader than the other three. common in water logged places throughout the country. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . stout. stamens 4.2 cm long. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. no characteristic odour and taste.Greenish-brown. externally greyish-brown. corolla 3. sub-quadrangular. Vayalculli Talikhana.6-2 cm long.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. didynamous. Nirguvireru. annual herb. Flower .

truncate at the base. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. thin-walled cells. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. ray cells thin-walled. filament quite glabrous. thin-walled. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. flat or compressed. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. endodermis single layered. xylem present in a ring. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. with a number of large air cavities. glabrous.15 cm wide. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles.25 cm long and 0. style filiform.1 . Stem . secondary xylem forms continuous ring. radially elongated in xylem region. 4seeded. peripheral ones larger. composed of transversely elongate. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. pubescent. brownish cells. anthers two celled. single or in groups of 2-3. linear-oblong. cortical cells thin-walled. Seed . a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. arranged radially. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. radially elongated in secondary xylem. compressed. phloem narrow. moderately thick-walled. ray cells thin walled. having small intercellular spaces. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. vessels angular. pith large. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. variable in size.0. consisting of round to polygonal cells. 95 .Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. scattered throughout the phloem region.8 cm long.Ovate. a few thick-walled. fibre walls uniformly thickened. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. hairy but appearing smooth. arranged in radial rows.2-0. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. light brown. phloem fibres thick-walled. rectangular to cubical. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region.Two celled. radially arranged. vessels with spiral thickenings.larger. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. subequal. b) Microscopic Root . polygonal cells. pointed. involute with a fissure on upper side. composed of polygonal. Fruit . oblong. stigma simple. broader towards centre. 0. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. fibres thick-walled. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. round. inner cells smaller. capsule about 0.

loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. 2. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Tikta Picchila.2. thick-walled. thin-walled.6.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Amla. Powder .Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. Appendix per cent. palisade. V¡jikara. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. stomata diacytic. 2.78.25-15. sclerenchymatous cells. M£trala. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. stomatal index 17.7. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. palisade 1-2 layered. shows aseptate. tangentially elongated cells. Lamina . oval to hexagonal.4.2.2. . parenchymatous. covered with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent. 2.75. lignified. 2.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.2. vein islet number 17-42.Light brown.2. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. palisade ratio 6. Appendix 2. elongated fibres. composed of thin-walled. unicellular hairs and globules. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.3. parenchymatous cells. Seed . Appendix per cent.24-30.LeafMidrib . Rucya. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Fruit . Appendix per cent.Shows concavo-convex outline. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. IDENTITY.

3 -6 g. 97 .T¤À¸¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëmav¡ta áotha. of the drug in powder form. DOSE .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

no characteristic odour and taste. slightly transversely elongated. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. whitish to brownish. secondary phloem narrow. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. the size of these cells. Kolavankae -Vayalculli.42. a spiny. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Kokilaksha (Rt. 98 . Hygrophila spinosa T.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Anders (Fam. stout.Acanthaceae). polygonal cells. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Syn. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. consisting of small. common in water logged places throughout the country. Nerugobbi. branches on nodes. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Root-Appears circular in outline. annual herb. thin-walled. Kolavulike. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Kokil¡kÀ¢. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Culli --. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. thinwalled cells. IkÀuraka. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.

surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. 2. M£trala.2.Light brown to ash coloured. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Tikta Picchila. Appendix 2.2. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. 2. having spiral thickening.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.3.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Powder . unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. radially elongated in the xylem region. Amla. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. broader towards centre. each group composed of 2-6 cells.2. scattered throughout the phloem region. 99 .3 -6 g.4. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent.7. V¡tahara. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. 2. fibre walls uniformly thickened. V¡tarakta. A¿ma¤¢. Appendix per cent. angular.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. shows fragments of pitted.2. of the drug for decoction. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . lignified fibres. ray cells thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. vessels with spiral thickening.2.

embryo composed of oval to polygonal.43. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. IkÀuraka. the 100 . Maradarishana. white.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Kokilaksha (Sd. Powder . Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Anders. Syn. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Daruhuladur Darhald. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. thinwalled. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Hygrophila spinosa T. taste. parenchymatous cells. flat or compressed. (Fam. annual herb. Acanthaceae). hairy but appearing smooth. Swelling Index . stout. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.8 -10. common in water logged places throughout the country.Greyish-brown. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. b) Microscopic Seed . oil globules present in this region. a spiny. shows hairs and oil globules. light yellowish-brown. truncate at the base.

Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Santarpa¸a. 0. Lipase. 2.24 (red).31 (dark brown).3. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.72 (all yellow).2. 0. of the drug in powder form.41 (light blue).72 (dark brown).2.38 (light brown). 0. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.2. Kaphahara. 0. 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.24 (dark brown). related to 1 g of seeds. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.03. 0. Pitt¡¿mar¢.C. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix per cent.52 and 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2.24.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. CONSTITUENTS .52 (dark brown) and 0.3 -6 g. 0. 0. Protease and an Alkaloid.áotha..55 (light blue).2. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 101 . 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0. 0.03 (light brown). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. T. DOSE . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.6. 0. IDENTITY.An yellow semi-drying oil.10 (light brown).17 (light brown).V.38.93 (sky blue). V¡tarakta. 2. including any sticky mucilage.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.C.L.L. Appendix 2. Add 25 ml of water. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. V¤Àya. enzymes like Diastase.4.76 (sky blue) and 0. 2.17.31. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.

Kulfa. surface smooth. short. Paruppukkeerai. Stem . Loni.A few. Pulikkirai. 102 . Doddagoni Soppu. stamens 8-12.3 to 2. found throughout the country. Kozhuppa. Lonika. oblique. root hairs abundant in upper region. oblong. swollen at the nodes. 0. -Baraloniya. Fruit . prostrate herb. secondary roots. branched. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Badanuni. dehiscing above the base. 0. Gho¶ik¡. Kwfa Pasalai.1 to 0. Baranunia Garden Purslane. 0. at terminal heads. Moti Luni Khursa.P) Portulacaceae). Loni. petals obovate. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6.35-0. subtended by an involucre.2 cm in diameter.Simple. Common Indian Purslane Luni.6 cm wide. fracture. Kozuppaccira Kurfah.Almost cylindrical.5 cm long and 0. fracture. short. style 5-6 fid.44. Kozuppa. rounded and truncate at the apex. spathulate. sepal 0. very delicate and soon falling off. 0. Leaf . Kuzuppa (W.4 cm long. characteristic. Flower . odour. 0. less in number. smooth and greenish-brown. Chhotalunia. cuneiform. an annual succulent.1 to 0.5 cm long.25-0. Loni -Koricchira. 50 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. (Fam. Payilikura. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Peddapavila Kura. brownish-grey. 3-4 leaves. sub-sessile. Khurfa.4 cm long.3 cm long. Badi Lona Dudagorai. small.An ovoid capsule. Kozhuppu Pappukura. ribbed. bright yellow. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Ghola -Lonak.Cylindrical.

shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. Lamina . oval. shows groups of oval to polygonal. secondary xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. pericycle fibre present in patches.2..7. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. oval cells. measuring 6-14 µ . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. .Seed -Numerous. b) Microscopic Root .2. having simple pits and spiral thickening.3.Wavy in outline. 2. tracheids.4. Powder . measuring 6-14 µ in dia. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. solitary or in groups of 2-5. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. thick-walled with wide lumen. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. reniform. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.2. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. covered externally with a thick cuticle. phloem. 2. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. simple as well as compound. having intercellular spaces.2. Appendix 2. black. tracheids and parenchyma.06-0. parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered. as well as compound. having 2-3 components. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. fragments of cork cells. tracheids and parenchyma.07 cm across.2. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma abundant. 2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. LeafMidrib . pitted and spiral vessels. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem composed of vessels. thin-walled. Appendix per cent. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. stomata paracytic type. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 0. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. vessels. arranged in radial rows.2. present in mesophyll cells. Stem . minute.6. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. dark brown.Greyish-brown. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. phloem and xylem parenchyma. 2.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. ray cells and pith. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.

