Introduction to the Project Gutenberg Edition.

This edition of _The Anatomy of Melancholy_ is based on a
nineteenth-century edition that modernized urton!s s"elling and
ty"ogra"hic con#entions. In "re"aring this electronic #ersion$ it became
e#ident that the editor had made a #ariety of mista%es in this
modernization& some 'ords 'ere left in their original s"elling (unusual
'ords 'ere a "articular "roblem)$ "ortions of boo% titles 'ere mista%en for
"ro"er names$ "ro"er names 'ere mista%en for boo% titles or *atin 'ords$
etc. A certain number of mis"rints 'ere also introduced into the *atin. As
a result$ I ha#e re-edited the te+t$ chec%ing it against images of the ,-./
edition$ and correcting all errors not "resent in the earlier edition. I
ha#e continued to follo' the general editorial "ractice of the base te+t
for 0uotation mar%s$ italics$ etc. 1are 'ords ha#e been normalized
according to their "rimary s"elling in the 2+ford English 3ictionary. 4hen
urton s"ells a "erson!s name in se#eral 'ays$ I ha#e normalized the names
to the most common s"elling$ or to modern "ractice if 'ell-%no'n. In a fe'
cases$ mista%es "resent in both the ,-./ edition and the base te+t ha#e
been corrected. These are al'ays minor reference errors (e.g.$ an incorrect
or missing section number in the syno"ses$ or misnumbered footnotes).
Incorrect citations to other te+ts (urton seems to 0uote by memory and
sometimes gets it 'rong) ha#e not been changed if they are 'rong in both
editions. To dis"lay some symbols (astrological signs$ etc.) the 5TM*
#ersion re0uires a bro'ser 'ith unicode su""ort. Most recent bro'sers
should be 26.--6T5
7128TI9PIE:E T2 T5E 21IGI8A* E3ITI28
;Illustration& ,. 3emocritus Abderites< =. >eloty"ia .. 9olitudo< ?.
Inamorato< @. 5y"ocondriacus< -. 9u"erstitiosus< A. Maniacus< /. orage< B.
5ellebor< ,C. 3emocritus Dunior
T5E A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E
4hat it is$ 'ith all the %inds$ causes$ sym"toms$ "rognostics$ and se#eral
cures of it.
In three Partitions$ 'ith their se#eral 9ections$ numbers$ and subsections.
Philoso"hically$ medicinally$ 5istorically$ o"ened and cut u".
y 3emocritus Dunior
4ith a 9atyrical Preface conducing to the follo'ing 3iscourse.
The 9i+th Edition$ corrected and augmented by the Author.
2mne tulit "unctum$ 0ui miscit utile dulce.
Printed F to be sold by 5en. :ri"s F *odo *loyd at their sho" in
Po"es-head Alley. ,-@=G
T5E A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E$
45AT IT I9$
A** T5E 6I839$ :AH9E9$ 9EMPT2M9$ P12G829TI:9$ A83 9EIE1A* :H1E9 27 IT.
I8 T51EE PA1TITI289.
4IT5 T5EI1 9EIE1A*
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5I9T21I:A**E 2PE8E3 A83 :HT HP.
E 3EM2:1ITH9 DH8I21.
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A 8E4 E3ITI28$
:211E:TE3$ A83 E81I:5E3 E T1A89*ATI289 27 T5E 8HME12H9 :*A99I:A*
E 3EM2:1ITH9 MI821.
T2 45I:5 I9 P1E7IJE3 A8 A::2H8T 27 T5E AHT521.
2mne tulit "unctum$ 0ui miscuit utile dulci.
5e that joins instruction 'ith delight$
Profit 'ith "leasure$ carries all the #otes.
52821ATI99IM2 32MI82
828 MI8I9 II1THTE 9HA$ KHAM GE8E1I9 9P*E8321E$
GE21GI2 E66*EI2$
MI*ITI 3E A*8E2$ A128I 3E E16*EE$ M2H1EE$ 9EG1AIE$
3. 3E 1H9E$
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5A8: 9HAM
ME*A8:52*IAE A8AT2ME8$
DAM 9EJT2 1EII9AM$ 3.3.
3EM2:1ITH9 DH8I21.
A3IE1TI9EME8T T2 T5E *A9T *28328 E3ITI28.
The 'or% no' restored to "ublic notice has had an e+traordinary fate. At
the time of its original "ublication it obtained a great celebrity$ 'hich
continued more than half a century. 3uring that "eriod fe' boo%s 'ere more
read$ or more deser#edly a""lauded. It 'as the delight of the learned$ the
solace of the indolent$ and the refuge of the uninformed. It "assed through
at least eight editions$ by 'hich the boo%seller$ as 4223 records$ got an
estate< and$ not'ithstanding the objection sometimes o""osed against it$ of
a 0uaint style$ and too great an accumulation of authorities$ the
fascination of its 'it$ fancy$ and sterling sense$ ha#e borne do'n all
censures$ and e+torted "raise from the first 4riters in the English
language. The gra#e D258928 has "raised it in the 'armest terms$ and the
ludicrous 9TE18E has inter'o#en many "arts of it into his o'n "o"ular
"erformance. MI*T28 did not disdain to build t'o of his finest "oems on it<
and a host of inferior 'riters ha#e embellished their 'or%s 'ith beauties
not their o'n$ culled from a "erformance 'hich they had not the justice
e#en to mention. :hange of times$ and the fri#olity of fashion$ sus"ended$
in some degree$ that fame 'hich had lasted near a century< and the
succeeding generation affected indifference to'ards an author$ 'ho at
length 'as only loo%ed into by the "lunderers of literature$ the "oachers
in obscure #olumes. The "lagiarisms of _Tristram 9handy_$ so successfully
brought to light by 31. 7E11IA1$ at length dre' the attention of the "ublic
to'ards a 'riter$ 'ho$ though then little %no'n$ might$ 'ithout im"eachment
of modesty$ lay claim to e#ery mar% of res"ect< and in0uiry "ro#ed$ beyond
a doubt$ that the calls of justice had been little attended to by others$
as 'ell as the facetious E21I:6. 4223 obser#ed$ more than a century ago$
that se#eral authors had unmercifully stolen matter from H1T28 'ithout any
ac%no'ledgment. The time$ ho'e#er$ at length arri#ed$ 'hen the merits of
the _Anatomy of Melancholy_ 'ere to recei#e their due "raise. The boo% 'as
again sought for and read$ and again it became an a""lauded "erformance.
Its e+cellencies once more stood confessed$ in the increased "rice 'hich
e#ery co"y offered for sale "roduced< and the increased demand "ointed out
the necessity of a ne' edition. This is no' "resented to the "ublic in a
manner not disgraceful to the memory of the author< and the "ublisher
relies 'ith confidence$ that so #aluable a re"ository of amusement and
information 'ill continue to hold the ran% to 'hich it has been restored$
firmly su""orted by its o'n merit$ and safe from the influence and blight
of any future ca"rices of fashion. To o"en its #aluable mysteries to those
'ho ha#e not had the ad#antage of a classical education$ translations of
the countless 0uotations from ancient 'riters 'hich occur in the 'or%$ are
no' for the first time gi#en$ and obsolete orthogra"hy is in all instances
A::2H8T 27 T5E AHT521.
1obert urton 'as the son of 1al"h urton$ of an ancient and genteel family
at *indley$ in *eicestershire$ and 'as born there on the /th of 7ebruary
,@A-. ;,G5e recei#ed the first rudiments of learning at the free school of
9utton :oldfield$ in 4ar'ic%shire ;=Gfrom 'hence he 'as$ at the age of
se#enteen$ in the long #acation$ ,@B.$ sent to razen 8ose :ollege$ in the
condition of a commoner$ 'here he made considerable "rogress in logic and
"hiloso"hy. In ,@BB he 'as elected student of :hrist :hurch$ and$ for
form!s sa%e$ 'as "ut under the tuition of 3r. Dohn ancroft$ after'ards
isho" of 2+ford. In ,-,? he 'as admitted to the reading of the 9entences$
and on the =Bth of 8o#ember$ ,-,-$ had the #icarage of 9t. Thomas$ in the
'est suburb of 2+ford$ conferred on him by the dean and canons of :hrist
:hurch$ 'hich$ 'ith the rectory of 9egra#e$ in *eicestershire$ gi#en to him
in the year ,-.-$ by George$ *ord er%eley$ he %e"t$ to use the 'ords of
the 2+ford anti0uary$ 'ith much ado to his dying day. 5e seems to ha#e been
first beneficed at 4alsby$ in *incolnshire$ through the munificence of his
noble "atroness$ 7rances$ :ountess 3o'ager of E+eter$ but resigned the
same$ as he tells us$ for some s"ecial reasons. At his #icarage he is
remar%ed to ha#e al'ays gi#en the sacrament in 'afers. 4ood!s character of
him is$ that Lhe 'as an e+act mathematician$ a curious calculator of
nati#ities$ a general read scholar$ a thorough-"aced "hilologist$ and one
that understood the sur#eying of lands 'ell. As he 'as by many accounted a
se#ere student$ a de#ourer of authors$ a melancholy and humorous "erson< so
by others$ 'ho %ne' him 'ell$ a "erson of great honesty$ "lain dealing and
charity. I ha#e heard some of the ancients of :hrist :hurch often say$ that
his com"any 'as #ery merry$ facete$ and ju#enile< and no man in his time
did sur"ass him for his ready and de+terous interlarding his common
discourses among them 'ith #erses from the "oets$ or sentences from classic
authors< 'hich being then all the fashion in the Hni#ersity$ made his
com"any the more acce"table.L 5e a""ears to ha#e been a uni#ersal reader of
all %inds of boo%s$ and a#ailed himself of his multifarious studies in a
#ery e+traordinary manner. 7rom the information of 5earne$ 'e learn that
Dohn 1ouse$ the odleian librarian$ furnished him 'ith choice boo%s for the
"rosecution of his 'or%. The subject of his labour and amusement$ seems to
ha#e been ado"ted from the infirmities of his o'n habit and constitution.
Mr. Granger says$ L5e com"osed this boo% 'ith a #ie' of relie#ing his o'n
melancholy$ but increased it to such a degree$ that nothing could ma%e him
laugh$ but going to the bridge-foot and hearing the ribaldry of the
bargemen$ 'hich rarely failed to thro' him into a #iolent fit of laughter.
efore he 'as o#ercome 'ith this horrid disorder$ he$ in the inter#als of
his #a"ours$ 'as esteemed one of the most facetious com"anions in the
5is residence 'as chiefly at 2+ford< 'here$ in his chamber in :hrist :hurch
:ollege$ he de"arted this life$ at or #ery near the time 'hich he had some
years before foretold$ from the calculation of his o'n nati#ity$ and 'hich$
says 4ood$ Lbeing e+act$ se#eral of the students did not forbear to 'his"er
among themsel#es$ that rather than there should be a mista%e in the
calculation$ he sent u" his soul to hea#en through a sli" about his nec%.L
4hether this suggestion is founded in truth$ 'e ha#e no other e#idence than
an obscure hint in the e"ita"h hereafter inserted$ 'hich 'as 'ritten by the
author himself$ a short time before his death. 5is body$ 'ith due
solemnity$ 'as buried near that of 3r. 1obert 4eston$ in the north aisle
'hich joins ne+t to the choir of the cathedral of :hrist :hurch$ on the
=Ath of Danuary ,-.B-?C. 2#er his gra#e 'as soon after erected a comely
monument$ on the u""er "illar of the said aisle$ 'ith his bust$ "ainted to
the life. 2n the right hand is the follo'ing calculation of his nati#ity&
;Illustration& 1. natus .
,@A-$ / 7eb.
hor. .$ scru". ,-.
long. ==M C!
"olus @,M .CLG
and under the bust$ this inscri"tion of his o'n com"osition&--
Paucis notus$ "aucioribus ignotus$
5ic jacet _3emocritus_ junior
:ui #itam dedit et mortem
2b. / Id. Dan. A. :. M3:JJJIJ.
Arms&--Azure on a bend 2. bet'een three dogs! heads 2. a crescent G.
A fe' months before his death$ he made his 'ill$ of 'hich the follo'ing is
a co"y&
EJT1A:TE3 712M T5E 1EGI9T1E 27 T5E P1E12GATIIE :2H1T 27 :A8TE1H1E.
_In nomine 3ei Amen_. August ,@th 2ne thousand si+ hundred thirty nine
because there be so many casualties to 'hich our life is subject besides
0uarrelling and contention 'hich ha""en to our 9uccessors after our 3eath
by reason of unsettled Estates I 1obert urton 9tudent of :hrist-church
2+on. though my means be but small ha#e thought good by this my last 4ill
and Testament to dis"ose of that little 'hich I ha#e and being at this
"resent I than% God in "erfect health of odie and Mind and if this
Testament be not so formal according to the nice and strict terms of *a'
and other :ircumstances "erad#enture re0uired of 'hich I am ignorant I
desire ho'soe#er this my 4ill may be acce"ted and stand good according to
my true Intent and meaning 7irst I be0ueath Animam 3eo :or"us Terrae
'hensoe#er it shall "lease God to call me I gi#e my *and in 5igham 'hich my
good 7ather 1al"he urton of *indly in the :ounty of *eicester Es0uire ga#e
me by 3eed of Gift and that 'hich I ha#e anne+ed to that 7arm by "urchase
since$ no' leased for thirty eight "ounds "er Ann. to mine Elder rother
4illiam urton of *indly Es0uire during his life and after him to his 5eirs
I ma%e my said rother 4illiam li%e'ise mine E+ecutor as 'ell as "aying
such Annuities and *egacies out of my *ands and Goods as are hereafter
s"ecified I gi#e to my ne"he' :assibilan urton t'enty "ounds Annuity "er
Ann. out of my *and in 5igham during his life to be "aid at t'o e0ual
"ayments at our *ady 3ay in *ent and Michaelmas or if he be not "aid 'ithin
fourteen 3ays after the said 7easts to distrain on any "art of the Ground
or on any of my *ands of Inheritance Item I gi#e to my 9ister 6atherine
Dac%son during her life eight "ounds "er Ann. Annuity to be "aid at the t'o
7easts e0ually as abo#e said or else to distrain on the Ground if she be
not "aid after fourteen days at *indly as the other _some_ is out of the
said *and Item I gi#e to my 9er#ant Dohn H"ton the Annuity of 7orty
9hillings out of my said 7arme during his life (if till then my 9er#ant) to
be "aid on Michaelmas day in *indley each year or else after fourteen days
to distrain 8o' for my goods I thus dis"ose them 7irst I gi#e an :!th
"ounds to :hrist :hurch in 2+ford 'here I ha#e so long li#ed to buy fi#e
"ounds *ands "er Ann. to be Eearly besto'ed on oo%s for the *ibrary Item I
gi#e an hundredth "ound to the Hni#ersity *ibrary of 2+ford to be besto'ed
to "urchase fi#e "ound *and "er Ann. to be "aid out Eearly on oo%s as Mrs.
roo%s formerly ga#e an hundred "ounds to buy *and to the same "ur"ose and
the 1ent to the same use I gi#e to my rother George urton t'enty "ounds
and my 'atch I gi#e to my rother 1al"h urton fi#e "ounds Item I gi#e to
the Parish of 9eagra#e in *eicestershire 'here I am no' 1ector ten "ounds
to be gi#en to a certain 7eoffees to the "er"etual good of the said _Parish
2+on_ ;.GItem I gi#e to my 8iece Eugenia urton 2ne hundredth "ounds Item I
gi#e to my 8e"he' 1ichard urton no' Prisoner in *ondon an hundredth "ound
to redeem him Item I gi#e to the Poor of 5igham 7orty 9hillings 'here my
*and is to the "oor of 8uneaton 'here I 'as once a Grammar 9cholar three
"ound to my :ousin Purfey of 4adla%e ;4adleyG my :ousin Purfey of :alcott
my :ousin 5ales of :o#entry my 8e"he' radsha' of 2rton t'enty shillings a
"iece for a small remembrance to Mr. 4hitehall 1ector of :her%by myne o'n
:hamber 7ello' t'enty shillings I desire my rother George and my :osen
Purfey of :alcott to be the 2#erseers of this "art of my 4ill I gi#e
moreo#er fi#e "ounds to ma%e a small Monument for my Mother 'here she is
buried in *ondon to my rother Dac%son forty shillings to my 9er#ant Dohn
H"ton forty shillings besides his former Annuity if he be my 9er#ant till I
die if he be till then my 9er#ant ;?G--12E1T H1T28--:harles 1ussell
4itness--Dohn Pe""er 4itness.
An A""endi+ to this my 4ill if I die in 2+ford or 'hilst I am of :hrist
:hurch and 'ith good Mr. Paynes August the 7ifteenth ,-.B.
I gi#e to Mr. 3octor 7ell 3ean of :hrist :hurch 7orty 9hillings to the
Eight :anons t'enty 9hillings a "iece as a small remembrance to the "oor of
9t. Thomas Parish T'enty 9hillings to rasenose *ibrary fi#e "ounds to Mr.
1o'se of 2riell :olledge t'enty 9hillings to Mr. 5ey'ood _++_s. to 3r.
Metcalfe _++_s. to Mr. 9herley _++_s. If I ha#e any oo%s the Hni#ersity
*ibrary hath not$ let them ta%e them If I ha#e any oo%s our o'n *ibrary
hath not$ let them ta%e them I gi#e to Mrs. 7ell all my English oo%s of
5usbandry one e+ce"ted to her 3aughter Mrs. 6atherine 7ell my 9i+ Pieces of
9il#er Plate and si+ 9il#er s"oons to Mrs. Iles my Gerards 5erball To Mrs.
Morris my :ountry 7arme Translated out of 7rench ?. and all my English
Physic% oo%s to Mr. 4histler the 1ecorder of 2+ford I gi#e t'enty
shillings to all my fello' 9tudents Mrs of Arts a oo% in fol. or t'o a
"iece as Master Morris Treasurer or Mr. 3ean shall a""oint 'hom I re0uest
to be the 2#erseer of this A""endi+ and gi#e him for his "ains Atlas
Geografer and 2rtelius Theatrum Mond! I gi#e to Dohn 7ell the 3ean!s 9on
9tudent my Mathematical Instruments e+ce"t my t'o :rosse 9ta#es 'hich I
gi#e to my *ord of 3onnol if he be then of the 5ouse To Thomas Iles 3octor
Iles his 9on 9tudent 9aluntch on Paurrhelia and *ucian!s 4or%s in ? Tomes
If any boo%s be left let my E+ecutors dis"ose of them 'ith all such oo%s
as are 'ritten 'ith my o'n hands and half my Melancholy :o"y for :ri"s hath
the other half To Mr. Dones :ha"lin and :hanter my 9ur#eying oo%s and
Instruments To the 9er#ants of the 5ouse 7orty 9hillings 12.
H1T28--:harles 1ussell 4itness--Dohn Pe""er 4itness--This 4ill 'as she'ed
to me by the Testator and ac%no'ledged by him some fe' days before his
death to be his last 4ill Ita Testor Dohn Morris 9 Th 3. Prebendari! Eccl
:hri! 2+on 7eb. .$ ,-.B.
Probatum fuit Testamentum su"rascri"tum$ Fc. ,,M ,-?C Duramento 4illmi
urton 7ris! et E+ecutoris cui Fc. de bene et fideliter administrand.
Fc. coram Mag!ris 8athanaele 9te"hens 1ectore Eccl. de 3rayton$ et
Ed'ardo 7armer$ :lericis$ #igore commissionis$ Fc.
The only 'or% our author e+ecuted 'as that no' re"rinted$ 'hich "robably
'as the "rinci"al em"loyment of his life. 3r. 7erriar says$ it 'as
originally "ublished in the year ,-,A< but this is e#idently a mista%e<
;@Gthe first edition 'as that "rinted in ?to$ ,-=,$ a co"y of 'hich is at
"resent in the collection of Dohn 8ichols$ Es0.$ the indefatigable
illustrator of the _5istory of *eicestershire_< to 'hom$ and to Isaac 1eed$
Es0.$ of 9ta"le Inn$ this account is greatly indebted for its accuracy. The
other im"ressions of it 'ere in ,-=?$ ,-=/$ ,-.=$ ,-./$ ,-@,-=$ ,--C$ and
,-A-$ 'hich last$ in the title"age$ is called the eighth edition.
The co"y from 'hich the "resent is re"rinted$ is that of ,-@,-=< at the
conclusion of 'hich is the follo'ing address&
LT2 T5E 1EA3E1.
Le "leased to %no' (:ourteous 1eader) that since the last Im"ression
of this oo%$ the ingenuous Author of it is deceased$ lea#ing a :o"y
of it e+actly corrected$ 'ith se#eral considerable Additions by his
o'n hand< this :o"y he committed to my care and custody$ 'ith
directions to ha#e those Additions inserted in the ne+t Edition< 'hich
in order to his command$ and the Public%e Good$ is faithfully
"erformed in this last Im"ression.L
5. :. (_i.e. 5E8. :1IPP9._)
The follo'ing testimonies of #arious authors 'ill ser#e to sho' the
estimation in 'hich this 'or% has been held&--
LThe A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E$ 'herein the author hath "iled u" #ariety of
much e+cellent learning. 9carce any boo% of "hilology in our land hath$ in
so short a time$ "assed so many editions.L--_7uller!s 4orthies_$ fol. ,-.
L!Tis a boo% so full of #ariety of reading$ that gentlemen 'ho ha#e lost
their time$ and are "ut to a "ush for in#ention$ may furnish themsel#es
'ith matter for common or scholastical discourse and 'riting.L--_4ood!s
Athenae 2+oniensis_$ #ol. i. ". -=/. =d edit.
LIf you ne#er sa' H1T28 HP28 ME*A8:52*E$ "rinted ,-A-$ I "ray loo% into
it$ and read the ninth "age of his Preface$ !3emocritus to the 1eader.!
There is something there 'hich touches the "oint 'e are u"on< but I mention
the author to you$ as the "leasantest$ the most learned$ and the most full
of sterling sense. The 'its of Kueen Anne!s reign$ and the beginning of
George the 7irst$ 'ere not a little beholden to him.L--_Archbisho"
5erring!s *etters_$ ,=mo. ,AAA. ". ,?B.
LH1T28!9 A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E$ he (3r. Dohnson) said$ 'as the only boo%
that e#er too% him out of bed t'o hours sooner than he 'ished to
rise.L--_os'ell!s *ife of Dohnson_$ #ol. i. ". @/C. /#o. edit.
LH1T28!9 A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E is a #aluable boo%$L said 3r. Dohnson. LIt
is$ "erha"s$ o#erloaded 'ith 0uotation. ut there is great s"irit and great
"o'er in 'hat urton says 'hen he 'rites from his o'n mind.L--_Ibid_$ #ol.
ii. ". .=@.
LIt 'ill be no detraction from the "o'ers of Milton!s original genius and
in#ention$ to remar%$ that he seems to ha#e borro'ed the subject of _*!
Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_$ together 'ith some "articular thoughts$
e+"ressions$ and rhymes$ more es"ecially the idea of a contrast bet'een
these t'o dis"ositions$ from a forgotten "oem "refi+ed to the first edition
of H1T28!9 A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E$ entitled$ !The Author!s Abstract of
Melancholy< or$ A 3ialogue bet'een Pleasure and Pain.! 5ere "ain is
melancholy. It 'as 'ritten$ as I conjecture$ about the year ,-CC. I 'ill
ma%e no a"ology for abstracting and citing as much of this "oem as 'ill be
sufficient to "ro#e$ to a discerning reader$ ho' far it had ta%en
"ossession of Milton!s mind. The measure 'ill a""ear to be the same< and
that our author 'as at least an attenti#e reader of urton!s boo%$ may be
already concluded from the traces of resemblance 'hich I ha#e incidentally
noticed in "assing through the _*! Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_.L--After
e+tracting the lines$ Mr. 4arton adds$ Las to the #ery elaborate 'or% to
'hich these #isionary #erses are no unsuitable introduction$ the 'riter!s
#ariety of learning$ his 0uotations from scarce and curious boo%s$ his
"edantry s"ar%ling 'ith rude 'it and sha"eless elegance$ miscellaneous
matter$ intermi+ture of agreeable tales and illustrations$ and$ "erha"s$
abo#e all$ the singularities of his feelings$ clothed in an uncommon
0uaintness of style$ ha#e contributed to render it$ e#en to modern readers$
a #aluable re"ository of amusement and information.L--_4arton!s Milton_$ =d
edit. ". B?.
LT5E A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E is a boo% 'hich has been uni#ersally read and
admired. This 'or% is$ for the most "art$ 'hat the author himself styles
it$ !a cento<! but it is a #ery ingenious one. 5is 0uotations$ 'hich abound
in e#ery "age$ are "ertinent< but if he had made more use of his in#ention
and less of his common"lace-boo%$ his 'or% 'ould "erha"s ha#e been more
#aluable than it is. 5e is generally free from the affected language and
ridiculous meta"hors 'hich disgrace most of the boo%s of his
time.L--_Granger!s iogra"hical 5istory_.
LH1T28!9 A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E$ a boo% once the fa#ourite of the learned
and the 'itty$ and a source of surre"titious learning$ though 'ritten on a
regular "lan$ consists chiefly of 0uotations& the author has honestly
termed it a cento. 5e collects$ under e#ery di#ision$ the o"inions of a
multitude of 'riters$ 'ithout regard to chronological order$ and has too
often the modesty to decline the inter"osition of his o'n sentiments.
Indeed the bul% of his materials generally o#er'helms him. In the course of
his folio he has contri#ed to treat a great #ariety of to"ics$ that seem
#ery loosely connected 'ith the general subject< and$ li%e ayle$ 'hen he
starts a fa#ourite train of 0uotations$ he does not scru"le to let the
digression outrun the "rinci"al 0uestion. Thus$ from the doctrines of
religion to military disci"line$ from inland na#igation to the morality of
dancing-schools$ e#ery thing is discussed and determined.L--_7erriar!s
Illustrations of 9terne_$ ". @/.
LThe archness 'hich H1T28 dis"lays occasionally$ and his indulgence of
"layful digressions from the most serious discussions$ often gi#e his style
an air of familiar con#ersation$ not'ithstanding the laborious collections
'hich su""ly his te+t. 5e 'as ca"able of 'riting e+cellent "oetry$ but he
seems to ha#e culti#ated this talent too little. The English #erses
"refi+ed to his boo%$ 'hich "ossess beautiful imagery$ and great s'eetness
of #ersification$ ha#e been fre0uently "ublished. 5is *atin elegiac #erses
addressed to his boo%$ she' a #ery agreeable turn for raillery.L--_Ibid_.
". @/.
L4hen the force of the subject o"ens his o'n #ein of "rose$ 'e disco#er
#aluable sense and brilliant e+"ression. 9uch is his account of the first
feelings of melancholy "ersons$ 'ritten$ "robably$ from his o'n
e+"erience.L ;9ee ". ,@?$ of the "resent edition.G--_Ibid._ ". -C.
L3uring a "edantic age$ li%e that in 'hich H1T28!9 "roduction a""eared$ it
must ha#e been eminently ser#iceable to 'riters of many descri"tions. 5ence
the unlearned might furnish themsel#es 'ith a""ro"riate scra"s of Gree% and
*atin$ 'hilst men of letters 'ould find their en0uiries shortened$ by
%no'ing 'here they might loo% for 'hat both ancients and moderns had
ad#anced on the subject of human "assions. I confess my inability to "oint
out any other English author 'ho has so largely dealt in a"t and original
0uotation.L--_Manuscri"t note of the late George 9tee#ens$ Es0.$ in his
co"y of_ T5E A8AT2ME 27 ME*A8:52*E.
3EM2:1ITH9 DH8I21 A3 *I1HM 9HHM.
Iade liber$ 0ualis$ non ausum dicere$ feli+$
Te nisi felicem fecerit Alma dies.
Iade tamen 0uocun0ue lubet$ 0uascun0ue "er oras$
Et Genium 3omini fac imitere tui.
I blandas inter :harites$ mystam0ue saluta
Musarum 0uem#is$ si tibi lector erit.
1ura colas$ urbem$ subeas#e "alatia regum$
9ubmisse$ "lacide$ te sine dente geras.
8obilis$ aut si 0uis te forte ins"e+erit heros$
3a te morigerum$ "erlegat us0ue lubet.
Est 0uod nobilitas$ est 0uod desideret heros$
Gratior haec forsan charta "lacere "otest.
9i 0uis morosus :ato$ tetricus0ue 9enator$
5unc etiam librum forte #idere #elit$
9i#e magistratus$ tum te re#erenter habeto<
9ed nullus< muscas non ca"iunt A0uilae.
8on #acat his tem"us fugiti#um im"endere nugis$
8ec tales cu"io< "ar mihi lector erit.
9i matrona gra#is casu di#erterit istuc$
Illustris domina$ aut te :omitissa legat&
Est 0uod dis"liceat$ "laceat 0uod forsitan illis$
Ingerere his noli te modo$ "ande tamen.
At si #irgo tuas dignabitur inclyta chartas
Tangere$ si#e schedis haereat illa tuis&
3a modo te facilem$ et 0uaedam folia esse memento
:on#eniant oculis 0uae magis a"ta suis.
9i generosa ancilla tuos aut alma "uella
Iisura est ludos$ annue$ "ande lubens.
3ic utinam nunc i"se meus ;-G(nam diligit istas)
In "raesens esset cons"iciendus herus.
Ignotus notus#e mihi de gente togata
9i#e aget in ludis$ "ul"ita si#e colet$
9i#e in *ycaeo$ et nugas e#ol#erit istas$
9i 0uasdam mendas #iderit ins"iciens$
3a #eniam Authori$ dices< nam "lurima #ellet
E+"ungi$ 0uae jam dis"licuisse sciat.
9i#e Melancholicus 0uis0uam$ seu blandus Amator$
Aulicus aut :i#is$ seu bene com"tus e0ues
5uc a""ellat$ age et tuto te crede legenti$
Multa istic forsan non male nata leget.
Kuod fugiat$ ca#eat$ 0uod0ue am"le+abitur$ ista
Pagina fortassis "romere multa "otest.
At si 0uis Medicus coram te sistet$ amice
7ac circums"ecte$ et te sine labe geras&
In#eniet nam0ue i"se meis 0uo0ue "lurima scri"tis$
8on le#e subsidium 0uae sibi forsan erunt.
9i 0uis :ausidicus chartas im"ingat in istas$
8il mihi #obiscum$ "essima turba #ale<
9it nisi #ir bonus$ et juris sine fraude "eritus$
Tum legat$ et forsan doctior inde siet.
9i 0uis cordatus$ facilis$ lector0ue benignus
5uc oculos #ertat$ 0uae #elit i"se legat<
:andidus ignoscet$ metuas nil$ "ande libenter$
2ffensus mendis non erit ille tuis$
*audabit nonnulla. Ienit si 1hetor ine"tus$
*imata et tersa$ et 0ui bene cocta "etit$
:laude citus librum< nulla hic nisi ferrea #erba$
2ffendent stomachum 0uae minus a"ta suum.
At si 0uis non e+imius de "lebe "oeta$
Annue< nam0ue istic "lurima ficta leget.
8os sumus e numero$ nullus mihi s"irat A"ollo$
Grandilo0uus Iates 0uilibet esse ne0uit.
9i :riticus *ector$ tumidus :ensor0ue molestus$
>oilus et Momus$ si rabiosa cohors&
1inge$ freme$ et noli tum "andere$ turba malignis
9i occurrat sannis in#idiosa suis&
7ac fugias< si nulla tibi sit co"ia eundi$
:ontemnes$ tacite scommata 0uae0ue feres.
7rendeat$ allatret$ #acuas gannitibus auras
Im"leat$ haud cures< his "lacuisse nefas.
Ierum age si forsan di#ertat "urior hos"es$
:ui0ue sales$ ludi$ dis"liceant0ue joci$
2bjiciat0ue tibi sordes$ lasci#a0ue& dices$
*asci#a est 3omino et Musa jocosa tuo$
8ec lasci#a tamen$ si "ensitet omne< sed esto<
9it lasci#a licet "agina$ #ita "roba est.
arbarus$ indoctus0ue rudis s"ectator in istam
9i messem intrudat$ fuste fugabis eum$
7ungum "elle "rocul (jubeo) nam 0uid mihi fungoN
:on#eniunt stomacho non minus ista suo.
9ed nec "elle tamen< laeto omnes acci"e #ultu$
Kuos$ 0uas$ #el 0uales$ inde #el unde #iros.
Gratus erit 0uicun0ue #enit$ gratissimus hos"es
Kuis0uis erit$ facilis difficilis0ue mihi.
8am si cul"arit$ 0uaedam cul"asse ju#abit$
:ul"ando faciet me meliora se0ui.
9ed si laudarit$ ne0ue laudibus efferar ullis$
9it satis hisce malis o""osuisse bonum.
5aec sunt 0uae nostro "lacuit mandare libello$
Et 0uae dimittens dicere jussit 5erus.
3EM2:1ITH9 DH8I21 T2 5I9 226
PA1AP51A9TI: MET1I:A* T1A89*ATI28.
Go forth my boo% into the o"en day<
5a""y$ if made so by its garish eye.
2!er earth!s 'ide surface ta%e thy #agrant 'ay$
To imitate thy master!s genius try.
The Graces three$ the Muses nine salute$
9hould those 'ho lo#e them try to con thy lore.
The country$ city see%$ grand thrones to boot$
4ith gentle courtesy humbly bo' before.
9hould nobles gallant$ soldiers fran% and bra#e
9ee% thy ac0uaintance$ hail their first ad#ance&
7rom t'itch of care thy "leasant #ein may sa#e$
May laughter cause or 'isdom gi#e "erchance.
9ome surly :ato$ 9enator austere$
5a"ly may 'ish to "ee" into thy boo%&
9eem #ery nothing--tremble and re#ere&
8o forceful eagles$ butterflies e!er loo%.
They lo#e not thee& of them then little see%$
And 'ish for readers triflers li%e thyself.
2f ludeful matron 'atchful catch the bec%$
2r gorgeous countess full of "ride and "elf.
They may say L"ishOL and fro'n$ and yet read on&
:ry odd$ and silly$ coarse$ and yet amusing.
9hould dainty damsels see% thy "age to con$
9"read thy best stores& to them be ne!er refusing&
9ay$ fair one$ master lo#es thee dear as life<
4ould he 'ere here to gaze on thy s'eet loo%.
9hould %no'n or un%no'n student$ freed from strife
2f logic and the schools$ e+"lore my boo%&
:ry mercy critic$ and thy boo% 'ithhold&
e some fe' errors "ardon!d though obser#!d&
An humble author to im"lore ma%es bold.
Thy %ind indulgence$ e#en undeser#!d$
9hould melancholy 'ight or "ensi#e lo#er$
:ourtier$ snug cit$ or car"et %night so trim
2ur blossoms cull$ he!ll find himself in clo#er$
Gain sense from "rece"t$ laughter from our 'him.
9hould learned leech 'ith solemn air unfold
Thy lea#es$ be'are$ be ci#il$ and be 'ise&
Thy #olume many "rece"ts sage may hold$
5is 'ell fraught head may find no trifling "rize.
9hould crafty la'yer tres"ass on our ground$
:aitiffs a#auntO disturbing tribe a'ayO
Hnless ('hite cro') an honest one be found<
5e!ll better$ 'iser go for 'hat 'e say.
9hould some ri"e scholar$ gentle and benign$
4ith candour$ care$ and judgment thee "eruse&
Thy faults to %ind obli#ion he!ll consign<
8or to thy merit 'ill his "raise refuse.
Thou may!st be searched for "olish!d 'ords and #erse
y fli""ant s"outer$ em"tiest of "raters&
Tell him to see% them in some ma'%ish #erse&
My "eriods all are rough as nutmeg graters.
The doggerel "oet$ 'ishing thee to read$
1eject not< let him glean thy jests and stories.
5is brother I$ of lo'ly sembling breed&
A"ollo grants to fe' Parnassian glories.
Menac!d by critic 'ith sour furro'ed bro'$
Momus or Troilus or 9cotch re#ie'er&
1uffle your hec%le$ grin and gro'l and #o'&
Ill-natured foes you thus 'ill find the fe'er$
4hen foul-mouth!d senseless railers cry thee do'n$
1e"ly not& fly$ and sho' the rogues thy stern<
They are not 'orthy e#en of a fro'n&
Good taste or breeding they can ne#er learn<
2r let them clamour$ turn a callous ear$
As though in dread of some harsh don%ey!s bray.
If chid by censor$ friendly though se#ere$
To such e+"lain and turn thee not a'ay.
