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Dated 23rd June 2008
To The Joint Secretary Ministry of Steel Govt. of India Udyog Bhavan New Delhi – 110107
Sub : Order of Ministry of Consumer affairs , Food and Public distribution on Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control), Dated 12th November 2007 Sir ,
Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, by an order called Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control) Order, 2007 published in its Gazette on 12.11.07, prohibited production, storage and sale of 17 scheduled steel items which do not have ISI mark, in the country. The order is to come into force from 11.08.2008. This order is a matter of great concern to the members of Steel Re-Rolling Mills association of India. THE CAUSES FOR CONCERN: Amongst the said 17 items, the new order on high strength deformed bars (IS 1786 : 1985), Structural steel (IS 2062 : 2006), Billets and ingots (IS 2830 :1992, IS : 2831 :2001) are matter of prime concern to this association. Products falling under specification IS: 1786 and IS: 2062 are manufactured by the members of this association. They require steel billets and ingots falling under specification IS: 2830 and IS: 2831 as their raw materials. These raw materials are produced by: LD Process/BOF Process, ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE Process and INDUCTION MELTING FURNACE ( IMF ) Process . Out of these, the members of the present association use steels produced from IMF route. Sponge iron, Pig Iron and M.S scrap are used as the raw materials for making of steels through this route. Since phosphorus content of sponge iron is higher (0.12 to 0.15), this element remains in the finally produced steel. Apart from this element, the steel produced from induction furnace route meet all the requirements of BIS standards which stipulate the manufacture of steel as follows (Clause 3.1 of IS 1786 : 1985) “Steel shall be manufactured by the open-hearth, electric, duplex, basic-oxygen, or a combination of these processes. In case any other process is employed by the manufacturer, prior approval of the purchaser should be obtained. The ladle analysis of steel when made as per relevant parts of IS : 228* shall be as follows” :
Contd...page - 2
3. is a matter of great concern to us. More dependence on Blast Furnace and BOF/EAF technology for production of steel invoking import of costly low ash coal and consumption of already scarce electric power..055 0.:: 2 :: Elements Fe 415 0.055 0.060 0. Unemployment of millions of people. Contd. 4.30 0. (b) TECHNICAL ASPECTS: (i) Use of IMF route of making steel is innovative and economical Secondary steel producers in the country manufacture more than 50% of sale able steel i. Mini Steel plants.055 0. The rebars rolled out of such steels meet all the requirements namely yield strength.060 0.30 0.055 0.. c) Strategy for Implementation d ) Order not conforming to the steel policy of GOI decided in 2005 and e) Alternate possibilities.105 Fe 550 0. Import of steel and thereby loss of precious foreign exchange. Closure of thousands of Sponge Iron.e.08 to 0.11 Constituent Percent. 5. bend ability. Uncontrollable price of steel . Huge shortage of already scarce steel material in the country. We feel that this order has been passed without taking into consideration its: a) Social and Economical aspects b) Technical aspects. This is truer in case of rebars produced by TMT routes which nullify any negative effects of residual elements in steels.30 0. it will result in : 1. 6. Debarring production of steel ingots/billets through IMF route due to not meeting the relevant IS specifications (although the end product not only meets all the requirements of IS specifications but in some cases exceeds it) therefore.12 % depending on the quality of ore used to make sponge iron. (a) SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL ASPECTS If this order is implemented. 2.10 C S P S+P The steel produced from IMF route retain phosphorus in the range of 0.page -3 . Re-Rolling mills and ancilliary industries. Maximum in grades of Fe 500 0. % elongation etc.