98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . 0. T.Agnim¡ndya. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. V¡tahara.76 and 0.6 g. 0.68 (yellow) and 0. 0. 0.68 and 0. Pittakara.41.08. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.10.61.08.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 0.76 (green) in visible light. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.L.52. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. 0. (both green).68.10. RukÀa. 0. 0.10. Under U. Carbohydrates. CakÀuÀya. Gulma.T. Vra¸a DOSE . Ar¿a. of the drug in powder form.C..L. 0.Protein.V. 104 . 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .41. 0.52 (both faint green). Prameha.76 (all pinkish red). áotha. 0.50.3 .C. 0. 0.

odour. bark fibrous. Leaf . obliquely narrow or linear oblong. 0. stipulate.P) diffused undershrub.3-0. taste. 105 . Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata.2 cm long. 0.Cylindrical. distinct. tapering. alternate. Lajjalu (W.45. obliquely rounded at base. rependant . sessile. bark fibrous. internal cut surface grey. cut surface of pieces pale yellow.5 cm in dia. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani.4 cm broad. linear lanceolate. varying in length. Lajavanti. with secondary and tertiary branches. covered with long. Machikegida. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. Fabaceae). Stem . woody. leaflets 10-20 pairs. easily separable from wood. greyish brown to brown. hairy pinnae.6-1. fracture hard. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. 25-50 cm high. sensitive to touch. Adamalati Lajaka. upto 2 cm thick.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile.Cylindrical. petiolate. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. Lajauni Muttidasenui.week bristles longitudinally grooved. external surface light brown. Lajamani Chhuimui. nearly glabrous. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. (Fam. Var¡kr¡nt¡. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . yellowish-green. acute. sparsely prickly. upto 2. slightly astringent.

secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. spreading bristle at sutures. peduncles prickly. rarely multiseriate. 0.3 long. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. calyx very small. fibres. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. tangentially elongated to oval. Fruit .5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. b) Microscopic Root . tracheids pitted with pointed ends. 3-25 chambered. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. stamens 4. simple. crystal fibres elongated. 2-3 seriate more common. parenchyma. 0. phloem fibres single or in groups. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. radially elongated. thick-walled.Compressed. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. oval-elliptic. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pith consisting of polygonal. dry. 2. xylem rays radially elongated. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Pink. arranged in tangential bands.4-0. phloem rays thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. corolla pink. brown to grey. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. crystal fibres thick-walled. respectively. starch grains.Flower . moderately thick-walled. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. consisting of large. 1-1. tangentially elongated cells. fibres single or in groups. thick-walled. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. ovate oblong. Stem .Lomentum. much exserted. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. fibres of two types. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.3 cm long. ovary sessile. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. a number of lignified. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. glabrous.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. thick-walled. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 0. lobes 4. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. ovules numerous. 106 . filled with reddish-brown contents. straw coloured. scattered throughout secondary xylem. in globose head. secondary cortex wide. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells.6 cm long.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. phloem rays uni to multiseriate.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. scattered throughout. Seed .

C.3 components IDENTITY. T. shaggy hairs. 2. palisade cells non glandular. 0. vascular bundle single.6. with 2 .C.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. spongy parenchyma single layered.4. parenchymatous cells. 2. 2. crystal fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.35. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. parenchymatous cells Seed . endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. shaggy hairs.L. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.62. lignified cells followed by single layered. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. pericycle arranged in a ring.81 (bluish-pink). 0. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.V.2.shows epidermis on both surfaces. covered with thin-cuticle. reticulate. Lamina . branched. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.7. Midrib . palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. 2. one in each wing.2.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.L.2. Fruit .Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. Appendix per cent.69 (all blue) and 0. fibres. Appendix per cent. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells.3.shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. shows. thin-walled.2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. Appendix 2. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted vessels. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. 0. branched. pericycle same as in petiole. single and compound starch grains. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.2.Leaf- Petiole . Powder . cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. endocarp of thick-walled. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade.Reddish-brown.

Raktapita DOSE .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .10-20 g of the drug for decoction. KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa.áopha. 0. 0.35 (orange).35 and 0. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . Yoniroga. Vra¸a.spots appear at Rf.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Ku¶aj¡valeha. Atis¡ra. 108 . B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. D¡ha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

basifixed. Kattu Iluppai.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. taste. Iluppa.) Macbride. epipetalous and arranged in two series.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Halippe. lanceolate. b) Microscopic Corolla . Ilippa. sweet. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). erect 0.Gmel. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Syn. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. (Fam. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua.F. short. Eppimara -Irippa. Sapotaceae) . Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Hippenara. and also cultivated. Madhuka (Fl. Hippe. followed by thin-walled. tabular. Androecium . latifolia (Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. ovate lanceolate.46. Ippa. Mahawash tree Mahudo.5-2 cm long. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. anther sub-sessile. epipetalous. a few 109 . M. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. corolla fleshy. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Madhuka. Mahua Katiluppai. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. reddish-brown.

KÀaya. tapetum not distinct. D¡ha.2. 2. lignified cells. pollen grains single or in groups.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. of the drug. spherical. 2.10 .9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows fragments of epidermal cells. 2.áv¡sa. Balya. Ah¤dya. Appendix 10 per cent. 2.3. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.2. 110 . unicellular hairs. Appendix 25 per cent. El¡di Modaka. árama DOSE . with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.15 g. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Pittakara.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¡tahara.unicellular hairs present on one side. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.2.2. oval shaped. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2. T¤À¸¡.7. IDENTITY.Madh£k¡sava. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . áramahara.Dark brown. round.2. Appendix 70 per cent. Appendix 0.6.2.4. KÀata.5 per cent.

Syn. non Link.1-0. sessile. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. or elliptic. 0. Matshyakshi (W.Cylindrical. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Stem . Bahli. 0. no characteristic odour and taste.6 cm diameter. A.. nodes and internodes distinct.5 cm long. Br. fracture. with spreading branches from the base. 2. yellowish-brown to light-brown. bracteoles 111 . Br. no characteristic odour and taste.3-7. Gandal¢. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.3-2 cm wide. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Br. Flower .. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. short.5 cm wide. Amaranthaceae). cream to grey. linear-oblong. Leaf . Matsy¡duni. (Fam. A. A. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak..47.) R. no characteristic odour and taste.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. white often tinged with pink. weak. A. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region.Herbaceous. nodiflora R. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. fracture. internodes 0.. repens Gmel.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. triandra Lam. often rooting at lower nodes.P. obtuse or subacute.1. short..5-5 cm long. denticulata R.

there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. ovary obcordate.5-3 mm long. stomata paracytic. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. isodiametic cells. 112 . b) Microscopic Root .Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. covered wtith striated cuticle. compressed with thickened margins. irregular. consisting of thin-walled cells. ovate. with are conjoint. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. consistig of thin-walled. single layered. round to oval. 1. radially arranged cork cells. round or oval. parenchymatous cells.2 cm long. shows wavy or undulate. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. Leaf- Midrib . sepals ovate. no characteristic odour and taste. Stem . tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. composed of thin-walled. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. open and exarch. Fruit . round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. compressed. capitellate. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. with anomalous secondary growth. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. acute. parenchymatous cells. collenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. secondary cortex narrow. style very short. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish.dorsiventral. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. thin. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. isodiametric.5 mm long. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. each consisting of xylem and phloem.1.Utricle. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. scarious. vascualr bundles radially arranged. pith consisting of thin-walled. bicollateral. thin-walled. thin-walled round or oval. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. perianth 2. vascular bundles three. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. pith distinct. orbicular. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. palisade 2-3 layers. palisade ratio 3-5. present in the centre. Lamina . no characteristic odour and taste. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. xylem tissues lignified. numerous.

shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. 0. Appendix 4. Kaphahara.Olive green.68 (all red).25.3.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Pittavik¡ra. CONSTITUENTS . palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 10 per cent.33 and 0.94 and 0. 0.96 (all yellow).V. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .2. of the drug in powder form.6. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. 0. 0.54 and 0.2. Appendix 3 per cent.7. 0. 2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. IDENTITY.Sugar.81.44 (all green). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 2.18.2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. T. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.C.KuÀ¶ha.33. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Appendix 19 per cent. V¡tahara.2. 0..35.5 per cent. Under U.59. Tikta.Powder . 113 .44. Appendix 2.4. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.C. 0. paracytic stomata. THERAPEUTIC USES .16.2 -3 g.16.L.2.44.L.

thin-walled. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. odour.15-0. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. cultivated throughout the country. annual herb. taste. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. dull yellow. 0. pleasant. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. bitter. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.48. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. (Fam. 0. several layers of thin walled. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. varying in size. Methi (Sd. smooth. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. parenchymatous cells. very hard. mucilaginous cells.5 cm long. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.walled.2-0. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.35 cm broad. 30-60 cm tall. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.Seed shows a layer of thick. covered externally with thick cuticle.) aromatic. cells flat at base. 114 . columnar palisade. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. b) Microscopic Seed .