Thy #ein$ says he "erchance$ is all too free<
Thy smutty language suits not learned "en&
1e"ly$ Good 9ir$ throughout$ the conte+t see<
Thought chastens thought< so "rithee judge again.
esides$ although my master!s "en may 'ander
Through de#ious "aths$ by 'hich it ought not stray$
5is life is "ure$ beyond the breath of slander&
9o "ardon grant< !tis merely but his 'ay.
9ome rugged ruffian ma%es a hideous rout--
randish thy cudgel$ threaten him to baste<
The filthy fungus far from thee cast out<
9uch no+ious ban0uets ne#er suit my taste.
Eet$ calm and cautious moderate thy ire$
e e#er courteous should the case allo'--
9'eet malt is e#er made by gentle fire&
4arm to thy friends$ gi#e all a ci#il bo'.
E#en censure sometimes teaches to im"ro#e$
9light frosts ha#e often cured too ran% a cro"$
9o$ candid blame my s"leen shall ne#er mo#e$
7or s%ilful gard!ners 'ay'ard branches lo".
Go then$ my boo%$ and bear my 'ords in mind<
Guides safe at once$ and "leasant them you!ll find.
T5E A1GHME8T 27 T5E 7128TI9PIE:E.
Ten distinct 90uares here seen a"art$
Are joined in one by :utter!s art.
2ld 3emocritus under a tree$
9its on a stone 'ith boo% on %nee<
About him hang there many features$
2f :ats$ 3ogs and such li%e creatures$
2f 'hich he ma%es anatomy$
The seat of blac% choler to see.
2#er his head a""ears the s%y$
And 9aturn *ord of melancholy.
To the left a landsca"e of Dealousy$
Presents itself unto thine eye.
A 6ingfisher$ a 9'an$ an 5ern$
T'o fighting-coc%s you may discern$
T'o roaring ulls each other hie$
To assault concerning #enery.
9ymbols are these< I say no more$
:oncei#e the rest by that!s afore.
The ne+t of solitariness$
A "ortraiture doth 'ell e+"ress$
y slee"ing dog$ cat& uc% and 3oe$
5ares$ :onies in the desert go&
ats$ 2'ls the shady bo'ers o#er$
In melancholy dar%ness ho#er.
Mar% 'ell& If!t be not as!t should be$
lame the bad :utter$ and not me.
I!th! under column there doth stand
_Inamorato_ 'ith folded hand<
3o'n hangs his head$ terse and "olite$
9ome ditty sure he doth indite.
5is lute and boo%s about him lie$
As sym"toms of his #anity.
If this do not enough disclose$
To "aint him$ ta%e thyself by th! nose.
_5y"ocondriacus_ leans on his arm$
4ind in his side doth him much harm$
And troubles him full sore$ God %no's$
Much "ain he hath and many 'oes.
About him "ots and glasses lie$
8e'ly brought from!s A"othecary.
This 9aturn!s as"ects signify$
Eou see them "ortray!d in the s%y.
eneath them %neeling on his %nee$
A su"erstitious man you see&
5e fasts$ "rays$ on his Idol fi+t$
Tormented ho"e and fear bet'i+t&
7or 5ell "erha"s he ta%es more "ain$
Than thou dost 5ea#en itself to gain.
Alas "oor soul$ I "ity thee$
4hat stars incline thee so to beN
ut see the madman rage do'nright
4ith furious loo%s$ a ghastly sight.
8a%ed in chains bound doth he lie$
And roars amain he %no's not 'hyO
2bser#e him< for as in a glass$
Thine angry "ortraiture it 'as.
5is "icture %ee"s still in thy "resence<
!T'i+t him and thee$ there!s no difference.
_orage_ and _5ellebor_ fill t'o scenes$
9o#ereign "lants to "urge the #eins
2f melancholy$ and cheer the heart$
2f those blac% fumes 'hich ma%e it smart<
To clear the brain of misty fogs$
4hich dull our senses$ and 9oul clogs.
The best medicine that e!er God made
7or this malady$ if 'ell assay!d.
8o' last of all to fill a "lace$
Presented is the Author!s face<
And in that habit 'hich he 'ears$
5is image to the 'orld a""ears.
5is mind no art can 'ell e+"ress$
That by his 'ritings you may guess.
It 'as not "ride$ nor yet #ainglory$
(Though others do it commonly)
Made him do this& if you must %no'$
The Printer 'ould needs ha#e it so.
Then do not fro'n or scoff at it$
3eride not$ or detract a 'hit.
7or surely as thou dost by him$
5e 'ill do the same again.
Then loo% u"on!t$ behold and see$
As thou li%!st it$ so it li%es thee.
And I for it 'ill stand in #ie'$
Thine to command$ 1eader$ adieu.
T5E AHT521!9 A9T1A:T 27 ME*A8:52*E$ ;Gree%& 3ialogosG
4hen I go musing all alone
Thin%ing of di#ers things fore-%no'n.
4hen I build castles in the air$
Ioid of sorro' and #oid of fear$
Pleasing myself 'ith "hantasms s'eet$
Methin%s the time runs #ery fleet.
All my joys to this are folly$
8aught so s'eet as melancholy.
4hen I lie 'a%ing all alone$
1ecounting 'hat I ha#e ill done$
My thoughts on me then tyrannise$
7ear and sorro' me sur"rise$
4hether I tarry still or go$
Methin%s the time mo#es #ery slo'.
All my griefs to this are jolly$
8aught so mad as melancholy.
4hen to myself I act and smile$
4ith "leasing thoughts the time beguile$
y a broo% side or 'ood so green$
Hnheard$ unsought for$ or unseen$
A thousand "leasures do me bless$
And cro'n my soul 'ith ha""iness.
All my joys besides are folly$
8one so s'eet as melancholy.
4hen I lie$ sit$ or 'al% alone$
I sigh$ I grie#e$ ma%ing great moan$
In a dar% gro#e$ or ir%some den$
4ith discontents and 7uries then$
A thousand miseries at once
Mine hea#y heart and soul ensconce$
All my griefs to this are jolly$
8one so sour as melancholy.
Methin%s I hear$ methin%s I see$
9'eet music$ 'ondrous melody$
To'ns$ "alaces$ and cities fine<
5ere no'$ then there< the 'orld is mine$
1are beauties$ gallant ladies shine$
4hate!er is lo#ely or di#ine.
All other joys to this are folly$
8one so s'eet as melancholy.
Methin%s I hear$ methin%s I see
Ghosts$ goblins$ fiends< my "hantasy
Presents a thousand ugly sha"es$
5eadless bears$ blac% men$ and a"es$
3oleful outcries$ and fearful sights$
My sad and dismal soul affrights.
All my griefs to this are jolly$
8one so damn!d as melancholy.
Methin%s I court$ methin%s I %iss$
Methin%s I no' embrace my mistress.
2 blessed days$ 2 s'eet content$
In Paradise my time is s"ent.
9uch thoughts may still my fancy mo#e$
9o may I e#er be in lo#e.
All my joys to this are folly$
8aught so s'eet as melancholy.
4hen I recount lo#e!s many frights$
My sighs and tears$ my 'a%ing nights$
My jealous fits< 2 mine hard fate
I no' re"ent$ but !tis too late.
8o torment is so bad as lo#e$
9o bitter to my soul can "ro#e.
All my griefs to this are jolly$
8aught so harsh as melancholy.
7riends and com"anions get you gone$
!Tis my desire to be alone<
8e!er 'ell but 'hen my thoughts and I
3o domineer in "ri#acy.
8o Gem$ no treasure li%e to this$
!Tis my delight$ my cro'n$ my bliss.
All my joys to this are folly$
8aught so s'eet as melancholy.
!Tis my sole "lague to be alone$
I am a beast$ a monster gro'n$
I 'ill no light nor com"any$
I find it no' my misery.
The scene is turn!d$ my joys are gone$
7ear$ discontent$ and sorro's come.
All my griefs to this are jolly$
8aught so fierce as melancholy.
I!ll not change life 'ith any %ing$
I ra#isht am& can the 'orld bring
More joy$ than still to laugh and smile$
In "leasant toys time to beguileN
3o not$ 2 do not trouble me$
9o s'eet content I feel and see.
All my joys to this are folly$
8one so di#ine as melancholy.
I!ll change my state 'ith any 'retch$
Thou canst from gaol or dunghill fetch<
My "ain!s "ast cure$ another hell$
I may not in this torment d'ellO
8o' des"erate I hate my life$
*end me a halter or a %nife<
All my griefs to this are jolly$
8aught so damn!d as melancholy.
3EM2:1ITH9 DH8I21 T2 T5E 1EA3E1.
Gentle reader$ I "resume thou 'ilt be #ery in0uisiti#e to %no' 'hat antic
or "ersonate actor this is$ that so insolently intrudes u"on this common
theatre$ to the 'orld!s #ie'$ arrogating another man!s name< 'hence he is$
'hy he doth it$ and 'hat he hath to say< although$ as ;AGhe said$ _Primum
si noluero$ non res"ondebo$ 0uis coacturus est_N I am a free man born$ and
may choose 'hether I 'ill tell< 'ho can com"el meN If I be urged$ I 'ill as
readily re"ly as that Egy"tian in ;/GPlutarch$ 'hen a curious fello' 'ould
needs %no' 'hat he had in his bas%et$ _Kuum #ides #elatam$ 0uid in0uiris in
rem absconditam_N It 'as therefore co#ered$ because he should not %no' 'hat
'as in it. 9ee% not after that 'hich is hid< if the contents "lease thee$
;BGLand be for thy use$ su""ose the Man in the Moon$ or 'hom thou 'ilt to
be the author<L I 'ould not 'illingly be %no'n. Eet in some sort to gi#e
thee satisfaction$ 'hich is more than I need$ I 'ill sho' a reason$ both of
this usur"ed name$ title$ and subject. And first of the name of 3emocritus<
lest any man$ by reason of it$ should be decei#ed$ e+"ecting a "as0uil$ a
satire$ some ridiculous treatise (as I myself should ha#e done)$ some
"rodigious tenet$ or "arado+ of the earth!s motion$ of infinite 'orlds$ _in
infinito #acuo$ e+ fortuita atomorum collisione_$ in an infinite 'aste$ so
caused by an accidental collision of motes in the sun$ all 'hich 3emocritus
held$ E"icurus and their master *uci""us of old maintained$ and are lately
re#i#ed by :o"ernicus$ runus$ and some others. esides$ it hath been
al'ays an ordinary custom$ as ;,CGGellius obser#es$ Lfor later 'riters and
im"ostors$ to broach many absurd and insolent fictions$ under the name of
so noble a "hiloso"her as 3emocritus$ to get themsel#es credit$ and by that
means the more to be res"ected$L as artificers usually do$ _8o#o 0ui
marmori ascribunt Pra+atilem suo_. !Tis not so 'ith me.
;,,G L8on hic :entaurus$ non Gorgonas$ 5ar"yas0ue
In#enies$ hominem "agina nostra sa"it.L
L8o :entaurs here$ or Gorgons loo% to find$
My subject is of man and human %ind.L
Thou thyself art the subject of my discourse.
;,=G LKuic0uid agunt homines$ #otum$ timor$ ira$ #olu"tas$
Gaudia$ discursus$ nostri farrago libelli.L
L4hate!er men do$ #o's$ fears$ in ire$ in s"ort$
Doys$ 'and!rings$ are the sum of my re"ort.L
My intent is no other'ise to use his name$ than Mercurius Gallobelgicus$
Mercurius ritannicus$ use the name of Mercury$ ;,.G3emocritus :hristianus$
Fc.< although there be some other circumstances for 'hich I ha#e mas%ed
myself under this #izard$ and some "eculiar res"ect 'hich I cannot so 'ell
e+"ress$ until I ha#e set do'n a brief character of this our 3emocritus$
'hat he 'as$ 'ith an e"itome of his life.
3emocritus$ as he is described by ;,?G5i""ocrates and ;,@G*aertius$ 'as a
little 'earish old man$ #ery melancholy by nature$ a#erse from com"any in
his latter days$ ;,-Gand much gi#en to solitariness$ a famous "hiloso"her
in his age$ ;,AG_coae#us_ 'ith 9ocrates$ 'holly addicted to his studies at
the last$ and to a "ri#ate life& 'rote many e+cellent 'or%s$ a great
di#ine$ according to the di#inity of those times$ an e+"ert "hysician$ a
"olitician$ an e+cellent mathematician$ as ;,/G3iacosmus and the rest of
his 'or%s do 'itness. 5e 'as much delighted 'ith the studies of husbandry$
saith ;,BG:olumella$ and often I find him cited by ;=CG:onstantinus and
others treating of that subject. 5e %ne' the natures$ differences of all
beasts$ "lants$ fishes$ birds< and$ as some say$ could ;=,Gunderstand the
tunes and #oices of them. In a 'ord$ he 'as _omnifariam doctus_$ a general
scholar$ a great student< and to the intent he might better contem"late$
;==GI find it related by some$ that he "ut out his eyes$ and 'as in his old
age #oluntarily blind$ yet sa' more than all Greece besides$ and ;=.G 'rit
of e#ery subject$ _8ihil in toto o"ificio naturae$ de 0uo non scri"sit_.
;=?GA man of an e+cellent 'it$ "rofound conceit< and to attain %no'ledge
the better in his younger years$ he tra#elled to Egy"t and ;=@G Athens$ to
confer 'ith learned men$ ;=-GLadmired of some$ des"ised of others.L After a
'andering life$ he settled at Abdera$ a to'n in Thrace$ and 'as sent for
thither to be their la'ma%er$ recorder$ or to'n-cler%$ as some 'ill< or as
others$ he 'as there bred and born. 5o'soe#er it 'as$ there he li#ed at
last in a garden in the suburbs$ 'holly beta%ing himself to his studies and
a "ri#ate life$ ;=AGLsa#ing that sometimes he 'ould 'al% do'n to the
ha#en$L ;=/GLand laugh heartily at such #ariety of ridiculous objects$
'hich there he sa'.L 9uch a one 'as 3emocritus.
ut in the mean time$ ho' doth this concern me$ or u"on 'hat reference do I
usur" his habitN I confess$ indeed$ that to com"are myself unto him for
aught I ha#e yet said$ 'ere both im"udency and arrogancy. I do not "resume
to ma%e any "arallel$ _Antistat mihi millibus trecentis_$ ;=BG_"ar#us sum$
nullus sum$ altum nec s"iro$ nec s"ero_. Eet thus much I 'ill say of
myself$ and that I ho"e 'ithout all sus"icion of "ride$ or self-conceit$ I
ha#e li#ed a silent$ sedentary$ solitary$ "ri#ate life$ _mihi et musis_ in
the Hni#ersity$ as long almost as Jenocrates in Athens$ _ad senectam fere_
to learn 'isdom as he did$ "enned u" most "art in my study. 7or I ha#e been
brought u" a student in the most flourishing college of Euro"e$
;.CG_augustissimo collegio_$ and can brag 'ith ;.,GDo#ius$ almost$ _in ea
luce domicilii Iacicani$ totius orbis celeberrimi$ "er .A annos multa
o""ortuna0ue didici_< for thirty years I ha#e continued (ha#ing the use of
as good ;.=Glibraries as e#er he had) a scholar$ and 'ould be therefore
loath$ either by li#ing as a drone$ to be an un"rofitable or un'orthy
member of so learned and noble a society$ or to 'rite that 'hich should be
any 'ay dishonourable to such a royal and am"le foundation. 9omething I
ha#e done$ though by my "rofession a di#ine$ yet _turbine ra"tus ingenii_$
as ;..Ghe said$ out of a running 'it$ an unconstant$ unsettled mind$ I had
a great desire (not able to attain to a su"erficial s%ill in any) to ha#e
some smattering in all$ to be _ali0uis in omnibus$ nullus in singulis_$
;.?G 'hich ;.@GPlato commends$ out of him ;.-G*i"sius a""ro#es and
furthers$ Las fit to be im"rinted in all curious 'its$ not to be a sla#e of
one science$ or d'ell altogether in one subject$ as most do$ but to ro#e
abroad$ _centum "uer artium_$ to ha#e an oar in e#ery man!s boat$ to
;.AGtaste of e#ery dish$ and si" of e#ery cu"$L 'hich$ saith ;./GMontaigne$
'as 'ell "erformed by Aristotle$ and his learned countryman Adrian
Turnebus. This ro#ing humour (though not 'ith li%e success) I ha#e e#er
had$ and li%e a ranging s"aniel$ that bar%s at e#ery bird he sees$ lea#ing
his game$ I ha#e follo'ed all$ sa#ing that 'hich I should$ and may justly
com"lain$ and truly$ _0ui ubi0ue est$ nus0uam est_$;.BG 'hich ;?CGGesner
did in modesty$ that I ha#e read many boo%s$ but to little "ur"ose$ for
'ant of good method< I ha#e confusedly tumbled o#er di#ers authors in our
libraries$ 'ith small "rofit$ for 'ant of art$ order$ memory$ judgment. I
ne#er tra#elled but in ma" or card$ in 'hich mine unconfined thoughts ha#e
freely e+"atiated$ as ha#ing e#er been es"ecially delighted 'ith the study
of :osmogra"hy. ;?,G9aturn 'as lord of my geniture$ culminating$ Fc.$ and
Mars "rinci"al significator of manners$ in "artile conjunction 'ith my
ascendant< both fortunate in their houses$ Fc. I am not "oor$ I am not
rich< _nihil est$ nihil deest_$ I ha#e little$ I 'ant nothing& all my
treasure is in Miner#a!s to'er. Greater "referment as I could ne#er get$ so
am I not in debt for it$ I ha#e a com"etence (_laus 3eo_) from my noble and
munificent "atrons$ though I li#e still a collegiate student$ as 3emocritus
in his garden$ and lead a monastic life$ _i"se mihi theatrum_$ se0uestered
from those tumults and troubles of the 'orld$ _Et tan0uam in s"ecula
"ositus_$ (;?=Gas he said) in some high "lace abo#e you all$ li%e 9toicus
9a"iens$ _omnia saecula$ "raeterita "resentia0ue #idens$ uno #elut
intuitu_$ I hear and see 'hat is done abroad$ ho' others ;?.Grun$ ride$
turmoil$ and macerate themsel#es in court and country$ far from those
'rangling la'suits$ _aulia #anitatem$ fori ambitionem$ ridere mecum soleo_&
I laugh at all$ ;??Gonly secure$ lest my suit go amiss$ my shi"s "erish$
corn and cattle miscarry$ trade decay$ I ha#e no 'ife nor children good or
bad to "ro#ide for. A mere s"ectator of other men!s fortunes and
ad#entures$ and ho' they act their "arts$ 'hich methin%s are di#ersely
"resented unto me$ as from a common theatre or scene. I hear ne' ne's e#ery
day$ and those ordinary rumours of 'ar$ "lagues$ fires$ inundations$
thefts$ murders$ massacres$ meteors$ comets$ s"ectrums$ "rodigies$
a""aritions$ of to'ns ta%en$ cities besieged in 7rance$ Germany$ Tur%ey$
Persia$ Poland$ Fc.$ daily musters and "re"arations$ and such li%e$ 'hich
these tem"estuous times afford$ battles fought$ so many men slain$
monomachies$ shi"'rec%s$ "iracies and sea-fights< "eace$ leagues$
stratagems$ and fresh alarms. A #ast confusion of #o's$ 'ishes$ actions$
edicts$ "etitions$ la'suits$ "leas$ la's$ "roclamations$ com"laints$
grie#ances are daily brought to our ears. 8e' boo%s e#ery day$ "am"hlets$
corantoes$ stories$ 'hole catalogues of #olumes of all sorts$ ne'
"arado+es$ o"inions$ schisms$ heresies$ contro#ersies in "hiloso"hy$
religion$ Fc. 8o' come tidings of 'eddings$ mas%ings$ mummeries$
entertainments$ jubilees$ embassies$ tilts and tournaments$ tro"hies$
trium"hs$ re#els$ s"orts$ "lays& then again$ as in a ne' shifted scene$
treasons$ cheating tric%s$ robberies$ enormous #illainies in all %inds$
funerals$ burials$ deaths of "rinces$ ne' disco#eries$ e+"editions$ no'
comical$ then tragical matters. Today 'e hear of ne' lords and officers
created$ tomorro' of some great men de"osed$ and then again of fresh
honours conferred< one is let loose$ another im"risoned< one "urchaseth$
another brea%eth& he thri#es$ his neighbour turns ban%ru"t< no' "lenty$
then again dearth and famine< one runs$ another rides$ 'rangles$ laughs$
'ee"s$ Fc. This I daily hear$ and such li%e$ both "ri#ate and "ublic ne's$
amidst the gallantry and misery of the 'orld< jollity$ "ride$ "er"le+ities
and cares$ sim"licity and #illainy< subtlety$ %na#ery$ candour and
integrity$ mutually mi+ed and offering themsel#es< I rub on _"ri#us
"ri#atus_< as I ha#e still li#ed$ so I no' continue$ _statu 0uo "rius_$
left to a solitary life$ and mine o'n domestic discontents& sa#ing that
sometimes$ _ne 0uid mentiar_$ as 3iogenes 'ent into the city$ and
3emocritus to the ha#en to see fashions$ I did for my recreation no' and
then 'al% abroad$ loo% into the 'orld$ and could not choose but ma%e some
little obser#ation$ _non tam saga+ obser#ator ac sim"le+ recitator_$ ;?@G
not as they did$ to scoff or laugh at all$ but 'ith a mi+ed "assion.
;?-G Lilem sae"e$ jocum #estri mo#ere tumultus.L
LEe 'retched mimics$ 'hose fond heats ha#e been$
5o' oftO the objects of my mirth and s"leen.L
I did sometime laugh and scoff 'ith *ucian$ and satirically ta+ 'ith
Meni""us$ lament 'ith 5eraclitus$ sometimes again I 'as ;?AG_"etulanti
s"lene chachinno_$ and then again$ ;?/G_urere bilis jecur_$ I 'as much
mo#ed to see that abuse 'hich I could not mend. In 'hich "assion ho'soe#er
I may sym"athise 'ith him or them$ !tis for no such res"ect I shroud myself
under his name< but either in an un%no'n habit to assume a little more
liberty and freedom of s"eech$ or if you 'ill needs %no'$ for that reason
and only res"ect 'hich 5i""ocrates relates at large in his E"istle to
3amegetus$ 'herein he doth e+"ress$ ho' coming to #isit him one day$ he
found 3emocritus in his garden at Abdera$ in the suburbs$ ;?BGunder a shady
bo'er$ ;@CG'ith a boo% on his %nees$ busy at his study$ sometimes 'riting$
sometimes 'al%ing. The subject of his boo% 'as melancholy and madness<
about him lay the carcases of many se#eral beasts$ ne'ly by him cut u" and
anatomised< not that he did contemn God!s creatures$ as he told
5i""ocrates$ but to find out the seat of this _atra bilis_$ or melancholy$
'hence it "roceeds$ and ho' it 'as engendered in men!s bodies$ to the
intent he might better cure it in himself$ and by his 'ritings and
obser#ation ;@,Gteach others ho' to "re#ent and a#oid it. 4hich good intent
of his$ 5i""ocrates highly commended& 3emocritus Dunior is therefore bold
to imitate$ and because he left it im"erfect$ and it is no' lost$ _0uasi
succenturiator 3emocriti_$ to re#i#e again$ "rosecute$ and finish in this
Eou ha#e had a reason of the name. If the title and inscri"tion offend your
gra#ity$ 'ere it a sufficient justification to accuse others$ I could
"roduce many sober treatises$ e#en sermons themsel#es$ 'hich in their
fronts carry more fantastical names. 5o'soe#er$ it is a %ind of "olicy in
these days$ to "refi+ a fantastical title to a boo% 'hich is to be sold<
for$ as lar%s come do'n to a day-net$ many #ain readers 'ill tarry and
stand gazing li%e silly "assengers at an antic "icture in a "ainter!s sho"$
that 'ill not loo% at a judicious "iece. And$ indeed$ as ;@=G9caliger
obser#es$ Lnothing more in#ites a reader than an argument unloo%ed for$
unthought of$ and sells better than a scurrile "am"hlet$L _tum ma+ime cum
no#itas e+citat ;@.G"alatum_. LMany men$L saith Gellius$ Lare #ery
conceited in their inscri"tions$L Land ableL (as ;@?GPliny 0uotes out of
9eneca) Lto ma%e him loiter by the 'ay that 'ent in haste to fetch a
mid'ife for his daughter$ no' ready to lie do'n.L 7or my "art$ I ha#e
honourable ;@@G"recedents for this 'hich I ha#e done& I 'ill cite one for
all$ Anthony >ara$ Pa". E"is.$ his Anatomy of 4it$ in four sections$
members$ subsections$ Fc.$ to be read in our libraries.
If any man e+ce"t against the matter or manner of treating of this my
subject$ and 'ill demand a reason of it$ I can allege more than one< I
'rite of melancholy$ by being busy to a#oid melancholy. There is no greater
cause of melancholy than idleness$ Lno better cure than business$L as
;@-G1hasis holds& and ho'beit$ _stultus labor est ine"tiarum_$ to be busy
in toys is to small "ur"ose$ yet hear that di#ine 9eneca$ _aliud agere 0uam
nihil_$ better do to no end$ than nothing. I 'rote therefore$ and busied
myself in this "laying labour$ _oliosa0ue diligentia ut #itarem tor"orum
feriandi_ 'ith Iectius in Macrobius$ _at0ue otium in utile #erterem
;@AG L9imul et jucunda et idonea dicere #ita$
*ectorem delectando simul at0ue monendo.L
LPoets 'ould "rofit or delight man%ind$
And 'ith the "leasing ha#e th! instructi#e joined.
Profit and "leasure$ then$ to mi+ 'ith art$
T! inform the judgment$ nor offend the heart$
9hall gain all #otes.L
To this end I 'rite$ li%e them$ saith *ucian$ that Lrecite to trees$ and
declaim to "illars for 'ant of auditors&L as ;@/GPaulus Aegineta
ingenuously confesseth$ Lnot that anything 'as un%no'n or omitted$ but to
e+ercise myself$L 'hich course if some too%$ I thin% it 'ould be good for
their bodies$ and much better for their souls< or "erad#enture as others
do$ for fame$ to sho' myself (_9cire tuum nihil est$ nisi te scire hoc
sciat alter_). I might be of Thucydides! o"inion$ ;@BGLto %no' a thing and
not to e+"ress it$ is all one as if he %ne' it not.L 4hen I first too% this
tas% in hand$ _et 0uod ait ;-CGille$ im"ellents genio negotium susce"i_$
this I aimed at< ;-,G_#el ut lenirem animum scribendo_$ to ease my mind by
'riting< for I had _gra#idum cor$ foetum ca"ut_$ a %ind of im"osthume in my
head$ 'hich I 'as #ery desirous to be unladen of$ and could imagine no
fitter e#acuation than this. esides$ I might not 'ell refrain$ for _ubi
dolor$ ibi digitus_$ one must needs scratch 'here it itches. I 'as not a
little offended 'ith this malady$ shall I say my mistress Melancholy$ my
Aegeria$ or my _malus genius_N and for that cause$ as he that is stung 'ith
a scor"ion$ I 'ould e+"el _cla#um cla#o_$ ;-=Gcomfort one sorro' 'ith
another$ idleness 'ith idleness$ _ut e+ #i"era Theriacum_$ ma%e an antidote
out of that 'hich 'as the "rime cause of my disease. 2r as he did$ of 'hom
;-.G7eli+ Plater s"ea%s$ that thought he had some of Aristo"hanes! frogs in
his belly$ still crying _reec$ o%e+$ coa+$ coa+$ oo"$ oo"_$ and for that
cause studied "hysic se#en years$ and tra#elled o#er most "art of Euro"e to
ease himself. To do myself good I turned o#er such "hysicians as our
libraries 'ould afford$ or my ;-?G"ri#ate friends im"art$ and ha#e ta%en
this "ains. And 'hy notN :ardan "rofesseth he 'rote his boo%$ _3e
:onsolatione_ after his son!s death$ to comfort himself< so did Tully 'rite
of the same subject 'ith li%e intent after his daughter!s de"arture$ if it
be his at least$ or some im"ostor!s "ut out in his name$ 'hich *i"sius
"robably sus"ects. :oncerning myself$ I can "erad#enture affirm 'ith Marius
in 9allust$ ;-@GLthat 'hich others hear or read of$ I felt and "ractised
myself< they get their %no'ledge by boo%s$ I mine by melancholising.L
_E+"erto crede 1oberto_. 9omething I can s"ea% out of e+"erience$
_aerumnabilis e+"erientia me docuit_< and 'ith her in the "oet$ ;--G_5aud
ignara mali miseris succurrere disco_< I 'ould hel" others out of a
fello'-feeling< and$ as that #irtuous lady did of old$ ;-AGLbeing a le"er
herself$ besto' all her "ortion to build an hos"ital for le"ers$L I 'ill
s"end my time and %no'ledge$ 'hich are my greatest fortunes$ for the common
good of all.
Eea$ but you 'ill infer that this is ;-/G_actum agere_$ an unnecessary
'or%$ _cramben bis coctam a""onnere_$ the same again and again in other
'ords. To 'hat "ur"oseN ;-BGL8othing is omitted that may 'ell be said$L so
thought *ucian in the li%e theme. 5o' many e+cellent "hysicians ha#e
'ritten just #olumes and elaborate tracts of this subjectN 8o ne's here<
that 'hich I ha#e is stolen$ from others$ ;ACG_3icit0ue mihi mea "agina fur
es_. If that se#ere doom of ;A,G9ynesius be true$ Lit is a greater offence
to steal dead men!s labours$ than their clothes$L 'hat shall become of most
'ritersN I hold u" my hand at the bar among others$ and am guilty of felony
in this %ind$ _habes confitentem reum_$ I am content to be "ressed 'ith the
rest. !Tis most true$ _tenet insanabile multos scribendi cacoethes_$ and
;A=GLthere is no end of 'riting of boo%s$L as the 'iseman found of old$ in
this ;A.Gscribbling age$ es"ecially 'herein ;A?GLthe number of boo%s is
'ithout number$L (as a 'orthy man saith$) L"resses be o""ressed$L and out
of an itching humour that e#ery man hath to sho' himself$ ;A@Gdesirous of
fame and honour (_scribimus indocti docti0ue_----) he 'ill 'rite no matter
'hat$ and scra"e together it boots not 'hence. ;A-GLe'itched 'ith this
desire of fame$L _etiam mediis in morbis_$ to the dis"aragement of their
health$ and scarce able to hold a "en$ they must say something$ ;AAGLand
get themsel#es a name$L saith 9caliger$ Lthough it be to the do'nfall and
ruin of many others.L To be counted 'riters$ _scri"tores ut salutentur_$ to
be thought and held "olymaths and "olyhistors$ _a"ud im"eritum #ulgus ob
#entosae nomen artis_$ to get a "a"er-%ingdom& _nulla s"e 0uaestus sed
am"la famae_$ in this "reci"itate$ ambitious age$ _nunc ut est saeculum$
inter immaturam eruditionem$ ambitiosum et "raece"s_ (!tis ;A/G9caliger!s
censure)< and they that are scarce auditors$ _#i+ auditores_$ must be
masters and teachers$ before they be ca"able and fit hearers. They 'ill
rush into all learning$ _togatam armatam_$ di#ine$ human authors$ ra%e o#er
all inde+es and "am"hlets for notes$ as our merchants do strange ha#ens for
traffic$ 'rite great tomes$ _:um non sint re #era doctiores$ sed
lo0uaciores_$ 'hereas they are not thereby better scholars$ but greater
"raters. They commonly "retend "ublic good$ but as ;ABGGesner obser#es$
!tis "ride and #anity that eggs them on< no ne's or aught 'orthy of note$
but the same in other terms. _8e feriarentur fortasse ty"ogra"hi #el ideo
scribendum est ali0uid ut se #i+isse testentur_. As a"othecaries 'e ma%e
ne' mi+tures e#eryday$ "our out of one #essel into another< and as those
old 1omans robbed all the cities of the 'orld$ to set out their bad-sited
1ome$ 'e s%im off the cream of other men!s 'its$ "ic% the choice flo'ers of
their tilled gardens to set out our o'n sterile "lots. _:astrant alios ut
libros suos "er se graciles alieno adi"e suffarciant_ (so ;/CGDo#ius
in#eighs.) They lard their lean boo%s 'ith the fat of others! 'or%s.
_Ineruditi fures_$ Fc. A fault that e#ery 'riter finds$ as I do no'$ and
yet faulty themsel#es$ ;/,G_Trium literarum homines_$ all thie#es< they
"ilfer out of old 'riters to stuff u" their ne' comments$ scra"e Ennius!
dunghills$ and out of ;/=G3emocritus! "it$ as I ha#e done. y 'hich means
it comes to "ass$ ;/.GLthat not only libraries and sho"s are full of our
"utrid "a"ers$ but e#ery close-stool and ja%es$L _9cribunt carmina 0uae
legunt cacantes_< they ser#e to "ut under "ies$ to ;/?Gla" s"ice in$ and
%ee" roast meat from burning. L4ith us in 7rance$L saith ;/@G9caliger$
Le#ery man hath liberty to 'rite$ but fe' ability.L ;/-GL5eretofore
learning 'as graced by judicious scholars$ but no' noble sciences are
#ilified by base and illiterate scribblers$L that either 'rite for
#ainglory$ need$ to get money$ or as Parasites to flatter and collogue 'ith
some great men$ they "ut cut ;/AG_burras$ 0uis0uilias0ue ine"tias0ue_.
;//GAmongst so many thousand authors you shall scarce find one$ by reading
of 'hom you shall be any 'hit better$ but rather much 'orse$ _0uibus
inficitur "otius$ 0uam "erficitur_$ by 'hich he is rather infected than any
'ay "erfected.
;/BG ------LKui talia legit$
Kuid didicit tandem$ 0uid scit nisi somnia$ nugasNL
9o that oftentimes it falls out ('hich :allimachus ta+ed of old) a great
boo% is a great mischief. ;BCG:ardan finds fault 'ith 7renchmen and
Germans$ for their scribbling to no "ur"ose$ _non in0uit ab edendo
deterreo$ modo no#um ali0uid in#eniant_$ he doth not bar them to 'rite$ so
that it be some ne' in#ention of their o'n< but 'e 'ea#e the same 'eb
still$ t'ist the same ro"e again and again< or if it be a ne' in#ention$
!tis but some bauble or toy 'hich idle fello's 'rite$ for as idle fello's
to read$ and 'ho so cannot in#entN ;B,GL5e must ha#e a barren 'it$ that in
this scribbling age can forge nothing. ;B=GPrinces sho' their armies$ rich
men #aunt their buildings$ soldiers their manhood$ and scholars #ent their
toys<L they must read$ they must hear 'hether they 'ill or no.
;B.G LEt 0uodcun0ue semel chartis ille#erit$ omnes
Gestiet a furno redeuntes scire lacu0ue$
Et "ueros et anusL------
L4hat once is said and 'rit$ all men must %no'$
2ld 'i#es and children as they come and go.L
L4hat a com"any of "oets hath this year brought out$L as Pliny com"lains to
9ossius 9inesius. ;B?GLThis A"ril e#ery day some or other ha#e recited.L
4hat a catalogue of ne' boo%s all this year$ all this age (I say)$ ha#e our
7ran%fort Marts$ our domestic Marts brought outN T'ice a year$ ;B@G
_Proferunt se no#a ingenia et ostentant_$ 'e stretch our 'its out$ and set
them to sale$ _magno conatu nihil agimus_. 9o that 'hich ;B-GGesner much
desires$ if a s"eedy reformation be not had$ by some "rince!s edicts and
gra#e su"er#isors$ to restrain this liberty$ it 'ill run on _in infinitum_.
