Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters

• dc-dc converters for switch-mode dc power supplies and dc-motor drives
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-1

Block Diagram of DC-DC Converters

• Functional block diagram
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-2

Stepping Down a DC Voltage

• A simple approach that shows the evolution
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-3

Pulse-Width Modulation in DC-DC Converters

• Role of PWM
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-4

Step-Down DC-DC Converter

• Pulsating input to the low-pass filter

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Waveforms

• Steady state; inductor current flows continuously
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-6

Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Waveforms at the boundary of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• Critical current below which inductor current becomes discontinuous
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-7

Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Discontinuous Conduction Mode

• Steady state; inductor current discontinuous
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-8

Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• The duty-ratio of 0.5 has the highest value of the critical current
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-9

Step-Down DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• Output voltage is kept constant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-10

Step-Down Conv.: Output Voltage Ripple

• ESR is assumed to be zero
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-11

Step-Up DC-DC Converter

• Output voltage must be greater than the input

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Step-Up DC-DC Converter Waveforms

• Continuous current conduction mode
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-13

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• The output voltage is held constant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-14

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Discont. Conduction

• Occurs at light loads
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-15

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• The output voltage is held constant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-16

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Effect of Parasitics

• The duty-ratio is generally limited before the parasitic effects become significant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-17

Step-Up DC-DC Converter Output Ripple

• ESR is assumed to be zero
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-18

Step-Down/Up DC-DC Converter

• The output voltage can be higher or lower than the input voltage
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-19

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Waveforms

• Continuation conduction mode
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-20

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• The output voltage is held constant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-21

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Discontinuous Conduction Mode

• This occurs at light loads
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-22

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Limits of Cont./Discont. Conduction

• The output voltage is held constant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-23

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Effect of Parasitics

• The duty-ratio is limited to avoid these parasitic effects from becoming significant
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-24

Step-Up DC-DC Converter: Output Voltage Ripple

• ESR is assumed to be zero
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-25

Cuk DC-DC Converter

• The output voltage can be higher or lower than the input voltage

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Cuk DC-DC Converter: Waveforms

• The capacitor voltage is assumed constant

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Converter for DC-Motor Drives

• Four quadrant operation is possible

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Converter Waveforms

• Bi-polar voltage switching

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Converter Waveforms

• Uni-polar voltage switching

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Output Ripple in Converters for DC-Motor Drives

• bi-polar and uni-polar voltage switching
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-31

Switch Utilization in DC-DC Converters

• It varies significantly in various converters
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-32

Equivalent Circuits in DC-DC Converters

• replacing inductors and capacitors by current and voltage sources, respectively
Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7 DC-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7-33

Reversing the Power Flow in DC-DC Conv.

• For power flow from right to left, the input current direction should also reverse

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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