Yellow. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix 5 per cent.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2.Graha¸¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Kaphahara.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.6. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.3. Aruci DOSE . V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Prameha.4. CONSTITUENTS .3-6 g.2.5 per cent. IDENTITY. 2.2. 2. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. 115 . Jvara.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Powder . 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Alkaloid.2. Sapogenins and Mucilage. Appendix 4 per cent. aleurone grains. Rucya. oil globules.2. Appendix 0.

seplas 6. Muli.3 cm long. coarsely toothed.Lower leaves hairy. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying.Flower in long terminal raceme. odour.. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . sub-linear but narrowed at the base. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.Root cylindrical. cylindrical. pedicel with scattered hairs. hollow.2 cm long. yellowish-green. Flower . lyrate. regular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. bisexual. Leaf . compressed. 0. bright green. complete 1-2 cm long.7-2. upper most leaves simple.1-1.) Brassicaceae).5-10 cm long. Mulaka (W. petiole 5-5.49. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. oblong. having a few longitudinal striations. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. an annual or biennial bristly herb. not distinct. sometimes brown red. variable size and thickness. (Fam. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. sub-marginate at the apex. petals 1. Stem . blade obovate.Slender.P. slightly pungent.0 cm in dia.

Reddish-brown. one central and two lateral. taste. vascular bundle three in number. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. covered with thick cuticle. Leaf- Petiole . round to oval. 10-12 ovuled. present only on upper side. round to oval. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. 3-9 cm long and 0. two outer smaller and four inner longer. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. palisade 2-3 layers. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. 1-2 chambered. irregularly globose. longitudinally sulcatus. endodermis at some places. greenish-yellow. green or brown-purple. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. ovary superior. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. epidermis followed by 6. traversed by xylem rays. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. radially arranged. single layered.Siliqua. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. oily. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. present in cortex and phloem. hairs unicellular. stamen 6 in two whorls. continuous or more or less constricted. phloem. occasionally pale purple. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Seed . parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. 117 . thin-walled. sometimes flattened. 2-4 mm long. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces.4 cm thick. pith a wide zone of polygonal. Lamina . elliptical. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. style about 4 mm long. b) Microscopic Root .8. 2 mm wide. Fruit . erect. cork cells. traversed by phloem rays.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.purple vein. solitary or ingroups. Stem .Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.appears biconvex in outline. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. parenchymatous cells.1. epidermis single layered. starch grains simple. cylindrical. Midrib . in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. thin-walled.dorsiventral. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. present in cortex. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. medullary rays four to many cells wide.

Appendix 2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Glucoside. parenchymatous cells present.2. 118 . reddish-brown. Powder .Agnim¡ndya.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . tangentially elongated. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. 2. covered with a thin-cuticle. H¤dya.2.20 . Gandhaka Va¶¢. parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY. DOSE .Fruit . Kaphahara. Ar¿a. Appendix per cent. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . of columnar cells. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. containing aleurone grains and oil globules.4. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. covered with thin. 2. thin-walled. P¡cana.2. Gulma. 2.40 ml. 2. Svarya. Pittahara. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.6. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. spiral vessels. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.M£lakakÀ¡ra. straight cuticle.3.Yellowish-green. shows aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Ud¡varta. of the drug in juice form.7. Rucya. P¢nasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Tikta Laghu. Appendix per cent. thinwalled. Seed .Shows a single layered epidermis.

Appendix per cent. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Visra. variable in size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. having a few lateral fibrous roots. cylindrical. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Saleya.2. Appendix per cent.6.) annual or biennial bristly herb.2. 2. Appendix 2.4. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.7.2. Appendix per cent. 2. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.50. white in colour. taste. Moclangi gadde. IDENTITY. Rakhyasmula Mula. rarely sweet. Mulaka (Rt. 119 . Mulaka. Brassicaceae). Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.2. fusiform.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.3. Mula Muli Moolangi. 2.2. usually 25-40 cm in length. (Fam.2. Appendix per cent. Mullangi. slightly or strongly pungent.

Dadru. 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . H¤dya. Pittahara.Agnim¡ndya. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .04. 0. Jvara. Rucya. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Glucoside.49 & 0. Kaphahara. P¡cana.69 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. P¢nasa. T. Vrana. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.09. 0. Netraroga. 0.15-30 ml. of the drug in the juice form 120 . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.L. K¡sa. Ud¡varta DOSE .C.34. áv¡sa. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.T. Gulma. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Tikta Laghu. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .09 (both blue). ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.04.V. Galaroga. 0.04 & 0.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Svarya. 0.LC.09 & 0. Ar¿a.

3 . Apiaceae ). Syn.) DC. thin-walled cells. traversed by xylem rays. Daitya. odour. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Root . S. traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 6-12 cm long and 0. cambium 2-4 layered.42000 m. (Fam. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. rectangular cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. 0.1. thin-walled cells. secondary phloem shows wide zone. tangentially elongated. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. secondary cortex composed of rounded. Gandhakuti. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. colour. consisting of tangentially elongated. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. tenuifolium Wall. inner cells thin-walled. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . aromatic.2. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. Mura (Rt. a perennial herb.6 .Shows 10 .25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. slightly bitter.4 m tall. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. taste. fibres and parenchyma.51.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. dull brown.

2.2.6. secondary xylem and medullary rays.5 per cent.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). Appendix 9 per cent.2.Arvind¡sava. Jvara. Ka¶u. Appendix 17 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . M£rchha. starch grains simple. secondary phloem. composed of radially arranged. Sucrose and Mannitol. round to oval. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form.7.. 2. Appendix 3. xylem parenchyma. secretory canals. secondary phloem. 2. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . D¡ha. Appendix 2.áv¡sa. somewhat oval cells. xylem and phloem rays. Bhrama. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. short with blunt ends. present in secondary cortex.4. IDENTITY. 122 . Appendix 9 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.3. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta.2.2.1-3 g. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.Brown. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. secretory canals numerous. fibres aseptate.having spiral thickenings. shows groups of cork cells. parenchymatous cells. oil globules and simple starch grains. measuring 7-55 µ in dia.2. distributed throughout secondary cortex.

tangentially elongated. phloem fibres absent. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. taste. fracture. similar to those present in secondary cortex. (Fam. phloem rays 1 123 . Madhusrava. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. indistinct. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. odour. some filled with reddish-brown contents. Halukaratige. a large stout.52. & Am. twining shrub.Shows a cork. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork.) Asclepiadaceae). rectangular cells. bark easily separable from wood. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Kallu Shambu. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Jartor Koratige Hambu. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Koratige. Murva (Rt. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. slightly bitter.5-3 cm thick. resin cells present irregularly in this region.

simple and compound starch grains. Pittahara. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.5-22 µ dia.3. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Prameha Mihira Taila. Tikta Guru. Meha. Ka¸·£.5 .2. IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. elliptical to spherical with central hilum.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .22 µ in diameter.7.2. Appendix 7 per cent.2. 2. consisting of small tangential. 10-20 g.2-6 g. 124 .Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. fragments of cork. Raktapitta. K¤miroga. Mukha áosa. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Appendix 5 per cent.Ar¿a. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.tracheids. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. tracheids. H¤droga. 2.. fibres. of the drug for decoction. composed of vessels. T¤Àn¡. shows a number of stone cells.4. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. starch grains simple. Jvara.Light brown. 5. vessels with pitted walls. 2. Medoroga.2. Appendix 0. Appendix 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug in powder form. 2. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Appendix 14 per cent. fibres.2. fibretracheids. measuring 5.2. Powder . Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.. DOSE . V¡tahara. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. present in parenchymatous tissues.3 cells wide. vary in shape and size with borderd pits.

each stamen 0. Nagakesar (Stmn. N¡gapuÀpa. consisting of thin-walled. soft to touch. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. (Fam. Nagachampakam. connective and filament. distinct protuberances on walls. slender. an Ke¿ara. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. parenchymatous cells. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther.8 .9 cm long. Bengal. Peri. Assam. quite brittle. Konkan. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. yellowish and thin-walled. Guttiferae). taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn.53. exine and intine distinct. basifixed. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. thick-walled. filament 0. Hem¡.1.0 cm long. coppery or golden brown. often buttressed at the base. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Nahar Nageshvara. anther about 0. more or less twisted. linear. Veluthapala. Sachunagkeshara. about 15-18 m high with short trunk.Brown. b) Microscopic Androecium . Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Naugaliral. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Nagakesari -Nangaa. fragrant. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. odour. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. filiform. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara.9-1. Pilunagkesar. Powder .) evergreen tree. Nauga.Anther shows golden-brown. shows elongated cells of filament. 125 . connective not visible with naked eye. containing pollen grains. astringent.5 cm long. Nagppu. N¡ga. Nagchampa.