_Kuis tam a#idus librorum helluo_$ 'ho can read themN As already$ 'e shall
ha#e a #ast chaos and confusion of boo%s$ 'e are ;BAGo""ressed 'ith them$
;B/Gour eyes ache 'ith reading$ our fingers 'ith turning. 7or my "art I am
one of the number$ _nos numerus sumus_$ ('e are mere ci"hers)& I do not
deny it$ I ha#e only this of Macrobius to say for myself$ _2mne meum$ nihil
meum_$ !tis all mine$ and none mine. As a good house'ife out of di#ers
fleeces 'ea#es one "iece of cloth$ a bee gathers 'a+ and honey out of many
flo'ers$ and ma%es a ne' bundle of all$ _7loriferis ut a"es in saltibus
omnia libant_$ I ha#e laboriously ;BBGcollected this cento out of di#ers
'riters$ and that _sine injuria_$ I ha#e 'ronged no authors$ but gi#en
e#ery man his o'n< 'hich ;,CCG5ierom so much commends in 8e"otian< he stole
not 'hole #erses$ "ages$ tracts$ as some do no'adays$ concealing their
authors! names$ but still said this 'as :y"rian!s$ that *actantius$ that
5ilarius$ so said Minutius 7eli+$ so Iictorinus$ thus far Arnobius& I cite
and 0uote mine authors ('hich$ ho'soe#er some illiterate scribblers account
"edantical$ as a cloa% of ignorance$ and o""osite to their affected fine
style$ I must and 'ill use) _sum"si$ non suri"ui_< and 'hat Iarro$ _lib. -.
de re rust._ s"ea%s of bees$ _minime maleficae nullius o"us #ellicantes
faciunt delerius_$ I can say of myself$ 4hom ha#e I injuredN The matter is
theirs most "art$ and yet mine$ _a""aret unde sum"tum sit_ ('hich 9eneca
a""ro#es)$ _aliud tamen 0uam unde sum"tum sit a""aret_$ 'hich nature doth
'ith the aliment of our bodies incor"orate$ digest$ assimilate$ I do
_conco0uere 0uod hausi_$ dis"ose of 'hat I ta%e. I ma%e them "ay tribute$
to set out this my Maceronicon$ the method only is mine o'n$ I must usur"
that of ;,C,G4ec%er _e Ter. nihil dictum 0uod non dictum "rius$ methodus
sola artificem ostendit_$ 'e can say nothing but 'hat hath been said$ the
com"osition and method is ours only$ and sho's a scholar. 2ribasius$
Aesius$ A#icenna$ ha#e all out of Galen$ but to their o'n method$ _di#erso
stilo$ non di#ersa fide_. 2ur "oets steal from 5omer< he s"e's$ saith
Aelian$ they lic% it u". 3i#ines use Austin!s 'ords #erbatim still$ and our
story-dressers do as much< he that comes last is commonly best$
------Ldonec 0uid grandius aetas
Postera sors0ue ferat melior.L------;,C=G
Though there 'ere many giants of old in "hysic and "hiloso"hy$ yet I say
'ith ;,C.G3idacus 9tella$ LA d'arf standing on the shoulders of a giant may
see farther than a giant himself<L I may li%ely add$ alter$ and see farther
than my "redecessors< and it is no greater "rejudice for me to indite after
others$ than for Aelianus Montaltus$ that famous "hysician$ to 'rite _de
morbis ca"itis_ after Dason Pratensis$ 5eurnius$ 5ildesheim$ Fc.$ many
horses to run in a race$ one logician$ one rhetorician$ after another.
2""ose then 'hat thou 'ilt$
LAllatres licet us0ue nos et us0ue
Et gannitibus im"robis lacessas.L
I sol#e it thus. And for those other faults of barbarism$ ;,C?G3oric
dialect$ e+tem"oranean style$ tautologies$ a"ish imitation$ a rha"sody of
rags gathered together from se#eral dunghills$ e+crements of authors$ toys
and fo""eries confusedly tumbled out$ 'ithout art$ in#ention$ judgment$
'it$ learning$ harsh$ ra'$ rude$ fantastical$ absurd$ insolent$ indiscreet$
ill-com"osed$ indigested$ #ain$ scurrile$ idle$ dull$ and dry< I confess
all (!tis "artly affected)$ thou canst not thin% 'orse of me than I do of
myself. !Tis not 'orth the reading$ I yield it$ I desire thee not to lose
time in "erusing so #ain a subject$ I should be "erad#enture loath myself
to read him or thee so 'riting< !tis not _o"erae$ "retium_. All I say is
this$ that I ha#e ;,C@G"recedents for it$ 'hich Isocrates calls _"erfugium
iis 0ui "eccant_$ others as absurd$ #ain$ idle$ illiterate$ Fc. _8onnulli
alii idem fecerunt_< others ha#e done as much$ it may be more$ and "erha"s
thou thyself$ _8o#imus et 0ui te_$ Fc. 4e ha#e all our faults< _scimus$ et
hanc$ #eniaim_$ Fc.< ;,C-Gthou censurest me$ so ha#e I done others$ and may
do thee$ _:edimus in0ue #icem_$ Fc.$ !tis _le+ talionis$ 0uid "ro 0uo_. Go
no'$ censure$ criticise$ scoff$ and rail.
;,CAG L8asutus cis us0ue licet$ sis deni0ue nasus&
8on "otes in nugas dicere "lura meas$
I"se ego 0uam di+i$ Fc.L
L4ert thou all scoffs and flouts$ a #ery Momus$
Than 'e oursel#es$ thou canst not say 'orse of us.L
Thus$ as 'hen 'omen scold$ ha#e I cried 'hore first$ and in some men!s
censures I am afraid I ha#e o#ershot myself$ _*audare se #ani$ #itu"erare
stulti_$ as I do not arrogate$ I 'ill not derogate. _Primus #estrum non
sum$ nec imus_$ I am none of the best$ I am none of the meanest of you. As
I am an inch$ or so many feet$ so many "arasangs$ after him or him$ I may
be "erad#enture an ace before thee. e it therefore as it is$ 'ell or ill$
I ha#e essayed$ "ut myself u"on the stage< I must abide the censure$ I may
not esca"e it. It is most true$ _stylus #irum arguit_$ our style be'rays
us$ and as ;,C/Ghunters find their game by the trace$ so is a man!s genius
descried by his 'or%s$ _Multo melius e+ sermone 0uam lineamentis$ de
moribus hominum judicamus_< it 'as old :ato!s rule. I ha#e laid myself o"en
(I %no' it) in this treatise$ turned mine inside out'ard& I shall be
censured$ I doubt not< for$ to say truth 'ith Erasmus$ _nihil morosius
hominum judiciis_$ there is nought so "ee#ish as men!s judgments< yet this
is some comfort$ _ut "alata$ sic judicia_$ our censures are as #arious as
our "alates.
;,CBG LTres mihi con#i#ae "ro"e dissentire #identur$
Poscentes #ario multum di#ersa "alato$L Fc.
LThree guests I ha#e$ dissenting at my feast$
1e0uiring each to gratify his taste
4ith different food.L
2ur 'ritings are as so many dishes$ our readers guests$ our boo%s li%e
beauty$ that 'hich one admires another rejects< so are 'e a""ro#ed as men!s
fancies are inclined. _Pro ca"tu lectoris habent sua fata libelli._. That
'hich is most "leasing to one is _amaracum sui_$ most harsh to another.
_Kuot homines$ tot sententiae_$ so many men$ so many minds& that 'hich thou
condemnest he commends. ;,,CG_Kuod "etis$ id sane est in#isum acidum0ue
duobus_. 5e res"ects matter$ thou art 'holly for 'ords< he lo#es a loose
and free style$ thou art all for neat com"osition$ strong lines$
hy"erboles$ allegories< he desires a fine frontis"iece$ enticing "ictures$
such as ;,,,G5ieron. 8atali the Desuit hath cut to the 3ominicals$ to dra'
on the reader!s attention$ 'hich thou rejectest< that 'hich one admires$
another e+"lodes as most absurd and ridiculous. If it be not "oint blan% to
his humour$ his method$ his conceit$ ;,,=G_si 0uid$ forsan omissum$ 0uod is
animo conce"erit$ si 0uae dictio_$ Fc. If aught be omitted$ or added$ 'hich
he li%es$ or disli%es$ thou art _manci"ium "aucae lectionis_$ an idiot$ an
ass$ _nullus es_$ or _"lagiarius_$ a trifler$ a tri#ant$ thou art an idle
fello'< or else it is a thing of mere industry$ a collection 'ithout 'it or
in#ention$ a #ery toy. ;,,.G_7acilia sic "utant omnes 0uae jam facta$ nec
de salebris cogitant$ ubi #ia strata_< so men are #alued$ their labours
#ilified by fello's of no 'orth themsel#es$ as things of nought$ 'ho could
not ha#e done as much. _Hnus0uis0ue abundat sensu suo_$ e#ery man abounds
in his o'n sense< and 'hilst each "articular "arty is so affected$ ho'
should one "lease allN
;,,?G LKuid demN 0uid non demN 1enuis tu 0uod jubet ille.L
------L4hat courses must I chooseN
4hat notN 4hat both 'ould order you refuse.L
5o' shall I ho"e to e+"ress myself to each man!s humour and ;,,@Gconceit$
or to gi#e satisfaction to allN 9ome understand too little$ some too much$
_0ui similiter in legendos libros$ at0ue in salutandos homines irruunt$ non
cogitantes 0uales$ sed 0uibus #estibus induti sint_$ as ;,,-GAustin
obser#es$ not regarding 'hat$ but 'ho 'rite$ ;,,AG_ore+in habet auctores
celebritas_$ not #aluing the metal$ but stam" that is u"on it$ _:antharum
as"iciunt$ non 0uid in eo_. If he be not rich$ in great "lace$ "olite and
bra#e$ a great doctor$ or full fraught 'ith grand titles$ though ne#er so
'ell 0ualified$ he is a dunce< but$ as ;,,/Garonius hath it of :ardinal
:araffa!s 'or%s$ he is a mere hog that rejects any man for his "o#erty.
9ome are too "artial$ as friends to o#er'een$ others come 'ith a "rejudice
to car"$ #ilify$ detract$ and scoff< (_0ui de me forsan$ 0uic0uid est$ omni
contem"tu contem"tius judicant_) some as bees for honey$ some as s"iders to
gather "oison. 4hat shall I do in this caseN As a 3utch host$ if you come
to an inn in. Germany$ and disli%e your fare$ diet$ lodging$ Fc.$ re"lies
in a surly tone$ ;,,BG_aliud tibi 0uaeras di#ersorium_$ if you li%e not
this$ get you to another inn& I resol#e$ if you li%e not my 'riting$ go
read something else. I do not much esteem thy censure$ ta%e thy course$ it
is not as thou 'ilt$ nor as I 'ill$ but 'hen 'e ha#e both done$ that of
;,=CGPlinius 9ecundus to Trajan 'ill "ro#e true$ LE#ery man!s 'itty labour
ta%es not$ e+ce"t the matter$ subject$ occasion$ and some commending
fa#ourite ha""en to it.L If I be ta+ed$ e+"loded by thee and some such$ I
shall ha"ly be a""ro#ed and commended by others$ and so ha#e been
(_E+"ertus lo0uor_)$ and may truly say 'ith ;,=,GDo#ius in li%e case$
_(absit #erbo jactantia) heroum 0uorundam$ "ontificum$ et #irorum nobilium
familiaritatem et amicitiam$ gratas0ue gratias$ et multorum ;,==G bene
laudatorum laudes sum inde "romeritus_$ as I ha#e been honoured by some
'orthy men$ so ha#e I been #ilified by others$ and shall be. At the first
"ublishing of this boo%$ ('hich ;,=.GProbus of Persius satires)$ _editum
librum continuo mirari homines$ at0ue a#ide deri"ere cae"erunt_$ I may in
some sort a""ly to this my 'or%. The first$ second$ and third edition 'ere
suddenly gone$ eagerly read$ and$ as I ha#e said$ not so much a""ro#ed by
some$ as scornfully rejected by others. ut it 'as 3emocritus his fortune$
_Idem admirationi et ;,=?Girrisioni habitus_. !T'as 9eneca!s fate$ that
su"erintendent of 'it$ learning$ judgment$ ;,=@G_ad stu"orem doctus_$ the
best of Gree% and *atin 'riters$ in Plutarch!s o"inion< that Lreno'ned
corrector of #ice$L as$ ;,=-G7abius terms him$ Land "ainful omniscious
"hiloso"her$ that 'rit so e+cellently and admirably 'ell$L could not "lease
all "arties$ or esca"e censure. 5o' is he #ilified by ;,=AG :aligula$
Agellius$ 7abius$ and *i"sius himself$ his chief "ro"ugnerN _In eo "lera0ue
"ernitiosa_$ saith the same 7abius$ many childish tracts and sentences he
hath$ _sermo illaboratus_$ too negligent often and remiss$ as Agellius
obser#es$ _oratio #ulgaris et "rotrita$ dicaces et ine"tae$ sententiae$
eruditio "lebeia_$ an homely shallo' 'riter as he is. _In "artibus s"inas
et fastidia habet_$ saith ;,=/G*i"sius< and$ as in all his other 'or%s$ so
es"ecially in his e"istles$ _aliae in argutiis et ine"tiis occu"antur$
intricatus alicubi$ et "arum com"ositus$ sine co"ia rerum hoc fecit_$ he
jumbles u" many things together immethodically$ after the 9toics! fashion$
_"arum ordina#it$ multa accumula#it_$ Fc. If 9eneca be thus lashed$ and
many famous men that I could name$ 'hat shall I e+"ectN 5o' shall I that am
_#i+ umbra tanti "hiloso"hi_ ho"e to "leaseN L8o man so absoluteL
(;,=BGErasmus holds) Lto satisfy all$ e+ce"t anti0uity$ "rescri"tion$ Fc.$
set a bar.L ut as I ha#e "ro#ed in 9eneca$ this 'ill not al'ays ta%e
"lace$ ho' shall I e#adeN !Tis the common doom of all 'riters$ I must (I
say) abide it< I see% not a""lause< ;,.CG_8on ego #entosa #enor suffragia
"lebis_< again$ _non sum adeo informis_$ I 'ould not be ;,.,G#ilified&
;,.=G ------Llaudatus abunde$
8on fastiditus si tibi$ lector$ ero.L
I fear good men!s censures$ and to their fa#ourable acce"tance I submit my
;,..G ------Let linguas manci"iorum
As the bar%ing of a dog$ I securely contemn those malicious and scurrile
oblo0uies$ flouts$ calumnies of railers and detractors< I scorn the rest.
4hat therefore I ha#e said$ _"ro tenuitate mea_$ I ha#e said.
2ne or t'o things yet I 'as desirous to ha#e amended if I could$ concerning
the manner of handling this my subject$ for 'hich I must a"ologise$
_de"recari_$ and u"on better ad#ice gi#e the friendly reader notice& it 'as
not mine intent to "rostitute my muse in English$ or to di#ulge _secreta
Miner#ae_$ but to ha#e e+"osed this more contract in *atin$ if I could ha#e
got it "rinted. Any scurrile "am"hlet is 'elcome to our mercenary
stationers in English< they "rint all
------Lcudunt0ue libellos
In 0uorum foliis #i+ simia nuda cacaret<L
ut in *atin they 'ill not deal< 'hich is one of the reasons ;,.?G8icholas
:ar$ in his oration of the "aucity of English 'riters$ gi#es$ that so many
flourishing 'its are smothered in obli#ion$ lie dead and buried in this our
nation. Another main fault is$ that I ha#e not re#ised the co"y$ and
amended the style$ 'hich no' flo's remissly$ as it 'as first concei#ed< but
my leisure 'ould not "ermit< _7eci nec 0uod "otui$ nec 0uod #olui_$ I
confess it is neither as I 'ould$ nor as it should be.
;,.@G L:um relego scri"sisse "udet$ 0uia "lurima cerno
Me 0uo0ue 0uae fuerant judice digna lini.L
L4hen I "eruse this tract 'hich I ha#e 'rit$
I am abash!d$ and much I hold unfit.L
_Et 0uod gra#issimum_$ in the matter itself$ many things I disallo' at this
"resent$ 'hich 'hen I 'rit$ ;,.-G_8on eadem est aetas$ non mens_< I 'ould
'illingly retract much$ Fc.$ but !tis too late$ I can only cra#e "ardon no'
for 'hat is amiss.
I might indeed$ (had I 'isely done) obser#ed that "rece"t of the "oet$
------_nonum0ue "rematur in annum_$ and ha#e ta%en more care& or$ as
Ale+ander the "hysician 'ould ha#e done by la"is lazuli$ fifty times 'ashed
before it be used$ I should ha#e re#ised$ corrected and amended this tract<
but I had not (as I said) that ha""y leisure$ no amanuenses or assistants.
Pancrates in ;,.AG*ucian$ 'anting a ser#ant as he 'ent from Mem"his to
:o"tus in Egy"t$ too% a door bar$ and after some su"erstitious 'ords
"ronounced (Eucrates the relator 'as then "resent) made it stand u" li%e a
ser#ing-man$ fetch him 'ater$ turn the s"it$ ser#e in su""er$ and 'hat 'or%
he 'ould besides< and 'hen he had done that ser#ice he desired$ turned his
man to a stic% again. I ha#e no such s%ill to ma%e ne' men at my "leasure$
or means to hire them< no 'histle to call li%e the master of a shi"$ and
bid them run$ Fc. I ha#e no such authority$ no such benefactors$ as that
noble ;,./GAmbrosius 'as to 2rigen$ allo'ing him si+ or se#en amanuenses to
'rite out his dictates< I must for that cause do my business myself$ and
'as therefore enforced$ as a bear doth her 'hel"s$ to bring forth this
confused lum"< I had not time to lic% it into form$ as she doth her young
ones$ but e#en so to "ublish it$ as it 'as first 'ritten _0uic0uid in
buccam #enit_$ in an e+tem"orean style$ as ;,.BGI do commonly all other
e+ercises$ _effudi 0uic0uid dicta#it genius meus_$ out of a confused
com"any of notes$ and 'rit 'ith as small deliberation as I do ordinarily
s"ea%$ 'ithout all affectation of big 'ords$ fustian "hrases$ jingling
terms$ tro"es$ strong lines$ that li%e ;,?CGAcesta!s arro's caught fire as
they fle'$ strains of 'it$ bra#e heats$ elegies$ hy"erbolical e+ornations$
elegancies$ Fc.$ 'hich many so much affect. I am ;,?,G_a0uae "otor_$ drin%
no 'ine at all$ 'hich so much im"ro#es our modern 'its$ a loose$ "lain$
rude 'riter$ _ficum$ #oco ficum et ligonem ligonem_ and as free$ as loose$
_idem calamo 0uod in mente_$ ;,?=GI call a s"ade a s"ade$ _animis haec
scribo$ non auribus_$ I res"ect matter not 'ords< remembering that of
:ardan$ _#erba "ro"ter res$ non res "ro"ter #erba_& and see%ing 'ith
9eneca$ _0uid scribam$ non 0uemadmodum_$ rather _'hat_ than _ho'_ to 'rite&
for as Philo thin%s$ ;,?.GL5e that is con#ersant about matter$ neglects
'ords$ and those that e+cel in this art of s"ea%ing$ ha#e no "rofound
;,??G LIerba nitent "haleris$ at nullus #erba medullas
Intus habentL------
esides$ it 'as the obser#ation of that 'ise 9eneca$ ;,?@GL'hen you see a
fello' careful about his 'ords$ and neat in his s"eech$ %no' this for a
certainty$ that man!s mind is busied about toys$ there!s no solidity in
him.L _8on est ornamentum #irile concinnitas_& as he said of a nightingale$
------_#o+ es$ "raeterea nihil_$ Fc. I am therefore in this "oint a
"rofessed disci"le of ;,?-GA"ollonius a scholar of 9ocrates$ I neglect
"hrases$ and labour 'holly to inform my reader!s understanding$ not to
"lease his ear< !tis not my study or intent to com"ose neatly$ 'hich an
orator re0uires$ but to e+"ress myself readily and "lainly as it ha""ens.
9o that as a ri#er runs sometimes "reci"itate and s'ift$ then dull and
slo'< no' direct$ then _"er ambages_$ no' dee"$ then shallo'< no' muddy$
then clear< no' broad$ then narro'< doth my style flo'& no' serious$ then
light< no' comical$ then satirical< no' more elaborate$ then remiss$ as the
"resent subject re0uired$ or as at that time I 'as affected. And if thou
#ouchsafe to read this treatise$ it shall seem no other'ise to thee$ than
the 'ay to an ordinary tra#eller$ sometimes fair$ sometimes foul< here
cham"aign$ there enclosed< barren$ in one "lace$ better soil in another& by
'oods$ gro#es$ hills$ dales$ "lains$ Fc. I shall lead thee _"er ardua
montium$ et lubrica #alllum$ et roscida ces"itum$ et ;,?AGglebosa
cam"orum_$ through #ariety of objects$ that 'hich thou shalt li%e and
surely disli%e.
7or the matter itself or method$ if it be faulty$ consider I "ray you that
of _:olumella$ 8ihil "erfectum$ aut a singulari consummatum industria_$ no
man can obser#e all$ much is defecti#e no doubt$ may be justly ta+ed$
altered$ and a#oided in Galen$ Aristotle$ those great masters. _oni
#enatoris_ (;,?/Gone holds) _"lures feras ca"ere$ non omnes_< he is a good
huntsman can catch some$ not all& I ha#e done my endea#our. esides$ I
d'ell not in this study$ _8on hic sulcos ducimus$ non hoc "ul#ere
desudamus_$ I am but a smatterer$ I confess$ a stranger$ ;,?BGhere and
there I "ull a flo'er< I do easily grant$ if a rigid censurer should
criticise on this 'hich I ha#e 'rit$ he should not find three sole faults$
as 9caliger in Terence$ but three hundred. 9o many as he hath done in
:ardan!s subtleties$ as many notable errors as ;,@CGGul *aurembergius$ a
late "rofessor of 1ostoc%$ disco#ers in that anatomy of *aurentius$ or
arocius the Ienetian in _9acro boscus_. And although this be a si+th
edition$ in 'hich I should ha#e been more accurate$ corrected all those
former esca"es$ yet it 'as _magni laboris o"us_$ so difficult and tedious$
that as car"enters do find out of e+"erience$ !tis much better build a ne'
sometimes$ than re"air an old house< I could as soon 'rite as much more$ as
alter that 'hich is 'ritten. If aught therefore be amiss (as I grant there
is)$ I re0uire a friendly admonition$ no bitter in#ecti#e$ ;,@,G_9int musis
socii :harites$ 7uria omnis abesto_$ other'ise$ as in ordinary
contro#ersies$ _funem contentionis nectamus$ sed cui bono_N 4e may contend$
and li%ely misuse each other$ but to 'hat "ur"oseN 4e are both scholars$
;,@=G ------LArcades ambo
Et :antare "ares$ et res"ondere "arati.L
Loth young Arcadians$ both ali%e ins"ir!d
To sing and ans'er as the song re0uir!d.L
If 'e do 'rangle$ 'hat shall 'e get by itN Trouble and 'rong oursel#es$
ma%e s"ort to others. If I be con#ict of an error$ I 'ill yield$ I 'ill
amend. _9i 0uid bonis moribus$ si 0uid #eritati dissentaneum$ in sacris #el
humanis literis a me dictum sit$ id nec dictum esto_. In the mean time I
re0uire a fa#ourable censure of all faults omitted$ harsh com"ositions$
"leonasms of 'ords$ tautological re"etitions (though 9eneca bear me out$
_nun0uam nimis dicitur$ 0uod nun0uam satis dicitur_) "erturbations of
tenses$ numbers$ "rinters! faults$ Fc. My translations are sometimes rather
"ara"hrases than inter"retations$ _non ad #erbum_$ but as an author$ I use
more liberty$ and that!s only ta%en 'hich 'as to my "ur"ose. Kuotations are
often inserted in the te+t$ 'hich ma%es the style more harsh$ or in the
margin$ as it ha""ened. Gree% authors$ Plato$ Plutarch$ Athenaeus$ Fc.$ I
ha#e cited out of their inter"reters$ because the original 'as not so
ready. I ha#e mingled _sacra "ro"hanis_$ but I ho"e not "rofaned$ and in
re"etition of authors! names$ ran%ed them _"er accidens_$ not according to
chronology< sometimes neoterics before ancients$ as my memory suggested.
9ome things are here altered$ e+"unged in this si+th edition$ others
amended$ much added$ because many good ;,@.Gauthors in all %inds are come
to my hands since$ and !tis no "rejudice$ no such indecorum$ or o#ersight.
;,@?G L8un0uam ita 0uic0uam bene subducta ratione ad #itam fuit$
Kuin res$ aetas$ usus$ sem"er ali0uid a""ortent no#i$
Ali0uid moneant$ ut illa 0uae scire te credas$ nescias$
Et 0uae tibi "utaris "rima$ in e+ercendo ut re"udias.L
L8e!er 'as ought yet at first contri#!d so fit$
ut use$ age$ or something 'ould alter it<
Ad#ise thee better$ and$ u"on "eruse$
Ma%e thee not say$ and 'hat thou ta%!st refuse.L
ut I am no' resol#ed ne#er to "ut this treatise out again$ _8e 0uid
nimis_$ I 'ill not hereafter add$ alter$ or retract< I ha#e done. The last
and greatest e+ce"tion is$ that I$ being a di#ine$ ha#e meddled 'ith
;,@@G LTantumne est ab re tua otii tibi$
Aliena ut cures$ ea0ue nihil 0uae ad te attinent.L
4hich Menedemus objected to :hremes< ha#e I so much leisure$ or little
business of mine o'n$ as to loo% after other men!s matters 'hich concern me
notN 4hat ha#e I to do 'ith "hysicN _Kuod medicorum est "romittant medici_.
The ;,@-G*acedaemonians 'ere once in counsel about state matters$ a
debauched fello' s"a%e e+cellent 'ell$ and to the "ur"ose$ his s"eech 'as
generally a""ro#ed& a gra#e senator ste"s u"$ and by all means 'ould ha#e
it re"ealed$ though good$ because _dehonestabatur "essimo auctore_$ it had
no better an author< let some good man relate the same$ and then it should
"ass. This counsel 'as embraced$ _factum est_$ and it 'as registered
forth'ith$ _Et sic bona sententia mansit$ malus auctor mutatus est_. Thou
sayest as much of me$ stomachosus as thou art$ and grantest$ "erad#enture$
this 'hich I ha#e 'ritten in "hysic$ not to be amiss$ had another done it$
a "rofessed "hysician$ or so$ but 'hy should I meddle 'ith this tractN 5ear
me s"ea%. There be many other subjects$ I do easily grant$ both in humanity
and di#inity$ fit to be treated of$ of 'hich had I 'ritten _ad
ostentationem_ only$ to sho' myself$ I should ha#e rather chosen$ and in
'hich I ha#e been more con#ersant$ I could ha#e more 'illingly lu+uriated$
and better satisfied myself and others< but that at this time I 'as fatally
dri#en u"on this roc% of melancholy$ and carried a'ay by this by-stream$
'hich$ as a rillet$ is deducted from the main channel of my studies$ in
'hich I ha#e "leased and busied myself at idle hours$ as a subject most
necessary and commodious. 8ot that I "refer it before di#inity$ 'hich I do
ac%no'ledge to be the 0ueen of "rofessions$ and to 'hich all the rest are
as handmaids$ but that in di#inity I sa' no such great need. 7or had I
'ritten "ositi#ely$ there be so many boo%s in that %ind$ so many
commentators$ treatises$ "am"hlets$ e+"ositions$ sermons$ that 'hole teams
of o+en cannot dra' them< and had I been as for'ard and ambitious as some
others$ I might ha#e ha"ly "rinted a sermon at Paul!s :ross$ a sermon in
9t. Marie!s 2+on$ a sermon in :hrist :hurch$ or a sermon before the right
honourable$ right re#erend$ a sermon before the right 'orshi"ful$ a sermon
in *atin$ in English$ a sermon 'ith a name$ a sermon 'ithout$ a sermon$ a
sermon$ Fc. ut I ha#e been e#er as desirous to su""ress my labours in this
%ind$ as others ha#e been to "ress and "ublish theirs. To ha#e 'ritten in
contro#ersy had been to cut off an hydra!s head$ ;,@AG_*is litem generat_$
one begets another$ so many du"lications$ tri"lications$ and s'arms of
0uestions. _In sacro bello hoc 0uod stili mucrone agitur_$ that ha#ing once
begun$ I should ne#er ma%e an end. 2ne had much better$ as ;,@/GAle+ander$
the si+th "o"e$ long since obser#ed$ "ro#o%e a great "rince than a begging
friar$ a Desuit$ or a seminary "riest$ I 'ill add$ for _ine+"ugnabile genus
hoc hominum_$ they are an irrefragable society$ they must and 'ill ha#e the
last 'ord< and that 'ith such eagerness$ im"udence$ abominable lying$
falsifying$ and bitterness in their 0uestions they "roceed$ that as he
;,@BGsaid$ _furorne caecus$ an ra"it #is acrior$ an cul"a$ res"onsum date_N
lind fury$ or error$ or rashness$ or 'hat it is that eggs them$ I %no'
not$ I am sure many times$ 'hich ;,-CGAustin "ercei#ed long since$
_tem"estate contentionis$ serenitas charitatis obnubilatur_$ 'ith this
tem"est of contention$ the serenity of charity is o#erclouded$ and there be
too many s"irits conjured u" already in this %ind in all sciences$ and more
than 'e can tell ho' to lay$ 'hich do so furiously rage$ and %ee" such a
rac%et$ that as ;,-,G7abius said$ LIt had been much better for some of them
to ha#e been born dumb$ and altogether illiterate$ than so far to dote to
their o'n destruction.L
LAt melius fuerat non scribere$ nam0ue tacere
Tutum sem"er erit$L------;,-=G
!Tis a general fault$ so 9e#erinus the 3ane com"lains ;,-.Gin "hysic$
Lunha""y men as 'e are$ 'e s"end our days in un"rofitable 0uestions and
dis"utations$L intricate subtleties$ _de lana ca"rina_ about moonshine in
the 'ater$ Llea#ing in the mean time those chiefest treasures of nature
untouched$ 'herein the best medicines for all manner of diseases are to be
found$ and do not only neglect them oursel#es$ but hinder$ condemn$ forbid$
and scoff at others$ that are 'illing to in0uire after them.L These moti#es
at this "resent ha#e induced me to ma%e choice of this medicinal subject.
If any "hysician in the mean time shall infer$ _8e sutor ultra cre"idam_$
and find himself grie#ed that I ha#e intruded into his "rofession$ I 'ill
tell him in brief$ I do not other'ise by them$ than they do by us. If it be
for their ad#antage$ I %no' many of their sect 'hich ha#e ta%en orders$ in
ho"e of a benefice$ !tis a common transition$ and 'hy may not a melancholy
di#ine$ that can get nothing but by simony$ "rofess "hysicN 3rusianus an
Italian (:rusianus$ but corru"tly$ Trithemius calls him) ;,-?GLbecause he
'as not fortunate in his "ractice$ forsoo% his "rofession$ and 'rit
after'ards in di#inity.L Marcilius 7icinus 'as _semel et simul_< a "riest
and a "hysician at once$ and ;,-@GT. *inacer in his old age too% orders.
The Desuits "rofess both at this time$ di#ers of them _"ermissu
su"eriorum_$ chirurgeons$ "anders$ ba'ds$ and mid'i#es$ Fc. Many "oor
country-#icars$ for 'ant of other means$ are dri#en to their shifts< to
turn mounteban%s$ 0uac%sal#ers$ em"irics$ and if our greedy "atrons hold us
to such hard conditions$ as commonly they do$ they 'ill ma%e most of us
'or% at some trade$ as Paul did$ at last turn tas%ers$ maltsters$
costermongers$ graziers$ sell ale as some ha#e done$ or 'orse. 5o'soe#er in
underta%ing this tas%$ I ho"e I shall commit no great error or _indecorum_$
if all be considered aright$ I can #indicate myself 'ith Georgius raunus$
and 5ieronymus 5emingius$ those t'o learned di#ines< 'ho (to borro' a line
or t'o of mine ;,--Gelder brother) dra'n by a Lnatural lo#e$ the one of
"ictures and ma"s$ "ros"ecti#es and chorogra"hical delights$ 'rit that
am"le theatre of cities< the other to the study of genealogies$ "enned
_theatrum genealogicum_.L 2r else I can e+cuse my studies 'ith ;,-AG*essius
the Desuit in li%e case. It is a disease of the soul on 'hich I am to
treat$ and as much a""ertaining to a di#ine as to a "hysician$ and 'ho
%no's not 'hat an agreement there is bet'i+t these t'o "rofessionsN A good
di#ine either is or ought to be a good "hysician$ a s"iritual "hysician at
least$ as our 9a#iour calls himself$ and 'as indeed$ Mat. i#. =.< *u%e$ #.
,/< *u%e$ #ii. /. They differ but in object$ the one of the body$ the other
of the soul$ and use di#ers medicines to cure< one amends _animam "er
cor"us_$ the other _cor"us "er animam_ as ;,-/Gour 1egius Professor of
"hysic 'ell informed us in a learned lecture of his not long since. 2ne
hel"s the #ices and "assions of the soul$ anger$ lust$ des"eration$ "ride$
"resum"tion$ Fc. by a""lying that s"iritual "hysic< as the other uses
"ro"er remedies in bodily diseases. 8o' this being a common infirmity of
body and soul$ and such a one that hath as much need of s"iritual as a
cor"oral cure$ I could not find a fitter tas% to busy myself about$ a more
a""osite theme$ so necessary$ so commodious$ and generally concerning all
sorts of men$ that should so e0ually "artici"ate of both$ and re0uire a
'hole "hysician. A di#ine in this com"ound mi+ed malady can do little
alone$ a "hysician in some %inds of melancholy much less$ both ma%e an
absolute cure.
;,-BG LAlterius sic altera "oscit o"em.L
------L'hen in friendshi" joined
A mutual succour in each other find.L
And !tis "ro"er to them both$ and I ho"e not unbeseeming me$ 'ho am by my
"rofession a di#ine$ and by mine inclination a "hysician. I had Du"iter in
my si+th house< I say 'ith ;,ACGeroaldus$ _non sum medicus$ nec medicinae
"rorsus e+"ers_$ in the theory of "hysic I ha#e ta%en some "ains$ not 'ith
an intent to "ractice$ but to satisfy myself$ 'hich 'as a cause li%e'ise of
the first underta%ing of this subject.
If these reasons do not satisfy thee$ good reader$ as Ale+ander Munificus
that bountiful "relate$ sometimes bisho" of *incoln$ 'hen he had built si+
castles$ _ad in#idiam o"eris eluendam_$ saith ;,A,GMr. :amden$ to ta%e a'ay
the en#y of his 'or% ('hich #ery 'ords 8ubrigensis hath of 1oger the rich
bisho" of 9alisbury$ 'ho in %ing 9te"hen!s time built 9hirburn castle$ and
that of 3e#ises)$ to di#ert the scandal or im"utation$ 'hich might be
thence inferred$ built so many religious houses. If this my discourse be
o#er-medicinal$ or sa#our too much of humanity$ I "romise thee that I 'ill
hereafter ma%e thee amends in some treatise of di#inity. ut this I ho"e
shall suffice$ 'hen you ha#e more fully considered of the matter of this my
subject$ _rem substratam_$ melancholy$ madness$ and of the reasons
follo'ing$ 'hich 'ere my chief moti#es& the generality of the disease$ the
necessity of the cure$ and the commodity or common good that 'ill arise to
all men by the %no'ledge of it$ as shall at large a""ear in the ensuing
"reface. And I doubt not but that in the end you 'ill say 'ith me$ that to
anatomise this humour aright$ through all the members of this our
Microcosmus$ is as great a tas%$ as to reconcile those chronological errors
in the Assyrian monarchy$ find out the 0uadrature of a circle$ the cree%s
and sounds of the north-east$ or north-'est "assages$ and all out as good a
disco#ery as that hungry ;,A=G9"aniard!s of Terra Australis Incognita$ as
great trouble as to "erfect the motion of Mars and Mercury$ 'hich so
crucifies our astronomers$ or to rectify the Gregorian :alendar. I am so
affected for my "art$ and ho"e as ;,A.GTheo"hrastus did by his characters$
LThat our "osterity$ 2 friend Policles$ shall be the better for this 'hich
'e ha#e 'ritten$ by correcting and rectifying 'hat is amiss in themsel#es
by our e+am"les$ and a""lying our "rece"ts and cautions to their o'n use.L
And as that great ca"tain >isca 'ould ha#e a drum made of his s%in 'hen he
'as dead$ because he thought the #ery noise of it 'ould "ut his enemies to
flight$ I doubt not but that these follo'ing lines$ 'hen they shall be
recited$ or hereafter read$ 'ill dri#e a'ay melancholy (though I be gone)
as much as >isca!s drum could terrify his foes. Eet one caution let me gi#e
by the 'ay to my "resent$ or my future reader$ 'ho is actually melancholy$
that he read not the ;,A?Gsym"toms or "rognostics in this follo'ing tract$
lest by a""lying that 'hich he reads to himself$ aggra#ating$ a""ro"riating
things generally s"o%en$ to his o'n "erson (as melancholy men for the most
"art do) he trouble or hurt himself$ and get in conclusion more harm than
good. I ad#ise them therefore 'arily to "eruse that tract$ _*a"ides
lo0uitur_ (so said ;,A@GAgri""a _de occ. Phil._) _et ca#eant lectores ne
cerebrum iis e+cutiat_. The rest I doubt not they may securely read$ and to
their benefit. ut I am o#er-tedious$ I "roceed.
