Master of Business Administration Semester IV OM0018 – Technology Management - 4 Credits Assignment - Set- 1 (60 Marks

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MANISH RAJAN RAJPUT IVth Semester, Operational Roll No -571012050

we can say that management of technology/technology management includes the factor of technology in all the activities like planning. In this unit. staffing. resourcing and leading the organization. organizing. . Management refers to the process of planning. we will discuss about the evolution of technology. The history of technology dates back to the time when humans were able to prepare some simple tools with easily available natural resources. Thus. commercialization and distribution of goods and services. Different people think differently about technology.Q1. organizing. In this unit. Technology is derived from the Greek word “technologia” in which "techne" means craft and "logia" means saying. which is needed in all the organizations. In this unit. technology means having the knowledge of making something. From the invention of the wheel. we learnt about the concept and meaning of technology. In the context of business. processes or products of technological activities. Write a short note on evolution and growth of technology. History indicates that the advancement in technology had a major leap with the invention of the wheel. we will mainly focus on defining technology. and the term management refers to the act of getting people together to achieve a specific goal. we will also study the impact of technology on society and business. and different types of technology. We will also analyze the two forms of technology that is process technology and product technology. We will also discuss about the evolution and growth of technology. directing. much usage of the technology has started. economists consider technology as the knowledge used in the production. Define the term technology. In the previous section. Now. before going to the other topics about technology. We will analyze the role and significance of technology management. The technology in all the fields has grown to a larger extent and now we can see the technology involved in almost all the things we use in our daily life. On the whole. Answer: The term technology refers to knowledge. we will discuss about the technology management. and controlling the activities in an organization. according to the context in which it is used.

proven and ready to use. The fastest way of bridging the technology gap is through collaborations. The dependence of the company on the collaboration is bad and we should have the self-reliance in the company every time. Sometimes the economic policies do not allow the foreign countries to sell their goods and services in the domestic market. in the developing countries like India. products or services. we learnt in brief about the different alternatives for acquiring new technology. if we develop the new technologies from the in-house R&D. Whenever a company wants to adapt the new technologies.We know that there are some advanced technologies at present which include the printing press. . In such times. 5 6  Technology acquisition is the process by which a company acquires the rights to use and exploit a technology for the purpose of improving or renewing processes. it has to make decisions related to the acquisition of the technology. 3 4  Technology acquisition depends on the policy environment. It will be better. The use of new technologies plays an important role in the industry. Now let us learn about technology management in India. the foreign companies can get the financial returns only through the collaboration and selling the raw materials and components. telephone and Internet which have helped us to communicate all over the globe. 1 2  Technology acquisition helps to bridge the gap in technology. Now let us discuss about the reasons which compel a company for obtaining a new technology. Answer: Reasons Compelling a Company for Obtaining a New Technology In the previous section. The origin of the technology can take place in any area but it has ton be tested. Acquiring the technology from outside company is more costly than acquiring technology from the R&D of the same company. The following explains the reasons that compel the company for technology acquisition. The acquisition of technology becomes critical when the market lead time and competition is more. In few cases. state and explain the reasons that compel a company to go for the new technology. Till now we have mainly concentrated on technology management in general. 7 8  Technology acquisition is mainly designed for business-to-business technology acquisition. It does not include retailed or mass market off the shelf software which is generally governed by non-negotiable "shrink wrapped" licenses. The company has to see the experience of its R&D for the actual need of acquiring the knowledge. Q2. technology comes from a university or research organization. Citing an example.

medium-term. so on). as given in the . Describe some characteristics of technology forecasting. 2  A technological forecast also relates to useful machines. picture phone. speed. 1 Q3. Answer: Characteristics of technology forecasting Generally. rate of technological advances (introduction of paperless office. safety.. technical specifications including energy efficiency. power. new materials. since they depend more on personal tastes rather than on technological capability. this is intended to exclude the items intended for pleasure or amusement from the domain of technological forecasting. The company planning for technology acquisition has to make the agreement between the two companies and even the details of the costs are also present as part of the application.g. Explain in brief about the six phases in technology forecasting process. We will now discuss them briefly. there are some characteristics that are associated with technology forecasting.• Technology acquisition helps for enhancing the productivity of an organization. temperature. or techniques. 3  A technology forecast can be for short-term. so on). In particular. 1  A technological forecast relates to certain characteristics such as levels of technical performance (e. and long-term. costs. emission levels. procedures. We can study technology forecasting in six phases.