36 million tones is produced through Blast Furnace Route. Fe – 500. The main benefits of using IMF over EAF for making steels are: They consume less power. they were phased out. considerable quantities of steel products are rolled out of re-roll able scraps. Till 1967 . in performance : The concept of reinforced structures started in India about 100 years back .Use of deformed bars ( square shape bars ) started in 1965 .:: 3 :: Bars and Rods and Structural Steel. plain mild steel re-bars of grade Fe – 250 were used . There are nearly 650 induction furnaces installed in the country to manufacture steels. increased ductility. Expenditure on electrode is NIL. This is an advanced technique of providing composite micro structure to steel for deriving higher strength. three grades of re-bars namely Fe – 415. The concept of thermo mechanically treated (TMT) bars were introduced in India during 1980-1985. sulphur / phosphorus are marginally higher in this steel. due to their inherent defects. As a matter of fact. Lower refractory consumption per ton of steel. Major existing integrated steel plants are rather facing a challenge from Induction Furnace units in producing long products using steel economically and efficiently. The bulk of structural quality mild steel for long products is now manufactured by Induction Melting Furnaces only. . electric arc furnaces (EAF) are not making mild steel of structural quality for over a decade now. whereas balance 14 million tones are produced by DRI Route. India is the first country which came with the innovative idea to make bulk plain carbon steel using Induction Melting Furnaces. cannot match with specification laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards word to word. Cold twisted deformed round re-bars having steel strength in the range of 405 Mpa ( grade 40) were introduced in 1967. Low capital investment on plant and machineries and Lower cost of production of steel (ii) Quality of rebars rolled from steels produced by IMF route and rolled in TMT plants are equivalent to primary producer plants' rebars. Apart from above. which is not followed by other countries except China. Over 15 million tonnes of steel is currently being produced by Induction Furnaces. Out of total crude steel production of about 50 million tones. For all practical purposes. It is an well established fact that steel produced through DRI Route. Fe – 550 are produced in India. However. Presently. The units earlier using EAF have now installed Induction Melting Furnaces for making steels. in the world. weld ability and other desirable properties. commonly known as Sponge Iron Route.
055+0. All data relate to Fe 500 grade (IS: 1786:1985) STANDARD IS 1786 : 1985 IS 2062 : 2006 TISCON TMT CRS SAIL HCRS (Cu-P) ASTM A615 *Permissible Variation %C max 0.045+0. the limit for phosphorus is between 0.25 0. Effect of phosphorus on ductility of high strength spring steels. The main constraint in meeting out quality parameters is managing quantum of phosphorus in steel produced by IMF route.15 0.15 %P max 0. Corrosion of re-bars is very serious problem especially in coastal and polluted area of the country .15 %C+P 0.page – 4 :: 4 :: Properties of re-bars are controlled by the chemical composition of steel from which they are manufactured. Let us see what IS standards specifies vis-a. During that period of time..1 0.30% (max) which is obviously to provide higher tensile strength. Steel Research .295+0.07-0.005* 0..Contd. good ductility and unhindered weldability of re-bars. This is in view of the fact that higher content of phosphorus in steels results in poor toughness and enhance the brittle fracture in high strength steels . In view of the availability of the state of the art technology and unambiguous understanding of changed behavior of steel due to quenching and tempering treatments (TMT).25+0.045 to 0.025* 0.005* 0.30+0. The detrimental effect of phosphorus especially its segregation in grain boundaries causing cold embrittlement is considerably reduced due to application of thermo mechanical treatment ( TMT) to steels . the limit for carbon is restricted to 0.025* 0. The authors have established that TMT treatments to steels reduces the sensitivity to .355+0. Radko .71 (2000) pp357-36]. it is the need of the hour to revise the chemistry of steels for production of re-bars . This was valid for mild steel and cold twisted deformed (CTD) re-bars where higher content of phosphorus have very detrimental effect on their qualities . Marc and K. In addition to phosphorus.06 % max .30 0.vis other steel used for construction. the technology for production of TMT re-bars was not available.25 In the first two standards.02* 0. It is to be noted here that most of the standards of the world still maintain the same chemistry that was decided in 1960. This is caused due to balancing of grain boundaries segregation and lattice restoration [By W. Vol.02* 0. The latest researches have established that the presence of phosphorus in steels not only enhance strength but also has considerable effect on corrosion resistance of re-bars .
beams etc. This brittleness is caused due to grain boundaries segregation of this element. The level of safety required for highrises or for very critical applications like dams and bridges may not be required for medium level or low level buildings and other normal constructions. on the basis of present specification.Contd. Phosphorus is traditionally known to be detrimental to the mechanical properties of steel and therefore is restricted in modern steel making. The segregation occurs during prolonged exposure and tempering of phosphorus containing steels in the range of 250 to 600°C. the strengthening effect of phosphorus does not appear to be sensitive to the carbon content of the steel.35 0. 02 +0. TMT re-bars provide more than 1. We can specify separate chemical composition for different dia of bars such as incorporated in the following Table: Dia Up to 25 mm Above 25 mm C+P 0.1 wt. In addition. A similar effect of phosphorus is observed on ultimate tensile strength. The addition of only 0.bars . It seems a formula can easily be derived on the basis of cumulative integration of carbon and phosphorus in construction steel and structural steel. If phosphorus is high low carbon will make up its disadvantage of cold brittleness. 02 +0. It is . pillars.35 0.5 times improved ductility vis-a-vis CTD re.page . They compensate the brittleness caused by phosphorus maintaining low carbon content in steel. producers and consumers.30 Variation +0. 02 It can be further refined in consultation with metallurgists. 02 (iii) Presence of higher content of phosphorus in IMF route steel is a blessing in disguise: Phosphorus is one of the most potent solid solution strengtheners of ferrite. % of phosphorus raises the yield strength by about 62 MPa (9 ksi).5 :: 5 :: phosphorus and leads to better ductility. At the same time TATA and SAIL use high phosphorus as much as three times to specification of IS: 1786 by keeping carbon low .30 VARIATION +0. The American Standard ASTM A615 specifies requirement of phosphorus tagged with carbon. The highrises and other critical constructions require higher dia TMT bars in areas like piling. For example.. It is reported that the presence of higher content of phosphorus causes brittle fracture of steels. it may be modified as under : C+P IS 1786 : 1985 IS 2062 : 2006 0.