2f the necessity and generality of this 'hich I ha#e said$ if any man
doubt$ I shall desire him to ma%e a brief sur#ey of the 'orld$ as ;,A-G
:y"rian ad#iseth 3onat$ Lsu""osing himself to be trans"orted to the to" of
some high mountain$ and thence to behold the tumults and chances of this
'a#ering 'orld$ he cannot choose but either laugh at$ or "ity it.L 9.
5ierom out of a strong imagination$ being in the 'ilderness$ concei#ed 'ith
himself$ that he then sa' them dancing in 1ome< and if thou shalt either
concei#e$ or climb to see$ thou shalt soon "ercei#e that all the 'orld is
mad$ that it is melancholy$ dotes< that it is ('hich E"ichthonius
:osmo"olites e+"ressed not many years since in a ma") made li%e a fool!s
head ('ith that motto$ _:a"ut helleboro dignum_) a crazed head$ _ca#ea
stultorum_$ a fool!s "aradise$ or as A"ollonius$ a common "rison of gulls$
cheaters$ flatterers$ Fc. and needs to be reformed. 9trabo in the ninth
boo% of his geogra"hy$ com"ares Greece to the "icture of a man$ 'hich
com"arison of his$ 8ic. Gerbelius in his e+"osition of 9o"hianus! ma"$
a""ro#es< the breast lies o"en from those Acroceraunian hills in E"irus$ to
the 9unian "romontory in Attica< Pagae and Magaera are the t'o shoulders<
that Isthmus of :orinth the nec%< and Pelo"onnesus the head. If this
allusion hold$ !tis sure a mad head< Morea may be Moria< and to s"ea% 'hat
I thin%$ the inhabitants of modern Greece s'er#e as much from reason and
true religion at this day$ as that Morea doth from the "icture of a man.
E+amine the rest in li%e sort$ and you shall find that %ingdoms and
"ro#inces are melancholy$ cities and families$ all creatures$ #egetal$
sensible$ and rational$ that all sorts$ sects$ ages$ conditions$ are out of
tune$ as in :ebes! table$ _omnes errorem bibunt_$ before they come into the
'orld$ they are into+icated by error!s cu"$ from the highest to the lo'est
ha#e need of "hysic$ and those "articular actions in ;,AAG9eneca$ 'here
father and son "ro#e one another mad$ may be general< Porcius *atro shall
"lead against us all. 7or indeed 'ho is not a fool$ melancholy$ madN--;,A/G
_Kui nil molitur ine"te_$ 'ho is not brain-sic%N 7olly$ melancholy$
madness$ are but one disease$ _3elirium_ is a common name to all.
Ale+ander$ Gordonius$ Dason Pratensis$ 9a#anarola$ Guianerius$ Montaltus$
confound them as differing _secundum magis et minus_< so doth 3a#id$ Psal.
+++#ii. @. LI said unto the fools$ deal not so madly$L and !t'as an old
9toical "arado+$ _omnes stultos insanire_$ ;,ABGall fools are mad$ though
some madder than others. And 'ho is not a fool$ 'ho is free from
melancholyN 4ho is not touched more or less in habit or dis"ositionN If in
dis"osition$ Lill dis"ositions beget habits$ if they "erse#ere$L saith
;,/CGPlutarch$ habits either are$ or turn to diseases. !Tis the same 'hich
Tully maintains in the second of his Tusculans$ _omnium insi"ientum animi
in morbo sunt$ et "erturbatorum_$ fools are sic%$ and all that are troubled
in mind& for 'hat is sic%ness$ but as ;,/,GGregory Tholosanus defines it$
LA dissolution or "erturbation of the bodily league$ 'hich health
combines&L and 'ho is not sic%$ or ill-dis"osedN in 'hom doth not "assion$
anger$ en#y$ discontent$ fear and sorro' reignN 4ho labours not of this
diseaseN Gi#e me but a little lea#e$ and you shall see by 'hat testimonies$
confessions$ arguments$ I 'ill e#ince it$ that most men are mad$ that they
had as much need to go a "ilgrimage to the Anticyrae (as in ;,/=G9trabo!s
time they did) as in our days they run to :om"ostella$ our *ady of 9ichem$
or *auretta$ to see% for hel"< that it is li%e to be as "ros"erous a #oyage
as that of Guiana$ and that there is much more need of hellebore than of
That men are so misaffected$ melancholy$ mad$ giddy-headed$ hear the
testimony of 9olomon$ Eccl. ii. ,=. LAnd I turned to behold 'isdom$ madness
and folly$L Fc. And #er. =.& LAll his days are sorro'$ his tra#el grief$
and his heart ta%eth no rest in the night.L 9o that ta%e melancholy in 'hat
sense you 'ill$ "ro"erly or im"ro"erly$ in dis"osition or habit$ for
"leasure or for "ain$ dotage$ discontent$ fear$ sorro'$ madness$ for "art$
or all$ truly$ or meta"horically$ !tis all one. *aughter itself is madness
according to 9olomon$ and as 9t. Paul hath it$ L4orldly sorro' brings
death.L LThe hearts of the sons of men are e#il$ and madness is in their
hearts 'hile they li#e$L Eccl. i+. .. L4ise men themsel#es are no better.L
Eccl. i. ,/. LIn the multitude of 'isdom is much grief$ and he that
increaseth 'isdom$ increaseth sorro'$L cha". ii. ,A. 5e hated life itself$
nothing "leased him& he hated his labour$ all$ as ;,/.Ghe concludes$ is
Lsorro'$ grief$ #anity$ #e+ation of s"irit.L And though he 'ere the 'isest
man in the 'orld$ _sanctuarium sa"ientiae_$ and had 'isdom in abundance$ he
'ill not #indicate himself$ or justify his o'n actions. L9urely I am more
foolish than any man$ and ha#e not the understanding of a man in me$L Pro#.
+++. =. e they 9olomon!s 'ords$ or the 'ords of Agur$ the son of Da%eh$
they are canonical. 3a#id$ a man after God!s o'n heart$ confesseth as much
of himself$ Psal. +++#ii. =,$ ==. L9o foolish 'as I and ignorant$ I 'as
e#en as a beast before thee.L And condemns all for fools$ Psal. +ciii.<
+++ii. B< +li+. =C. 5e com"ares them to Lbeasts$ horses$ and mules$ in
'hich there is no understanding.L The a"ostle Paul accuseth himself in li%e
sort$ = :or. i+. =,. LI 'ould you 'ould suffer a little my foolishness$ I
s"ea% foolishly.L LThe 'hole head is sic%$L saith Esay$ Land the heart is
hea#y$L ca". i. @. And ma%es lighter of them than of o+en and asses$ Lthe
o+ %no's his o'ner$L Fc.& read 3eut. +++ii. -< Der. i#.< Amos$ iii. ,<
E"hes. #. -. Le not mad$ be not decei#ed$ foolish Galatians$ 'ho hath
be'itched youNL 5o' often are they branded 'ith this e"ithet of madness and
follyN 8o 'ord so fre0uent amongst the fathers of the :hurch and di#ines<
you may see 'hat an o"inion they had of the 'orld$ and ho' they #alued
men!s actions.
I %no' that 'e thin% far other'ise$ and hold them most "art 'ise men that
are in authority$ "rinces$ magistrates$ ;,/?Grich men$ they are 'ise men
born$ all "oliticians and statesmen must needs be so$ for 'ho dare s"ea%
against themN And on the other$ so corru"t is our judgment$ 'e esteem 'ise
and honest men fools. 4hich 3emocritus 'ell signified in an e"istle of his
to 5i""ocrates& ;,/@Gthe LAbderites account #irtue madness$L and so do most
men li#ing. 9hall I tell you the reason of itN ;,/-G7ortune and Iirtue$
4isdom and 7olly$ their seconds$ u"on a time contended in the 2lym"ics<
e#ery man thought that 7ortune and 7olly 'ould ha#e the 'orst$ and "itied
their cases< but it fell out other'ise. 7ortune 'as blind and cared not
'here she stro%e$ nor 'hom$ 'ithout la's$ _Audabatarum instar_$ Fc. 7olly$
rash and inconsiderate$ esteemed as little 'hat she said or did. Iirtue and
4isdom ga#e ;,/AG"lace$ 'ere hissed out$ and e+"loded by the common "eo"le<
7olly and 7ortune admired$ and so are all their follo'ers e#er since&
%na#es and fools commonly fare and deser#e best in 'orldlings! eyes and
o"inions. Many good men ha#e no better fate in their ages& Achish$ , 9am.
++i. ,?$ held 3a#id for a madman. ;,//GElisha and the rest 'ere no
other'ise esteemed. 3a#id 'as derided of the common "eo"le$ Ps. i+. A$ LI
am become a monster to many.L And generally 'e are accounted fools for
:hrist$ , :or. +i#. L4e fools thought his life madness$ and his end 'ithout
honour$L 4isd. #. ?. :hrist and his A"ostles 'ere censured in li%e sort$
Dohn +.< Mar% iii.< Acts ++#i. And so 'ere all :hristians in ;,/BGPliny!s
time$ _fuerunt et alii$ similis dementiae_$ Fc. And called not long after$
;,BCG_Iesaniae sectatores$ e#ersores hominum$ "olluti no#atores$ fanatici$
canes$ malefici$ #enefici$ Galilaei homunciones_$ Fc. !Tis an ordinary
thing 'ith us$ to account honest$ de#out$ orthodo+$ di#ine$ religious$
"lain-dealing men$ idiots$ asses$ that cannot$ or 'ill not lie and
dissemble$ shift$ flatter$ _accommodare se ad eum locum ubi nati sunt_$
ma%e good bargains$ su""lant$ thri#e$ _"atronis inser#ire< solennes
ascendendi modos a""rehendere$ leges$ mores$ consuetudines recte obser#are$
candide laudare$ fortiter defendere$ sententias am"lecti$ dubitare de
nullus$ credere omnia$ acci"ere omnia$ nihil re"rehendere$ caetera0ue 0uae
"romotionem ferunt et securitatem$ 0uae sine ambage felicem$ reddunt
hominem$ et #ere sa"ientem a"ud nos_< that cannot tem"orise as other men
do$ ;,B,Ghand and ta%e bribes$ Fc. but fear God$ and ma%e a conscience of
their doings. ut the 5oly Ghost that %no's better ho' to judge$ he calls
them fools. LThe fool hath said in his heart$L Psal. liii. ,. LAnd their
'ays utter their folly$L Psal. +li+. ,?. ;,B=GL7or 'hat can be more mad$
than for a little 'orldly "leasure to "rocure unto themsel#es eternal
"unishmentNL As Gregory and others inculcate unto us.
Eea e#en all those great "hiloso"hers the 'orld hath e#er had in
admiration$ 'hose 'or%s 'e do so much esteem$ that ga#e "rece"ts of 'isdom
to others$ in#entors of Arts and 9ciences$ 9ocrates the 'isest man of his
time by the 2racle of A"ollo$ 'hom his t'o scholars$ ;,B.GPlato and ;,B?G
Jeno"hon$ so much e+tol and magnify 'ith those honourable titles$ Lbest and
'isest of all mortal men$ the ha""iest$ and most just<L and as ;,B@G
Alcibiades incom"arably commends him< Achilles 'as a 'orthy man$ but
racides and others 'ere as 'orthy as himself< Antenor and 8estor 'ere as
good as Pericles$ and so of the rest< but none "resent$ before$ or after
9ocrates$ _nemo #eterum ne0ue eorum 0ui nunc sunt_$ 'ere e#er such$ 'ill
match$ or come near him. Those se#en 'ise men of Greece$ those ritain
3ruids$ Indian rachmanni$ Ethio"ian Gymnoso"hist$ Magi of the Persians$
A"ollonius$ of 'hom Philostratus$ _8on doctus$ sed natus sa"iens_$ 'ise
from his cradle$ E"icurus so much admired by his scholar *ucretius&
LKui genus humanum ingenio su"era#it$ et omnes
Perstrin+it stellas e+ortus ut aetherius sol.L
L4hose 'it e+cell!d the 'its of men as far$
As the sun rising doth obscure a star$L
2r that so much reno'ned Em"edocles$
;,B-G LHt #i+ humana #ideatur stir"e creatus.L
All those of 'hom 'e read such ;,BAGhy"erbolical eulogiums$ as of
Aristotle$ that he 'as 'isdom itself in the abstract$ ;,B/Ga miracle of
nature$ breathing libraries$ as Euna"ius of *onginus$ lights of nature$
giants for 'it$ 0uintessence of 'it$ di#ine s"irits$ eagles in the clouds$
fallen from hea#en$ gods$ s"irits$ lam"s of the 'orld$ dictators$ _8ulla
ferant talem saecla futura #irum_& monarchs$ miracles$ su"erintendents of
'it and learning$ _oceanus$ "hoeni+$ atlas$ monstrum$ "ortentum hominis$
orbis uni#ersi musaeum$ ultimus humana naturae donatus$ naturae maritus_$
------Lmerito cui doctior orbis
9ubmissis defert fascibus im"erium.L
As Aelian 'rit of Protagoras and Gorgias$ 'e may say of them all$ _tantum a
sa"ientibus abfuerunt$ 0uantum a #iris "ueri_$ they 'ere children in
res"ect$ infants$ not eagles$ but %ites< no#ices$ illiterate$ _Eunuchi
sa"ientiae_. And although they 'ere the 'isest$ and most admired in their
age$ as he censured Ale+ander$ I do them$ there 'ere ,C$CCC in his army as
'orthy ca"tains (had they been in "lace of command) as #aliant as himself<
there 'ere myriads of men 'iser in those days$ and yet all short of 'hat
they ought to be. ;,BBG*actantius$ in his boo% of 'isdom$ "ro#es them to be
dizzards$ fools$ asses$ madmen$ so full of absurd and ridiculous tenets$
and brain-sic% "ositions$ that to his thin%ing ne#er any old 'oman or sic%
"erson doted 'orse. ;=CCG3emocritus too% all from *euci""us$ and left$
saith he$ Lthe inheritance of his folly to E"icurus$L ;=C,G_insanienti dum
sa"ientiae_$ Fc. The li%e he holds of Plato$ Aristi""us$ and the rest$
ma%ing no difference ;=C=GLbet'i+t them and beasts$ sa#ing that they could
s"ea%.L ;=C.GTheodoret in his tract$ _3e cur. grec. affect._ manifestly
e#inces as much of 9ocrates$ 'hom though that 2racle of A"ollo confirmed to
be the 'isest man then li#ing$ and sa#ed him from "lague$ 'hom =CCC years
ha#e admired$ of 'hom some 'ill as soon s"ea% e#il as of :hrist$ yet _re
#era_$ he 'as an illiterate idiot$ as ;=C?GAristo"hanes calls him$
_irriscor et ambitiosus_$ as his master Aristotle terms him$ _scurra
Atticus_$ as >eno$ an ;=C@Genemy to all arts and sciences$ as Athaeneus$ to
"hiloso"hers and tra#ellers$ an o"iniati#e ass$ a ca#iller$ a %ind of
"edant< for his manners$ as Theod. :yrensis describes him$ a ;=C-G
sodomite$ an atheist$ (so con#ict by Anytus) _iracundus et ebrius$ dica+_$
Fc. a "ot-com"anion$ by ;=CAGPlato!s o'n confession$ a sturdy drin%er< and
that of all others he 'as most sottish$ a #ery madman in his actions and
o"inions. Pythagoras 'as "art "hiloso"her$ "art magician$ or "art 'itch. If
you desire to hear more of A"ollonius$ a great 'ise man$ sometime
"aralleled by Dulian the a"ostate to :hrist$ I refer you to that learned
tract of Eusebius against 5ierocles$ and for them all to *ucian!s
_Piscator$ Icaromeni""us$ 8ecyomantia_& their actions$ o"inions in general
'ere so "rodigious$ absurd$ ridiculous$ 'hich they broached and maintained$
their boo%s and elaborate treatises 'ere full of dotage$ 'hich Tully _ad
Atticum_ long since obser#ed$ _delirant "lerum0ue scri"tores in libris
suis_$ their li#es being o""osite to their 'ords$ they commended "o#erty to
others$ and 'ere most co#etous themsel#es$ e+tolled lo#e and "eace$ and yet
"ersecuted one another 'ith #irulent hate and malice. They could gi#e
"rece"ts for #erse and "rose$ but not a man of them (as ;=C/G9eneca tells
them home) could moderate his affections. Their music did sho' us _flebiles
modos_$ Fc. ho' to rise and fall$ but they could not so contain themsel#es
as in ad#ersity not to ma%e a lamentable tone. They 'ill measure ground by
geometry$ set do'n limits$ di#ide and subdi#ide$ but cannot yet "rescribe
_0uantum homini satis_$ or %ee" 'ithin com"ass of reason and discretion.
They can s0uare circles$ but understand not the state of their o'n souls$
describe right lines and croo%ed$ Fc. but %no' not 'hat is right in this
life$ _0uid in #ita rectum sit$ ignorant_< so that as he said$ _8escio an
Anticyram ratio illis destinet omnem._ I thin% all the Anticyrae 'ill not
restore them to their 'its$ ;=CBGif these men no'$ that held ;=,CG
Jenodotus! heart$ :rates! li#er$ E"ictetus! lantern$ 'ere so sottish$ and
had no more brains than so many beetles$ 'hat shall 'e thin% of the
commonaltyN 'hat of the restN
Eea$ but you 'ill infer$ that is true of heathens$ if they be conferred
'ith :hristians$ , :or. iii. ,B. LThe 'isdom of this 'orld is foolishness
'ith God$ earthly and de#ilish$L as Dames calls it$ iii. ,@. LThey 'ere
#ain in their imaginations$ and their foolish heart 'as full of dar%ness$L
1om. i. =,$ ==. L4hen they "rofessed themsel#es 'ise$ became fools.L Their
'itty 'or%s are admired here on earth$ 'hilst their souls are tormented in
hell fire. In some sense$ _:hristiani :rassiani_$ :hristians are :rassians$
and if com"ared to that 'isdom$ no better than fools. _Kuis est sa"iensN
9olus 3eus_$ ;=,,GPythagoras re"lies$ LGod is only 'ise$L 1om. +#i. Paul
determines Lonly good$L as Austin 'ell contends$ Land no man li#ing can be
justified in his sight.L LGod loo%ed do'n from hea#en u"on the children of
men$ to see if any did understand$L Psalm liii. =$ .$ but all are corru"t$
err. 1om. iii. ,=$ L8one doeth good$ no$ not one.L Dob aggra#ates this$ i#.
,/$ Lehold he found no steadfastness in his ser#ants$ and laid folly u"on
his angels<L ,B. L5o' much more on them that d'ell in houses of clayNL In
this sense 'e are all fools$ and the ;=,=G9cri"ture alone is _ar+
Miner#ae_$ 'e and our 'ritings are shallo' and im"erfect. ut I do not so
mean< e#en in our ordinary dealings 'e are no better than fools. LAll our
actions$L as ;=,.GPliny told Trajan$ Lu"braid us of folly$L our 'hole
course of life is but matter of laughter& 'e are not soberly 'ise< and the
'orld itself$ 'hich ought at least to be 'ise by reason of his anti0uity$
as ;=,?G5ugo de Prato 7lorido 'ill ha#e it$ L_sem"er stultizat_$ is e#ery
day more foolish than other< the more it is 'hi""ed$ the 'orse it is$ and
as a child 'ill still be cro'ned 'ith roses and flo'ers.L 4e are a"ish in
it$ _asini bi"edes_$ and e#ery "lace is full _in#ersorum A"uleiorum_ of
metamor"hosed and t'o-legged asses$ _in#ersorum 9ilenorum_$ childish$
_"ueri instar bimuli$ tremula "atris dormientis in ulna_. Do#ianus
Pontanus$ Antonio 3ial$ brings in some laughing at an old man$ that by
reason of his age 'as a little fond$ but as he admonisheth there$ _8e
mireris mi hos"es de hoc sene_$ mar#el not at him only$ for _tota haec
ci#itas delirium_$ all our to'n dotes in li%e sort$ ;=,@G'e are a com"any
of fools. As% not 'ith him in the "oet$ ;=,-G_*ar#ae hunc intem"eriae
insaniae0ue agitant senem_N 4hat madness ghosts this old man$ but 'hat
madness ghosts us allN 7or 'e are _ad unum omnes_$ all mad$ _semel
insani#imus omnes_ not once$ but al'ay so$ _et semel$ et simul$ et sem"er_$
e#er and altogether as bad as he< and not _sene+ bis "uer$ delira anus_$
but say it of us all$ _sem"er "ueri_$ young and old$ all dote$ as
*actantius "ro#es out of 9eneca< and no difference bet'i+t us and children$
sa#ing that$ _majora ludimus$ et grandioribus "u"is_$ they "lay 'ith babies
of clouts and such toys$ 'e s"ort 'ith greater baubles. 4e cannot accuse or
condemn one another$ being faulty oursel#es$ _deliramenta lo0ueris_$ you
tal% idly$ or as ;=,AGMitio u"braided 3emea$ _insanis$ auferte_$ for 'e are
as mad our o'n sel#es$ and it is hard to say 'hich is the 'orst. 8ay$ !tis
uni#ersally so$ ;=,/G_Iitam regit fortuna$ non sa"ientia_.
4hen ;=,BG9ocrates had ta%en great "ains to find out a 'ise man$ and to
that "ur"ose had consulted 'ith "hiloso"hers$ "oets$ artificers$ he
concludes all men 'ere fools< and though it "rocured him both anger and
much en#y$ yet in all com"anies he 'ould o"enly "rofess it. 4hen ;==CG
9u""utius in Pontanus had tra#elled all o#er Euro"e to confer 'ith a 'ise
man$ he returned at last 'ithout his errand$ and could find none. ;==,G
:ardan concurs 'ith him$ L7e' there are (for aught I can "ercei#e) 'ell in
their 'its.L 9o doth ;===GTully$ LI see e#erything to be done foolishly and
LIlle sinistrorsum$ hic de+trorsum$ unus utri0ue
Error$ sed #ariis illudit "artibus omnes.L
L2ne reels to this$ another to that 'all$
!Tis the same error that deludes them all.L
;==.GThey dote all$ but not ali%e$ ;Gree%& Mania gar "asin homoiaG$ not in
the same %ind$ L2ne is co#etous$ a second lasci#ious$ a third ambitious$ a
fourth en#ious$L Fc. as 3amasi""us the 9toic hath 'ell illustrated in the
;==?G L3esi"iunt omnes ae0ue ac tu.L
LAnd they 'ho call you fool$ 'ith e0ual claim
May "lead an am"le title to the name.L
!Tis an inbred malady in e#ery one of us$ there is _seminarium stultitiae_$
a seminary of folly$ L'hich if it be stirred u"$ or get ahead$ 'ill run _in
infinitum_$ and infinitely #aries$ as 'e oursel#es are se#erally addicted$L
saith ;==@Galthazar :astilio& and cannot so easily be rooted out$ it ta%es
such fast hold$ as Tully holds$ _altae radices stultitiae_$ ;==-Gso 'e are
bred$ and so 'e continue. 9ome say there be t'o main defects of 'it$ error
and ignorance$ to 'hich all others are reduced< by ignorance 'e %no' not
things necessary$ by error 'e %no' them falsely. Ignorance is a "ri#ation$
error a "ositi#e act. 7rom ignorance comes #ice$ from error heresy$ Fc. ut
ma%e ho' many %inds you 'ill$ di#ide and subdi#ide$ fe' men are free$ or
that do not im"inge on some one %ind or other. ;==AG_9ic "lerum0ue agitat
stultos inscitia_$ as he that e+amines his o'n and other men!s actions
shall find.
;==/G:haron in *ucian$ as he 'ittily feigns$ 'as conducted by Mercury to
such a "lace$ 'here he might see all the 'orld at once< after he had
sufficiently #ie'ed$ and loo%ed about$ Mercury 'ould needs %no' of him 'hat
he had obser#ed& 5e told him that he sa' a #ast multitude and a
"romiscuous$ their habitations li%e molehills$ the men as emmets$ Lhe could
discern cities li%e so many hi#es of bees$ 'herein e#ery bee had a sting$
and they did nought else but sting one another$ some domineering li%e
hornets bigger than the rest$ some li%e filching 'as"s$ others as drones.L
2#er their heads 'ere ho#ering a confused com"any of "erturbations$ ho"e$
fear$ anger$ a#arice$ ignorance$ Fc.$ and a multitude of diseases hanging$
'hich they still "ulled on their "ates. 9ome 'ere bra'ling$ some fighting$
riding$ running$ _sollicite ambientes$ callide litigantes_ for toys and
trifles$ and such momentary things$ Their to'ns and "ro#inces mere
factions$ rich against "oor$ "oor against rich$ nobles against artificers$
they against nobles$ and so the rest. In conclusion$ he condemned them all
for madmen$ fools$ idiots$ asses$ _2 stulti$ 0uaenam haec est amentia_N 2
fools$ 2 madmen$ he e+claims$ _insana studia$ insani labores_$ Fc. Mad
endea#ours$ mad actions$ mad$ mad$ mad$ ;==BG_2 saeclum insi"iens et
infacetum_$ a giddy-headed age. 5eraclitus the "hiloso"her$ out of a
serious meditation of men!s li#es$ fell a 'ee"ing$ and 'ith continual tears
be'ailed their misery$ madness$ and folly. 3emocritus on the other side$
burst out a laughing$ their 'hole life seemed to him so ridiculous$ and he
'as so far carried 'ith this ironical "assion$ that the citizens of Abdera
too% him to be mad$ and sent therefore ambassadors to 5i""ocrates$ the
"hysician$ that he 'ould e+ercise his s%ill u"on him. ut the story is set
do'n at large by 5i""ocrates$ in his e"istle to 3amogetus$ 'hich because it
is not im"ertinent to this discourse$ I 'ill insert #erbatim almost as it
is deli#ered by 5i""ocrates himself$ 'ith all the circumstances belonging
unto it.
4hen 5i""ocrates 'as no' come to Abdera$ the "eo"le of the city came
floc%ing about him$ some 'ee"ing$ some intreating of him$ that he 'ould do
his best. After some little re"ast$ he 'ent to see 3emocritus$ the "eo"le
follo'ing him$ 'hom he found (as before) in his garden in the suburbs all
alone$ ;=.CGLsitting u"on a stone under a "lane tree$ 'ithout hose or
shoes$ 'ith a boo% on his %nees$ cutting u" se#eral beasts$ and busy at his
study.L The multitude stood gazing round about to see the congress.
5i""ocrates$ after a little "ause$ saluted him by his name$ 'hom he
resaluted$ ashamed almost that he could not call him li%e'ise by his$ or
that he had forgot it. 5i""ocrates demanded of him 'hat he 'as doing& he
told him that he 'as ;=.,GLbusy in cutting u" se#eral beasts$ to find out
the cause of madness and melancholy.L 5i""ocrates commended his 'or%$
admiring his ha""iness and leisure. And 'hy$ 0uoth 3emocritus$ ha#e not you
that leisureN ecause$ re"lied 5i""ocrates$ domestic affairs hinder$
necessary to be done for oursel#es$ neighbours$ friends< e+"enses$
diseases$ frailties and mortalities 'hich ha""en< 'ife$ children$ ser#ants$
and such business 'hich de"ri#e us of our time. At this s"eech 3emocritus
"rofusely laughed (his friends and the "eo"le standing by$ 'ee"ing in the
mean time$ and lamenting his madness). 5i""ocrates as%ed the reason 'hy he
laughed. 5e told him$ at the #anities and the fo""eries of the time$ to see
men so em"ty of all #irtuous actions$ to hunt so far after gold$ ha#ing no
end of ambition< to ta%e such infinite "ains for a little glory$ and to be
fa#oured of men< to ma%e such dee" mines into the earth for gold$ and many
times to find nothing$ 'ith loss of their li#es and fortunes. 9ome to lo#e
dogs$ others horses$ some to desire to be obeyed in many "ro#inces$;=.=G
and yet themsel#es 'ill %no' no obedience. ;=..G9ome to lo#e their 'i#es
dearly at first$ and after a 'hile to forsa%e and hate them< begetting
children$ 'ith much care and cost for their education$ yet 'hen they gro'
to man!s estate$ ;=.?Gto des"ise$ neglect$ and lea#e them na%ed to the
'orld!s mercy. ;=.@G3o not these beha#iours e+"ress their intolerable
follyN 4hen men li#e in "eace$ they co#et 'ar$ detesting 0uietness$ ;=.-G
de"osing %ings$ and ad#ancing others in their stead$ murdering some men to
beget children of their 'i#es. 5o' many strange humours are in menO 4hen
they are "oor and needy$ they see% riches$ and 'hen they ha#e them$ they do
not enjoy them$ but hide them under ground$ or else 'astefully s"end them.
2 'ise 5i""ocrates$ I laugh at such things being done$ but much more 'hen
no good comes of them$ and 'hen they are done to so ill "ur"ose. There is
no truth or justice found amongst them$ for they daily "lead one against
another$ ;=.AGthe son against the father and the mother$ brother against
brother$ %indred and friends of the same 0uality< and all this for riches$
'hereof after death they cannot be "ossessors. And yet not'ithstanding they
'ill defame and %ill one another$ commit all unla'ful actions$ contemning
God and men$ friends and country. They ma%e great account of many senseless
things$ esteeming them as a great "art of their treasure$ statues$
"ictures$ and such li%e mo#ables$ dear bought$ and so cunningly 'rought$ as
nothing but s"eech 'anteth in them$ ;=./Gand yet they hate li#ing "ersons
s"ea%ing to them. ;=.BG2thers affect difficult things< if they d'ell on
firm land they 'ill remo#e to an island$ and thence to land again$ being no
'ay constant to their desires. They commend courage and strength in 'ars$
and let themsel#es be con0uered by lust and a#arice< they are$ in brief$ as
disordered in their minds$ as Thersites 'as in his body. And no'$ methin%s$
2 most 'orthy 5i""ocrates$ you should not re"rehend my laughing$ "ercei#ing
so many fooleries in men< ;=?CGfor no man 'ill moc% his o'n folly$ but that
'hich he seeth in a second$ and so they justly moc% one another. The
drun%ard calls him a glutton 'hom he %no's to be sober. Many men lo#e the
sea$ others husbandry< briefly$ they cannot agree in their o'n trades and
"rofessions$ much less in their li#es and actions.
4hen 5i""ocrates heard these 'ords so readily uttered$ 'ithout
"remeditation$ to declare the 'orld!s #anity$ full of ridiculous
contrariety$ he made ans'er$ that necessity com"elled men to many such
actions$ and di#ers 'ills ensuing from di#ine "ermission$ that 'e might not
be idle$ being nothing is so odious to them as sloth and negligence.
esides$ men cannot foresee future e#ents$ in this uncertainty of human
affairs< they 'ould not so marry$ if they could foretell the causes of
their disli%e and se"aration< or "arents$ if they %ne' the hour of their
children!s death$ so tenderly "ro#ide for them< or an husbandman so'$ if he
thought there 'ould be no increase< or a merchant ad#enture to sea$ if he
foresa' shi"'rec%< or be a magistrate$ if "resently to be de"osed. Alas$
'orthy 3emocritus$ e#ery man ho"es the best$ and to that end he doth it$
and therefore no such cause$ or ridiculous occasion of laughter.
3emocritus hearing this "oor e+cuse$ laughed again aloud$ "ercei#ing he
'holly mistoo% him$ and did not 'ell understand 'hat he had said concerning
"erturbations and tran0uillity of the mind. Insomuch$ that if men 'ould
go#ern their actions by discretion and "ro#idence$ they 'ould not declare
themsel#es fools as no' they do$ and he should ha#e no cause of laughter<
but (0uoth he) they s'ell in this life as if they 'ere immortal$ and
demigods$ for 'ant of understanding. It 'ere enough to ma%e them 'ise$ if
they 'ould but consider the mutability of this 'orld$ and ho' it 'heels
about$ nothing being firm and sure. 5e that is no' abo#e$ tomorro' is
beneath< he that sate on this side today$ tomorro' is hurled on the other&
and not considering these matters$ they fall into many incon#eniences and
troubles$ co#eting things of no "rofit$ and thirsting after them$ tumbling
headlong into many calamities. 9o that if men 'ould attem"t no more than
'hat they can bear$ they should lead contented li#es$ and learning to %no'
themsel#es$ 'ould limit their ambition$ ;=?,Gthey 'ould "ercei#e then that
nature hath enough 'ithout see%ing such su"erfluities$ and un"rofitable
things$ 'hich bring nothing 'ith them but grief and molestation. As a fat
body is more subject to diseases$ so are rich men to absurdities and
fooleries$ to many casualties and cross incon#eniences. There are many that
ta%e no heed 'hat ha""eneth to others by bad con#ersation$ and therefore
o#erthro' themsel#es in the same manner through their o'n fault$ not
foreseeing dangers manifest. These are things (2 more than mad$ 0uoth he)
that gi#e me matter of laughter$ by suffering the "ains of your im"ieties$
as your a#arice$ en#y$ malice$ enormous #illainies$ mutinies$ unsatiable
desires$ cons"iracies$ and other incurable #ices< besides your
;=?=Gdissimulation and hy"ocrisy$ bearing deadly hatred one to the other$
and yet shado'ing it 'ith a good face$ flying out into all filthy lusts$
and transgressions of all la's$ both of nature and ci#ility. Many things
'hich they ha#e left off$ after a 'hile they fall to again$ husbandry$
na#igation< and lea#e again$ fic%le and inconstant as they are. 4hen they
are young$ they 'ould be old$ and old$ young. ;=?.G Princes commend a
"ri#ate life< "ri#ate men itch after honour& a magistrate commends a 0uiet
life< a 0uiet man 'ould be in his office$ and obeyed as he is& and 'hat is
the cause of all this$ but that they %no' not themsel#esN 9ome delight to
destroy$ ;=??Gone to build$ another to s"oil one country to enrich another
and himself. ;=?@GIn all these things they are li%e children$ in 'hom is no
judgment or counsel and resemble beasts$ sa#ing that beasts are better than
they$ as being contented 'ith nature. ;=?-G 4hen shall you see a lion hide
gold in the ground$ or a bull contend for better "astureN 4hen a boar is
thirsty$ he drin%s 'hat 'ill ser#e him$ and no more< and 'hen his belly is
full$ ceaseth to eat& but men are immoderate in both$ as in lust--they
co#et carnal co"ulation at set times< men al'ays$ ruinating thereby the
health of their bodies. And doth it not deser#e laughter to see an amorous
fool torment himself for a 'ench< 'ee"$ ho'l for a missha"en slut$ a do'dy
sometimes$ that might ha#e his choice of the finest beautiesN Is there any
remedy for this in "hysicN I do anatomise and cut u" these "oor beasts$
;=?AGto see these distem"ers$ #anities$ and follies$ yet such "roof 'ere
better made on man!s body$ if my %ind nature 'ould endure it& ;=?/G'ho from
the hour of his birth is most miserable< 'ea%$ and sic%ly< 'hen he suc%s he
is guided by others$ 'hen he is gro'n great "ractiseth unha""iness ;=?BGand
is sturdy$ and 'hen old$ a child again$ and re"enteth him of his life "ast.
And here being interru"ted by one that brought boo%s$ he fell to it again$
that all 'ere mad$ careless$ stu"id. To "ro#e my former s"eeches$ loo% into
courts$ or "ri#ate houses. ;=@CGDudges gi#e judgment according to their o'n
ad#antage$ doing manifest 'rong to "oor innocents to "lease others.