Essential oil and Oleo-resin. 2. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.1-3 g. Appendix per cent. 126 . Appendix per cent. 2.7. áopharoga. Tikta.2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. V¡tarakta. Vastiroga DOSE . Appendix 2.Raktapitta. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Var¸ya.2.2.2. Kum¡ry¡sava. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS .3.4.6. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.2.

pith composed of round to oval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . 127 . oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. pale green to greenish-black. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5 cm long and 0. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.3-1. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. Nili (Lf. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.54. Fabaceae). a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.2 cm wide.2.1.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. 1.) shrub. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. leaflet 1-2. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. no characteristic odour and taste. (Fam. N¢l¢n¢.8 m high. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.

K¡sa.Midrib . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Pl¢haroga. CONSTITUENTS . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells.2. 2. V¡tahara. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. aseptate fibres. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. epidermis.7. Ke¿ya. K¤imiroga. similar as in petiole and midrib.Greenish-grey. shows groups of mesophyll cells. cuticle and hair. cuticle and hair. collateral and crescent shaped.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.Ëmav¡ta.Glycoside (Indican). 2.4. vascular bundle single. pitted vessels.2.6.. Ud¡varta.2. IDENTITY. Appendix 7. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Lamina .2. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2.3. Udararoga. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Appendix 10 per cent. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Jvara.5 per cent. Gulma. 128 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.shows dorsiventral structure. of decoction. Appendix 25 per cent.2. V¡tarakta. palisade 2-3 layers. Appendix 2 per cent. 2.50-100 g. similar as in petiole. 2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.shows epidermis...

b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4.. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. cylindrical. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. 1. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. 129 . phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. rectangular. Olleneeli -Amari. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nil. Nila Nili. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. (Fam. with lenticels. Rangapatr¢. taste. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. consisting of rectangular to polygonal.55. slightly bitter. woody. secondary cortex a narrow zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nili Chettu. Nili. odour not distinct. consisting of usual elements.) shrub.2-1. Neeligida. 0. Nili (Rt. Neeli Nili. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex.5 cm thick. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen.8 m high. thin-walled cells.1 -1. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Gari Nili Kadunili. Nila -Neel Avuri. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. group of fibres. hard. thin-walled cells. Indian Indigo Gali. Karunili. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Fabaceae).10 layers of tangentially elongated.

C.27.L. V¡tahara.40. 0.91 (all yellow). 0. 2. 0.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. shows aseptate fibres. Udararoga. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. 0.40 (blue).75.80. 0.48 g.Gulma.V.2. Powder .14.2.14 (blue).2. starch grains simple. 0. ViÀavik¡ra.50.58.10. 0. 0. K¤imiroga.33. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.75 (blue). 0.86. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. 0.10..81. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.86 (green) and 0.58 (blue). K¡sa. 0.06.7 per cent. Pl¢h¡roga.2. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. xylem parenchyma and rays. Appendix 2.63.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.30 (bluish green).27. 0. Appendix 6 per cent.86 and 0. DOSE .oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .40. of drug for decoction. 0. 0..58.75. Ëmav¡ta.4.06.33. 2.21. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.81 (blue). pitted vessels. phloem.Creamish-brown.91 (blue). 0. 0.47 (blue).50. 0. Recan¢.0. 0. Appendix 0. 0.63.7. T. Ud¡varta.Arvind¡sava. 0. 2.3. Appendix 4 per cent.0. 0. 0.91 (all grey). 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Ke¿ya.C. simple and compound starch grains. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.14. 0. 0. and 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.63 (bluish green). 0. 0.2. 0.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 3 per cent. round to oval. 2. 0. 130 . present in cortex. 0. V¡tarakta.

epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Bevinama -Veppu. Arulundi. exstipulate. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Limado. Veppa Balantanimba. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Kahibevu. Limbado. acute. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Bakan. Juss Syn. Nim Vemmu. 7-8. Limba. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a.56. Nimba Nimba. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. indistinct. alternate. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Nimbam. Melia azadirachta Linn. lanceolate. 0. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Oilevevu.5 cm long and 1.1 cm thick. Bakayan. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Veppan Vemu. odour. crystals also present in phloem region.7 cm wide. taste. Nim. opposite. Veppu. serrate. Meliaceae).) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Kohumba Nim. rachis 15-25 cm long. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Nimba (Lf. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. (Fam. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 131 .Compound. leaflets with oblique base.0-1. Aryaveppu. slightly yellowish-green. Bevu. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.

2. CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Ëma¿otha. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres.Green. composed of thin walled. traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent. covered externally with thick cuticle.5 on upper surface. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.2. 132 . V¡tal¡.0-11. 2. ViÀarogas DOSE .1-3 g. shows vessels. Prameha.5 on lower surface and 8. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Netraroga. 2.2.0-4.shows dorsiventral structure. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. tangentially elongated cells.2. epidermis on either surface. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. Powder . thin-walled cells. 2.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. palisade single layered. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Vrana. palisade ratio 3.6.7.0-14.Jvara.2. K¤miroga. IDENTITY.Lamina . Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. of the drug in powder form. stomatal index 13.Triterpenoids and Sterols.4. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.5.3. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. Appendix per cent.2.

Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Limba Nimba Nim. Aruveppu Balantanimba. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Bakam Veppai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Nimba. Nimba. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Syn. Meliaceae). odour. Oilevevu -Veppu. Kadunimb. fracture. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 .57. Melia azadirachta Linn. extemal surface rough. Nimba (St. considerably thick in older barks. Juss. woody.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. characteristic. a moderate sized to fairly large. fibrous. fissured and rusty-grey. (Fam. taste. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Nimb Bevu. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. evergreen tree. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Kahibevu. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Vembu Vemu. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents.

75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. simple starch grains. Pittahara. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.6. T. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.Reddish-brown. secondary cortex absent in most cases. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2.45. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.90 (all blue).2. cork cells.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. round with central hilum. simple. starch grains. lignified rectangular to polygonal.3. 0. having wide lumen and distinct striations.90 (green). H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . IDENTITY.7.2. Appendix 7 per cent. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.2. 2.20. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. 2. Powder . Appendix 6 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.V. Appendix 2.5 per cent.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.L. 0. Kaphahara.C.4.2. ViÀaghna. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Appendix 1.outer surface.75-5 µ in diameter. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. 0. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.86 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. Appendix 5 per cent.C.L.72 (blue). Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.measuring 2. stone cells mostly in groups. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. measuring 2.63 and 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .

Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Prameha. Rakta Pitta. 135 . Decoction should be used externally. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Ka¸·u. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Vra¸a DOSE ..Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Jvara. of the drug in powder form.2-4 g. K¤miroga. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡ha. KuÀ¶ha.

1 cm thick. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. 5-10 or more layered. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged.2 cm thick usually peels off. thin-walled. often in groups. rhytidoma 0. 0. Tesu Muttug. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. Tesu Purasu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Palasha (St. cork cells. Khakhapado Dhak. moderately thick-walled. except in very arid parts. tanniniferous cells. fracture. internal surface rough. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. rectangular. having brown colour. Paras Moduga. Muttala -Plasu. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Modugu. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. rectangular 136 .58. Plas.5 . Chettu Dhak. exposing light brown surface. Khakharo. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. slightly astringent. 12 . taste. Camata.15 m high with irregular branches. Dhak. dark-brown. Muttuga. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. pale brown. dark brown. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Palash.) Kuntze (Fam. curved. greyish to pale brown.Bk) Fabaceae).