it is established beyond doubt that higher phosphorus imparts higher corrosion resistance to rebars. The presence of phosphorus leads to the formation of a protective passive film on the surface. (iv) Practical experiences of use of rebars produced from steel of induction furnace route. (v) The order is ambiguous : The Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control order. In practice. Such steels not only have high toughness. It is reported that reinforcement bars for concrete application can be rolled with steels having phosphorus as high as 0.71 (2000) pp357-361]. improved strength and ductility but also corrosion resistance which is reported to increase many fold in comparison to normal low phosphorus steel [G.page . TMT re-bars provide more than 1. Vol. which provides the Pillar its exceptional corrosion resistance properties. As stated above. The concern of embrittlement of steel reinforcement bars having higher content of phosphorus is therefore an imagination as under actual service condition presence of marginally higher phosphorus in steel have not resulted in any deleterious effect on its usage.bars as stated earlier.6 :: 6 :: to be noted here that this temperature range is seldom encountered in reinforced structures. Balasubramaniam. It is therefore logical to conclude that more emphasis should be given to control corrosion than reducing phosphorus content in steels. This is caused due to balancing of grain boundaries segregation and lattice restoration [By W. The tolerance of phosphorus in steel is further increased by thermo mechanical treatment of steel which is normal practice in rolling of rebars. The authors have established that TMT treatments to steels reduces the sensitivity to phosphorus and leads to better ductility. In contrast to this.5 times improved ductility vis-a-vis CTD re.5 meters and disposed of as scrap .. Scripta Materialia 56 (2007) 117-120].25% ) in its steel. 2007) states that sub-standard or defective steel and steel products. This Pillar has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years. Effect of phosphorus on ductility of high strength spring steels.Contd. Radko . In contrast to this the recent studies have established that the Gupta period Delhi Iron Pillar possess high corrosion resistance due to high content of phosphorus ( 0. many of the structures had collapsed due to severe corrosion of reinforcement bars. Sahoo and R. Marc and K. Steel Research .32%. which do not conform to specified standards shall be deformed by manufacturer by cutting into less than 1. Rolling of rebars by using steels produced from induction furnace route is practiced since last more than 25 years and not a single report related to failed structures are attributed to the presence of higher phosphorus in steel.
and lot of time in creation. because neither it can be re-rolled as it will again produce same quality steel nor it can be melted in induction furnace because the same marginally highphosphorus steel will be produced.1 and 12. In a circumstance where 28% crude steel is produced through DRI Route an expectation from steel re-rollers or from Induction Melting Furnaces (IMF) to overnight switch over to production of low phosphorus steel as per relevant BIS standards is an unattainable target. The secondary sector plays an important role in providing employment.7 :: 7 :: within 3 months.1 The secondary sector primarily consists of non-integrated and comparatively small steel producers. meeting local demand of steel in rural and semi-urban areas.Contd. and meeting the country’s demand of some special products required in small volumes. (d) ORDER NOT CONFORMING TO THE STEEL POLICY OF GOI DECIDED IN 2005 The GOI policy stipulates that the bottlenecks related to procedural and institutional issues will be reviewed to sort out problems. if. The statement of the policy 12. any. Steel production facility consumes huge investment..page . The correction should start step by step that is starting from ore and moving towards sponge iron to steel melting to steel rolling to down the line manufacturers. 12. Even if there is any need for correction in industry it should be done by a time bound and well-planned programme so that it can be done without slightest of pain to anybody concerned. However. . Those facilities cannot be changed overnight by an order except leading to complete break down and chaos in industry.2 The Government will strive to provide the necessary feedstock to these units at reasonable prices from major plants through the existing mechanism of State Small Industries Corporations”. there are large variations amongst various units in terms of scale of operations. marginally higher than required standards.2 is being reproduced below: “12. (c) STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTATION The mini steel plant that mainly employ Induction Furnace Technology to produce ingots and billets cannot reduce Sulphur / Phosphorus in their melting shops and as a result they produce billets/ingots which contain Sulphur/Phosphorus. if of course the rejection is attributed to higher phosphorus content in steel. product-mix and technology. We fail to understand to whom they are going to sell these marginally high phosphorus scrap.