8otaries alter sentences$ and for money lose their deeds. 9ome ma%e false
monies< others counterfeit false 'eights. 9ome abuse their "arents$ yea
corru"t their o'n sisters< others ma%e long libels and "as0uils$ defaming
men of good life$ and e+tol such as are le'd and #icious. 9ome rob one$
some another& ;=@,Gmagistrates ma%e la's against thie#es$ and are the
#eriest thie#es themsel#es. 9ome %ill themsel#es$ others des"air$ not
obtaining their desires. 9ome dance$ sing$ laugh$ feast and ban0uet$ 'hilst
others sigh$ languish$ mourn and lament$ ha#ing neither meat$ drin%$ nor
clothes. ;=@=G9ome "ran% u" their bodies$ and ha#e their minds full of
e+ecrable #ices. 9ome trot about ;=@.Gto bear false 'itness$ and say
anything for money< and though judges %no' of it$ yet for a bribe they 'in%
at it$ and suffer false contracts to "re#ail against e0uity. 4omen are all
day a dressing$ to "leasure other men abroad$ and go li%e sluts at home$
not caring to "lease their o'n husbands 'hom they should. 9eeing men are so
fic%le$ so sottish$ so intem"erate$ 'hy should not I laugh at those to 'hom
;=@?Gfolly seems 'isdom$ 'ill not be cured$ and "ercei#e it notN
It gre' late& 5i""ocrates left him< and no sooner 'as he come a'ay$ but all
the citizens came about floc%ing$ to %no' ho' he li%ed him. 5e told them in
brief$ that not'ithstanding those small neglects of his attire$ body$ diet$
;=@@Gthe 'orld had not a 'iser$ a more learned$ a more honest man$ and they
'ere much decei#ed to say that he 'as mad.
Thus 3emocritus esteemed of the 'orld in his time$ and this 'as the cause
of his laughter& and good cause he had.
;=@-G L2lim jure 0uidem$ nunc "lus 3emocrite ride<
Kuin ridesN #ita haec nunc mage ridicula est.L
L3emocritus did 'ell to laugh of old$
Good cause he had$ but no' much more<
This life of ours is more ridiculous
Than that of his$ or long before.L
8e#er so much cause of laughter as no'$ ne#er so many fools and madmen.
!Tis not one ;=@AG3emocritus 'ill ser#e turn to laugh in these days< 'e
ha#e no' need of a L3emocritus to laugh at 3emocritus<L one jester to flout
at another$ one fool to fleer at another& a great stentorian 3emocritus$ as
big as that 1hodian :olossus$ 7or no'$ as ;=@/G9alisburiensis said in his
time$ _totus mundus histrionem agit_$ the 'hole 'orld "lays the fool< 'e
ha#e a ne' theatre$ a ne' scene$ a ne' comedy of errors$ a ne' com"any of
"ersonate actors$ _#olu"iae sacra_ (as :alcagninus 'illingly feigns in his
A"ologues) are celebrated all the 'orld o#er$ ;=@BG'here all the actors
'ere madmen and fools$ and e#ery hour changed habits$ or too% that 'hich
came ne+t. 5e that 'as a mariner today$ is an a"othecary tomorro'< a smith
one 'hile$ a "hiloso"her another$ _in his #olu"iae ludis_< a %ing no' 'ith
his cro'n$ robes$ sce"tre$ attendants$ by and by dro#e a loaded ass before
him li%e a carter$ Fc. If 3emocritus 'ere ali#e no'$ he should see strange
alterations$ a ne' com"any of counterfeit #izards$ 'hifflers$ :umane asses$
mas%ers$ mummers$ "ainted "u""ets$ outsides$ fantastic shado's$ gulls$
monsters$ giddy-heads$ butterflies. And so many of them are indeed (;=-CGif
all be true that I ha#e read). 7or 'hen Du"iter and Duno!s 'edding 'as
solemnised of old$ the gods 'ere all in#ited to the feast$ and many noble
men besides& Amongst the rest came :rysalus$ a Persian "rince$ bra#ely
attended$ rich in golden attires$ in gay robes$ 'ith a majestical "resence$
but other'ise an ass. The gods seeing him come in such "om" and state$ rose
u" to gi#e him "lace$ _e+ habitu hominem metientes_< ;=-,Gbut Du"iter
"ercei#ing 'hat he 'as$ a light$ fantastic$ idle fello'$ turned him and his
"roud follo'ers into butterflies& and so they continue still (for aught I
%no' to the contrary) ro#ing about in "ied coats$ and are called
chrysalides by the 'iser sort of men& that is$ golden outsides$ drones$ and
flies$ and things of no 'orth. Multitudes of such$ Fc.
;=-=G ------Lubi0ue in#enies
9tultos a#aros$ syco"liantas "rodigos.L
Many additions$ much increase of madness$ folly$ #anity$ should 3emocritus
obser#e$ 'ere he no' to tra#el$ or could get lea#e of Pluto to come see
fashions$ as :haron did in *ucian to #isit our cities of Moronia Pia$ and
Moronia 7eli+& sure I thin% he 'ould brea% the rim of his belly 'ith
laughing. ;=-.G_9i foret in terris rideret 3emocritus$ seu_$ Fc.
A satirical 1oman in his time$ thought all #ice$ folly$ and madness 'ere
all at full sea$ ;=-?G_2mne in "raeci"iti #itium stetit._
;=-@GDose"hus the historian ta+eth his countrymen De's for bragging of
their #ices$ "ublishing their follies$ and that they did contend amongst
themsel#es 'ho should be most notorious in #illainies< but 'e flo' higher
in madness$ far beyond them$
;=--G LMo+ daturi "rogeniem #itiosorem$L
LAnd yet 'ith crimes to us un%no'n$
2ur sons shall mar% the coming age their o'n$L
and the latter end (you %no' 'hose oracle it is) is li%e to be 'orse. !Tis
not to be denied$ the 'orld alters e#ery day$ _1uunt urbes$ regna
transferuntur$ Fc. #ariantur habitus$ leges inno#antur_$ as ;=-AGPetrarch
obser#es$ 'e change language$ habits$ la's$ customs$ manners$ but not
#ices$ not diseases$ not the sym"toms of folly and madness$ they are still
the same. And as a ri#er$ 'e see$ %ee"s the li%e name and "lace$ but not
'ater$ and yet e#er runs$ ;=-/G_*abitur et labetur in omne #olubilis
ae#um_< our times and "ersons alter$ #ices are the same$ and e#er 'ill be<
loo% ho' nightingales sang of old$ coc%s cro'ed$ %ine lo'ed$ shee" bleated$
s"arro's chir"ed$ dogs bar%ed$ so they do still& 'e %ee" our madness still$
"lay the fools still$ _nec dum finitus 2restes_< 'e are of the same humours
and inclinations as our "redecessors 'ere< you shall find us all ali%e$
much at one$ 'e and our sons$ _Et nati natorum$ et 0ui nascuntur ab illis_.
And so shall our "osterity continue to the last. ut to s"ea% of times
If 3emocritus 'ere ali#e no'$ and should but see the su"erstition of our
age$ our ;=-BGreligious madness$ as ;=ACGMeteran calls it$ _1eligiosam
insaniam_$ so many "rofessed :hristians$ yet so fe' imitators of :hrist< so
much tal% of religion$ so much science$ so little conscience< so much
%no'ledge$ so many "reachers$ so little "ractice< such #ariety of sects$
such ha#e and hold of all sides$ ;=A,G--_ob#ia signis 9igna_$ Fc.$ such
absurd and ridiculous traditions and ceremonies& If he should meet a ;=A=G
:a"uchin$ a 7ranciscan$ a Pharisaical Desuit$ a man-ser"ent$ a
sha#e-cro'ned Mon% in his robes$ a begging 7riar$ or$ see their
three-cro'ned 9o#ereign *ord the Po"e$ "oor Peter!s successor$ _ser#us
ser#orum 3ei_$ to de"ose %ings 'ith his foot$ to tread on em"erors! nec%s$
ma%e them stand barefoot and barelegged at his gates$ hold his bridle and
stirru"$ Fc. (2 that Peter and Paul 'ere ali#e to see thisO) If he should
obser#e a ;=A.G"rince cree" so de#outly to %iss his toe$ and those red-ca"
cardinals$ "oor "arish "riests of old$ no' "rinces! com"anions< 'hat 'ould
he sayN _:oelum i"sum "etitur stultitia_. 5ad he met some of our de#out
"ilgrims going barefoot to Derusalem$ our lady of *auretto$ 1ome$ 9. Iago$
9. Thomas! 9hrine$ to cree" to those counterfeit and maggot-eaten relics<
had he been "resent at a mass$ and seen such %issing of "a+es$ crucifi+es$
cringes$ duc%ings$ their se#eral attires and ceremonies$ "ictures of
saints$ ;=A?Gindulgences$ "ardons$ #igils$ fasting$ feasts$ crossing$
%noc%ing$ %neeling at A#e-Marias$ bells$ 'ith many such< _--jucunda rudi
s"ectacula "lebi_$;=A@G "raying in gibberish$ and mumbling of beads. 5ad he
heard an old 'oman say her "rayers in *atin$ their s"rin%ling of holy
'ater$ and going a "rocession$
;=A-G ------Lincedunt monachorum agmina mille<
Kuid momerem #e+illa$ cruces$ idola0ue culta$L Fc.
Their bre#iaries$ bulls$ hallo'ed beans$ e+orcisms$ "ictures$ curious
crosses$ fables$ and baubles. 5ad he read the Golden *egend$ the Tur%s!
Alcoran$ or De's! Talmud$ the 1abbins! :omments$ 'hat 'ould he ha#e
thoughtN 5o' dost thou thin% he might ha#e been affectedN 5ad he more
"articularly e+amined a Desuit!s life amongst the rest$ he should ha#e seen
an hy"ocrite "rofess "o#erty$ ;=AAGand yet "ossess more goods and lands
than many "rinces$ to ha#e infinite treasures and re#enues< teach others to
fast$ and "lay the gluttons themsel#es< li%e 'atermen that ro' one 'ay and
loo% another. ;=A/GIo' #irginity$ tal% of holiness$ and yet indeed a
notorious ba'd$ and famous fornicator$ _lasci#um "ecus_$ a #ery goat. Mon%s
by "rofession$ ;=ABGsuch as gi#e o#er the 'orld$ and the #anities of it$
and yet a Machia#ellian rout ;=/CGinterested in all manner of state& holy
men$ "eace-ma%ers$ and yet com"osed of en#y$ lust$ ambition$ hatred$ and
malice< firebrands$ _adulta "atriae "estis_$ traitors$ assassinats$ _hac
itur ad astra_$ and this is to su"ererogate$ and merit hea#en for
themsel#es and others. 5ad he seen on the ad#erse side$ some of our nice
and curious schismatics in another e+treme$ abhor all ceremonies$ and
rather lose their li#es and li#ings$ than do or admit anything Pa"ists ha#e
formerly used$ though in things indifferent (they alone are the true
:hurch$ _sal terrae$ cum sint omnium insulsissimi_). 7ormalists$ out of
fear and base flattery$ li%e so many 'eather-coc%s turn round$ a rout of
tem"orisers$ ready to embrace and maintain all that is or shall be "ro"osed
in ho"e of "referment& another E"icurean com"any$ lying at lurch as so many
#ultures$ 'atching for a "rey of :hurch goods$ and ready to rise by the
do'nfall of any& as ;=/,G*ucian said in li%e case$ 'hat dost thou thin%
3emocritus 'ould ha#e done$ had he been s"ectator of these thingsN
2r had he but obser#ed the common "eo"le follo' li%e so many shee" one of
their fello's dra'n by the horns o#er a ga"$ some for zeal$ some for fear$
_0uo se cun0ue ra"it tem"estas_$ to credit all$ e+amine nothing$ and yet
ready to die before they 'ill adjure any of those ceremonies to 'hich they
ha#e been accustomed< others out of hy"ocrisy fre0uent sermons$ %noc% their
breasts$ turn u" their eyes$ "retend zeal$ desire reformation$ and yet
"rofessed usurers$ gri"ers$ monsters of men$ har"ies$ de#ils in their
li#es$ to e+"ress nothing less.
4hat 'ould he ha#e said to see$ hear$ and read so many bloody battles$ so
many thousands slain at once$ such streams of blood able to turn mills&
_unius ob no+am furias0ue_$ or to ma%e s"ort for "rinces$ 'ithout any just
cause$ ;=/=GLfor #ain titlesL (saith Austin)$ L"recedency$ some 'ench$ or
such li%e toy$ or out of desire of domineering$ #ainglory$ malice$ re#enge$
folly$ madness$L (goodly causes all$ _ob 0uas uni#ersus orbis bellis et
caedibus misceatur_$) 'hilst statesmen themsel#es in the mean time are
secure at home$ "am"ered 'ith all delights and "leasures$ ta%e their ease$
and follo' their lusts$ not considering 'hat intolerable misery "oor
soldiers endure$ their often 'ounds$ hunger$ thirst$ Fc.$ the lamentable
cares$ torments$ calamities$ and o""ressions that accom"any such
"roceedings$ they feel not$ ta%e no notice of it. L9o 'ars are begun$ by
the "ersuasion of a fe' debauched$ hair-brain$ "oor$ dissolute$ hungry
ca"tains$ "arasitical fa'ners$ un0uiet hots"urs$ restless inno#ators$ green
heads$ to satisfy one man!s "ri#ate s"leen$ lust$ ambition$ a#arice$L Fc.<
_tales ra"iunt scelerata in "raelia causae. 7los hominum_$ "ro"er men$ 'ell
"ro"ortioned$ carefully brought u"$ able both in body and mind$ sound$ led
li%e so many ;=/.Gbeasts to the slaughter in the flo'er of their years$
"ride$ and full strength$ 'ithout all remorse and "ity$ sacrificed to
Pluto$ %illed u" as so many shee"$ for de#ils! food$ ?C$CCC at once. At
once$ said I$ that 'ere tolerable$ but these 'ars last al'ays$ and for many
ages< nothing so familiar as this hac%ing and he'ing$ massacres$ murders$
desolations--_ignoto coelum clangore remugit_$ they care not 'hat mischief
they "rocure$ so that they may enrich themsel#es for the "resent< they 'ill
so long blo' the coals of contention$ till all the 'orld be consumed 'ith
fire. The ;=/?Gsiege of Troy lasted ten years$ eight months$ there died
/AC$CCC Grecians$ -AC$CCC Trojans$ at the ta%ing of the city$ and after
'ere slain =A-$CCC men$ 'omen$ and children of all sorts. :aesar %illed a
million$ ;=/@GMahomet the second Tur%$ .CC$CCC "ersons< 9icinius 3entatus
fought in a hundred battles$ eight times in single combat he o#ercame$ had
forty 'ounds before$ 'as re'arded 'ith ,?C cro'ns$ trium"hed nine times for
his good ser#ice. M. 9ergius had .= 'ounds< 9cae#a$ the :enturion$ I %no'
not ho' many< e#ery nation had their 5ectors$ 9ci"ios$ :aesars$ and
Ale+andersO 2ur ;=/-GEd'ard the 7ourth 'as in =- battles afoot& and as they
do all$ he glories in it$ !tis related to his honour. At the siege of
5ierusalem$ ,$,CC$CCC died 'ith s'ord and famine. At the battle of :annas$
AC$CCC men 'ere slain$ as ;=/AGPolybius records$ and as many at attle
Abbey 'ith us< and !tis no ne's to fight from sun to sun$ as they did$ as
:onstantine and *icinius$ Fc. At the siege of 2stend (the de#il!s academy)
a "oor to'n in res"ect$ a small fort$ but a great gra#e$ ,=C$CCC men lost
their li#es$ besides 'hole to'ns$ dor"s$ and hos"itals$ full of maimed
soldiers< there 'ere engines$ fire'or%s$ and 'hatsoe#er the de#il could
in#ent to do mischief 'ith =$@CC$CCC iron bullets shot of ?C "ounds 'eight$
three or four millions of gold consumed. ;=//GL4hoL (saith mine author)
Lcan be sufficiently amazed at their flinty hearts$ obstinacy$ fury$
blindness$ 'ho 'ithout any li%elihood of good success$ hazard "oor
soldiers$ and lead them 'ithout "ity to the slaughter$ 'hich may justly be
called the rage of furious beasts$ that run 'ithout reason u"on their o'n
deaths&L ;=/BG_0uis malus genius$ 0uae furia 0uae "estis_$ Fc.< 'hat
"lague$ 'hat fury brought so de#ilish$ so brutish a thing as 'ar first into
men!s mindsN 4ho made so soft and "eaceable a creature$ born to lo#e$
mercy$ mee%ness$ so to ra#e$ rage li%e beasts$ and run on to their o'n
destructionN ho' may 8ature e+"ostulate 'ith man%ind$ _Ego te di#inum
animal fin+i_$ Fc.N I made thee an harmless$ 0uiet$ a di#ine creature& ho'
may God e+"ostulate$ and all good menN yet$ _horum facta_ (as ;=BCGone
condoles) _tantum admirantur$ et heroum numero habent_& these are the bra#e
s"irits$ the gallants of the 'orld$ these admired alone$ trium"h alone$
ha#e statues$ cro'ns$ "yramids$ obelis%s to their eternal fame$ that
immortal genius attends on them$ _hac itur ad astra_. 4hen 1hodes 'as
besieged$ ;=B,G_fossae urbis cada#eribus re"letae sunt_$ the ditches 'ere
full of dead carcases& and as 'hen the said 9uleiman$ great Tur%$
beleaguered Iienna$ they lay le#el 'ith the to" of the 'alls. This they
ma%e a s"ort of$ and 'ill do it to their friends and confederates$ against
oaths$ #o's$ "romises$ by treachery or other'ise< ;=B=G--_dolus an #irtusN
0uis in hoste re0uirat_N leagues and la's of arms$ (;=B.G_silent leges
inter arma_$) for their ad#antage$ _omnia jura$ di#ina$ humana$ "roculcata
"lerum0ue sunt_< God!s and men!s la's are tram"led under foot$ the s'ord
alone determines all< to satisfy their lust and s"leen$ they care not 'hat
they attem"t$ say$ or do$ ;=B?G_1ara fides$ "robitas0ue #iris 0ui castra
se0uuntur._ 8othing so common as to ha#e ;=B@G Lfather fight against the
son$ brother against brother$ %insman against %insman$ %ingdom against
%ingdom$ "ro#ince against "ro#ince$ :hristians against :hristians&L _a
0uibus nec un0uam cogitatione fuerunt laesi_$ of 'hom they ne#er had
offence in thought$ 'ord$ or deed. Infinite treasures consumed$ to'ns
burned$ flourishing cities sac%ed and ruinated$ _0uod0ue animus meminisse
horret_$ goodly countries de"o"ulated and left desolate$ old inhabitants
e+"elled$ trade and traffic decayed$ maids deflo'ered$ _Iirgines nondum
thalamis jugatae$ et comis nondum "ositis e"haebi_< chaste matrons cry out
'ith Andromache$ ;=B-G_:oncubitum mo+ cogar "ati ejus$ 0ui interemit
5ectorem_$ they shall be com"elled "erad#enture to lie 'ith them that erst
%illed their husbands& to see rich$ "oor$ sic%$ sound$ lords$ ser#ants$
_eodem omnes incommodo macti_$ consumed all or maimed$ Fc. _Et 0uic0uid
gaudens scelere animus audet$ et "er#ersa mens_$ saith :y"rian$ and
'hatsoe#er torment$ misery$ mischief$ hell itself$ the de#il$ ;=BAG fury
and rage can in#ent to their o'n ruin and destruction< so abominable a
thing is ;=B/G'ar$ as Gerbelius concludes$ _adeo foeda et abominanda res
est bellum$ e+ 0uo hominum caedes$ #astationes_$ Fc.$ the scourge of God$
cause$ effect$ fruit and "unishment of sin$ and not _tonsura humani
generis_ as Tertullian calls it$ but _ruina_. 5ad 3emocritus been "resent
at the late ci#il 'ars in 7rance$ those abominable 'ars--_bella0ue matribus
detestata_$ ;=BBGL'here in less than ten years$ ten thousand men 'ere
consumed$L saith :ollignius$ t'enty thousand churches o#erthro'n< nay$ the
'hole %ingdom sub#erted (as ;.CCG1ichard 3inoth adds). 9o many myriads of
the commons 'ere butchered u"$ 'ith s'ord$ famine$ 'ar$ _tanto odio
utrin0ue ut barbari ad abhorrendam lanienam obstu"escerent_$ 'ith such
feral hatred$ the 'orld 'as amazed at it& or at our late Pharsalian fields
in the time of 5enry the 9i+th$ bet'i+t the houses of *ancaster and Eor%$ a
hundred thousand men slain$ ;.C,Gone 'rites< ;.C=Ganother$ ten thousand
families 'ere rooted out$ Lthat no man can but mar#el$L saith :omineus$ Lat
that barbarous immanity$ feral madness$ committed bet'i+t men of the same
nation$ language$ and religion.L ;.C.G_Kuis furor$ 2 ci#es_N L4hy do the
Gentiles so furiously rage$L saith the Pro"het 3a#id$ Psal. ii. ,. ut 'e
may as%$ 'hy do the :hristians so furiously rageN ;.C?G_Arma #olunt$ 0uare
"oscunt$ ra"iunt0ue ju#entus_N Hnfit for Gentiles$ much less for us so to
tyrannise$ as the 9"aniard in the 4est Indies$ that %illed u" in ?= years
(if 'e may belie#e ;.C@Gartholomeus a :asa$ their o'n bisho") ,= millions
of men$ 'ith stu"end and e+0uisite torments< neither should I lie (said he)
if I said @C millions. I omit those 7rench massacres$ 9icilian e#ensongs$
;.C-Gthe 3u%e of Al#a!s tyrannies$ our gun"o'der machinations$ and that
fourth fury$ as ;.CAGone calls it$ the 9"anish in0uisition$ 'hich 0uite
obscures those ten "ersecutions$ ;.C/G------_sae#it toto Mars im"ius orbe._
Is not this ;.CBG_mundus furiosus_$ a mad 'orld$ as he terms it$ _insanum
bellum_N are not these mad men$ as ;.,CG9caliger concludes$ _0ui in "raelio
acerba morte$ insaniae$ suae memoriam "ro "er"etuo teste relin0uunt
"osteritati_< 'hich lea#e so fre0uent battles$ as "er"etual memorials of
their madness to all succeeding agesN 4ould this$ thin% you$ ha#e enforced
our 3emocritus to laughter$ or rather made him turn his tune$ alter his
tone$ and 'ee" 'ith ;.,,G5eraclitus$ or rather ho'l$ ;.,=Groar$ and tear
his hair in commiseration$ stand amazed< or as the "oets feign$ that 8iobe
'as for grief 0uite stu"efied$ and turned to a stoneN I ha#e not yet said
the 'orst$ that 'hich is more absurd and ;.,.Gmad$ in their tumults$
seditions$ ci#il and unjust 'ars$ ;.,?G_0uod stulte suci"itur$ im"ie
geritur$ misere finitur_. 9uch 'ars I mean< for all are not to be
condemned$ as those fantastical Anaba"tists #ainly concei#e. 2ur :hristian
tactics are all out as necessary as the 1oman acies$ or Grecian "halan+$ to
be a soldier is a most noble and honourable "rofession (as the 'orld is)$
not to be s"ared$ they are our best 'alls and bul'ar%s$ and I do therefore
ac%no'ledge that of ;.,@GTully to be most true$ LAll our ci#il affairs$ all
our studies$ all our "leading$ industry$ and commendation lies under the
"rotection of 'arli%e #irtues$ and 'hensoe#er there is any sus"icion of
tumult$ all our arts cease<L 'ars are most beho#eful$ _et bellatores
agricolis ci#itati sunt utiliores_$ as ;.,-GTyrius defends& and #alour is
much to be commended in a 'ise man< but they mista%e most "art$ _auferre$
trucidare$ ra"ere$ falsis nominibus #irtutem #ocant_$ Fc. (!T'as Galgacus!
obser#ation in Tacitus) they term theft$ murder$ and ra"ine$ #irtue$ by a
'rong name$ ra"es$ slaughters$ massacres$ Fc. _jocus et ludus_$ are "retty
"astimes$ as *udo#icus Ii#es notes. ;.,AGLThey commonly call the most
hair-brain bloodsuc%ers$ strongest thie#es$ the most des"erate #illains$
treacherous rogues$ inhuman murderers$ rash$ cruel and dissolute caitiffs$
courageous and generous s"irits$ heroical and 'orthy ca"tains$ ;.,/Gbra#e
men at arms$ #aliant and reno'ned soldiers$ "ossessed 'ith a brute
"ersuasion of false honour$L as Pontus 5uter in his urgundian history
com"lains. y means of 'hich it comes to "ass that daily so many
#oluntaries offer themsel#es$ lea#ing their s'eet 'i#es$ children$ friends$
for si+"ence (if they can get it) a day$ "rostitute their li#es and limbs$
desire to enter u"on breaches$ lie sentinel$ "erdu$ gi#e the first onset$
stand in the fore front of the battle$ marching bra#ely on$ 'ith a cheerful
noise of drums and trum"ets$ such #igour and alacrity$ so many banners
streaming in the air$ glittering armours$ motions of "lumes$ 'oods of
"i%es$ and s'ords$ #ariety of colours$ cost and magnificence$ as if they
'ent in trium"h$ no' #ictors to the :a"itol$ and 'ith such "om"$ as 'hen
3arius! army marched to meet Ale+ander at Issus. Ioid of all fear they run
into imminent dangers$ cannon!s mouth$ Fc.$ _ut #ulneribus suis ferrum
hostium hebetent_$ saith ;.,BGarletius$ to get a name of #alour$ humour
and a""lause$ 'hich lasts not either$ for it is but a mere flash this fame$
and li%e a rose$ _intra diem unum e+tinguitur_$ !tis gone in an instant. 2f
,@$CCC "roletaries slain in a battle$ scarce fifteen are recorded in
history$ or one alone$ the General "erha"s$ and after a 'hile his and their
names are li%e'ise blotted out$ the 'hole battle itself is forgotten. Those
Grecian orators$ _summa #i ingenii et elo0uentiae_$ set out the reno'ned
o#erthro's at Thermo"ylae$ 9alamis$ Marathon$ Micale$ Mantinea$ :heronaea$
Plataea. The 1omans record their battle at :annas$ and Pharsalian fields$
but they do but record$ and 'e scarce hear of them. And yet this su""osed
honour$ "o"ular a""lause$ desire of immortality by this means$ "ride and
#ainglory s"ur them on many times rashly and unad#isedly$ to ma%e a'ay
themsel#es and multitudes of others. Ale+ander 'as sorry$ because there
'ere no more 'orlds for him to con0uer$ he is admired by some for it$
_animosa #o+ #idetur$ et regia_$ !t'as s"o%en li%e a Prince< but as 'ise
;.=CG9eneca censures him$ !t'as _#o+ in0uissima et stultissima_$ !t'as
s"o%en li%e a edlam fool< and that sentence 'hich the same ;.=,G9eneca
a""ro"riates to his father Phili" and him$ I a""ly to them all$ _8on
minores fuere "estes mortalium 0uam inundatio$ 0uam conflagratio$ 0uibus_$
Fc. they did as much mischief to mortal men as fire and 'ater$ those
merciless elements 'hen they rage. ;.==G4hich is yet more to be lamented$
they "ersuade them this hellish course of life is holy$ they "romise hea#en
to such as #enture their li#es _bello sacro_$ and that by these bloody
'ars$ as Persians$ Gree%s$ and 1omans of old$ as modern Tur%s do no' their
commons$ to encourage them to fight$ _ut cadant infeliciter_. LIf they die
in the field$ they go directly to hea#en$ and shall be canonised for
saints.L (2 diabolical in#entionO) "ut in the :hronicles$ _in "er"etuam rei
memoriam_$ to their eternal memory& 'hen as in truth$ as ;.=.Gsome hold$ it
'ere much better (since 'ars are the scourge of God for sin$ by 'hich he
"unisheth mortal men!s "ee#ishness and folly) such brutish stories 'ere
su""ressed$ because _ad morum institutionem nihil habent_$ they conduce not
at all to manners$ or good life. ut they 'ill ha#e it thus ne#ertheless$
and so they "ut note of ;.=?GLdi#inity u"on the most cruel and "ernicious
"lague of human %ind$L adore such men 'ith grand titles$ degrees$ statues$
images$ ;.=@Ghonour$ a""laud$ and highly re'ard them for their good
ser#ice$ no greater glory than to die in the field. 9o Africanus is
e+tolled by Ennius& Mars$ and ;.=-G5ercules$ and I %no' not ho' many
besides of old$ 'ere deified< 'ent this 'ay to hea#en$ that 'ere indeed
bloody butchers$ 'ic%ed destroyers$ and troublers of the 'orld$ "rodigious
monsters$ hell-hounds$ feral "lagues$ de#ourers$ common e+ecutioners of
human %ind$ as *actantius truly "ro#es$ and :y"rian to 3onat$ such as 'ere
des"erate in 'ars$ and "reci"itately made a'ay themsel#es$ (li%e those
:elts in 3amascen$ 'ith ridiculous #alour$ _ut dedecorosum "utarent muro
ruenti se subducere_$ a disgrace to run a'ay for a rotten 'all$ no' ready
to fall on their heads$) such as 'ill not rush on a s'ord!s "oint$ or see%
to shun a cannon!s shot$ are base co'ards$ and no #aliant men. y 'hich
means$ _Madet orbis mutuo sanguine_$ the earth 'allo's in her o'n blood$
;.=AG_9a#it amor ferri et scelerati insania belli_< and for that$ 'hich if
it be done in "ri#ate$ a man shall be rigorously e+ecuted$ ;.=/GLand 'hich
is no less than murder itself< if the same fact be done in "ublic in 'ars$
it is called manhood$ and the "arty is honoured for it.L
;.=BG ------LPros"erum et feli+ scelus$
Iirtus #ocatur.L------
4e measure all as Tur%s do$ by the e#ent$ and most "art$ as :y"rian notes$
in all ages$ countries$ "laces$ _sae#itiae magnitudo im"unitatem sceleris
ac0uirit_< the foulness of the fact #indicates the offender. ;..CG2ne is
cro'ned for that 'hich another is tormented& _Ille crucem sceleris "recium
tulit$ hic diadema_< made a %night$ a lord$ an earl$ a great du%e$ (as
;..,GAgri""a notes) for that 'hich another should ha#e hung in gibbets$ as
a terror to the rest$
;..=G ------Let tamen alter$
9i fecisset idem$ caderet sub judice morum.L
A "oor shee"-stealer is hanged for stealing of #ictuals$ com"elled
"erad#enture by necessity of that intolerable cold$ hunger$ and thirst$ to
sa#e himself from star#ing& but a ;...Ggreat man in office may securely rob
'hole "ro#inces$ undo thousands$ "ill and "oll$ o""ress _ad libitum_$ flea$
grind$ tyrannise$ enrich himself by s"oils of the commons$ be
uncontrollable in his actions$ and after all$ be recom"ensed 'ith turgent
titles$ honoured for his good ser#ice$ and no man dare find fault$ or ;..?G
mutter at it.
5o' 'ould our 3emocritus ha#e been affected to see a 'ic%ed caitiff or
;..@GLfool$ a #ery idiot$ a funge$ a golden ass$ a monster of men$ to ha#e
many good men$ 'ise$ men$ learned men to attend u"on him 'ith all
submission$ as an a""endi+ to his riches$ for that res"ect alone$ because
he hath more 'ealth and money$L ;..-GLto honour him 'ith di#ine titles$ and
bombast e"ithets$L to smother him 'ith fumes and eulogies$ 'hom they %no'
to be a dizzard$ a fool$ a co#etous 'retch$ a beast$ Fc. Lbecause he is
richNL To see _sub e+u#iis leonis onagrum_$ a filthy loathsome carcass$ a
Gorgon!s head "uffed u" by "arasites$ assume this unto himself$ glorious
titles$ in 'orth an infant$ a :uman ass$ a "ainted se"ulchre$ an Egy"tian
tem"leN To see a 'ithered face$ a diseased$ deformed$ can%ered com"le+ion$
a rotten carcass$ a #i"erous mind$ and E"icurean soul set out 'ith orient
"earls$ je'els$ diadems$ "erfumes$ curious elaborate 'or%s$ as "roud of his
clothes as a child of his ne' coats< and a goodly "erson$ of an angel-li%e
di#ine countenance$ a saint$ an humble mind$ a meet s"irit clothed in rags$
beg$ and no' ready to be star#edN To see a silly contem"tible slo#en in
a""arel$ ragged in his coat$ "olite in s"eech$ of a di#ine s"irit$ 'iseN
another neat in clothes$ s"ruce$ full of courtesy$ em"ty of grace$ 'it$
tal% nonsenseN
To see so many la'yers$ ad#ocates$ so many tribunals$ so little justice< so
many magistrates$ so little care of common good< so many la's$ yet ne#er
more disorders< _Tribunal litium segetem_$ the Tribunal a labyrinth$ so
many thousand suits in one court sometimes$ so #iolently follo'edN To see
_injustissimum sae"e juri "raesidentem$ im"ium religioni$ im"eritissimum
eruditioni$ otiosissimum labori$ monstrosum humanitati_N to see a lamb
;..AGe+ecuted$ a 'olf "ronounce sentence$ _latro_ arraigned$ and _fur_ sit
on the bench$ the judge se#erely "unish others$ and do 'orse himself$ ;../G
_cundem furtum facere et "unire_$ ;..BG_ra"inam "lectere$ 0uum sit i"se
ra"tor_N *a's altered$ misconstrued$ inter"reted "ro and con$ as the
;.?CGjudge is made by friends$ bribed$ or other'ise affected as a nose of
'a+$ good today$ none tomorro'< or firm in his o"inion$ cast in hisN
9entence "rolonged$ changed$ _ad arbitrium judicis_$ still the same case$
;.?,GLone thrust out of his inheritance$ another falsely "ut in by fa#our$
false forged deeds or 'ills.L _Incisae leges negliguntur_$ la's are made
and not %e"t< or if "ut in e+ecution$ ;.?=Gthey be some silly ones that are
"unished. As$ "ut case it be fornication$ the father 'ill disinherit or
abdicate his child$ 0uite cashier him (out$ #illain$ be gone$ come no more
in my sight)< a "oor man is miserably tormented 'ith loss of his estate
"erha"s$ goods$ fortunes$ good name$ for e#er disgraced$ forsa%en$ and must
do "enance to the utmost< a mortal sin$ and yet ma%e the 'orst of it$
_nun0uid aliud fecit_$ saith Tranio in the ;.?.G"oet$ _nisi 0uod faciunt
summis nati generibus_N he hath done no more than 'hat gentlemen usually
do. ;.??G_8e0ue no#um$ ne0ue mirum$ ne0ue secus 0uam alii solent_. 7or in a
great "erson$ right 'orshi"ful 9ir$ a right honourable grandee$ !tis not a
#enial sin$ no$ not a "eccadillo$ !tis no offence at all$ a common and
ordinary thing$ no man ta%es notice of it< he justifies it in "ublic$ and
"erad#enture brags of it$
;.?@G L8am 0uod tur"e bonis$ Titio$ 9eio0ue$ decebat :ris"inumL------
L7or 'hat 'ould be base in good men$ Titius$ and 9eius$ became
;.?-GMany "oor men$ younger brothers$ Fc. by reason of bad "olicy and idle
education (for they are li%ely brought u" in no calling)$ are com"elled to
beg or steal$ and then hanged for theft< than 'hich$ 'hat can be more
ignominious$ _non minus enim tur"e "rinci"i multa su""licia$ 0uam medico
multa funera_$ !tis the go#ernor!s fault. _*ibentius #erberant 0uam
docent_$ as schoolmasters do rather correct their "u"ils$ than teach them
'hen they do amiss. ;.?AGLThey had more need "ro#ide there should be no
more thie#es and beggars$ as they ought 'ith good "olicy$ and ta%e a'ay the
occasions$ than let them run on$ as they do to their o'n destruction& root
out li%e'ise those causes of 'rangling$ a multitude of la'yers$ and com"ose
contro#ersies$ _lites lustrales et seculares_$ by some more com"endious
means.L 4hereas no' for e#ery toy and trifle they go to la'$ ;.?/G_Mugit
litibus insanum forum$ et sae#it in#icem discordantium rabies_$ they are
ready to "ull out one another!s throats< and for commodity ;.?BGLto s0ueeze
blood$L saith 5ierom$ Lout of their brother!s heart$L defame$ lie$
disgrace$ bac%bite$ rail$ bear false 'itness$ s'ear$ fors'ear$ fight and
'rangle$ s"end their goods$ li#es$ fortunes$ friends$ undo one another$ to
enrich an har"y ad#ocate$ that "reys u"on them both$ and cries _Eia
9ocrates$ Eia Janti""e_< or some corru"t judge$ that li%e the ;.@CG%ite in
Aeso"$ 'hile the mouse and frog fought$ carried both a'ay. Generally they
"rey one u"on another as so many ra#enous birds$ brute beasts$ de#ouring
fishes$ no medium$ ;.@,G_omnes hic aut ca"tantur aut ca"tant< aut cada#era
0uae lacerantur$ aut cor#i 0ui lacerant_$ either decei#e or be decei#ed<
tear others or be torn in "ieces themsel#es< li%e so many buc%ets in a
'ell$ as one riseth another falleth$ one!s em"ty$ another!s full< his ruin
is a ladder to the third< such are our ordinary "roceedings. 4hat!s the
mar%etN A "lace$ according to ;.@=GAnacharsis$ 'herein they cozen one
another$ a tra"< nay$ 'hat!s the 'orld itselfN ;.@.GA #ast chaos$ a
confusion of manners$ as fic%le as the air$ _domicilium insanorum_$ a
turbulent troo" full of im"urities$ a mart of 'al%ing s"irits$ goblins$ the
theatre of hy"ocrisy$ a sho" of %na#ery$ flattery$ a nursery of #illainy$
the scene of babbling$ the school of giddiness$ the academy of #ice< a
'arfare$ _ubi #elis nolis "ugnandum$ aut #incas aut succumbas_$ in 'hich
%ill or be %illed< 'herein e#ery man is for himself$ his "ri#ate ends$ and
stands u"on his o'n guard. 8o charity$ ;.@?Glo#e$ friendshi"$ fear of God$
alliance$ affinity$ consanguinity$ :hristianity$ can contain them$ but if
they be any 'ays offended$ or that string of commodity be touched$ they
fall foul. 2ld friends become bitter enemies on a sudden for toys and small
offences$ and they that erst 'ere 'illing to do all mutual offices of lo#e
and %indness$ no' re#ile and "ersecute one another to death$ 'ith more than
Iatinian hatred$ and 'ill not be reconciled. 9o long as they are beho#eful$
they lo#e$ or may bestead each other$ but 'hen there is no more good to be
e+"ected$ as they do by an old dog$ hang him u" or cashier him& 'hich ;.@@G
:ato counts a great indecorum$ to use men li%e old shoes or bro%en glasses$
'hich are flung to the dunghill< he could not find in his heart to sell an
old o+$ much less to turn a'ay an old ser#ant& but they instead of
recom"ense$ re#ile him$ and 'hen they ha#e made him an instrument of their
#illainy$ as ;.@-Gajazet the second Em"eror of the Tur%s did by Acomethes
assa$ ma%e him a'ay$ or instead of ;.@AGre'ard$ hate him to death$ as
9ilius 'as ser#ed by Tiberius. In a 'ord$ e#ery man for his o'n ends. 2ur
_summum bonum_ is commodity$ and the goddess 'e adore _3ea moneta_$ Kueen
money$ to 'hom 'e daily offer sacrifice$ 'hich steers our hearts$ hands$
;.@/Gaffections$ all& that most "o'erful goddess$ by 'hom 'e are reared$
de"ressed$ ele#ated$ ;.@BGesteemed the sole commandress of our actions$ for
'hich 'e "ray$ run$ ride$ go$ come$ labour$ and contend as fishes do for a
crumb that falleth into the 'ater. It!s not 'orth$ #irtue$ (that!s _bonum
theatrale_$) 'isdom$ #alour$ learning$ honesty$ religion$ or any
sufficiency for 'hich 'e are res"ected$ but ;.-CGmoney$ greatness$ office$
honour$ authority< honesty is accounted folly< %na#ery$ "olicy< ;.-,Gmen
admired out of o"inion$ not as they are$ but as they seem to be& such
shifting$ lying$ cogging$ "lotting$ counter"lotting$ tem"orizing$
nattering$ cozening$ dissembling$ ;.-=GLthat of necessity one must highly
offend God if he be conformable to the 'orld$ _:retizare cum :rete_$ or
else li#e in contem"t$ disgrace and misery.L 2ne ta%es u"on him tem"erance$
holiness$ another austerity$ a third an affected %ind of sim"licity$ 'hen
as indeed$ he$ and he$ and he$ and the rest are ;.-.GLhy"ocrites$
ambide+ters$L outsides$ so many turning "ictures$ a lion on the one side$
a lamb on the other. ;.-?G5o' 'ould 3emocritus ha#e been affected to see
these thingsO
To see a man turn himself into all sha"es li%e a chameleon$ or as Proteus$
_omnia transformans sese in miracula rerum_$ to act t'enty "arts and
"ersons at once$ for his ad#antage$ to tem"orise and #ary li%e Mercury the
"lanet$ good 'ith good< bad 'ith bad< ha#ing a se#eral face$ garb$ and
character for e#ery one he meets< of all religions$ humours$ inclinations<
to fa'n li%e a s"aniel$ _mentitis et mimicis obse0uis_< rage li%e a lion$
bar% li%e a cur$ fight li%e a dragon$ sting li%e a ser"ent$ as mee% as a
lamb$ and yet again grin li%e a tiger$ 'ee" li%e a crocodile$ insult o#er
some$ and yet others domineer o#er him$ here command$ there crouch$
tyrannise in one "lace$ be baffled in another$ a 'ise man at home$ a fool
abroad to ma%e others merry.