0.10. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4 layers of sclereids.C.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.L. companion cells. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.2. 2. 2. Appendix 2.L. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.C.75 .10.2.65 (all blue). 2. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.Reddish-brown. dark brown coloured cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. 0. 0.48 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.10..75 µ in dia. Appendix 12 per cent. phloem fibres.6. Appendix 1. straight. Powder . On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2. 137 . T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. traversed by phloem rays. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. 0.3 components.2. sclereids mostly in groups.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. crystal fibres. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 0.48. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.V. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. measuring 2. Appendix 14 per cent.4. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . phloem parenchyma.12 cells wide. 0.48 and 0.2. 7 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .18. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.67 (all violet). thin-walled cork cells.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.7.67 (all yellow).50 cells in height. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.13.cells followed by a zone of 2 .3..5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .

K¤miroga. S¡raka .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Vra¸a. Graha¸¢. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya.Ar¿a. 138 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka.5-10 g. Agnid¢paka. KaÀ¡ya Sara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Gulma. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Tikta.

exfoliating in narrow strips. inner bark fibrous. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .Bk) Fabaceae). somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. stone 139 . whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. yellowish to cream coloured. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. smooth. quick growing tree. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. medium sized. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. Mulmurumgai Badisa.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed.5-2. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. secondary cortex consists of large. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. radially arranged and thin-walled.0 cm thick.59. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. Paribhadra (St. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. Pangara Hongar. tangentially elongated to squarish.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

2-4 g.V¡tarakta.Alkaloids. Balak¤t. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .CONSTITUENTS . of drug in powder form. Volatile Oil.. V¤Àya.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. 148 . V¡taroga DOSE . Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi.63. Piyar. which are of various size. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Priyala (Sd. latifolia Roxb. pleasant. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Priyalam. Shalichokha Piyal. Korka. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka.3-0. Syn. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0. mottled with darker brown lines. Saraparuppu Sara. thick-walled. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. sweetish-oily. micropyle superior. funicle stout.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons.6 cm long. followed by remnants of disorganised.5 cm wide. collapsed cells of integument.4-0. large. hilum present at the apex of round edge.) Anacardiaceae). Satdhan -Charal. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. B. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. 0. Chowl. occurring mostly in groups. sclerenchymatous cells. pitted. creamish-brown. (Farn. linear. odour. b) Microscopic Seed .

Albuminoids. Appendix 10 per cent. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Balya.84. Sara. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Pittahara.08.54.98 (all yellow).08.5-5. 0.2. Oil and Starch. KÀata.7.C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.A creamish-brown paste. 150 .4. procambium bundles. Raktapitta. Priy¡la Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .91. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Kaphakara.0 µ in dia. 0. 0.L.98 (all violet).5 per cent. Bhagnas¡dhaka. Powder .L.27. V¡tahara.2. DOSE . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. T. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 2. KÀaya. 0.P£gakha¸·a.type.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 2. 0. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. Appendix 2. and sclerenchymatous cells. 0.72.10 . Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . BrÆha¸a. shows numerous mesophyll cells.94 (blue).2. Appendix 4 per cent.2.measuring 2. 0.94 and 0.72 and 0. 0.20 g. Appendix 7 per cent. Appendix 0.0 µ in dia. 2. 0.C.2. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. H¤dya.27. áukrakara.94 and 0. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.6.V. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0.3.54. 2. V¤Àya.5-5.72.D¡ha.91. and oil globules. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. of the drug in powder form.

brown. stamens 4. anther ovate. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. ovary 2-4 celled.5 cm long. an erect. calyx. densely clothed with wooly hairs. and abundant in Bengal plains. stigma minutely capitate.2. basifixed.5 . parenchymatous cells.Cymose. style. thin-walled.5-7. long.64.4 m high shrub. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. corolla. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.Shows more or less wavy outline. 4 lobbed spreading. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. filament very long. (Fam. equal in size. b) Microscopic Peduncle . Priyangu (Infl. 2. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. tubular. densely hairy. epipetalous. 1. brown. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .2. peduncle cylindrical. hairy.5 cm across. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.) Verbenaceae). Flower . a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents.3 mm in dia. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. bell-shaped. 1.0. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.

2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Terpenes. El¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. Ku´kum¡di Taila. spiral vessels.2. (Mukharoga). aseptate fibres.2. DOSE .2. 2. V¡tahara. Sved¡dhikya. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 2.7. Pras¡dana. IDENTITY.3. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Powder . Daurgandhyahara. Appendix 2.fibres. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. of the drug in powder form. CONSTITUENTS .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Phenolic compound. 152 . Rakta-Pitta. Appendix per cent.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. elliptical. Rakta. Appendix per cent. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. groups of thin-walled. Kanaka Taila. M£travirajan¢ya. Jvara. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. xylem consists of usual elements. Pakv¡tis¡ra.D¡ha. 2.1-3 g.6. Vra¸aropa¸a.2. Resin and Saponin. fibres aseptate.4.Brown.Glycosides. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sandh¡n¢ya.

cortex differentiated into three zones. smooth. pitted vessels and 153 . Bhata Chamul -Dhan. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. sclerenchymatous cells. Bhata. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Odalu. cylindrical. Dh¡nya. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Nivara -Chaval. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Dhana Bhatto. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Coke Chaval. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. soft. Vr¢hi. Paddy Shalichokha. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Dhan Rice. Cala. Poaceae). Dhana.Greyish-cream. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. thin.) cultivated throughout India. Nellu Tandulamul. Jhona Arishi.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Damgara.65. Nellu. Nelver Dhanyamu. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Sali. b) Microscopic Root . Shali (Rt. Chawl. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Akki -Ari. Biyyamu Chaval. an annual herb.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. thick-walled. exodermis 1-2 layered. (Fam. Corava. composed of thick-walled. Powder .05-0. Bhatta. Dhanarmul. both consisting of round to oval. sclerenchymatous cells. 5-15 cm in length and 0. creamish-brown to greyish-brown.

2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.2. Appendix per cent. H¤dya.50 g. Appendix per cent. 154 .2. Svarya. Var¸ak¤t. Appendix per cent. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Laghu.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. V¡tahara.3. Balya. BrÆha¸a. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. IDENTITY. 2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. M£trala. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rucya.StanyakÀaya. KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. Appendix 2.7. of the drug for decoction.4. CakÀuÀya. Pittahara.

Kakkanangudi. Shankhapushpi. light green. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. 0. spreading. cylindrical. acute.Slender. epipetalous. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Shankhavela. linear-lanceolate.4 cm thick.1-0. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. 1-5 cm long. Karakhuratt. 0.) Convolvulaceae). áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. a prostrate. linear-lanceolate. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.Shortly petiolate. hairy on both surfaces. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.White or pinkish. free.1-0.5-2 cm long and 0.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. corolla shortly discoid. light green. inserted deep in the corolla tube. found throughout the country. yellowish-brown to light brown. Sankhapuspi. Flower . alternate with the petals. perennial herb with a woody root stock. sepals narrowly. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Sankha pushpin (W. about 0. stamen 5.5 cm broad. 155 .P. sub-erect. Stem . sparsely hairy. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. hairy. cylindrical.Usually branched.66.

Stem . phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. xylem rays and parenchyma. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. cortex differentiated in two zones. secretory cells present in this region. Powder . cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.8-17. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.Light yellowish-green.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. . rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. oblong globose with coriaceous. fibres and parenchyma.Appears nearly circular in outline. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. 156 .Fruit . epidermis single layered. xylem consisting of usual elements. present in cortex.Brown. both having round to oval. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. covered with thick cuticle. thin. palisade two layered. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. mm. elongated. measuring 3 . unicellular hairs. hairs unicellular.Shows single layered epidermis. vascular bundle bicollateral. Lamina . parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. elliptical. mm. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers.. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. 13. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. palisade ratio 6-9. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. b) Microscopic Root .. tanniniferous.0. fibres and tracheids. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. simple and compound starch grains.Capsule. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. phloem a narrow zone. xylem consists of vessels.walled cells. Seed . thick-walled cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered.8 µ in dia. phloem. round to oval in shape. endoderrnis single layered. phloem composed of sieve elements. minutely puberulous.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. simple and composed of 2-3 components. covered with thick cuticle. present on both surfaces. LeafMidrib . pale brown pericarp. starch grains solitary or in groups. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. at places unicellular hairs present.