a thorough analysis is done in order to make sure the relevance of technology forecasting. core tem and external participants. The roles of each human resource are carefully prepared and explained.Let us now briefly explain these six phases. 1  Identification of needs: This is the first phase in technology forecasting process. clients. In this phase. After identifying the expected outputs and the objectives of the future. This phase decides the dimensions of the forecast. 2 3  Prepare project: This is the second phase in technology forecasting process. The core team performs the activities like defining references. There are three human resources. This phase ends with a decision of technology forecast. This includes both the normative and exploratory forecast. The core team co-ordinates the efforts of experts from team. The external participants help in providing data. information and experience. creating the structure of the forecast and filling it. We use normative forecast. when the desirable 5 . This phase once again goes through the objectives that are defined in the first and second phases. the forecasting activities that are planned and resources are allocated. The major sources of information and data are identified in this phase. 4  Define objectives: This is the third phase in technology forecasting. external participants and clients which help to develop an entire forecast. The client includes both customer and user of technology forecast. writing documents.

This also helps in determining the time delays of the activities. and others do not. social and environmental contexts and lastly the analysis of the drivers and barriers for the development of the system. This high level framework describes where the organization needs to be in the future years. The network consists of critical-to-X features. Q4. from the present to the desirable state. This. we get a shape of problem and also the contradiction network. some firms effectively use technology as a competitive advantage. 8 0 In this phase. What it means.2. Explain in brief about the innovation management. One important factor in the successful use of technology is the role of general management in technology strategy. and technology is only one factor among them. This also includes the four steps as shown in the figure 3. This uses the results that we get after the problem mapping. Yet. 3 The next step in the analysis and develop TF involves. The last step in this involves mapping of obtained contradictions as a network. Answer: We know that a strategy is a long term view that describes a high level framework. The different order of critical to X features is developed by considering the different contexts. The central idea here is that a business can be developed around a long-term. defining critical-to-X features. and third step involves the revising and reformulating the collected contradictions to match with the critical to X features.future is seen and the normative forecast focus on finding the path. it has been management's ability to foster corporate core technical competencies. components of system and opposite values of features. but all the organizations will not gain the positive competitive advantage from the technologies. The first step in this. in turn. build the time diagram'. Write a short note on technology strategy. This is the central part of the present research. This helps to find the resources that are less and causes problems on the map. consistent focus on a core technological competency. In particular. R&D helps to get the raw materials and solve the problem. We can define technology strategy as a planning document that explains how technology should be utilized as part of an organization’s overall business strategy. is reformulating the technological barriers into the contradictions. 1 After completing the definition of the boundaries. defining the system in terms of technological. We have to capitalize this set of problems. Most of the organizations use technologies in product and services’ generation. The four steps in defining the boundaries include defining of the key functions and futures. 2 The next step in the analysis and develop TF is the 'analysis of limitation of resources'. 6 7  Perform analysis and develop Technology Forecast (TF): This is the fourth phase in the technology forecasting process. defining system in relation with the laws of system incompleteness and energy conductivity. The document is usually created by an organization’s technology manager and should be designed to support the organization’s overall business plan. we start with defining the boundaries of the technological system that has to be forecasted. The next step is. is to have a core . involves definition of other four steps that are clearly shown in the diagram. There are many factors in competition.