To see so much difference bet'i+t 'ords and deeds$ so many "arasangs
bet'i+t tongue and heart$ men li%e stage-"layers act #ariety of "arts$
;.-@Ggi#e good "rece"ts to others$ soar aloft$ 'hilst they themsel#es
gro#el on the ground.
To see a man "rotest friendshi"$ %iss his hand$ ;.--G_0uem mallet truncatum
#idere_$ ;.-AGsmile 'ith an intent to do mischief$ or cozen him 'hom he
salutes$ ;.-/Gmagnify his friend un'orthy 'ith hy"erbolical eulogiums< his
enemy albeit a good man$ to #ilify and disgrace him$ yea all his actions$
'ith the utmost that li#or and malice can in#ent.
To see a ;.-BGser#ant able to buy out his master$ him that carries the mace
more 'orth than the magistrate$ 'hich Plato$ _lib. ,,$ de leg._$ absolutely
forbids$ E"ictetus abhors. A horse that tills the ;.ACGland fed 'ith chaff$
an idle jade ha#e "ro#ender in abundance< him that ma%es shoes go barefoot
himself$ him that sells meat almost "ined< a toiling drudge star#e$ a drone
To see men buy smo%e for 'ares$ castles built 'ith fools! heads$ men li%e
a"es follo' the fashions in tires$ gestures$ actions& if the %ing laugh$
all laugh<
;.A,G L1idesN majore chachiano
:oncutitur$ flet si lachrymas cons"e+it amici.L
;.A=GAle+ander stoo"ed$ so did his courtiers< Al"honsus turned his head$
and so did his "arasites. ;.A.G9abina Po""ea$ 8ero!s 'ife$ 'ore
amber-coloured hair$ so did all the 1oman ladies in an instant$ her fashion
'as theirs.
To see men 'holly led by affection$ admired and censured out of o"inion
'ithout judgment& an inconsiderate multitude$ li%e so many dogs in a
#illage$ if one bar% all bar% 'ithout a cause& as fortune!s fan turns$ if a
man be in fa#our$ or commanded by some great one$ all the 'orld a""lauds
him< ;.A?Gif in disgrace$ in an instant all hate him$ and as at the sun
'hen he is ecli"sed$ that erst too% no notice$ no' gaze and stare u"on him.
To see a man ;.A@G'ear his brains in his belly$ his guts in his head$ an
hundred oa%s on his bac%$ to de#our a hundred o+en at a meal$ nay more$ to
de#our houses and to'ns$ or as those Anthro"o"hagi$ ;.A-Gto eat one
To see a man roll himself u" li%e a sno'ball$ from base beggary to right
'orshi"ful and right honourable titles$ unjustly to scre' himself into
honours and offices< another to star#e his genius$ damn his soul to gather
'ealth$ 'hich he shall not enjoy$ 'hich his "rodigal son melts and consumes
in an instant. ;.AAG
To see the ;Gree%& %a%ozaelianG of our times$ a man bend all his forces$
means$ time$ fortunes$ to be a fa#orite!s fa#orite!s fa#orite$ Fc.$ a
"arasite!s "arasite!s "arasite$ that may scorn the ser#ile 'orld as ha#ing
enough already.
To see an hirsute beggar!s brat$ that lately fed on scra"s$ cre"t and
'hined$ crying to all$ and for an old jer%in ran of errands$ no' ruffle in
sil% and satin$ bra#ely mounted$ jo#ial and "olite$ no' scorn his old
friends and familiars$ neglect his %indred$ insult o#er his betters$
domineer o#er all.
To see a scholar crouch and cree" to an illiterate "easant for a meal!s
meat< a scri#ener better "aid for an obligation< a falconer recei#e greater
'ages than a student< a la'yer get more in a day than a "hiloso"her in a
year$ better re'ard for an hour$ than a scholar for a t'el#emonth!s study<
him that can ;.A/G"aint Thais$ "lay on a fiddle$ curl hair$ Fc.$ sooner get
"referment than a "hilologer or a "oet.
To see a fond mother$ li%e Aeso"!s a"e$ hug her child to death$ a ;.ABG
'ittol 'in% at his 'ife!s honesty$ and too "ers"icuous in all other
affairs< one stumble at a stra'$ and lea" o#er a bloc%< rob Peter$ and "ay
Paul< scra"e unjust sums 'ith one hand$ "urchase great manors by
corru"tion$ fraud and cozenage$ and liberally to distribute to the "oor
'ith the other$ gi#e a remnant to "ious uses$ Fc. Penny 'ise$ "ound
foolish< blind men judge of colours< 'ise men silent$ fools tal%< ;./CG
find fault 'ith others$ and do 'orse themsel#es< ;./,Gdenounce that in
"ublic 'hich he doth in secret< and 'hich Aurelius Iictor gi#es out of
Augustus$ se#erely censure that in a third$ of 'hich he is most guilty
To see a "oor fello'$ or an hired ser#ant #enture his life for his ne'
master that 'ill scarce gi#e him his 'ages at year!s end< A country colon
toil and moil$ till and drudge for a "rodigal idle drone$ that de#ours all
the gain$ or lasci#iously consumes 'ith fantastical e+"enses< A noble man
in a bra#ado to encounter death$ and for a small flash of honour to cast
a'ay himself< A 'orldling tremble at an e+ecutor$ and yet not fear
hell-fire< To 'ish and ho"e for immortality$ desire to be ha""y$ and yet by
all means a#oid death$ a necessary "assage to bring him to it.
To see a foolhardy fello' li%e those old 3anes$ _0ui decollari malunt 0uam
#erberari_$ die rather than be "unished$ in a sottish humour embrace death
'ith alacrity$ yet ;./=Gscorn to lament his o'n sins and miseries$ or his
clearest friends! de"artures.
To see 'ise men degraded$ fools "referred$ one go#ern to'ns and cities$ and
yet a silly 'oman o#errules him at home< ;./.G:ommand a "ro#ince$ and yet
his o'n ser#ants or children "rescribe la's to him$ as Themistocles! son
did in Greece< ;./?GL4hat I 'illL (said he) Lmy mother 'ill$ and 'hat my
mother 'ill$ my father doth.L To see horses ride in a coach$ men dra' it<
dogs de#our their masters< to'ers build masons< children rule< old men go
to school< 'omen 'ear the breeches< ;./@Gshee" demolish to'ns$ de#our men$
Fc. And in a 'ord$ the 'orld turned u"side do'n'ard. _2 #i#eret
;./-GTo insist in e#ery "articular 'ere one of 5ercules! labours$ there!s
so many ridiculous instances$ as motes in the sun. _Kuantum est in rebus
inane_N (5o' much #anity there is in thingsO) And 'ho can s"ea% of allN
_:rimine ab uno disce omnes_$ ta%e this for a taste.
ut these are ob#ious to sense$ tri#ial and 'ell %no'n$ easy to be
discerned. 5o' 'ould 3emocritus ha#e been mo#ed$ had he seen ;./AGthe
secrets of their heartsN If e#ery man had a 'indo' in his breast$ 'hich
Momus 'ould ha#e had in Iulcan!s man$ or that 'hich Tully so much 'ished it
'ere 'ritten in e#ery man!s forehead$ _Kuid 0uis0ue de re"ublica sentiret_$
'hat he thought< or that it could be effected in an instant$ 'hich Mercury
did by :haron in *ucian$ by touching of his eyes$ to ma%e him discern
_semel et simul rumores et susurros_.
L9"es hominum caecas$ morbos$ #otum0ue labores$
Et "assim toto #olitantes aethere curas.L
Llind ho"es and 'ishes$ their thoughts and affairs$
4his"ers and rumours$ and those flying cares.L
That he could _cubiculorum obductas foras recludere et secreta cordium
"enetrare_$ 'hich ;.//G:y"rian desired$ o"en doors and loc%s$ shoot bolts$
as *ucian!s Gallus did 'ith a feather of his tail& or Gyges! in#isible
ring$ or some rare "ers"ecti#e glass$ or _2tacousticon_$ 'hich 'ould so
multi"ly s"ecies$ that a man might hear and see all at once (as ;./BG
Martianus :a"ella!s Du"iter did in a s"ear 'hich he held in his hand$ 'hich
did "resent unto him all that 'as daily done u"on the face of the earth)$
obser#e cuc%olds! horns$ forgeries of alchemists$ the "hiloso"her!s stone$
ne' "rojectors$ Fc.$ and all those 'or%s of dar%ness$ foolish #o's$ ho"es$
fears and 'ishes$ 'hat a deal of laughter 'ould it ha#e affordedN 5e should
ha#e seen 'indmills in one man!s head$ an hornet!s nest in another. 2r had
he been "resent 'ith Icaromeni""us in *ucian at Du"iter!s 'his"ering "lace$
;.BCGand heard one "ray for rain$ another for fair 'eather< one for his
'ife!s$ another for his father!s death$ Fc.< Lto as% that at God!s hand
'hich they are abashed any man should hear&L 5o' 'ould he ha#e been
confoundedN 4ould he$ thin% you$ or any man else$ say that these men 'ere
'ell in their 'itsN _5aec sani esse hominis 0uis sanus juret 2restes_N :an
all the hellebore in the Anticyrae cure these menN 8o$ sure$ ;.B,GLan acre
of hellebore 'ill not do it.L
That 'hich is more to be lamented$ they are mad li%e 9eneca!s blind 'oman$
and 'ill not ac%no'ledge$ or ;.B=Gsee% for any cure of it$ for _"auci
#ident morbum suum$ omnes amant_. If our leg or arm offend us$ 'e co#et by
all means "ossible to redress it< ;.B.Gand if 'e labour of a bodily
disease$ 'e send for a "hysician< but for the diseases of the mind 'e ta%e
no notice of them& ;.B?G*ust harro's us on the one side< en#y$ anger$
ambition on the other. 4e are torn in "ieces by our "assions$ as so many
'ild horses$ one in dis"osition$ another in habit< one is melancholy$
another mad< ;.B@Gand 'hich of us all see%s for hel"$ doth ac%no'ledge his
error$ or %no's he is sic%N As that stu"id fello' "ut out the candle
because the biting fleas should not find him< he shrouds himself in an
un%no'n habit$ borro'ed titles$ because nobody should discern him. E#ery
man thin%s 'ith himself$ _Egomet #ideor mihi sanus_$ I am 'ell$ I am 'ise$
and laughs at others. And !tis a general fault amongst them all$ that ;.B-G
'hich our forefathers ha#e a""ro#ed$ diet$ a""arel$ o"inions$ humours$
customs$ manners$ 'e deride and reject in our time as absurd. 2ld men
account juniors all fools$ 'hen they are mere dizzards< and as to sailors$
------_terrae0ue urbes0ue recedunt_------ they mo#e$ the land stands still$
the 'orld hath much more 'it$ they dote themsel#es. Tur%s deride us$ 'e
them< Italians 7renchmen$ accounting them light headed fello's$ the 7rench
scoff again at Italians$ and at their se#eral customs< Gree%s ha#e
condemned all the 'orld but themsel#es of barbarism$ the 'orld as much
#ilifies them no'< 'e account Germans hea#y$ dull fello's$ e+"lode many of
their fashions< they as contem"tibly thin% of us< 9"aniards laugh at all$
and all again at them. 9o are 'e fools and ridiculous$ absurd in our
actions$ carriages$ diet$ a""arel$ customs$ and consultations< 'e ;.BAG
scoff and "oint one at another$ 'hen as in conclusion all are fools$ ;.B/G
Land they the #eriest asses that hide their ears most.L A "ri#ate man if he
be resol#ed 'ith himself$ or set on an o"inion$ accounts all idiots and
asses that are not affected as he is$ ;.BBG------_nil rectum$ nisi 0uod
"lacuit sibi$ ducit_$ that are not so minded$ ;?CCG(_0uod0ue #olunt homines
se bene #elle "utant_$) all fools that thin% not as he doth& he 'ill not
say 'ith Atticus$ _9uam 0uis0ue s"onsam$ mihi meam_$ let e#ery man enjoy
his o'n s"ouse< but his alone is fair$ _suus amor_$ Fc. and scorns all in
res"ect of himself ;?C,G'ill imitate none$ hear none ;?C=Gbut himself$ as
Pliny said$ a la' and e+am"le to himself. And that 'hich 5i""ocrates$ in
his e"istle to 3ionysius$ re"rehended of old$ is #erified in our times$
_Kuis0ue in alio su"erfluum esse censet$ i"se 0uod non habet nec curat_$
that 'hich he hath not himself or doth not esteem$ he accounts su"erfluity$
an idle 0uality$ a mere fo""ery in another& li%e Aeso"!s fo+$ 'hen he had
lost his tail$ 'ould ha#e all his fello' fo+es cut off theirs. The :hinese
say$ that 'e Euro"eans ha#e one eye$ they themsel#es t'o$ all the 'orld
else is blind& (though ;?C.G9caliger accounts them brutes too$ _merum
"ecus_$) so thou and thy sectaries are only 'ise$ others indifferent$ the
rest beside themsel#es$ mere idiots and asses. Thus not ac%no'ledging our
o'n errors and im"erfections$ 'e securely deride others$ as if 'e alone
'ere free$ and s"ectators of the rest$ accounting it an e+cellent thing$ as
indeed it is$ _Aliena o"timum frui insania_$ to ma%e oursel#es merry 'ith
other men!s obli0uities$ 'hen as he himself is more faulty than the rest$
_mutato nomine$ de te fabula narratur_$ he may ta%e himself by the nose for
a fool< and 'hich one calls _ma+imum stultitiae s"ecimen_$ to be ridiculous
to others$ and not to "ercei#e or ta%e notice of it$ as Marsyas 'as 'hen he
contended 'ith A"ollo$ _non intelligens se deridiculo haberi_$ saith ;?C?G
A"uleius< !tis his o'n cause$ he is a con#icted madman$ as ;?C@GAustin 'ell
infers Lin the eyes of 'ise men and angels he seems li%e one$ that to our
thin%ing 'al%s 'ith his heels u"'ards.L 9o thou laughest at me$ and I at
thee$ both at a third< and he returns that of the "oet u"on us again$
;?C-G_5ei mihi$ insanire me aiunt$ 0uum i"si ultro insaniant_. 4e accuse
others of madness$ of folly$ and are the #eriest dizzards oursel#es. 7or it
is a great sign and "ro"erty of a fool ('hich Eccl. +. .$ "oints at) out of
"ride and self-conceit to insult$ #ilify$ condemn$ censure$ and call other
men fools (_8on #idemus manticae 0uod a tergo est_) to ta+ that in others
of 'hich 'e are most faulty< teach that 'hich 'e follo' not oursel#es& 7or
an inconstant man to 'rite of constancy$ a "rofane li#er "rescribe rules of
sanctity and "iety$ a dizzard himself ma%e a treatise of 'isdom$ or 'ith
9allust to rail do'nright at s"oilers of countries$ and yet in ;?CAGoffice
to be a most grie#ous "oller himself. This argues 'ea%ness$ and is an
e#ident sign of such "arties! indiscretion. ;?C/G_Peccat uter nostrum cruce
dignius_N L4ho is the fool no'NL 2r else "erad#enture in some "laces 'e are
all mad for com"any$ and so !tis not seen$ _9atietas erroris et dementiae$
"ariter absurditatem et admirationem tollit_. !Tis 'ith us$ as it 'as of
old (in ;?CBGTully!s censure at least) 'ith :. Pimbria in 1ome$ a bold$
hair-brain$ mad fello'$ and so esteemed of all$ such only e+ce"ted$ that
'ere as mad as himself& no' in such a case there is ;?,CGno notice ta%en of
L8imirum insanus "aucis #ideatur< eo 0uod
Ma+ima "ars hominum morbo jactatur eodem.L
L4hen all are mad$ 'here all are li%e o""rest
4ho can discern one mad man from the restNL
ut "ut case they do "ercei#e it$ and some one be manifestly con#icted of
madness$ ;?,,Ghe no' ta%es notice of his folly$ be it in action$ gesture$
s"eech$ a #ain humour he hath in building$ bragging$ jangling$ s"ending$
gaming$ courting$ scribbling$ "rating$ for 'hich he is ridiculous to
others$ ;?,=Gon 'hich he dotes$ he doth ac%no'ledge as much& yet 'ith all
the rhetoric thou hast$ thou canst not so recall him$ but to the contrary
not'ithstanding$ he 'ill "erse#ere in his dotage. !Tis _amabilis insania$
et mentis gratissimus error_$ so "leasing$ so delicious$ that he ;?,.G
cannot lea#e it. 5e %no's his error$ but 'ill not see% to decline it$ tell
him 'hat the e#ent 'ill be$ beggary$ sorro'$ sic%ness$ disgrace$ shame$
loss$ madness$ yet ;?,?GLan angry man 'ill "refer #engeance$ a lasci#ious
his 'hore$ a thief his booty$ a glutton his belly$ before his 'elfare.L
Tell an e"icure$ a co#etous man$ an ambitious man of his irregular course$
'ean him from it a little$ _"ol me occidistis amici_$ he cries anon$ you
ha#e undone him$ and as ;?,@Ga Ldog to his #omit$L he returns to it again<
no "ersuasion 'ill ta%e "lace$ no counsel$ say 'hat thou canst$
L:lames licet et mare coelo
------:onfundas$ surdo narras$L;?,-G
demonstrate as Hlysses did to ;?,AGEl"enor and Gryllus$ and the rest of his
com"anions Lthose s'inish men$L he is irrefragable in his humour$ he 'ill
be a hog still< bray him in a mortar$ he 'ill be the same. If he be in an
heresy$ or some "er#erse o"inion$ settled as some of our ignorant Pa"ists
are$ con#ince his understanding$ sho' him the se#eral follies and absurd
fo""eries of that sect$ force him to say$ _#eris #incor_$ ma%e it as clear
as the sun$ ;?,/Ghe 'ill err still$ "ee#ish and obstinate as he is< and as
he said ;?,BG_si in hoc erro$ libenter erro$ nec hunc errorem auferri mihi
#olo_< I 'ill do as I ha#e done$ as my "redecessors ha#e done$ ;?=CGand as
my friends no' do& I 'ill dote for com"any. 9ay no'$ are these men ;?=,Gmad
or no$ ;?==G_5eus age res"onde_N are they ridiculousN _cedo 0uem#is
arbitrum_$ are they _sanae mentis_$ sober$ 'ise$ and discreetN ha#e they
common senseN ------;?=.G_uter est insanior horum_N I am of 3emocritus!
o"inion for my "art$ I hold them 'orthy to be laughed at< a com"any of
brain-sic% dizzards$ as mad as ;?=?G2restes and Athamas$ that they may go
Lride the ass$L and all sail along to the Anticyrae$ in the Lshi" of foolsL
for com"any together. I need not much labour to "ro#e this 'hich I say
other'ise than thus$ ma%e any solemn "rotestation$ or s'ear$ I thin% you
'ill belie#e me 'ithout an oath< say at a 'ord$ are they foolsN I refer it
to you$ though you be li%e'ise fools and madmen yoursel#es$ and I as mad to
as% the 0uestion< for 'hat said our comical MercuryN
;?=@G LDustum ab injustis "etere insi"ientia est.L
LI!ll stand to your censure yet$ 'hat thin% youNL
ut forasmuch as I undertoo% at first$ that %ingdoms$ "ro#inces$ families$
'ere melancholy as 'ell as "ri#ate men$ I 'ill e+amine them in "articular$
and that 'hich I ha#e hitherto dilated at random$ in more general terms$ I
'ill "articularly insist in$ "ro#e 'ith more s"ecial and e#ident arguments$
testimonies$ illustrations$ and that in brief. ;?=-G_8unc acci"e 0uare
desi"iant omnes ae0ue ac tu._ My first argument is borro'ed from 9olomon$
an arro' dra'n out of his sententious 0ui#er$ Pro. iii. A$ Le not 'ise in
thine o'n eyes.L And ++#i. ,=$ L9eest thou a man 'ise in his o'n conceitN
more ho"e is of a fool than of him.L Isaiah "ronounceth a 'oe against such
men$ ca". #. =,$ Lthat are 'ise in their o'n eyes$ and "rudent in their o'n
sight.L 7or hence 'e may gather$ that it is a great offence$ and men are
much decei#ed that thin% too 'ell of themsel#es$ an es"ecial argument to
con#ince them of folly. Many men (saith ;?=AG9eneca) Lhad been 'ithout
0uestion 'ise$ had they not had an o"inion that they had attained to
"erfection of %no'ledge already$ e#en before they had gone half 'ay$L too
for'ard$ too ri"e$ _"rae"ro"eri_$ too 0uic% and ready$ ;?=/G_cito
"rudentes$ cito "ii$ cito mariti$ cito "atres$ cito sacerdotes$ cito omnis
officii ca"aces et curiosi_$ they had too good a conceit of themsel#es$ and
that marred all< of their 'orth$ #alour$ s%ill$ art$ learning$ judgment$
elo0uence$ their good "arts< all their geese are s'ans$ and that manifestly
"ro#es them to be no better than fools. In former times they had but se#en
'ise men$ no' you can scarce find so many fools. Thales sent the golden
tri"os$ 'hich the fishermen found$ and the oracle commanded to be ;?=BG
Lgi#en to the 'isest$ to ias$ ias to 9olon$L Fc. If such a thing 'ere no'
found$ 'e should all fight for it$ as the three goddesses did for the
golden a""le$ 'e are so 'ise& 'e ha#e 'omen "oliticians$ children
meta"hysicians< e#ery silly fello' can s0uare a circle$ ma%e "er"etual
motions$ find the "hiloso"her!s stone$ inter"ret A"ocaly"ses$ ma%e ne'
Theories$ a ne' system of the 'orld$ ne' *ogic$ ne' Philoso"hy$ Fc. _8ostra
uti0ue regio_$ saith ;?.CGPetronius$ Lour country is so full of deified
s"irits$ di#ine souls$ that you may sooner find a God than a man amongst
us$L 'e thin% so 'ell of oursel#es$ and that is an am"le testimony of much
My second argument is grounded u"on the li%e "lace of 9cri"ture$ 'hich
though before mentioned in effect$ yet for some reasons is to be re"eated
(and by Plato!s good lea#e$ I may do it$ ;?.,G;Gree%& dis to %alon raethen
ouden bla"teiG) L7oolsL (saith 3a#id) Lby reason of their transgressions.L
Fc. Psal. c#ii. ,A. 5ence Musculus infers all transgressors must needs be
fools. 9o 'e read 1om. ii.$ LTribulation and anguish on the soul of e#ery
man that doeth e#il<L but all do e#il. And Isaiah$ l+#. ,?$ LMy ser#ant
shall sing for joy$ and ;?.=Gye shall cry for sorro' of heart$ and #e+ation
of mind.L !Tis ratified by the common consent of all "hiloso"hers.
L3ishonestyL (saith :ardan) Lis nothing else but folly and madness.L ;?..G
_Probus 0uis nobiscum #i#it_N 9ho' me an honest man$ _8emo malus 0ui non
stultus_$ !tis 7abius! a"horism to the same end. If none honest$ none 'ise$
then all fools. And 'ell may they be so accounted& for 'ho 'ill account him
other'ise$ _Kui iter adornat in occidentem$ 0uum "ro"eraret in orientem_N
that goes bac%'ard all his life$ 'est'ard$ 'hen he is bound to the eastN or
hold him a 'ise man (saith ;?.?GMusculus) Lthat "refers momentary "leasures
to eternity$ that s"ends his master!s goods in his absence$ forth'ith to be
condemned for itNL _8e0uic0uam sa"it 0ui sibi non sa"it_$ 'ho 'ill say that
a sic% man is 'ise$ that eats and drin%s to o#erthro' the tem"erature of
his bodyN :an you account him 'ise or discreet that 'ould 'illingly ha#e
his health$ and yet 'ill do nothing that should "rocure or continue itN
;?.@GTheodoret$ out of Plotinus the Platonist$ Lholds it a ridiculous thing
for a man to li#e after his o'n la's$ to do that 'hich is offensi#e to God$
and yet to ho"e that he should sa#e him& and 'hen he #oluntarily neglects
his o'n safety$ and contemns the means$ to thin% to be deli#ered by
another&L 'ho 'ill say these men are 'iseN
A third argument may be deri#ed from the "recedent$ ;?.-Gall men are
carried a'ay 'ith "assion$ discontent$ lust$ "leasures$ Fc.$ they generally
hate those #irtues they should lo#e$ and lo#e such #ices they should hate.
Therefore more than melancholy$ 0uite mad$ brute beasts$ and #oid of
reason$ so :hrysostom contends< Lor rather dead and buried ali#e$L as ;?.AG
Philo Dudeus concludes it for a certainty$ Lof all such that are carried
a'ay 'ith "assions$ or labour of any disease of the mind. 4here is fear and
sorro'$L there ;?./G*actantius stiffly maintains$ L'isdom cannot d'ell$L
------L0ui cu"iet$ metuet 0uo0ue "orro$
Kui metuens #i#it$ liber mihi non erit un0uam.L;?.BG
9eneca and the rest of the stoics are of o"inion$ that 'here is any the
least "erturbation$ 'isdom may not be found. L4hat more ridiculous$L as
;??CG*actantius urges$ than to hear ho' Jer+es 'hi""ed the 5elles"ont$
threatened the Mountain Athos$ and the li%e. To s"ea% _ad rem_$ 'ho is free
from "assionN ;??,G_Mortalis nemo est 0uem non attingat dolor$ morbus#e_$
as ;??=GTully determines out of an old "oem$ no mortal men can a#oid sorro'
and sic%ness$ and sorro' is an inse"arable com"anion from melancholy.
;??.G:hrysostom "leads farther yet$ that they are more than mad$ #ery
beasts$ stu"efied and #oid of common sense& L7or ho'L (saith he) Lshall I
%no' thee to be a man$ 'hen thou %ic%est li%e an ass$ neighest li%e a horse
after 'omen$ ra#est in lust li%e a bull$ ra#enest li%e a bear$ stingest
li%e a scor"ion$ ra%est li%e a 'olf$ as subtle as a fo+$ as im"udent as a
dogN 9hall I say thou art a man$ that hast all the sym"toms of a beastN 5o'
shall I %no' thee to be a manN by thy sha"eN That affrights me more$ 'hen I
see a beast in li%eness of a man.L
;???G9eneca calls that of E"icurus$ _magnificam #ocem_$ an heroical s"eech$
LA fool still begins to li#e$L and accounts it a filthy lightness in men$
e#ery day to lay ne' foundations of their life$ but 'ho doth other'iseN 2ne
tra#els$ another builds< one for this$ another for that business$ and old
fol%s are as far out as the rest< _2 dementem senectutem_$ Tully e+claims.
Therefore young$ old$ middle age$ are all stu"id$ and dote.
;??@GAeneas 9yl#ius$ amongst many other$ sets do'n three s"ecial 'ays to
find a fool by. 5e is a fool that see%s that he cannot find& he is a fool
that see%s that$ 'hich being found 'ill do him more harm than good& he is a
fool$ that ha#ing #ariety of 'ays to bring him to his journey!s end$ ta%es
that 'hich is 'orst. If so$ methin%s most men are fools< e+amine their
courses$ and you shall soon "ercei#e 'hat dizzards and mad men the major
"art are.
eroaldus 'ill ha#e drun%ards$ afternoon men$ and such as more than
ordinarily delight in drin%$ to be mad. The first "ot 0uencheth thirst$ so
Panyasis the "oet determines in _Athenaeus$ secunda gratiis$ horis et
3yonisio_& the second ma%es merry$ the third for "leasure$ _0uarta$ ad
insaniam_$ the fourth ma%es them mad. If this "osition be true$ 'hat a
catalogue of mad men shall 'e ha#eN 'hat shall they be that drin% four
times fourN _8onne su"ra omnem furorem$ su"ra omnem insanian reddunt
insanissimos_N I am of his o"inion$ they are more than mad$ much 'orse than
The ;??-GAbderites condemned 3emocritus for a mad man$ because he 'as
sometimes sad$ and sometimes again "rofusely merry. _5ac Patria_ (saith
5i""ocrates) _ob risum furere et insanire dicunt_$ his countrymen hold him
mad because he laughs< ;??AGand therefore Lhe desires him to ad#ise all his
friends at 1hodes$ that they do not laugh too much$ or be o#er sad.L 5ad
those Abderites been con#ersant 'ith us$ and but seen 'hat ;??/G fleering
and grinning there is in this age$ they 'ould certainly ha#e concluded$ 'e
had been all out of our 'its.
Aristotle in his Ethics holds _feli+ idem0ue sa"iens_$ to be 'ise and
ha""y$ are reci"rocal terms$ _bonus idem0ue sa"iens honestus_. !Tis ;??BG
Tully!s "arado+$ L'ise men are free$ but fools are sla#es$L liberty is a
"o'er to li#e according to his o'n la's$ as 'e 'ill oursel#es& 'ho hath
this libertyN 'ho is freeN
;?@CG ------Lsa"iens sibi0ue im"eriosus$
Kuem ne0ue "au"eris$ ne0ue mors$ ne0ue #incula terrent$
1es"onsare cu"idinibus$ contemnere honores
7ortis$ et in sei"so totus teres at0ue rotundus.L
L5e is 'ise that can command his o'n 'ill$
Ialiant and constant to himself still$
4hom "o#erty nor death$ nor bands can fright$
:hec%s his desires$ scorns honours$ just and right.L
ut 'here shall such a man be foundN If no 'here$ then _e diametro_$ 'e are
all sla#es$ senseless$ or 'orse. _8emo malus feli+_. ut no man is ha""y
in this life$ none good$ therefore no man 'ise. ;?@,G_1ari 0ui""e
boni_------ 7or one #irtue you shall find ten #ices in the same "arty<
_"auci Promethei$ multi E"imethei_. 4e may "erad#enture usur" the name$ or
attribute it to others for fa#our$ as :arolus 9a"iens$ Phili""us onus$
*odo#icus Pius$ Fc.$ and describe the "ro"erties of a 'ise man$ as Tully
doth an orator$ Jeno"hon :yrus$ :astilio a courtier$ Galen tem"erament$ an
aristocracy is described by "oliticians. ut 'here shall such a man be
LIir bonus et sa"iens$ 0ualem #i+ re""erit unum
Millibus e multis hominum consultus A"ollo.L
LA 'ise$ a good man in a million$
A"ollo consulted could scarce find one.L
A man is a miracle of himself$ but Trismegistus adds$ _Ma+imum miraculum
homo sa"iens_$ a 'ise man is a 'onder& _multi Thirsigeri$ "auci acchi_.