2.IDENTITY. 2.3-8 g. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2.2. 2. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .M¡nasaroga. Medhya. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. ËyuÀya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. Agastyahar¢tak¢.2. Tikta. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2. Br¡hma. Appendix per cent.2.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.3. Clitoria ternatea Linn.4.2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Apasm¡ra DOSE .7. Appendix per cent. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. Kaphahara. 2. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.6.

Saptala Kangi Tillakada. 2.celled with or without attached pedicel. ciliolate. a much branched. 1 mm long. sessile. solitary. 0.1. Chagulputputi Satala. gradually tapering. 3. smooth. fracture. horned. cylindrical.8 cm wide. linear. ribbed. short. pale brown. trilocular.5-2 mm thick. Joyachi. lobes short. Leaf . Fruit . sub-sessile. Carmas¡hv¡. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 3-4 mm in dia. 20-40 cm high. Bilikalli. free to the base.P. Siju. style. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. 158 . Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. gland semilunate.5 mm across at the mouth. shortly 2-fid at the apex. greenish-yellow.) Euphorbiaceae). (Fam. Flower . odour and taste indistinct. annual herb.Small. having a few secondary roots. filament pubescent.Capsule. odour and taste not distinct. 0. ovate. 4-5 cm long.Involucre broadly campanulate. subacute.2-0. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Saptala (W.67.7-7 cm long. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. lanceolate or linear oblong.

starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. lignified cells with wide lumen.25 µ in diameter.3 mm long. all elements thick-walled and lignified. parenchymatous cells.6 layers of oval. circular to oval. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. vessels having simple pits. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tangentially elongated elliptical. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. mature root shows thin walled cork. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. tangentially elongated cells. b) Microscopic Root . solitary or in groups. Stem . cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.5-19. secondary xylem composed of vessels. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. fibres. starch grains simple. traversed by numerous xylem rays. thick-walled lignified. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. rarely a few oil globules also present. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled.75 µ in dia. found scattered in phloem region. rounded at the base. fibres and tracheids. single layered epidermis. simple.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. grooved at one side.Young root shows exfoliated. filled with yellowish-brown content. fibres elongated and aseptate. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. Leaf- Midrib . pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres.Seed . secondary phloem narrow. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. some rounded. centre occupied by a pith. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. secondary xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex consists of 4. epidermis single layered. leprous tuberculate testa. composed of sieve elements. fibres and vessels having simple pits. covered externally with thick. tracheids and medullary rays.shows slightly convex outline. 159 . rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells. consisting of thick-walled. rounded to oval. striated cuticle. endodermis not distinct. palisade single layered present on both sides. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. elliptical. flattended. measuring 5. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. thickwalled and lignified. parenchymatous cells. rectangular. with wide lumen present in this region. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. all elements. stone cells oval to elongated. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. elliptical. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. 2.

0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). 2.2.L. Appendix per cent.67.V. Appendix 2. aseptate fibres. Vibandha. lignified with wide lumen.Ën¡ha.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. Visarpa. 2.2. Ud¡vartta. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rounded to oval starch grains. and 0.2.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L. IDENTITY.87 (violet).0. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa. Appendix per cent. Gulma. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.3.2.2.46. 2.4. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. elliptical. T. RaktadoÀahara. simple. shows vessels with simple pits.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 160 .7. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. stone cells thick-walled. V¡tal¡.46 (brown) and 0.04. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0. CONSTITUENTS .04 and 0.50 g. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.Powder . 0.Light yellow.C. of the drug for decoction. Udararoga. Mi¿raka Sneha. oval to elongated.57 (all yellow).C.

A. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. akin to caraway.68. a tall. graveolens Benth. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. mesocarp. graveolens DC. 4 mm long. Shepa. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. slightly sharp taste.. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. and a warm. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. P. glabrous. dorsal 161 . (Fam. ex Flem. var. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. A. filiform and incospicuous.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. often stalk attached.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. odour. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. mericarps usually separate and free. dark brown. Satahva (Fr. Syn. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. Apiaceae). endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. graveolens Linn. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. b) Microscopic Fruit . sowa Roxb. yellowish membranous wings. parenchymatous. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.. Sulpha. vittae. brown. glabrous. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. slightly raised. Shulupa..

shows spiral vessels. 2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 2.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2. 2.L. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Vra¸a.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Appendix 1. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara. 0. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. IDENTITY.Brown.10 T. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2.2.Essential Oil.C.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 2.3. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.68 (violet). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.á£la. Kaphahara. Atis¡ra.costae three.3-6 g. Jvara. Netra Roga DOSE .68 (all yellow).59 (blue) and 0. Powder .2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. each costae with vascular strands.C. carpophore split.2.4. 162 . Appendix 14 per cent.37 (pink) 0.6. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. cellulosic.2. Appendix 15 per cent. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.59 and 0. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 4 per cent.7.2.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Sajna. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. entire. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. vascular bundle collateral. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Tishnagandha. a small or medium sized tree. commonly cultivated throughout the country.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. thickened.5-1 cm wide. Segata. palisade single layered.69. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. AkÀ¢va. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Rachis . Shigru (Lf. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Mocaka -Sajina. elliptic. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Mungna Neegge. Nugge ele -Murinna. consisting of pericyclic fibres. odour and taste not distinct.2-2 cm long and 0. leaflet 1. and articulated at the base. Bahala. pericycle forming a broken ring. Moringaceae). T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Segata pana. Muringa Elai Sevaga. parenchymatous cells. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Munga. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. oval to elliptical. slender. pith and phloem parenchyma. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Syn. Sekato. (Fam.) Gaertn. Shewgachi pane Sajana. ovate or obovate. thin walled. Muringa. parenchymatous cells. Leaflet . spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex.

L. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 6-11.38.46 (green). 0. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. K¤mihara. áukra N¡¿aka.occupied by a crescent-shaped. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.69 (yellow). 0. 0.C.36 (yellowish green).20. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.Carbohydrate. 0.46 (dark green) & 0. Medohara.26 (all green). Powder -Greyish-green.L. 0. Appendix per cent.18.69 (blue) and 0. T. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. RukÀa. 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.87 (blue).46 (all red) & 0. 0.52 (green). 0. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.94 (violet).53 (yellow).18. 0. 2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.3. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.05. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. stomata anornocytic. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light.36. Under U. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.26. 0. Protein. 0.05. 0. 0. (all green). Appendix per cent. 0.6. 0.V.05. V¡tahara.7. Sirovirecaka 164 .C. 2.2. 0.2. vein islets number 50-65. 2. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 0. 0.46 (both blue).36 (green). 2.82 (yellow) and 0.26. 0. palisade cells.94 (blue). B ¤Æhana.59 (blue). Pittahara.2.0.30 (pink).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. spiral vessels.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gulma.10 .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Pl¢haroga. Vidradhi. 165 . ViÀatinduka Taila. Galaga¸·a.áopha. K¤miroga. Medoroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .Ratnagiri Rasa.

and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. Sthulaela (Sd. thin walled. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Beraelam.3 cm wide. spicy pungent. perispenn encloses the 166 . sclerenchymatous. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.. membraneous aril. 0. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. taste. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. odour. aromatic. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. perisperm consists of polygonal. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam.4 cm long. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. (Fam.) Zingiberaceae). Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. brown to dark brown.70.