A systematic study should be carried out by reputed organizations of the country.page – 9 .page . 2007. This will provide an in-depth understanding of the problem and would help to work out suitable recommendation for maintaining the chemistry of steel to achieve higher corrosion resistance. improved ductility and strength.8 :: 8 :: (e) ALTERNATE POSSIBILITIES Suggestions: In order to avoid creation of chaos in steel market due to closure of mills producing steels based on induction furnace route and make millions of people unemployed. vide IS: 1786: 1985 (Third revision): Page 6 Note 2 of Clause 3. The generation of data and submission of recommendation as mentioned above will take time and till then a BIS standard should be formulated on the line recommended herein above.Contd. Contd. those with chemical composition conforming to IS 11587: 1986 Specification for structural weather resistant steel) are embedded in chloride contaminated concrete. BIS may formulate or add a clause of similar nature in IS 1786 for rebars manufactured from steels produced through IMF route. The option for using the type of rebars should be left to the customer.” It means that option has been left to consumer to decide how to use proper quality of steel suitable for circumstances of construction at his site. On the other hand secondary steel producers are practically forced to fall prey to Steel and Steel Products (Quality Control) Orders.. the following suggestions are being put forward for consideration: i) Scientific study on the role of phosphorus on mechanical behaviour of high phosphorus in steel in view of the reported positive role played by higher content of phosphorus in steel especially in thermo mechanically treated (TMT) rebars.2 “User may note that there is a danger of pitting and crevice corrosion when weathering steels (that is. The same stand should apply to all steels available in country... ii) The CRS TMT bars as manufactured by SAIL and HCRS as manufactured by TISCO though claimed to be “corrosion resistant” carries “certified” risk of pitting.
Thus. It will. Thanking you. As a result. road) and financial support for the intending manufacturers. on the one hand there is shortage of resources for intending manufacturers. − Equitable development of steel industry in the country. Beriwala Chairman . mines. on one hand add value to the enormous stock of fines and on the other enable the secondary steel producers to produce better quality steel with the same technology. on the other these assets remain unexploited.e. through the Sponze Iron/Induction furnace route. The achievement of quality through in-process control comes from the core competence of a manufactuer and not from coercion or intimidation.:: 9 :: iii) The large integrated steel plants in the country are sitting over our natural resources like land. For Steel Re-Rolling Mills' Association of India B. Yours faithfully. They have put many times more in their mouth than they can possibly chew. We are drying up natural resources very fast without any significant benefit to the country. The natural ore. land Government shall have to make secondary steel sector more proactive and competitive to their larger counterparts having muscles of and water with them. water. i.M. We hope your honor will look into the matter. ore. water. infrastructural (land. iv) The Government should encourage beneficiation of orefines and subsequent pelletisation by providing technical. This move shall help to − Control price of finished steel − Create availability of quality steel − Better utilisation of natural resources. ore is being exported without any value addition. These integrated steel plants should be asked to sell a minimum of 50% production of semis to domestic re-rollers. power. rail. power and many more assets. reprieve secondary steel producers from untimely agony of death and do justice to them.
Near Dehshara Choubey Colony. Shri Krishna Rolling Mills (Jaipur) Ltd.No. Community Centre Wazirpur Industrial Area. Raipur – 492 001 (C. Raipur Chattishgarh -492 001 To Shri Subhash Agarwal. President Chattishgarh Mini Steel Plant Association. Govt. Varshney (Ex. House.President) All India Induction Furnace Association. Sona Tower (Opp.C. Deshbandhu Press) Ramsagar Para. to : To Shri A. New Delhi .5. New Delhi – 110 001 To Shri R.c. Raipur 1st Floor.110052 To Shri Ashok Surana.G. Das (Technical Advisor) Ministry of Steel. Raipur H. . Delhi 209.G) To Shri Shriniwas Gupta M/s. President Chattishgarh Steel Chambers.c. of India Udyog Bhavan New Delhi – 110 107 To Shri Vinod Vashishth (President) All India Steel Re-rollers Association Sagar Apartments 6. Tilak Marg.P. Shala Marg. 37. Industrial Area Jhotwara Jaipur – 302 012 . M.
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