Ale+ander 'hen he 'as "resented 'ith that rich and costly cas%et of %ing
3arius$ and e#ery man ad#ised him 'hat to "ut in it$ he reser#ed it to %ee"
5omer!s 'or%s$ as the most "recious je'el of human 'it$ and yet ;?@=G
9caliger u"braids 5omer!s muse$ _8utricem insanae sa"ientiae_$ a nursery of
madness$ ;?@.Gim"udent as a court lady$ that blushes at nothing. Dacobus
Mycillus$ Gilbertus :ognatus$ Erasmus$ and almost all "osterity admire
*ucian!s lu+uriant 'it$ yet 9caliger rejects him in his censure$ and calls
him the :erberus of the muses. 9ocrates$ 'hom all the 'orld so much
magnified$ is by *actantius and Theodoret condemned for a fool. Plutarch
e+tols 9eneca!s 'it beyond all the Gree%s$ _nulli secundus_$ yet ;?@?G
9eneca saith of himself$ L'hen I 'ould solace myself 'ith a fool$ I reflect
u"on myself$ and there I ha#e him.L :ardan$ in his 9i+teenth oo% of
9ubtleties$ rec%ons u" t'el#e su"ereminent$ acute "hiloso"hers$ for 'orth$
subtlety$ and 'isdom& Archimedes$ Galen$ Iitru#ius$ Architas Tarentinus$
Euclid$ Geber$ that first in#entor of Algebra$ Al%indus the Mathematician$
both Arabians$ 'ith others. ut his _trium#iri terrarum_ far beyond the
rest$ are Ptolomaeus$ Plotinus$ 5i""ocrates. 9caliger _e+ercitat. ==?_$
scoffs at this censure of his$ calls some of them car"enters and
mechanicians$ he ma%es Galen _fimbriam 5i""ocratis_$ a s%irt of
5i""ocrates& and the said ;?@@G:ardan himself else'here condemns both Galen
and 5i""ocrates for tediousness$ obscurity$ confusion. Paracelsus 'ill ha#e
them both mere idiots$ infants in "hysic and "hiloso"hy. 9caliger and
:ardan admire 9uisset the :alculator$ _0ui "ene modum e+cessit humani
ingenii_$ and yet ;?@-G*od. Ii#es calls them _nugas 9uisseticas_& and
:ardan$ o""osite to himself in another "lace$ contemns those ancients in
res"ect of times "resent$ ;?@AG_Majores0ue nostros ad "resentes collatos
juste "ueros a""ellari_. In conclusion$ the said ;?@/G:ardan and 9aint
ernard 'ill admit none into this catalogue of 'ise men$ ;?@BGbut only
"ro"hets and a"ostles< ho' they esteem themsel#es$ you ha#e heard before.
4e are 'orldly-'ise$ admire oursel#es$ and see% for a""lause& but hear
9aint ;?-CGernard$ _0uanto magis foras es sa"iens$ tanto magis intus
stultus efficeris_$ Fc. _in omnibus es "rudens$ circa tei"sum insi"iens_&
the more 'ise thou art to others$ the more fool to thyself. I may not deny
but that there is some folly a""ro#ed$ a di#ine fury$ a holy madness$ e#en
a s"iritual drun%enness in the saints of God themsel#es< _sanctum insanium_
ernard calls it (though not as blas"heming ;?-,GIorstius$ 'ould infer it
as a "assion incident to God himself$ but) familiar to good men$ as that of
Paul$ = :or. Lhe 'as a fool$L Fc. and 1om. i+. he 'isheth himself to be
anathematised for them. 9uch is that drun%enness 'hich 7icinus s"ea%s of$
'hen the soul is ele#ated and ra#ished 'ith a di#ine taste of that hea#enly
nectar$ 'hich "oets deci"hered by the sacrifice of 3ionysius$ and in this
sense 'ith the "oet$ ;?-=G_insanire lubet_$ as Austin e+horts us$ _ad
ebrietatem se 0uis0ue "aret_$ let!s all be mad and ;?-.Gdrun%. ut 'e
commonly mista%e$ and go beyond our commission$ 'e reel to the o""osite
"art$ ;?-?G'e are not ca"able of it$ ;?-@Gand as he said of the Gree%s$
_Ios Graeci sem"er "ueri$ #os ritanni$ Galli$ Germani$ Itali_$ Fc. you are
a com"any of fools.
Proceed no' _a "artibus ad totum_$ or from the 'hole to "arts$ and you
shall find no other issue$ the "arts shall be sufficiently dilated in this
follo'ing Preface. The 'hole must needs follo' by a sorites or induction.
E#ery multitude is mad$ ;?--G_bellua multorum ca"itum_$ (a many-headed
beast)$ "reci"itate and rash 'ithout judgment$ _stultum animal_$ a roaring
rout. ;?-AG1oger acon "ro#es it out of Aristotle$ _Iulgus di#idi in
o""ositum contra sa"ientes$ 0uod #ulgo #idetur #erum$ falsum est_< that
'hich the commonalty accounts true$ is most "art false$ they are still
o""osite to 'ise men$ but all the 'orld is of this humour (_#ulgus_)$ and
thou thyself art _de #ulgo_$ one of the commonalty< and he$ and he$ and so
are all the rest< and therefore$ as Phocion concludes$ to be a""ro#ed in
nought you say or do$ mere idiots and asses. egin then 'here you 'ill$ go
bac%'ard or for'ard$ choose out of the 'hole "ac%$ 'in% and choose$ you
shall find them all ali%e$ Lne#er a barrel better herring.L
:o"ernicus$ Atlas his successor$ is of o"inion$ the earth is a "lanet$
mo#es and shines to others$ as the moon doth to us. 3igges$ Gilbert$
6e"lerus$ 2riganus$ and others$ defend this hy"othesis of his in sober
sadness$ and that the moon is inhabited& if it be so that the earth is a
moon$ then are 'e also giddy$ #ertiginous and lunatic 'ithin this sublunary
I could "roduce such arguments till dar% night& if you should hear the
LAnte diem clauso com"onent #es"er 2lim"o&L
LThrough such a train of 'ords if I should run$
The day 'ould sooner than the tale be done&L
but according to my "romise$ I 'ill descend to "articulars. This melancholy
e+tends itself not to men only$ but e#en to #egetals and sensibles. I s"ea%
not of those creatures 'hich are saturnine$ melancholy by nature$ as lead$
and such li%e minerals$ or those "lants$ rue$ cy"ress$ Fc. and hellebore
itself$ of 'hich ;?-/GAgri""a treats$ fishes$ birds$ and beasts$ hares$
conies$ dormice$ Fc.$ o'ls$ bats$ nightbirds$ but that artificial$ 'hich is
"ercei#ed in them all. 1emo#e a "lant$ it 'ill "ine a'ay$ 'hich is
es"ecially "ercei#ed in date trees$ as you may read at large in
:onstantine!s husbandry$ that anti"athy bet'i+t the #ine and the cabbage$
#ine and oil. Put a bird in a cage$ he 'ill die for sullenness$ or a beast
in a "en$ or ta%e his young ones or com"anions from him$ and see 'hat
effect it 'ill cause. ut 'ho "ercei#es not these common "assions of
sensible creatures$ fear$ sorro'$ Fc. 2f all other$ dogs are most subject
to this malady$ insomuch some hold they dream as men do$ and through
#iolence of melancholy run mad< I could relate many stories of dogs that
ha#e died for grief$ and "ined a'ay for loss of their masters$ but they are
common in e#ery ;?-BGauthor.
6ingdoms$ "ro#inces$ and "olitic bodies are li%e'ise sensible and subject
to this disease$ as ;?ACGoterus in his "olitics hath "ro#ed at large. LAs
in human bodiesL (saith he) Lthere be di#ers alterations "roceeding from
humours$ so be there many diseases in a common'ealth$ 'hich do as di#ersely
ha""en from se#eral distem"ers$L as you may easily "ercei#e by their
"articular sym"toms. 7or 'here you shall see the "eo"le ci#il$ obedient to
God and "rinces$ judicious$ "eaceable and 0uiet$ rich$ fortunate$ ;?A,Gand
flourish$ to li#e in "eace$ in unity and concord$ a country 'ell tilled$
many fair built and "o"ulous cities$ _ubi incolae nitent_ as old ;?A=G:ato
said$ the "eo"le are neat$ "olite and terse$ _ubi bene$ beate0ue #i#unt_$
'hich our "oliticians ma%e the chief end of a common'ealth< and 'hich ;?A.G
Aristotle$ _Polit. lib. .$ ca". ?_$ calls _:ommune bonum_$ Polybius _lib.
-_$ _o"tabilem et selectum statum_$ that country is free from melancholy<
as it 'as in Italy in the time of Augustus$ no' in :hina$ no' in many other
flourishing %ingdoms of Euro"e. ut 'hereas you shall see many discontents$
common grie#ances$ com"laints$ "o#erty$ barbarism$ beggary$ "lagues$ 'ars$
rebellions$ seditions$ mutinies$ contentions$ idleness$ riot$ e"icurism$
the land lie untilled$ 'aste$ full of bogs$ fens$ deserts$ Fc.$ cities
decayed$ base and "oor to'ns$ #illages de"o"ulated$ the "eo"le s0ualid$
ugly$ unci#il< that %ingdom$ that country$ must needs be discontent$
melancholy$ hath a sic% body$ and had need to be reformed.
8o' that cannot 'ell be effected$ till the causes of these maladies be
first remo#ed$ 'hich commonly "roceed from their o'n default$ or some
accidental incon#enience& as to be situated in a bad clime$ too far north$
sterile$ in a barren "lace$ as the desert of *ibya$ deserts of Arabia$
"laces #oid of 'aters$ as those of *o" and elgian in Asia$ or in a bad
air$ as at Ale+andretta$ antam$ Pisa$ 3urrazzo$ 9. Dohn de Hlloa$ Fc.$ or
in danger of the sea!s continual inundations$ as in many "laces of the *o'
:ountries and else'here$ or near some bad neighbours$ as 5ungarians to
Tur%s$ Podolians to Tartars$ or almost any bordering countries$ they li#e
in fear still$ and by reason of hostile incursions are oftentimes left
desolate. 9o are cities by reason ;?A?Gof 'ars$ fires$ "lagues$
inundations$ ;?A@G'ild beasts$ decay of trades$ barred ha#ens$ the sea!s
#iolence$ as Ant'er" may 'itness of late$ 9yracuse of old$ rundusium in
Italy$ 1ye and 3o#er 'ith us$ and many that at this day sus"ect the sea!s
fury and rage$ and labour against it as the Ienetians to their inestimable
charge. ut the most fre0uent maladies are such as "roceed from themsel#es$
as first 'hen religion and God!s ser#ice is neglected$ inno#ated or
altered$ 'here they do not fear God$ obey their "rince$ 'here atheism$
e"icurism$ sacrilege$ simony$ Fc.$ and all such im"ieties are freely
committed$ that country cannot "ros"er. 4hen Abraham came to Gerar$ and sa'
a bad land$ he said$ sure the fear of God 'as not in that "lace. ;?A-G
:y"rian Echo#ius$ a 9"anish chorogra"her$ abo#e all other cities of 9"ain$
commends orcino$ Lin 'hich there 'as no beggar$ no man "oor$ Fc.$ but all
rich$ and in good estate$ and he gi#es the reason$ because they 'ere more
religious than$ their neighbours&L 'hy 'as Israel so often s"oiled by their
enemies$ led into ca"ti#ity$ Fc.$ but for their idolatry$ neglect of God!s
'ord$ for sacrilege$ e#en for one Achan!s faultN And 'hat shall 'e e+ce"t
that ha#e such multitudes of Achans$ church robbers$ simoniacal "atrons$
Fc.$ ho' can they ho"e to flourish$ that neglect di#ine duties$ that li#e
most "art li%e E"icuresN
2ther common grie#ances are generally no+ious to a body "olitic< alteration
of la's and customs$ brea%ing "ri#ileges$ general o""ressions$ seditions$
Fc.$ obser#ed by ;?AAGAristotle$ odin$ oterus$ Dunius$ Arniscus$ Fc. I
'ill only "oint at some of chiefest. ;?A/G_Im"otentia gubernandi$ ata+ia_$
confusion$ ill go#ernment$ 'hich "roceeds from uns%ilful$ slothful$
gri"ing$ co#etous$ unjust$ rash$ or tyrannizing magistrates$ 'hen they are
fools$ idiots$ children$ "roud$ 'ilful$ "artial$ indiscreet$ o""ressors$
giddy heads$ tyrants$ not able or unfit to manage such offices& ;?ABGmany
noble cities and flourishing %ingdoms by that means are desolate$ the 'hole
body groans under such heads$ and all the members must needs be
disaffected$ as at this day those goodly "ro#inces in Asia Minor$ Fc. groan
under the burthen of a Tur%ish go#ernment< and those #ast %ingdoms of
Musco#ia$ 1ussia$ ;?/CGunder a tyrannizing du%e. 4ho e#er heard of more
ci#il and rich "o"ulous countries than those of LGreece$ Asia Minor$
abounding 'ith all ;?/,G'ealth$ multitudes of inhabitants$ force$ "o'er$
s"lendour and magnificenceNL and that miracle of countries$ ;?/=Gthe 5oly
*and$ that in so small a com"ass of ground could maintain so many to'ns$
cities$ "roduce so many fighting menN Egy"t another "aradise$ no' barbarous
and desert$ and almost 'aste$ by the des"otical go#ernment of an im"erious
Tur%$ _intolerabili ser#itutis jugo "remitur_ (;?/.Gone saith) not only
fire and 'ater$ goods or lands$ _sed i"se s"iritus ab insolentissimi
#ictoris "endet nutu_$ such is their sla#ery$ their li#es and souls de"end
u"on his insolent 'ill and command. A tyrant that s"oils all 'heresoe#er he
comes$ insomuch that an ;?/?Ghistorian com"lains$ Lif an old inhabitant
should no' see them$ he 'ould not %no' them$ if a tra#eller$ or stranger$
it 'ould grie#e his heart to behold them.L 4hereas ;?/@GAristotle notes$
_8o#ae e+actiones$ no#a onera im"osita_$ ne' burdens and e+actions daily
come u"on them$ li%e those of 'hich >osimus$ _lib. =_$ so grie#ous$ _ut
#iri u+ores$ "atres filios "rostituerent ut e+actoribus e 0uestu_$ Fc.$
they must needs be discontent$ _hinc ci#itatum gemitus et "loratus_$ as
;?/-G Tully holds$ hence come those com"laints and tears of cities$ L"oor$
miserable$ rebellious$ and des"erate subjects$L as ;?/AG5i""olitus adds<
and ;?//Gas a judicious countryman of ours obser#ed not long since$ in a
sur#ey of that great 3uchy of Tuscany$ the "eo"le li#ed much grie#ed and
discontent$ as a""eared by their manifold and manifest com"lainings in that
%ind. LThat the state 'as li%e a sic% body 'hich had lately ta%en "hysic$
'hose humours are not yet 'ell settled$ and 'ea%ened so much by "urging$
that nothing 'as left but melancholy.L
4hereas the "rinces and "otentates are immoderate in lust$ hy"ocrites$
e"icures$ of no religion$ but in sho'& _Kuid hy"ocrisi fragilius_N 'hat so
brittle and unsureN 'hat sooner sub#erts their estates than 'andering and
raging lusts$ on their subjects! 'i#es$ daughtersN to say no 'orse. That
they should _facem "raeferre_$ lead the 'ay to all #irtuous actions$ are
the ringleaders oftentimes of all mischief and dissolute courses$ and by
that means their countries are "lagued$ ;?/BGLand they themsel#es often
ruined$ banished$ or murdered by cons"iracy of their subjects$ as
9ardana"alus 'as$ 3ionysius Dunior$ 5eliogabalus$ Periander$ Pisistratus$
Tar0uinius$ Timocrates$ :hildericus$ A""ius :laudius$ Andronicus$ Galeacius
9forza$ Ale+ander Medices$L Fc.
4hereas the "rinces or great men are malicious$ en#ious$ factious$
ambitious$ emulators$ they tear a common'ealth asunder$ as so many Guelfs
and Gibelines disturb the 0uietness of it$ ;?BCGand 'ith mutual murders let
it bleed to death< our histories are too full of such barbarous
inhumanities$ and the miseries that issue from them.
4hereas they be li%e so many horseleeches$ hungry$ gri"ing$ corru"t$ ;?B,G
co#etous$ _a#aritice manci"ia_$ ra#enous as 'ol#es$ for as Tully 'rites&
_0ui "raeest "rodest$ et 0ui "ecudibus "raeest$ debet eorum utilitati
inser#ire_& or such as "refer their "ri#ate before the "ublic good. 7or as
;?B=Ghe said long since$ _res "ri#atae "ublicis sem"er officere_. 2r
'hereas they be illiterate$ ignorant$ em"irics in "olicy$ _ubi deest
facultas_$ ;?B.G_#irtus_ (Aristot. _"ol. @$ ca". /._) _et scientia_$ 'ise
only by inheritance$ and in authority by birthright$ fa#our$ or for their
'ealth and titles< there must needs be a fault$ ;?B?Ga great defect&
because as an ;?B@Gold "hiloso"her affirms$ such men are not al'ays fit.
L2f an infinite number$ fe' alone are senators$ and of those fe'$ fe'er
good$ and of that small number of honest$ good$ and noble men$ fe' that are
learned$ 'ise$ discreet and sufficient$ able to discharge such "laces$ it
must needs turn to the confusion of a state.L
7or as the ;?B-GPrinces are$ so are the "eo"le< _Kualis 1e+$ talis gre+_&
and 'hich ;?BAGAntigonus right 'ell said of old$ _0ui Macedonia regem
erudit$ omnes etiam subditos erudit_$ he that teacheth the %ing of Macedon$
teacheth all his subjects$ is a true saying still.
L7or Princes are the glass$ the school$ the boo%$
4here subjects! eyes do learn$ do read$ do loo%.L
------LIelocius et citius nos
:orrum"unt #itiorum e+em"la domestica$ magnis
:um subeant animos auctoribus.L------;?B/G
Their e+am"les are soonest follo'ed$ #ices entertained$ if they be "rofane$
irreligious$ lasci#ious$ riotous$ e"icures$ factious$ co#etous$ ambitious$
illiterate$ so 'ill the commons most "art be$ idle$ unthrifts$ "rone to
lust$ drun%ards$ and therefore "oor and needy (;Gree%& hae "enia stasin
em"oiei %ai %a%ourgianG$ for "o#erty begets sedition and #illainy) u"on all
occasions ready to mutiny and rebel$ discontent still$ com"laining$
murmuring$ grudging$ a"t to all outrages$ thefts$ treasons$ murders$
inno#ations$ in debt$ shifters$ cozeners$ outla's$ _Profligatae famae ac
#itae_. It 'as an old ;?BBG"olitician!s a"horism$ LThey that are "oor and
bad en#y rich$ hate good men$ abhor the "resent go#ernment$ 'ish for a ne'$
and 'ould ha#e all turned to"sy-tur#y.L 4hen :atiline rebelled in 1ome$ he
got a com"any of such debauched rogues together$ they 'ere his familiars
and coadjutors$ and such ha#e been your rebels most "art in all ages$ Dac%
:ade$ Tom 9tra'$ 6ette$ and his com"anions.
4here they be generally riotous and contentious$ 'here there be many
discords$ many la's$ many la'suits$ many la'yers and many "hysicians$ it is
a manifest sign of a distem"ered$ melancholy state$ as ;@CCGPlato long
since maintained& for 'here such %ind of men s'arm$ they 'ill ma%e more
'or% for themsel#es$ and that body "olitic diseased$ 'hich 'as other'ise
sound. A general mischief in these our times$ an insensible "lague$ and
ne#er so many of them& L'hich are no' multi"liedL (saith Mat. Geraldus$
;@C,Ga la'yer himself$) Las so many locusts$ not the "arents$ but the
"lagues of the country$ and for the most "art a su"ercilious$ bad$
co#etous$ litigious generation of men.L ;@C=G_:rumenimulga natio_ Fc. A
"urse-mil%ing nation$ a clamorous com"any$ go'ned #ultures$ ;@C.G_0ui e+
injuria #i#ent et sanguine ci#ium_$ thie#es and seminaries of discord<
'orse than any "ollers by the high'ay side$ _auri acci"itres$ auri
e+terebronides$ "ecuniarum hamiolae$ 0uadru"latores$ curiae har"agones$
fori tintinabula$ monstra hominum$ mangones_$ Fc. that ta%e u"on them to
ma%e "eace$ but are indeed the #ery disturbers of our "eace$ a com"any of
irreligious har"ies$ scra"ing$ gri"ing catch"oles$ (I mean our common
hungry "ettifoggers$ ;@C?G_rabulas forenses_$ lo#e and honour in the
meantime all good la's$ and 'orthy la'yers$ that are so many ;@C@Goracles
and "ilots of a 'ell-go#erned common'ealth). 4ithout art$ 'ithout judgment$
that do more harm$ as ;@C-G*i#y said$ _0uam bella e+terna$ fames$ morbi#e_$
than sic%ness$ 'ars$ hunger$ diseases< Land cause a most incredible
destruction of a common'ealth$L saith ;@CAG9esellius$ a famous ci#ilian
sometimes in Paris$ as i#y doth by an oa%$ embrace it so long$ until it
hath got the heart out of it$ so do they by such "laces they inhabit< no
counsel at all$ no justice$ no s"eech to be had$ _nisi eum "remulseris_$ he
must be fed still$ or else he is as mute as a fish$ better o"en an oyster
'ithout a %nife. _E+"erto crede_ (saith ;@C/G 9alisburiensis) _in manus
eorum millies incidi$ et :haron immitis 0ui nulli "e"ercit un0uam$ his
longe clementior est_< LI s"ea% out of e+"erience$ I ha#e been a thousand
times amongst them$ and :haron himself is more gentle than they< ;@CBGhe is
contented 'ith his single "ay$ but they multi"ly still$ they are ne#er
satisfied$L besides they ha#e _damnificas linguas_$ as he terms it$ _nisi
funibus argenteis #incias_$ they must be fed to say nothing$ and ;@,CGget
more to hold their "eace than 'e can to say our best. They 'ill s"ea% their
clients fair$ and in#ite them to their tables$ but as he follo's it$
;@,,GLof all injustice there is none so "ernicious as that of theirs$ 'hich
'hen they decei#e most$ 'ill seem to be honest men.L They ta%e u"on them to
be "eacema%ers$ _et fo#ere causas humilium_$ to hel" them to their right$
_"atrocinantur afflictis_$ ;@,=Gbut all is for their o'n good$ _ut loculos
"leniorom e+hauriant_$ they "lead for "oor men gratis$ but they are but as
a stale to catch others. If there be no jar$ ;@,.Gthey can ma%e a jar$ out
of the la' itself find still some 0uir% or other$ to set them at odds$ and
continue causes so long$ _lustra ali0uot_$ I %no' not ho' many years before
the cause is heard$ and 'hen !tis judged and determined by reason of some
tric%s and errors$ it is as fresh to begin$ after t'ice se#en years
sometimes$ as it 'as at first< and so they "rolong time$ delay suits till
they ha#e enriched themsel#es$ and beggared their clients. And$ as
;@,?G:ato in#eighed against Isocrates! scholars$ 'e may justly ta+ our
'rangling la'yers$ they do _consenescere in litibus_$ are so litigious and
busy here on earth$ that I thin% they 'ill "lead their client!s causes
hereafter$ some of them in hell. ;@,@G 9imlerus com"lains amongst the
9'issers of the ad#ocates in his time$ that 'hen they should ma%e an end$
they began contro#ersies$ and L"rotract their causes many years$ "ersuading
them their title is good$ till their "atrimonies be consumed$ and that they
ha#e s"ent more in see%ing than the thing is 'orth$ or they shall get by
the reco#ery.L 9o that he that goes to la'$ as the "ro#erb is$ ;@,-Gholds a
'olf by the ears$ or as a shee" in a storm runs for shelter to a brier$ if
he "rosecute his cause he is consumed$ if he surcease his suit he loseth
all< ;@,AG'hat differenceN They had 'ont heretofore$ saith Austin$ to end
matters$ _"er communes arbitros_< and so in 9'itzerland ('e are informed by
;@,/G9imlerus)$ Lthey had some common arbitrators or daysmen in e#ery to'n$
that made a friendly com"osition bet'i+t man and man$ and he much 'onders
at their honest sim"licity$ that could %ee" "eace so 'ell$ and end such
great causes by that means.L At ;@,BG7ez in Africa$ they ha#e neither
la'yers nor ad#ocates< but if there be any contro#ersies amongst them$ both
"arties "laintiff and defendant come to their Alfa%ins or chief judge$ Land
at once 'ithout any farther a""eals or "itiful delays$ the cause is heard
and ended.L 2ur forefathers$ as ;@=CGa 'orthy chorogra"her of ours
obser#es$ had 'ont _"auculis cruculis aureis_$ 'ith a fe' golden crosses$
and lines in #erse$ ma%e all con#eyances$ assurances. And such 'as the
candour and integrity of succeeding ages$ that a deed (as I ha#e oft seen)
to con#ey a 'hole manor$ 'as _im"licite_ contained in some t'enty lines or
thereabouts< li%e that scede or _9ytala *aconica_$ so much reno'ned of old
in all contracts$ 'hich ;@=,GTully so earnestly commends to Atticus$
Plutarch in his *ysander$ Aristotle _"olit._& Thucydides$ _lib. ,_$
;@==G3iodorus and 9uidus a""ro#e and magnify$ for that laconic bre#ity in
this %ind< and 'ell they might$ for$ according to ;@=.GTertullian$ _certa
sunt "aucis_$ there is much more certainty in fe'er 'ords. And so 'as it of
old throughout& but no' many s%ins of "archment 'ill scarce ser#e turn< he
that buys and sells a house$ must ha#e a house full of 'ritings$ there be
so many circumstances$ so many 'ords$ such tautological re"etitions of all
"articulars (to a#oid ca#illation they say)< but 'e find by our 'oeful
e+"erience$ that to subtle 'its it is a cause of much more contention and
#ariance$ and scarce any con#eyance so accurately "enned by one$ 'hich
another 'ill not find a crac% in$ or ca#il at< if any one 'ord be
mis"laced$ any little error$ all is disannulled. That 'hich is a la' today$
is none tomorro'< that 'hich is sound in one man!s o"inion$ is most faulty
to another< that in conclusion$ here is nothing amongst us but contention
and confusion$ 'e bandy one against another. And that 'hich long since
;@=?GPlutarch com"lained of them in Asia$ may be #erified in our times.
LThese men here assembled$ come not to sacrifice to their gods$ to offer
Du"iter their first-fruits$ or merriments to acchus< but an yearly disease
e+as"erating Asia hath brought them hither$ to ma%e an end of their
contro#ersies and la'suits.L !Tis _multitudo "erdentium et "ereuntium_$ a
destructi#e rout that see% one another!s ruin. 9uch most "art are our
ordinary suitors$ termers$ clients$ ne' stirs e#ery day$ mista%es$ errors$
ca#ils$ and at this "resent$ as I ha#e heard in some one court$ I %no' not
ho' many thousand causes& no "erson free$ no title almost good$ 'ith such
bitterness in follo'ing$ so many slights$ "rocrastinations$ delays$
forgery$ such cost (for infinite sums are inconsiderately s"ent)$ #iolence
and malice$ I %no' not by 'hose fault$ la'yers$ clients$ la's$ both or all&
but as Paul re"rehended the ;@=@G:orinthians long since$ I may more
"ositi#ely infer no'& LThere is a fault amongst you$ and I s"ea% it to your
shame$ Is there not a ;@=-G'ise man amongst you$ to judge bet'een his
brethrenN but that a brother goes to la' 'ith a brother.L And ;@=AG:hrist!s
counsel concerning la'suits$ 'as ne#er so fit to be inculcated as in this
age& ;@=/GLAgree 'ith thine ad#ersary 0uic%ly$L Fc. Matth. #. =@.
I could re"eat many such "articular grie#ances$ 'hich must disturb a body
"olitic. To shut u" all in brief$ 'here good go#ernment is$ "rudent and
'ise "rinces$ there all things thri#e and "ros"er$ "eace and ha""iness is
in that land& 'here it is other'ise$ all things are ugly to behold$ incult$
barbarous$ unci#il$ a "aradise is turned to a 'ilderness. This island
amongst the rest$ our ne+t neighbours the 7rench and Germans$ may be a
sufficient 'itness$ that in a short time by that "rudent "olicy of the
1omans$ 'as brought from barbarism< see but 'hat :aesar re"orts of us$ and
Tacitus of those old Germans$ they 'ere once as unci#il as they in
Iirginia$ yet by "lanting of colonies and good la's$ they became from
barbarous outla's$ ;@=BGto be full of rich and "o"ulous cities$ as no' they
are$ and most flourishing %ingdoms. E#en so might Iirginia$ and those 'ild
Irish ha#e been ci#ilised long since$ if that order had been heretofore
ta%en$ 'hich no' begins$ of "lanting colonies$ Fc. I ha#e read a
;@.CGdiscourse$ "rinted _anno_ ,-,=. L3isco#ering the true causes 'hy
Ireland 'as ne#er entirely subdued$ or brought under obedience to the cro'n
of England$ until the beginning of his Majesty!s ha""y reign.L Eet if his
reasons 'ere thoroughly scanned by a judicious "olitician$ I am afraid he
'ould not altogether be a""ro#ed$ but that it 'ould turn to the dishonour
of our nation$ to suffer it to lie so long 'aste. Eea$ and if some
tra#ellers should see (to come nearer home) those rich$ united "ro#inces of
5olland$ >ealand$ Fc.$ o#er against us< those neat cities and "o"ulous
to'ns$ full of most industrious artificers$ ;@.,Gso much land reco#ered
from the sea$ and so "ainfully "reser#ed by those artificial in#entions$ so
'onderfully a""ro#ed$ as that of emster in 5olland$ _ut nihil huic "ar aut
simile in#enias in toto orbe_$ saith ertius the geogra"her$ all the 'orld
cannot match it$ ;@.=Gso many na#igable channels from "lace to "lace$ made
by men!s hands$ Fc. and on the other side so many thousand acres of our
fens lie dro'ned$ our cities thin$ and those #ile$ "oor$ and ugly to behold
in res"ect of theirs$ our trades decayed$ our still running ri#ers sto""ed$
and that beneficial use of trans"ortation$ 'holly neglected$ so many ha#ens
#oid of shi"s and to'ns$ so many "ar%s and forests for "leasure$ barren
heaths$ so many #illages de"o"ulated$ Fc. I thin% sure he 'ould find some
I may not deny but that this nation of ours$ doth _bene audire a"ud
e+teros_$ is a most noble$ a most flourishing %ingdom$ by common consent of
all ;@..Ggeogra"hers$ historians$ "oliticians$ !tis _unica #elut ar+_$
;@.?Gand 'hich Kuintius in *i#y said of the inhabitants of Pelo"onnesus$
may be 'ell a""lied to us$ 'e are _testudines testa sua inclusi_$ li%e so
many tortoises in our shells$ safely defended by an angry sea$ as a 'all on
all sides. 2ur island hath many such honourable eulogiums< and as a learned
countryman of ours right 'ell hath it$ ;@.@GLE#er since the 8ormans first
coming into England$ this country both for military matters$ and all other
of ci#ility$ hath been "aralleled 'ith the most flourishing %ingdoms of
Euro"e and our :hristian 'orld$L a blessed$ a rich country$ and one of the
fortunate isles& and for some things ;@.-G"referred before other countries$
for e+"ert seamen$ our laborious disco#eries$ art of na#igation$ true
merchants$ they carry the bell a'ay from all other nations$ e#en the
Portugals and 5ollanders themsel#es< ;@.AGL'ithout all fear$L saith
oterus$ Lfurro'ing the ocean 'inter and summer$ and t'o of their ca"tains$
'ith no less #alour than fortune$ ha#e sailed round about the 'orld.L ;@./G
4e ha#e besides many "articular blessings$ 'hich our neighbours 'ant$ the
Gos"el truly "reached$ church disci"line established$ long "eace and
0uietness free from e+actions$ foreign fears$ in#asions$ domestical
seditions$ 'ell manured$ ;@.BGfortified by art$ and nature$ and no' most
ha""y in that fortunate union of England and 9cotland$ 'hich our
forefathers ha#e laboured to effect$ and desired to see. ut in 'hich 'e
e+cel all others$ a 'ise$ learned$ religious %ing$ another 8uma$ a second
Augustus$ a true Dosiah< most 'orthy senators$ a learned clergy$ an
obedient commonalty$ Fc. Eet amongst many roses$ some thistles gro'$ some
bad 'eeds and enormities$ 'hich much disturb the "eace of this body
"olitic$ ecli"se the honour and glory of it$ fit to be rooted out$ and 'ith
all s"eed to be reformed.
The first is idleness$ by reason of 'hich 'e ha#e many s'arms of rogues$
and beggars$ thie#es$ drun%ards$ and discontented "ersons ('hom *ycurgus in
Plutarch calls _morbos rei"ublicae_$ the boils of the common'ealth)$ many
"oor "eo"le in all our to'ns. _:i#itates ignobiles_$ as ;@?CGPolydore calls
them$ base-built cities$ inglorious$ "oor$ small$ rare in sight$ ruinous$
and thin of inhabitants. 2ur land is fertile 'e may not deny$ full of all
good things$ and 'hy doth it not then abound 'ith cities$ as 'ell as Italy$
7rance$ Germany$ the *o' :ountriesN because their "olicy hath been
other'ise$ and 'e are not so thrifty$ circums"ect$ industrious. Idleness is
the _malus genius_ of our nation. 7or as ;@?,Goterus justly argues$
fertility of a country is not enough$ e+ce"t art and industry be joined
unto it$ according to Aristotle$ riches are either natural or artificial<
natural are good land$ fair mines$ Fc. artificial$ are manufactures$ coins$
Fc. Many %ingdoms are fertile$ but thin of inhabitants$ as that 3uchy of
Piedmont in Italy$ 'hich *eander Albertus so much magnifies for corn$ 'ine$
fruits$ Fc.$ yet nothing near so "o"ulous as those 'hich are more barren.
;@?=GLEngland$L saith he$ L*ondon only e+ce"ted$ hath ne#er a "o"ulous
city$ and yet a fruitful country.L I find ?- cities and 'alled to'ns in
Alsatia$ a small "ro#ince in Germany$ @C castles$ an infinite number of
#illages$ no ground idle$ no not roc%y "laces$ or to"s of hills are
untilled$ as ;@?.GMunster informeth us. In ;@??GGreichgea$ a small
territory on the 8ec%er$ =? Italian miles o#er$ I read of =C 'alled to'ns$
innumerable #illages$ each one containing ,@C houses most "art$ besides
castles and noblemen!s "alaces. I obser#e in ;@?@GTuringe in 3utchland
(t'el#e miles o#er by their scale) ,= counties$ and in them ,?? cities$
=CCC #illages$ ,?? to'ns$ =@C castles. In ;@?-Ga#aria .? cities$ ?- to'ns$
Fc. ;@?AG_Portugallia interamnis_$ a small "lot of ground$ hath ,?-C
"arishes$ ,.C monasteries$ =CC bridges. Malta$ a barren island$ yields
=C$CCC inhabitants. ut of all the rest$ I admire *ues Guicciardine!s
relations of the *o' :ountries. 5olland hath =- cities$ ?CC great #illages.
>ealand ,C cities$ ,C= "arishes. rabant =- cities$ ,C= "arishes. 7landers
=/ cities$ BC to'ns$ ,,@? #illages$ besides abbeys$ castles$ Fc. The *o'
:ountries generally ha#e three cities at least for one of ours$ and those
far more "o"ulous and rich& and 'hat is the cause$ but their industry and
e+cellency in all manner of tradesN Their commerce$ 'hich is maintained by
a multitude of tradesmen$ so many e+cellent channels made by art and
o""ortune ha#ens$ to 'hich they build their cities< all 'hich 'e ha#e in
li%e measure$ or at least may ha#e. ut their chiefest loadstone 'hich
dra's all manner of commerce and merchandise$ 'hich maintains their "resent
estate$ is not fertility of soil$ but industry that enricheth them$ the
gold mines of Peru$ or 8o#a 5is"ania may not com"are 'ith them. They ha#e
neither gold nor sil#er of their o'n$ 'ine nor oil$ or scarce any corn
gro'ing in those united "ro#inces$ little or no 'ood$ tin$ lead$ iron$
sil%$ 'ool$ any stuff almost$ or metal< and yet 5ungary$ Transyl#ania$ that
brag of their mines$ fertile England cannot com"are 'ith them. I dare
boldly say$ that neither 7rance$ Tarentum$ A"ulia$ *ombardy$ or any "art of
Italy$ Ialentia in 9"ain$ or that "leasant Andalusia$ 'ith their e+cellent
fruits$ 'ine and oil$ t'o har#ests$ no not any "art of Euro"e is so
flourishing$ so rich$ so "o"ulous$ so full of good shi"s$ of 'ell-built
cities$ so abounding 'ith all things necessary for the use of man. !Tis our
Indies$ an e"itome of :hina$ and all by reason of their industry$ good
"olicy$ and commerce. Industry is a loadstone to dra' all good things< that
alone ma%es countries flourish$ cities "o"ulous$ ;@?/Gand 'ill enforce by
reason of much manure$ 'hich necessarily follo's$ a barren soil to be
fertile and good$ as shee"$ saith ;@?BG3ion$ mend a bad "asture.