2. of the drug in powder form. 2.S¡rivady¡sava. Ka¸·u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 4 per cent. shows fragments of testa. rich in protein. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.endosperm and embryo. 2.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Note . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.2.6.5 -1 g.0. 2. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. oil globules.2. simple.2.7. thin-walled.2. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. THERAPEUTIC USES .Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. thin-walled. Powder . IDENTITY. perisperm cells. 2.2. K¡sa.(Seed). Appendix 14 per cent. Rocaka. RukÀa. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Appendix 1. V¡tahara.10 CONSTITUENTS .3. H¤ll¡sa. both composed of polygonal. 167 . polygonal.4.áv¡sa. 2. Chardi. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mukha¿odhaka. Mukharoga. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.5 per cent. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. Appendix 5 per cent. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. parenchymatous cells.2. rounded to oval. T¤À¸¡.Light brown. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Tikta Laghu. (Seed).

parenchymatous cells. phloem fibres thickwalled. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. light yellow to pale brown.2 cm thick. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Tumbura.) Roxb. rather deeply furrowed. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.0. Jimmi. odour. sharp prickles. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. lignified. Thumbooni.71. Tejovati (St. Syn. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. short. stone cells found in 168 .Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. aromatic. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. internal surface smooth. fracture. taste. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. armed with long. stem and branches. Tumburudra. Z. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. thin-walled.Bk. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati.1-0. brownish. thick-walled cells. aromatic pungent. external surface pale brown. Rutaceae). (Fam.

2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2. P¡cana.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. starch grains round and oval.5 per cent. Medhya.2.7.Aruci.3. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.75 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Kaphahara. IDENTITY. Mukharoga.13.Yellowish-brown. Appendix 8.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Rucya.10-20 g. of the drug for decoction. oil globules and starch grains.75 µ in diameter. K¡sa. áv¡sa. DOSE . Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2.13. Appendix 12 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. 169 . Appendix 13 per cent. 2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. round and oval measuring 2. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a Volatile Oil and Resin. stone cells. Powder .75 .6.2.5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Ëmav¡ta. shows fragments of cork cells. measuring 2. CONSTITUENTS .4. Appendix 2.75 µ in diameter.2. aseptate fibres. Hikk¡. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.

Flower . slender. found throughout the country. odour faintly aromatic. Stem . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. woody. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. externally purplish-brown to black. entire or serrate. herbaceous. (Fam. Shree Tulasi.2.5-5 cm long 1. branched. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. soft. wiry. aromatic.3.Erect. characteristic. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. pubescent. Tulasi (W. taste.Thin. fibrous in bark and short in xylem.) an erect. hairy. odour. small in close whorls. coloured. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Lamiaceae). upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. violet internally.P. shortly apiculate. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. much branched.Purplish or crimson coloured. about 1.60 cm high. Leaf .5-3 cm long hairy. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. fracture. pubescent on both sides. lower lip 170 . Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. obtuse or acute. Thulasi. pedicels longer than calyx.72. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . petiole thin.6 . 30 .2 cm wide. branched. blackish-brown externally and pale. elliptic oblong. K¤À¸atulas¢. internally cream. hairy. annual herb. sub quadrangular.

shows somewhat cordate outline. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. fibres and parenchyma. membranous. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. fibre tracheides. slightly compressed. pubescent. corolla about 4 mm long.Rounded to oval. taste. taste. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. Midrib . rectangular. pungent. occasionally a few cells collapsed. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. parenchymatous cells. each with one seed. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. no odour. veined calyx. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. odour. phloem consisting of sieve elements. pungent. tracheids. nearly smooth. b) Microscopic Root . Leaf- Petiole . three vascular bundles situated centrally. pitted with pointed ends.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. parenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. taste. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. vessels pitted. slightly notched at the base. fibres with pointed ends. in groups and rarely in singles.epidermis. thin-walled. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. measuring 22-27 in dia. long. brown. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. enclosed in an enlarged. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. middle one larger than other two. slightly mucilaginous. xylem surrounded by phloem. thin-walled. aromatic. Fruit . inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. aromatic. Stem . phloem consists of sieve elements. vessels pitted. thin-walled.A group of 4 nutlets. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. 171 . filled with brown content. thin-walled. odour. round to oval polygonal. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. mucilaginous when soaked in water.1 cm long. 0. elongated. found scattered in phloem. glandular trichomes short. Seed . parenchymatous cells. pungent. lateral two short and central two largest. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres.

minutes Under observation. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . Tikta.8.6.C. parenchymatous cells.5 per cent. vein islet number 31 .35.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. rounded to oval. Appendix 4 per cent. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Appendix 8 per cent. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.2.2.7.2. Record Rf. RukÀa. Kaphahara. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. value 0. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . CONSTITUENTS .L. V¡tahara. thin walled fibres.4. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. 2. On cooling spray. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. in thoroughly vanillin . H¤dya. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).3. 2.Essential Oil. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.16 on lower surface. Rucya.C. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IDENTITY. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Rf.7. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. palisade ratio 3. Durgandhihara 172 . Appendix 1. Powder . T. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.15 .2. Appendix 2.2. Pittavardhin¢. Appendix 10 per cent.Greenish: shows thin-walled. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.1.Lamina . 2. a few containing reddish brown contents. oil globules.

Chardi. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . áv¡sa.A¿mar¢. Netraroga.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. K¡sa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Hikk¡. 173 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. KuÀ¶ha.

Holy Basil Tulasi. taste. pubescent on both surfaces. Tulasi (Lf. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. three vascular bundles situated centrally. 174 b) Microscopic . an erect. K¤À¸atulas¢. glandular trichomes short.73. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. and 2-8 celled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. LeafPetiole . obtuse or acute. petiole 1. (Fam. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢.. upper epidermis. consisting of xylem and phloem. balloon-shaped head.5-5 cm long. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan.5-3 cm long. entire or serrate. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.6-3. covering trichomes multicellular. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Lamiaceae). followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. thin. petiolate. elliptic-oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2.2 cm wide. measuring 22-27 µ dia. found throughout the country. middle one larger than the other two. hairy. much branched annual herb.shows cordate outline. 1. aromatic. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. characteristic. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk.) 30-60 cm high. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells.

83.04. 0.21. T. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.45. Caryophyllene. 0.93 (both light green).93 (violet) and 0. 0. 0.85 (blue).33. Powder . 0. 0. Nerol and Camphene etc. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.epidermis. 0. IDENTITY.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.21 (brown). 175 .33. palisade ratio 3. 0.12 (light violet). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.7. 0.33 (violet). Appendix per cent.L.54 (blue). stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. Lamina . 0. 0.2.83 (all pink) 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.33 (both green) 0. vein islet number 31-33. 0. 0.C. 0. 0.Light-green.2.2.98 (blue). 2. 2.04.85 & 0.75 (violet). 0.6.2.4.45 (violet).8. 2.30. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.2. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.45 (yellowish green). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.08.04.Midrib .75. Appendix per cent.88 and 0. 0.V. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0. Under U.12 (light green).).54.C.12. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.L.98 (blue). 0. 0.2. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.83 (blue). shows fragments of polygonal.21. CONSTITUENTS . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.08 (both green). 0. 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.3. 0.93 (pink) & 0. 2.03 (dark green). 0. Appendix 2. 0. 0. 0.45.93 (all0 yellow). 0.08 (violet).

Tikta. of the drug in powder form. Kaphahara. K¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Prati¿y¡ya. Hikk¡. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa. K¤miroga. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. H¤dya. Pittahara. V¡tahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.Aruci. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. 176 .2-3 g.

pungent and bitter. short. triangular. Araceae). thin-walled cells of various sizes. (Fam. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. large. smaller.5-1. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. upper side marked with alternately arranged. Ghodavaca Vasambu. enclosing large air spaces. aromatic. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally.) semiaquatic herb. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Ugr¡. cells towards periphery. Gora-bach Baje.Shows single layered epidermis. Ghodvach Bach. Rhizome . sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. taste. somewhat collenchymatous. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. fracture. odour. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars.5 cm thick. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. broadly. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. and 0. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Vekhandas -Varch.74. Vacha (Rz. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. buff coloured intemally. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.

CONSTITUENTS . starch grains simple.2..2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. 0. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.Buff coloured. Appendix per cent. spherical.C. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Appendix per cent.Yellowish-cream b. 2.2. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.C. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.2. 2.14 (violet) and 0.L.2.7.2.L. 178 .10 T. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. present in cortex and ground tissue. Petroleum ether-No change ii.4.2. Appendix 2. stele composed of round. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.3. Appendix per cent. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. 2. reticulate. Powder . Chloroform-Light green iii. Appendix per cent. 2.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Starch and Tannin. Appendix per cent. endodermis distinct.6.region. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Powder as such: .Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Eugenol and Asarone). Extracts in i. shows fibres.