not only products can be improved.corporate technical competency. services and processes. creative workshops and product based companies. With this. incremental changes to products. developing superior products and pursuing learning curve and cost leadership. In the case of competitive markets. The activities of the innovation need to be driven by the strategy and current business imperatives. technology intensity introduces the layer of complexity. to lead in both innovating new-technology products and improving manufacturing quality and lowering cost of these products. The role of management in building competitive advantage for an organization depends on the technology strategy. The decision making process involves many problems in sustaining and building competitive advantage. but also manufacturing process can be improved in future generations of technology. innovation should not be only limited to the big ground breaking ideas. This involves the use of creative ideas of an organization’s employees that brings new innovations to the market place. . Innovation is often small. This section will familiarize us with ‘innovation management’. 5 The managers play an important role in the decision making process of the technology. This needs to be planned and managed as a core business covering all parts of a business. 4  The management checks whether there is any chance of discerning particular orientation towards new markets. 2 3  The management checks whether there is any chance of discerning the technology strategy. In business. We can see that there are three aspects of relationship between the management and technology strategy. It is better to understand the intended strategy of general management. The innovation involves all the managers from different departments. The successful innovation culture consists of all the aspects of a business. This needs to be integrated at the strategic and operational levels. quickly and efficiently. We can define ‘innovation management’ as the systematic processes that help the organizations in developing new and improved products. Innovation Management Previous section familiarized us with technology strategy. services and business processes. and these aspects have to be managed effectively and efficiently like any other core business. These are: 1  The view of management of the impact of general management on the business and business strategy.

The management of the innovation system need to be given to the senior management to control the overall system of innovation. 4 Q5. Importance of technology diffusion .Innovation can be built into business. The senior management need to encourage the innovative ideas from the staff. Diffusion involves special types of communication methods or system to help diffuse changes in practice. we know that diffusion is the process of spreading. In order to create culture of continuous innovation. The three levels are the annual business planning process. quarterly innovation and day-to-day activities. There are two types of innovation tools that are. Innovation is managed through some sort of platform or application. Any platform should encourage for the learning activity as a core feature. an electronic suggestion scheme. at three levels. The process of adopting the new technology by the customers who came to know about the technology from other customers is called as the technology diffusion. Installing the innovation culture in any of the company has leaders and teams with ability and commitment. the organization requires leadership and commitment from the senior management team. The best practices and tools are applied consistently and appropriately across the organization. In general. What is the importance of technology diffusion? What are the benefits of technology absorption? Answer: Previous section familiarized us with technology adoption. and a management system controlling the innovation process. we can say that diffusion is the process of closing the gap between what people do not know and what they can effectively put to use. The management team also see that some staff members in the organization are rewarded for the innovative ideas they put in. as well as changes in knowledge or attitudes. so let us now let familiarized ourselves with the concept of technology diffusion. Thus.

Technology diffusion helps in sustaining the growth of the company through technical strength. than the sector with the tradable goods. commensurate R&D efforts will simultaneously be needed to absorb and upgrade the acquired technology in order to . ranging from R&D services to the larger sales. as evidenced by Government and industry experiences so far. We gain the benefits of technology diffusion. While acquisition of technology is now easier.After defining the technology diffusion. Technology diffusion plays a major role in most of the countries today. Many developing countries. productivity is determined by the domestic technology in the production country and the diffusion technology from other countries. The free technology diffusion generates more gains compared to that of the free merchandise trade. These barriers determine the volumes of diffusion. 8  technically competent groups of scientists and engineers trained in technology absorption get matured and strengthened. We can increase the merchandise trade by removing the diffusion barriers since the countries achieve higher productivity by taking the technology from the diffusion process. 5  Effective utilization is made of available indigenous research expertise and facilities to achieve the desired results. In case of diffusion. Such an approach results in better returns for the investments made in R&D and technology development systems. 6  Know-why and technology up gradation capabilities are built-up. it has become imperative for industry to accelerate its R&D efforts to meet the emerging competitive environment. Benefits of technology absorption After the role of technology absorption. 9  the base for technological self-reliance is enhanced. In the wake of the liberalized nature of New Industrial Policy and other policy measures in Trade and Finance. 2  Acquisition of further technologies becomes selective. The technology diffusion plays more important role in the sector of goods that are not tradable. have liberalized their industrial policies in the recent past. including India. A well-managed technology diffusion system enables an organization to plan its technology development projects in a more meaningful manner as well as transfer the technologies more successfully. 3  Ability is developed to unpackaged the technology. 7  Exports are increased. 4  Savings can be affected in foreign exchange due to indigenization /use of indigenous alternatives. Diffusion enlarges the set of available technologies and increases the productivity of the country. The barriers to technology diffusion help us to determine the magnitude of technology diffusion. These benefits are: 1  Repeated collaborations for the same product/ process are avoided. now let us study about the importance of technology diffusion. we will now study about the benefits that we get from technology absorption exercises.