Ka¸¶hya. Kar¸a Sr¡va. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Tikta Laghu. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.2 g. C£r¸a. áv¡sa. Kaphahara. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. S¡rasvata. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢.á£la. Unm¡da. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. 179 . 1. DOSE . K¤mihara. Vibandha. Apasm¡ra. Medhya. THERAPEUTIC USES .Vac¡di Taila. K¡sa. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Ëdhm¡na. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.

1. Ranunculaceae). ovoid. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. perennial herb. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. conical. Bachhnaag. papillose on outside. roots are generally collected late in September. Vatsanabha. Nabhi.75. Teliya Bish Basanalli. cartilaginous. without or with a few intercellular spaces. rarely 5 cm long. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. occasionally separated due to breakage. rough due to root scars. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. poisonous. dark brown to blackish-brown. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . 0. plant is an erect.4 . suberised. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Vatsanabhi. Sth¡varaviÀa. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. Vatsanabha (Rt. small portions of stem sometimes attached. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Beesh. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Meethabisha. Naabhi Bachnak. odour indistinct. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. taste. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. fracture. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vatsanabhi.) (Fam. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. 2-4.8 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra.5 cm. Mahura. Mithalelia. Basanaag Bisa. tapering downwards to a point.

some scattered. 0.L. consisting of round to oval cells. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Anandabhairava Rasa.39 and 0.Light grey. cambium having 6 10 angles. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. 2.L. Appendix 2. Powder . phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 0. Appendix 2 per cent.2. Appendix 24 per cent. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. 2.56.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. S £tasekhara Rasa. Sv®dala. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 5.7. T. RukÀa. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Laghu.96 (both orange). present in cortical cells. a few aseptate fibres.4.2. often forming 'V' shaped ring.10. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.C. 2. 2. metaxylem vessels met in centre. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.2. ÙikÀ¸a. Appendix 8 per cent. IDENTITY. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Trid°Àahara.74 and 0.C.39.2. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. 0. shows vessels. occupying more than half the radius. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .3.endodermis. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.2. xylem exarch.6. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. inner bark parenchymatous. Viyav¡yi.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.20. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. UÀ¸a.

15 . Kanharoga. DOSE .V¡taroga. Jvar¡tis¡ra. V¡takaphajvara. 182 .THERAPEUTIC USES .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Sannip¡ta. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.

Bhuikumra Vidari. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . smooth except for protuberances at some places. Nelagumbala. Bhoikolu. cut surface creamish-brown. Bhumikusmanda. Fabaceae).Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. usually does not break.76. but pliable. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Eagio. Vid¡rik¡.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Gumadi belli. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. outer surface reddish-brown.Rt. Nelagumbula. Bhonykoru. starchy and somewhat porous. thin-walled cells. (Fam. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. sweetish. stone cells moderately thick-walled. taste. Vidari (Tub. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. thinwalled.

3. radially elongated cells. Appendix 2. a few latex duct also present. distributed throughout this region.2. and also rarely in stone cells. V¡tahara. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.4. lignified with narrow lumen. Raktapitta.. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.Gluconic and Malic acids. Powder . fragments of cork. 2. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. 2. Angmarda. áoÀa.5 .5 per cent. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. M£trala. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Balya.75 µ in dia. IDENTITY.7. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.75 µ in dia.Marma Gu¶ik¡. DOSE . Svarya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Ras¡yana.13. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. present in all parenchymatous cells. Appendix 24 per cent. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.6. 2. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. Appendix 17 per cent. Appendix 4. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4 per cent. J¢van¢ya. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). highly thickened. CONSTITUENTS .5 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Stanyada. somewhat round. 184 . Var¸ya. angular to oval.2.D¡ha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Daurbalya. measuring 5. 2.Buff coloured. having central hilum and striations. THERAPEUTIC USES .3-6 g. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.2.13. phloem fibres much elongated.and pits.2. Pittahara.2.2. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of the drug in powder form.

sativum Pers. polygortal inner epidermal cells. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. followed by 2-3 layers. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. square or quadrilateral. about 1 cm long and 0. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. odour. an annual. not distinct. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic .) Poaceae). round to oval wavy walled cells. smooth. taste. spongy parenchymatous cells. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. oblong. sclerenchymatous fibres. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. Jav Barley Cheno. pale-greenish-yellow. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. Yava (Fr. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. elliptic.2-0. followed by more or less.3 cm wide. Syn. seed coat appears as a colourless line. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. H. 50-100 cm high. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. sweetish-acrid.77. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. cultivated chiefly in North India. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. erect herb.

36. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. sclerenchymatous fibres.45. Appendix 2.V. 0. Globulin. Orientin. 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.Starch.31.Creamish-white.6.4. Powder . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.) CONSTITUENTS . Vitexin etc.narrow lumens.44.2.5 per cent. Orientoside. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. V¡tak¤t. Sugars.22. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. 0. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY.3.L.31.56. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. Proteins (Albumin. 0.2. 0. Appendix 5. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.92 (yellow). Fats. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0. Pittahara. 0.10.C. endosperm divided into two zones. Lekhana.65 & 0. Sthairyakara.92 (all grey). and the rest starch layers. 2.5 2. starch grains simple.22. Appendix 1. 0.7 T. 0. Kaphahara. V¤Àya.68.83 and 0.5 per cent. 0. 0. 2. simple starch grains.5 per cent. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 2. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.06.2. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. M£trahara. 0.2.53.31.L. Medahara. 0. 0. 0.10. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.14. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.72 (all pink.24.83 (all violet) and 0. 0.2. 0.16. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Svarya. 0. Var¸ya 186 . round to oval.C. 0.68.

Medoroga. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Kanharoga. Dh¡nvantara Taila. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Urustambha. of the drug. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Gandharvahasta Taila.áv¡sa. Prameha.100 .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. T¤À¸¡.200 g. El¡dya Modaka. P¢nasa. Tvagroga DOSE . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. K¡sa. 187 .

hard. Duralabha -Venkatithura. alternate. 20-30 cm long and 0. (Fam. Stem . dark brown. elliptical.) Fabaceae). glabrous. sharp axillary spines upto 3. radially arranged cork cells. secondary and tertiary root absent.P. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Desv. a small thorny shrub. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. oblong. stipules green.7 cm broad. secondary cortex almost 188 .8 cm long. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Javasa.78.5-0. branched. gradually tapering. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. ballidurabi. Neladangara. glabrous. Yavasaka (W. extipulate. short. slightly rough at basal region with slender. 0.Well developed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root .5-1 cm long. cork cambium single layered. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Leaf . filled with reddish-brown contents. striate.Cylindrical. opposite. Y¡sa.2-1 cm thick. mucronate obtuse. fracture. Punjab. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).Simple. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. no taste and odour. 0. drooping. nearly 0. terete.1-1 cm thick.

pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. tanniniferous cells. hypodermis 1-2 layered. xylem consists of vessels. tracheids and fibres. Lamina . parenchymatous cells.5. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. phloem composed of sieve elements. starch grains simple.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. pitted vessels. 5.75 µ in dia. tracheids. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. pith composed of a few thin-walled. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. epidermis single layered. tracheids. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. vascular bundle collateral. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. 3-45 cells long. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. 189 . mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. Stem . Powder .14. covered with cuticle. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region.appears circular in outline. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. xylem situated above phlome. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. filled with tannin. elongated.75 µ in diameter.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. phloem composed of sieve elements. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. fibres. covered externally with thick cuticle. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. filled with tannin. Midrib . rounded to oval. angular. a few with thick wall and simple pits. Leaf- Petiole .appears biconvex in outline. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. parenchyma and fibres. xylem consists of vessels. pericycle present in form of fibre groups.5-14. thin-walled.absent. simple. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. hypodermis 2-3 layered. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. xylem fibres. some cells filled with tannin.Greenish-brown. present throughout the region. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.

2.6.Sugars (Melizitose. 2. Visarpa DOSE .2.IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form for decoction.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. D¢pana.7. 2. T¤À¸¡.Chardi. Appendix 2.3. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Invert Sugars). V¡tarakta. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2.5 per cent.4. Tikta. Arimed¡di Taila. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2 per cent. 2. Appendix 10 per cent.2. 2. K¡sa.20 . Sucrose.50 g. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 13.2. Kaphahara.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent. 190 .2. Raktapitta. Jvara. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.

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