8 9  Enhancing exports of products based on absorbed and upgraded technology. Q6. and for the management. The failures that are likely to arise during the implementation process may be due to the poor planning or inadequate resources. The thrust as underlined below need to be ensured for effective implementation. In this section.become internationally competitive. consumer services. suppliers of components and materials. 1 2 3  Industry should attempt to obtain best available technology closest to international trends and provide R&D at the stage of project planning. . In the same manner. You must keep in mind some vital preliminary considerations. research organizations in undertaking absorption exercises. which you must keep in mind while choosing a new technology. 6 7  Efforts for unpack aging and indigenization of tailor-made equipment in the acquired technology. absorption and up gradation of imported technology. Answer: Implementation of New Technology The previous section gave you a clear idea on the necessary points.  Use of national and international research facilities and expertise. Valuing the conflicts will facilitate the organization to keep away from these problems. The whole implementation process involves the complete business process and/or academic practice. Explain the implementation of new technology. to anticipate the likely trouble spots and ease it accordingly. We know that planning is the key to success of a project. 4 5  Speedy indigenization of raw materials and components. 1 2 • Continuous training of research personnel in India and abroad. we will understand its implementation. 3 4  Involving users. Briefly describe the automation decisions. a sound planning is essential for the success of any technology’s implementation. These considerations are: 1  Initial considerations: The management of the business needs to understand that the new system alone cannot find solutions to all the problems experience by the organization.

communication with suppliers and a relationship among all other engrossed stakeholders. losing key persons and common disappointment with the result 1  Go-Live Considerations: Finally. The competitive edge enhances production that may be related to the total system performance and authorising employees. of some companies that had apparently made changes to billing. There are a number of less-substantial activities. and for the displeased . 4 A complete review of every business processes and. 1 Be aggressive: An important consideration when implementing a new technology is to be aggressive to set up a strong competitive edge. since it is practically possible. to identify faults and correct freely. It conveys to be more careful in understanding the consequences and secondary applications which may perhaps be impacted as a result of a very small change. 10 The users must be trained. 9 The users must be trained. 2  Be cautious: If the new chosen technology provides revenue to your business. in terms of its traditions and principles are essential. sometimes irreversibly. failed to produce invoices or statements to the clients. The competitive benefit may possibly combine several functions. For example. 3 This information has to be conversed to all concerned parties. A competitive edge will make the clients and customers more independent. extended time. partners. 7 A thorough system test procedures should be conducted. 0  Planning and implementation: A thorough plan with efficient management is necessary for success. 2 The underlying principle of any new system implementation should be able to provide all the better services to all concerned through it. The various issues arising at this point of time will negatively affect the organisation‟s status. which are critical and people those are involved must : 1 Have an understanding of the organization predominantly. and to work against the fear of high costs. Being cautious does not merely mean that you should avoid the advancing technology. The consequence formed economic poverty for the billing company. with all stakeholders. Considerations for implementation As we are discussing about the implementation of technology. while accepting the likely need for software malfunction and improvements. 11 The essential nature of system documents has to be accepted and retain accordingly. we will now briefly discuss about some considerations for implementation of technology. or flow of data that will lead to a effective business. 6 The inbuilt dangers of customization of any software should be understood. we can think of an ATM machine that will make the customers convenient by establishing it outside the bank. to use the system. 8 The training and development to be conducted for the internal staff should be planned in advance. and developing and introducing new policies before tuning the system to meet the decided requirements should be undertaken. If we consider examples. then it is necessary to be careful while making any major modifications in the new technology. academic practice. it is essential that the “go live” day causes as tiny disturbance to the daily business. 5 The complete approval of the difficulty and flexibility of the system should be determined. where required.

it is the right time to reassess the associated documents by means of a security or privacy specialist. you must avoid focusing on common ground. the better time to address the potential security needs is at the time of design and development. credit cards. In addition to the impact on cash flow. customer accounts. then it is vital to consider safety. The automation decisions act like legal support systems that instantaneously solve and offer solutions to the recurring organisation problems. Automation decisions In general. or printed in files. the centre design and functions of the business are well-organised and updated. or employee information stored automatically. The processes that are more frequently in use are likely to get the majority attention and seem to be highly evolved. Normally. If you have customers. who abruptly received several months‟ worth of amass billing once the accounting system problem was resolved. It is better to employ a security expert who will take care of the privacy of the organisation. For the purpose of operational decision making. it is vital to make the implementation changes slowly. warnings and suggested solution to solve a problem. health information. you must be careful even while implementing changes that may affect your core business contributions. There will be remarkable information to be achieved with the experience and less effect on business by concentrating on most composite and least used functions. you should be aggressive to increase the competitive chances to grow the profit and performance of your business. these processes are given the first priority. In addition. we can say that automation decisions are the decisions that are related to automation. One of the components of automation decision support is rules-engine. Basically. At the same time. The engine employs actionable analytics and business rules to make and deliver adapted alert. test changes and schedule to bring consistent enhancements. To handle a particular business situation. it produces alerts and messages which might contain the announcement. when it comes to performance improvement. monetary information.customers. a rules-engine is used. The automated decisions are basically dependent on business rules. to design small changes. It is pretty often. internal proposal for simplifying routines or improving customer performance. also conserve the primary processes until the changes have been tested on some of the more difficult and less used utilities. customers. There should not be any delay. intellectual belongings. We must follow a set of routines. the relationships with the customers become weak. 3  Be quick: It is important for you to be quick enough to implement the small changes to your chosen technology and to supervise their impact. it relates the business intelligence to business users or to create and deliver action messages for processing by operational applications. evidently defined decision situations. Also. On the other side. . Henceforth. They are directly related to business informatics and business analytics. 5  Be safe: During the implementation of a new technology. when it comes to implementing a transfer in technology. available on a network. or billing. customer information. The automation decision is considered most suitable for coherent. These rules can be shaped or activated by business analytics. if you are planning to undergo a technology change. the minor improvements encompass the major impact to business performance. 4  Be slow: If major changes affect your business.

Let us understand the use of BPA in a Business Intelligence (BI) environment with the help of an example given in figure . The chief consideration is that the knowledge and decision criteria used in these systems have to be highly structured. including web application servers. where they are sometimes called intelligent agents. The rule engines are implanted in a number of software products. and if premium data are accessible. the analytics. The current automation design decision systems are well suited for the decisions that have to be made often and rapidly. and business intelligence tools. the conditions are favourable for automating the decision. If specialists are capable of readily codifying the decision rules. To fully exploit the advantage of the influence of a decisionmaking system.A rule engine can also be invoked by a user in real time to assist in business decisions. It can be achieved by means of business process automation (BPA). or to calculate the risk occurred in a particular business transaction. The sophisticated stand alone rule engines are building up and advertised by the vendors. whether to fund a loan to the client or in providing credit cards. by the use of information that is available electronically. suggestions and actions has to be linked and integrated with the overall business process.

which would produce the suitable action messages to be sent to the functioning environment.T he upper portion of the figure illustrates an easy functioning workflow for dealing out a customer order. Application and data events can then be confined at these points and used to populate an Object Distribution Server (ODS) or a data warehouse. the business user possibly will be on the alert and pass an action workflow to assist identification of the problem and decide what action to take. . the action workflow possibly will be implanted in the rules engine. in an integration broker or at application and data interfaces like database API. EJB interface and user interface2. This workflow is used so as to establish the indications in the operational process. where business action desires to be supervised by a BI system. If automation is necessary. If an analytics workflow in a rules engine in the BI system discovers a business condition that needs action. The ODS acts like an objectified information used by the clients to obtain and contribute knowledge be accomplished directly in the application itself. application API.

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