Tell me "oliticians$ 'hy is that fruitful Palestina$ noble Greece$ Egy"t$
Asia Minor$ so much decayed$ and (mere carcases no') fallen from that they
'ereN The ground is the same$ but the go#ernment is altered$ the "eo"le are
gro'n slothful$ idle$ their good husbandry$ "olicy$ and industry is
decayed. _8on fatigata aut effaeta$ humus_$ as ;@@CG:olumella 'ell informs
9yl#inus$ _sed nostra fit inertia_$ Fc. May a man belie#e that 'hich
Aristotle in his "olitics$ Pausanias$ 9te"hanus$ 9o"hianus$ Gerbelius
relate of old GreeceN I find heretofore AC cities in E"irus o#erthro'n by
Paulus Aemilius$ a goodly "ro#ince in times "ast$ ;@@,Gno' left desolate of
good to'ns and almost inhabitants. 9i+ty-t'o cities in Macedonia in
9trabo!s time. I find .C in *aconia$ but no' scarce so many #illages$ saith
Gerbelius. If any man from Mount Taygetus should #ie' the country round
about$ and see _tot delicias$ tot urbes "er Pelo"onesum dis"ersas_$ so many
delicate and bra#e built cities 'ith such cost and e+0uisite cunning$ so
neatly set out in Pelo"onnesus$ ;@@=Ghe should "ercei#e them no' ruinous
and o#erthro'n$ burnt$ 'aste$ desolate$ and laid le#el 'ith the ground.
_Incredibile dictu_$ Fc. And as he laments$ _Kuis talia fando Tem"eret a
lachrymisN Kuis tam durus aut ferreus_$ (so he "rosecutes it). ;@@.G4ho is
he that can sufficiently condole and commiserate these ruinsN 4here are
those ?CCC cities of Egy"t$ those ,CC cities in :reteN Are they no' come to
t'oN 4hat saith Pliny and Aelian of old ItalyN There 'ere in former ages
,,-- cities& londus and Machia#el$ both grant them no' nothing near so
"o"ulous$ and full of good to'ns as in the time of Augustus (for no'
*eander Albertus can find but .CC at most)$ and if 'e may gi#e credit to
;@@?G*i#y$ not then so strong and "uissant as of old& LThey mustered AC
*egions in former times$ 'hich no' the %no'n 'orld 'ill scarce yield.L
Ale+ander built AC cities in a short s"ace for his "art$ our sultans and
Tur%s demolish t'ice as many$ and lea#e all desolate. Many 'ill not belie#e
but that our island of Great ritain is no' more "o"ulous than e#er it 'as<
yet let them read ede$ *eland and others$ they shall find it most
flourished in the 9a+on 5e"tarchy$ and in the :on0ueror!s time 'as far
better inhabited$ than at this "resent. 9ee that 3oomsday oo%$ and sho' me
those thousands of "arishes$ 'hich are no' decayed$ cities ruined$ #illages
de"o"ulated$ Fc. The lesser the territory is$ commonly$ the richer it is.
_Par#us sed bene cultus ager_. As those Athenian$ *acedaemonian$ Arcadian$
Aelian$ 9ycionian$ Messenian$ Fc. common'ealths of Greece ma%e am"le "roof$
as those im"erial cities and free states of Germany may 'itness$ those
:antons of 9'itzers$ 1heti$ Grisons$ 4alloons$ Territories of Tuscany$ *u%e
and 9enes of old$ Piedmont$ Mantua$ Ienice in Italy$ 1agusa$ Fc.
That "rince therefore as$ ;@@@Goterus ad#iseth$ that 'ill ha#e a rich
country$ and fair cities$ let him get good trades$ "ri#ileges$ "ainful
inhabitants$ artificers$ and suffer no rude matter un'rought$ as tin$ iron$
'ool$ lead$ Fc.$ to be trans"orted out of his country$--;@@-Ga thing in
"art seriously attem"ted amongst us$ but not effected. And because industry
of men$ and multitude of trade so much a#ails to the ornament and enriching
of a %ingdom< those ancient ;@@AGMassilians 'ould admit no man into their
city that had not some trade. 9elym the first Tur%ish em"eror "rocured a
thousand good artificers to be brought from Tauris to :onstantino"le. The
Polanders indented 'ith 5enry 3u%e of Anjou$ their ne' chosen %ing$ to
bring 'ith him an hundred families of artificers into Poland. Dames the
first in 9cotland (as ;@@/Guchanan 'rites) sent for the best artificers he
could get in Euro"e$ and ga#e them great re'ards to teach his subjects
their se#eral trades. Ed'ard the Third$ our most reno'ned %ing$ to his
eternal memory$ brought clothing first into this island$ trans"orting some
families of artificers from Gaunt hither. 5o' many goodly cities could I
rec%on u"$ that thri#e 'holly by trade$ 'here thousands of inhabitants li#e
singular 'ell by their fingers! ends& As 7lorence in Italy by ma%ing cloth
of gold< great Milan by sil%$ and all curious 'or%s< Arras in Artois by
those fair hangings< many cities in 9"ain$ many in 7rance$ Germany$ ha#e
none other maintenance$ es"ecially those 'ithin the land. ;@@BGMecca$ in
Arabia Petraea$ stands in a most unfruitful country$ that 'ants 'ater$
amongst the roc%s (as Iertomannus describes it)$ and yet it is a most
elegant and "leasant city$ by reason of the traffic of the east and 'est.
2rmus in Persia is a most famous mart-to'n$ hath nought else but the
o""ortunity of the ha#en to ma%e it flourish. :orinth$ a noble city (*umen
Greciae$ Tully calls it) the Eye of Greece$ by reason of :enchreas and
*echeus$ those e+cellent "orts$ dre' all that traffic of the Ionian and
Aegean seas to it< and yet the country about it 'as _cur#a et
su"erciliosa_$ as ;@-CG9trabo terms it$ rugged and harsh. 4e may say the
same of Athens$ Actium$ Thebes$ 9"arta$ and most of those to'ns in Greece.
8uremberg in Germany is sited in a most barren soil$ yet a noble im"erial
city$ by the sole industry of artificers$ and cunning trades$ they dra' the
riches of most countries to them$ so e+"ert in manufactures$ that as
9allust long since ga#e out of the li%e$ _9edem animae in e+tremis digitis
habent_$ their soul$ or _intellectus agens_$ 'as "laced in their fingers!
end< and so 'e may say of asil$ 9"ire$ :ambray$ 7ran%furt$ Fc. It is
almost incredible to s"ea% 'hat some 'rite of Me+ico and the cities
adjoining to it$ no "lace in the 'orld at their first disco#ery more
"o"ulous$ ;@-,GMat. 1iccius$ the Desuit$ and some others$ relate of the
industry of the :hinese most "o"ulous countries$ not a beggar or an idle
"erson to be seen$ and ho' by that means they "ros"er and flourish. 4e ha#e
the same means$ able bodies$ "liant 'its$ matter of all sorts$ 'ool$ fla+$
iron$ tin$ lead$ 'ood$ Fc.$ many e+cellent subjects to 'or% u"on$ only
industry is 'anting. 4e send our best commodities beyond the seas$ 'hich
they ma%e good use of to their necessities$ set themsel#es a 'or% about$
and se#erally im"ro#e$ sending the same to us bac% at dear rates$ or else
ma%e toys and baubles of the tails of them$ 'hich they sell to us again$ at
as great a rec%oning as the 'hole. In most of our cities$ some fe'
e+ce"ted$ li%e ;@-=G9"anish loiterers$ 'e li#e 'holly by ti""ling-inns and
alehouses. Malting are their best "loughs$ their greatest traffic to sell
ale. ;@-.GMeteran and some others object to us$ that 'e are no 'hit so
industrious as the 5ollanders& LManual tradesL (saith he) L'hich are more
curious or troublesome$ are 'holly e+ercised by strangers& they d'ell in a
sea full of fish$ but they are so idle$ they 'ill not catch so much as
shall ser#e their o'n turns$ but buy it of their neighbours.L Tush
;@-?G_Mare liberum_$ they fish under our noses$ and sell it to us 'hen they
ha#e done$ at their o'n "rices.
------LPudet haec o""robria nobis
Et dici "otuisse$ et non "otuisse refelli.L
I am ashamed to hear this objected by strangers$ and %no' not ho' to ans'er
Amongst our to'ns$ there is only ;@-@G*ondon that bears the face of a city$
;@--G_E"itome ritanniae_$ a famous em"orium$ second to none beyond seas$ a
noble mart& but _sola crescit$ decrescentibus aliis_< and yet$ in my
slender judgment$ defecti#e in many things. The rest (;@-AGsome fe'
e+ce"ted) are in mean estate$ ruinous most "art$ "oor$ and full of beggars$
by reason of their decayed trades$ neglected or bad "olicy$ idleness of
their inhabitants$ riot$ 'hich had rather beg or loiter$ and be ready to
star#e$ than 'or%.
I cannot deny but that something may be said in defence of our cities$
;@-/Gthat they are not so fair built$ (for the sole magnificence of this
%ingdom (concerning buildings) hath been of old in those 8orman castles and
religious houses$) so rich$ thic% sited$ "o"ulous$ as in some other
countries< besides the reasons :ardan gi#es$ _9ubtil. *ib. ,,._ 'e 'ant
'ine and oil$ their t'o har#ests$ 'e d'ell in a colder air$ and for that
cause must a little more liberally ;@-BGfeed of flesh$ as all northern
countries do& our "ro#isions 'ill not therefore e+tend to the maintenance
of so many< yet not'ithstanding 'e ha#e matter of all sorts$ an o"en sea
for traffic$ as 'ell as the rest$ goodly ha#ens. And ho' can 'e e+cuse our
negligence$ our riot$ drun%enness$ Fc.$ and such enormities that follo' itN
4e ha#e e+cellent la's enacted$ you 'ill say$ se#ere statutes$ houses of
correction$ Fc.$ to small "ur"ose it seems< it is not houses 'ill ser#e$
but cities of correction< ;@ACGour trades generally ought to be reformed$
'ants su""lied. In other countries they ha#e the same grie#ances$ I
confess$ but that doth not e+cuse us$ ;@A,G'ants$ defects$ enormities$ idle
drones$ tumults$ discords$ contention$ la'suits$ many la's made against
them to re"ress those innumerable bra'ls and la'suits$ e+cess in a""arel$
diet$ decay of tillage$ de"o"ulations$ ;@A=Ges"ecially against rogues$
beggars$ Egy"tian #agabonds (so termed at least) 'hich ha#e ;@A.G s'armed
all o#er Germany$ 7rance$ Italy$ Poland$ as you may read in ;@A?G Munster$
:ranzius$ and A#entinus< as those Tartars and Arabians at this day do in
the eastern countries& yet such has been the ini0uity of all ages$ as it
seems to small "ur"ose. _8emo in nostra ci#itate mendicus esto_$ ;@A@G
saith Plato& he 'ill ha#e them "urged from a ;@A-Gcommon'ealth$ ;@AAGLas a
bad humour from the body$L that are li%e so many ulcers and boils$ and must
be cured before the melancholy body can be eased.
4hat :arolus Magnus$ the :hinese$ the 9"aniards$ the du%e of 9a+ony and
many other states ha#e decreed in this case$ read Arniseus$ _ca". ,B_<
oterus$ _libro /$ ca". =_< 2sorius _de 1ubus gest. Eman. lib. ,,._ 4hen a
country is o#erstoc%ed 'ith "eo"le$ as a "asture is oft o#erlaid 'ith
cattle$ they had 'ont in former times to disburden themsel#es$ by sending
out colonies$ or by 'ars$ as those old 1omans< or by em"loying them at home
about some "ublic buildings$ as bridges$ road'ays$ for 'hich those 1omans
'ere famous in this island< as Augustus :aesar did in 1ome$ the 9"aniards
in their Indian mines$ as at Potosi in Peru$ 'here some .C$CCC men are
still at 'or%$ -CCC furnaces e#er boiling$ Fc. ;@A/Ga0ueducts$ bridges$
ha#ens$ those stu"end 'or%s of Trajan$ :laudius$ at ;@ABG2stium$
3ioclesiani Therma$ 7ucinus *acus$ that Piraeum in Athens$ made by
Themistocles$ am"itheatrums of curious marble$ as at Ierona$ :i#itas
Phili""i$ and 5eraclea in Thrace$ those A""ian and 7laminian 'ays$
"rodigious 'or%s all may 'itness< and rather than they should be ;@/CGidle$
as those ;@/,G Egy"tian Pharaohs$ Maris$ and 9esostris did$ to tas% their
subjects to build unnecessary "yramids$ obelis%s$ labyrinths$ channels$
la%es$ gigantic 'or%s all$ to di#ert them from rebellion$ riot$
drun%enness$ ;@/=G_Kuo scilicet alantur et ne #agando laborare desuescant_.
Another eyesore is that 'ant of conduct and na#igable ri#ers$ a great
blemish as ;@/.Goterus$ ;@/?G5i""olitus a :ollibus$ and other "oliticians
hold$ if it be neglected in a common'ealth. Admirable cost and charge is
besto'ed in the *o' :ountries on this behalf$ in the duchy of Milan$
territory of Padua$ in ;@/@G7rance$ Italy$ :hina$ and so li%e'ise about
corri#ations of 'ater to moisten and refresh barren grounds$ to drain fens$
bogs$ and moors. Massinissa made many in'ard "arts of arbary and 8umidia
in Africa$ before his time incult and horrid$ fruitful and bartable by this
means. Great industry is generally used all o#er the eastern countries in
this %ind$ es"ecially in Egy"t$ about abylon and 3amascus$ as Iertomannus
and ;@/-GGotardus Arthus relate< about arcelona$ 9ego#ia$ Murcia$ and many
other "laces of 9"ain$ Milan in Italy< by reason of 'hich$ their soil is
much im"o#erished$ and infinite commodities arise to the inhabitants.
The Tur%s of late attem"ted to cut that Isthmus bet'i+t Africa and Asia$
'hich ;@/AG9esostris and 3arius$ and some Pharaohs of Egy"t had formerly
underta%en$ but 'ith ill success$ as ;@//G3iodorus 9iculus records$ and
Pliny$ for that 1ed 9ea being three ;@/BGcubits higher than Egy"t$ 'ould
ha#e dro'ned all the country$ _cae"to destiterant_$ they left off< yet as
the same ;@BCG3iodorus 'rites$ Ptolemy rene'ed the 'or% many years after$
and absol#ed in it a more o""ortune "lace.
That Isthmus of :orinth 'as li%e'ise underta%en to be made na#igable by
3emetrius$ by Dulius :aesar$ 8ero$ 3omitian$ 5erodes Atticus$ to ma%e a
s"eedy ;@B,G"assage$ and less dangerous$ from the Ionian and Aegean seas<
but because it could not be so 'ell effected$ the Pelo"onnesians built a
'all li%e our Picts! 'all about 9chaenute$ 'here 8e"tune!s tem"le stood$
and in the shortest cut o#er the Isthmus$ of 'hich 3iodorus$ _lib. ,,._
5erodotus$ _lib. /. Hran._ 2ur latter 'riters call it 5e+amilium$ 'hich
Amurath the Tur% demolished$ the Ienetians$ _anno_ ,?@.$ re"aired in ,@
days 'ith .C$CCC men. 9ome$ saith Acosta$ 'ould ha#e a "assage cut from
Panama to 8ombre de 3ios in America< but Thuanus and 9erres the 7rench
historians s"ea% of a famous a0ueduct in 7rance$ intended in 5enry the
7ourth!s time$ from the *oire to the 9eine$ and from 1hodanus to the *oire.
The li%e to 'hich 'as formerly assayed by 3omitian the em"eror$ ;@B=Gfrom
Arar to Moselle$ 'hich :ornelius Tacitus s"ea%s of in the ,. of his annals$
after by :harles the Great and others. Much cost hath in former times been
besto'ed in either ne' ma%ing or mending channels of ri#ers$ and their
"assages$ (as Aurelianus did by Tiber to ma%e it na#igable to 1ome$ to
con#ey corn from Egy"t to the city$ _#adum al#ei tumentis effodit_ saith
Io"iscus$ _et Tiberis ri"as e+tru+it_ he cut fords$ made ban%s$ Fc.)
decayed ha#ens$ 'hich :laudius the em"eror 'ith infinite "ains and charges
attem"ted at 2stia$ as I ha#e said$ the Ienetians at this day to "reser#e
their city< many e+cellent means to enrich their territories$ ha#e been
fostered$ in#ented in most "ro#inces of Euro"e$ as "lanting some Indian
"lants amongst us$ sil%'orms$ ;@B.Gthe #ery mulberry lea#es in the "lains
of Granada yield .C$CCC cro'ns "er annum to the %ing of 9"ain!s coffers$
besides those many trades and artificers that are busied about them in the
%ingdom of Granada$ Murcia$ and all o#er 9"ain. In 7rance a great benefit
is raised by salt$ Fc.$ 'hether these things might not be as ha""ily
attem"ted 'ith us$ and 'ith li%e success$ it may be contro#erted$ sil%'orms
(I mean) #ines$ fir trees$ Fc. :ardan e+horts Ed'ard the 9i+th to "lant
oli#es$ and is fully "ersuaded they 'ould "ros"er in this island. 4ith us$
na#igable ri#ers are most "art neglected< our streams are not great$ I
confess$ by reason of the narro'ness of the island$ yet they run smoothly
and e#en$ not headlong$ s'ift$ or amongst roc%s and shel#es$ as foaming
1hodanus and *oire in 7rance$ Tigris in Meso"otamia$ #iolent 3urius in
9"ain$ 'ith cataracts and 'hirl"ools$ as the 1hine$ and 3anubius$ about
9haffausen$ *ausenburgh$ *inz$ and :remmes$ to endanger na#igators< or
broad shallo'$ as 8ec%ar in the Palatinate$ Tibris in Italy< but calm and
fair as Arar in 7rance$ 5ebrus in Macedonia$ Eurotas in *aconia$ they
gently glide along$ and might as 'ell be re"aired many of them (I mean 4ye$
Trent$ 2use$ Thamisis at 2+ford$ the defect of 'hich 'e feel in the mean
time) as the ri#er of *ee from 4are to *ondon. . At'ater of old$ or as
some 'ill 5enry I. ;@B?Gmade a channel from Trent to *incoln$ na#igable<
'hich no'$ saith Mr. :amden$ is decayed$ and much mention is made of
anchors$ and such li%e monuments found about old ;@B@GIerulamium$ good
shi"s ha#e formerly come to E+eter$ and many such "laces$ 'hose channels$
ha#ens$ "orts are no' barred and rejected. 4e contemn this benefit of
carriage by 'aters$ and are therefore com"elled in the inner "arts of this
island$ because "ortage is so dear$ to eat u" our commodities oursel#es$
and li#e li%e so many boars in a sty$ for 'ant of #ent and utterance.
4e ha#e many e+cellent ha#ens$ royal ha#ens$ 7almouth$ Portsmouth$ Milford$
Fc. e0ui#alent if not to be "referred to that Indian 5a#ana$ old rundusium
in Italy$ Aulis in Greece$ Ambracia in Acarnia$ 9uda in :rete$ 'hich ha#e
fe' shi"s in them$ little or no traffic or trade$ 'hich ha#e scarce a
#illage on them$ able to bear great cities$ _sed #iderint "olitici_. I
could here justly ta+ many other neglects$ abuses$ errors$ defects among
us$ and in other countries$ de"o"ulations$ riot$ drun%enness$ Fc. and many
such$ _0uae nunc in aurem susurrare$ non libet_. ut I must ta%e heed$ _ne
0uid gra#ius dicam_$ that I do not o#ershoot myself$ _9us Miner#am_$ I am
forth of my element$ as you "erad#enture su""ose< and sometimes _#eritas
odium "arit_$ as he said$ L#erjuice and oatmeal is good for a "arrot.L 7or
as *ucian said of an historian$ I say of a "olitician. 5e that 'ill freely
s"ea% and 'rite$ must be for e#er no subject$ under no "rince or la'$ but
lay out the matter truly as it is$ not caring 'hat any can$ 'ill$ li%e or
4e ha#e good la's$ I deny not$ to rectify such enormities$ and so in all
other countries$ but it seems not al'ays to good "ur"ose. 4e had need of
some general #isitor in our age$ that should reform 'hat is amiss< a just
army of 1osy-cross men$ for they 'ill amend all matters (they say)
religion$ "olicy$ manners$ 'ith arts$ sciences$ Fc. Another Attila$
Tamerlane$ 5ercules$ to stri#e 'ith Achelous$ _Augeae stabulum "urgare_$ to
subdue tyrants$ as ;@B-Ghe did 3iomedes and usiris& to e+"el thie#es$ as
he did :acus and *acinius& to #indicate "oor ca"ti#es$ as he did 5esione&
to "ass the torrid zone$ the deserts of *ibya$ and "urge the 'orld of
monsters and :entaurs& or another Theban :rates to reform our manners$ to
com"ose 0uarrels and contro#ersies$ as in his time he did$ and 'as
therefore adored for a god in Athens. LAs 5ercules ;@BAG"urged the 'orld of
monsters$ and subdued them$ so did he fight against en#y$ lust$ anger$
a#arice$ Fc. and all those feral #ices and monsters of the mind.L It 'ere
to be 'ished 'e had some such #isitor$ or if 'ishing 'ould ser#e$ one had
such a ring or rings$ as Timolaus desired in ;@B/G*ucian$ by #irtue of
'hich he should be as strong as ,C$CCC men$ or an army of giants$ go
in#isible$ o"en gates and castle doors$ ha#e 'hat treasure he 'ould$
trans"ort himself in an instant to 'hat "lace he desired$ alter affections$
cure all manner of diseases$ that he might range o#er the 'orld$ and reform
all distressed states and "ersons$ as he 'ould himself. 5e might reduce
those 'andering Tartars in order$ that infest :hina on the one side$
Musco#y$ Poland$ on the other< and tame the #agabond Arabians that rob and
s"oil those eastern countries$ that they should ne#er use more cara#ans$ or
janissaries to conduct them. 5e might root out barbarism out of America$
and fully disco#er _Terra Australis Incognita_$ find out the north-east and
north-'est "assages$ drain those mighty Maeotian fens$ cut do'n those #ast
5ircinian 'oods$ irrigate those barren Arabian deserts$ Fc. cure us of our
e"idemical diseases$ _scorbutum$ "lica$ morbus 8ea"olitanus_$ Fc. end all
our idle contro#ersies$ cut off our tumultuous desires$ inordinate lusts$
root out atheism$ im"iety$ heresy$ schism and su"erstition$ 'hich no' so
crucify the 'orld$ catechise gross ignorance$ "urge Italy of lu+ury and
riot$ 9"ain of su"erstition and jealousy$ Germany of drun%enness$ all our
northern country of gluttony and intem"erance$ castigate our hard-hearted
"arents$ masters$ tutors< lash disobedient children$ negligent ser#ants$
correct these s"endthrifts and "rodigal sons$ enforce idle "ersons to 'or%$
dri#e drun%ards off the alehouse$ re"ress thie#es$ #isit corru"t and
tyrannizing magistrates$ Fc. ut as *. *icinius ta+ed Timolaus$ you may us.
These are #ain$ absurd and ridiculous 'ishes not to be ho"ed& all must be
as it is$ ;@BBGocchalinus may cite common'ealths to come before A"ollo$
and see% to reform the 'orld itself by commissioners$ but there is no
remedy$ it may not be redressed$ _desinent homines tum demum stultescere
0uando esse desinent_$ so long as they can 'ag their beards$ they 'ill "lay
the %na#es and fools.
ecause$ therefore$ it is a thing so difficult$ im"ossible$ and far beyond
5ercules labours to be "erformed< let them be rude$ stu"id$ ignorant$
incult$ _la"is su"er la"idem sedeat_$ and as the ;-CCGa"ologist 'ill$
_res". tussi$ et gra#eolentia laboret$ mundus #itio_$ let them be barbarous
as they are$ let them ;-C,Gtyrannise$ e"icurise$ o""ress$ lu+uriate$
consume themsel#es 'ith factions$ su"erstitions$ la'suits$ 'ars and
contentions$ li#e in riot$ "o#erty$ 'ant$ misery< rebel$ 'allo' as so many
s'ine in their o'n dung$ 'ith Hlysses! com"anions$ _stultos jubeo esse
libenter_. I 'ill yet$ to satisfy and "lease myself$ ma%e an Hto"ia of mine
o'n$ a ne' Atlantis$ a "oetical common'ealth of mine o'n$ in 'hich I 'ill
freely domineer$ build cities$ ma%e la's$ statutes$ as I list myself. And
'hy may I notN--;-C=G_Pictoribus at0ue "oetis_$ Fc. Eou %no' 'hat liberty
"oets e#er had$ and besides$ my "redecessor 3emocritus 'as a "olitician$ a
recorder of Abdera$ a la' ma%er as some say< and 'hy may not I "resume so
much as he didN 5o'soe#er I 'ill ad#enture. 7or the site$ if you 'ill needs
urge me to it$ I am not fully resol#ed$ it may be in _Terra Australi
Incognita_$ there is room enough (for of my %no'ledge neither that hungry
9"aniard$ ;-C.Gnor Mercurius ritannicus$ ha#e yet disco#ered half of it)
or else one of these floating islands in Mare del >ur$ 'hich li%e the
:yanian isles in the Eu+ine sea$ alter their "lace$ and are accessible only
at set times$ and to some fe' "ersons< or one of the fortunate isles$ for
'ho %no's yet 'here$ or 'hich they areN there is room enough in the inner
"arts of America$ and northern coasts of Asia. ut I 'ill choose a site$
'hose latitude shall be ?@ degrees (I res"ect not minutes) in the midst of
the tem"erate zone$ or "erha"s under the e0uator$ that ;-C?G"aradise of the
'orld$ _ubi sem"er #irens laurus_$ Fc. 'here is a "er"etual s"ring& the
longitude for some reasons I 'ill conceal. Eet Lbe it %no'n to all men by
these "resents$L that if any honest gentleman 'ill send in so much money$
as :ardan allo's an astrologer for casting a nati#ity$ he shall be a
sharer$ I 'ill ac0uaint him 'ith my "roject$ or if any 'orthy man 'ill
stand for any tem"oral or s"iritual office or dignity$ (for as he said of
his archbisho"ric of Hto"ia$ !tis _sanctus ambitus_$ and not amiss to be
sought after$) it shall be freely gi#en 'ithout all intercessions$ bribes$
letters$ Fc. his o'n 'orth shall be the best s"o%esman< and because 'e
shall admit of no de"uties or ad#o'sons$ if he be sufficiently 0ualified$
and as able as 'illing to e+ecute the "lace himself$ be shall ha#e "resent
"ossession. It shall be di#ided into ,= or ,. "ro#inces$ and those by
hills$ ri#ers$ road'ays$ or some more eminent limits e+actly bounded. Each
"ro#ince shall ha#e a metro"olis$ 'hich shall be so "laced as a centre
almost in a circumference$ and the rest at e0ual distances$ some ,= Italian
miles asunder$ or thereabout$ and in them shall be sold all things
necessary for the use of man< _statis horis et diebus_$ no mar%et to'ns$
mar%ets or fairs$ for they do but beggar cities (no #illage shall stand
abo#e -$ A$ or / miles from a city) e+ce"t those em"oriums 'hich are by the
sea side$ general sta"les$ marts$ as Ant'er"$ Ienice$ ergen of old$
*ondon$ Fc. cities most "art shall be situated u"on na#igable ri#ers or
la%es$ cree%s$ ha#ens< and for their form$ regular$ round$ s0uare$ or long
s0uare$ ;-C@G'ith fair$ broad$ and straight ;-C-Gstreets$ houses uniform$
built of bric% and stone$ li%e ruges$ russels$ 1hegium *e"idi$ erne in
9'itzerland$ Milan$ Mantua$ :rema$ :ambalu in Tartary$ described by M.
Polus$ or that Ienetian Palma. I 'ill admit #ery fe' or no suburbs$ and
those of baser building$ 'alls only to %ee" out man and horse$ e+ce"t it be
in some frontier to'ns$ or by the sea side$ and those to be fortified ;-CAG
after the latest manner of fortification$ and situated u"on con#enient
ha#ens$ or o""ortune "laces. In e#ery so built city$ I 'ill ha#e con#enient
churches$ and se"arate "laces to bury the dead in$ not in churchyards< a
_citadella_ (in some$ not all) to command it$ "risons for offenders$
o""ortune mar%et "laces of all sorts$ for corn$ meat$ cattle$ fuel$ fish$
commodious courts of justice$ "ublic halls for all societies$ bourses$
meeting "laces$ armouries$ ;-C/Gin 'hich shall be %e"t engines for
0uenching of fire$ artillery gardens$ "ublic 'al%s$ theatres$ and s"acious
fields allotted for all gymnastic s"orts$ and honest recreations$ hos"itals
of all %inds$ for children$ or"hans$ old fol%s$ sic% men$ mad men$
soldiers$ "est-houses$ Fc. not built _"recario_$ or by gouty benefactors$
'ho$ 'hen by fraud and ra"ine they ha#e e+torted all their li#es$ o""ressed
'hole "ro#inces$ societies$ Fc. gi#e something to "ious uses$ build a
satisfactory alms-house$ school or bridge$ Fc. at their last end$ or before
"erha"s$ 'hich is no other'ise than to steal a goose$ and stic% do'n a
feather$ rob a thousand to relie#e ten< and those hos"itals so built and
maintained$ not by collections$ bene#olences$ donaries$ for a set number$
(as in ours$) just so many and no more at such a rate$ but for all those
'ho stand in need$ be they more or less$ and that _e+ "ublico aerario_$ and
so still maintained$ _non nobis solum nati sumus_$ Fc. I 'ill ha#e conduits
of s'eet and good 'ater$ a"tly dis"osed in each to'n$ common ;-CBG
granaries$ as at 3resden in Misnia$ 9tetein in Pomerland$ 8oremberg$ Fc.
:olleges of mathematicians$ musicians$ and actors$ as of old at *abedum in
Ionia$ ;-,CGalchemists$ "hysicians$ artists$ and "hiloso"hers& that all
arts and sciences may sooner be "erfected and better learned< and "ublic
historiogra"hers$ as amongst those ancient ;-,,GPersians$ _0ui in
commentarios referebant 0uae memoratu digna gerebantur_$ informed and
a""ointed by the state to register all famous acts$ and not by each
insufficient scribbler$ "artial or "arasitical "edant$ as in our times. I
'ill "ro#ide "ublic schools of all %inds$ singing$ dancing$ fencing$ Fc.
es"ecially of grammar and languages$ not to be taught by those tedious
"rece"ts ordinarily used$ but by use$ e+am"le$ con#ersation$ ;-,=Gas
tra#ellers learn abroad$ and nurses teach their children& as I 'ill ha#e
all such "laces$ so 'ill I ordain ;-,.G"ublic go#ernors$ fit officers to
each "lace$ treasurers$ aediles$ 0uaestors$ o#erseers of "u"ils$ 'ido's!
goods$ and all "ublic houses$ Fc. and those once a year to ma%e strict
accounts of all recei"ts$ e+"enses$ to a#oid confusion$ _et sic fiet ut non
absumant_ (as Pliny to Trajan$) _0uad "udeat dicere_. They shall be
subordinate to those higher officers and go#ernors of each city$ 'hich
shall not be "oor tradesmen$ and mean artificers$ but noblemen and
gentlemen$ 'hich shall be tied to residence in those to'ns they d'ell ne+t$
at such set times and seasons& for I see no reason ('hich ;-,?G5i""olitus
com"lains of) Lthat it should be more dishonourable for noblemen to go#ern
the city than the country$ or unseemly to d'ell there no'$ than of old.L
;-,@GI 'ill ha#e no bogs$ fens$ marshes$ #ast 'oods$ deserts$ heaths$
commons$ but all enclosed< (yet not de"o"ulated$ and therefore ta%e heed
you mista%e me not) for that 'hich is common$ and e#ery man!s$ is no man!s<
the richest countries are still enclosed$ as Esse+$ 6ent$ 'ith us$ Fc.
9"ain$ Italy< and 'here enclosures are least in 0uantity$ they are best
;-,-Ghusbanded$ as about 7lorence in Italy$ 3amascus in 9yria$ Fc. 'hich
are li%er gardens than fields. I 'ill not ha#e a barren acre in all my
territories$ not so much as the to"s of mountains& 'here nature fails$ it
shall be su""lied by art& ;-,AGla%es and ri#ers shall not be left desolate.
All common high'ays$ bridges$ ban%s$ corri#ations of 'aters$ a0ueducts$
channels$ "ublic 'or%s$ buildings$ Fc. out of a ;-,/Gcommon stoc%$
curiously maintained and %e"t in re"air< no de"o"ulations$ engrossings$
alterations of 'ood$ arable$ but by the consent of some su"er#isors that
shall be a""ointed for that "ur"ose$ to see 'hat reformation ought to be
had in all "laces$ 'hat is amiss$ ho' to hel" it$ _et 0uid 0uae0ue ferat
regio$ et 0uid 0uae0ue recuset_$ 'hat ground is a"test for 'ood$ 'hat for
corn$ 'hat for cattle$ gardens$ orchards$ fish"onds$ Fc. 'ith a charitable
di#ision in e#ery #illage$ (not one domineering house greedily to s'allo'
u" all$ 'hich is too common 'ith us) 'hat for lords$ ;-,BG'hat for tenants<
and because they shall be better encouraged to im"ro#e such lands they
hold$ manure$ "lant trees$ drain$ fence$ Fc. they shall ha#e long leases$ a
%no'n rent$ and %no'n fine to free them from those intolerable e+actions of
tyrannizing landlords. These su"er#isors shall li%e'ise a""oint 'hat
0uantity of land in each manor is fit for the lord!s demesnes$ ;-=CG'hat
for holding of tenants$ ho' it ought to be husbanded$ _ut ;-=,Gmagnetis
e0uis$ Minyae gens cognita remis_$ ho' to be manured$ tilled$ rectified$
;-==G_hic segetes #eniunt$ illic felicius u#ae$ arborei foetus alibi$ at0ue
injussa #irescunt Gramina_$ and 'hat "ro"ortion is fit for all callings$
because "ri#ate "rofessors are many times idiots$ ill husbands$ o""ressors$
co#etous$ and %no' not ho' to im"ro#e their o'n$ or else 'holly res"ect
their o'n$ and not "ublic good.
Hto"ian "arity is a %ind of go#ernment$ to be 'ished for$ ;-=.Grather than
effected$ _1es"ub. :hristiano"olitana_$ :am"anella!s city of the 9un$ and
that ne' Atlantis$ 'itty fictions$ but mere chimeras< and Plato!s community
in many things is im"ious$ absurd and ridiculous$ it ta%es a'ay all
s"lendour and magnificence. I 'ill ha#e se#eral orders$ degrees of
nobility$ and those hereditary$ not rejecting younger brothers in the mean
time$ for they shall be sufficiently "ro#ided for by "ensions$ or so
0ualified$ brought u" in some honest calling$ they shall be able to li#e of
themsel#es. I 'ill ha#e such a "ro"ortion of ground belonging to e#ery
barony$ he that buys the land shall buy the barony$ he that by riot
consumes his "atrimony$ and ancient demesnes$ shall forfeit his honours.
;-=?GAs some dignities shall be hereditary$ so some again by election$ or
by gift (besides free officers$ "ensions$ annuities$) li%e our bisho"rics$
"rebends$ the assa!s "alaces in Tur%ey$ the ;-=@G"rocurator!s houses and
offices in Ienice$ 'hich$ li%e the golden a""le$ shall be gi#en to the
'orthiest$ and best deser#ing both in 'ar and "eace$ as a re'ard of their
'orth and good ser#ice$ as so many goals for all to aim at$ (_honos alit
artes_) and encouragements to others. 7or I hate these se#ere$ unnatural$
harsh$ German$ 7rench$ and Ienetian decrees$ 'hich e+clude "lebeians from
honours$ be they ne#er so 'ise$ rich$ #irtuous$ #aliant$ and 'ell
0ualified$ they must not be "atricians$ but %ee" their o'n ran%$ this is
_naturae bellum inferre_$ odious to God and men$ I abhor it. My form of
go#ernment shall be monarchical.
;-=-G Lnun0uam libertas gratior e+tat$
Kuam sub 1ege "io$L Fc.
fe' la's$ but those se#erely %e"t$ "lainly "ut do'n$ and in the mother
tongue$ that e#ery man may understand. E#ery city shall ha#e a "eculiar
trade or "ri#ilege$ by 'hich it shall be chiefly maintained& ;-=AGand
"arents shall teach their children one of three at least$ bring u" and
instruct them in the mysteries of their o'n trade. In each to'n these
se#eral tradesmen shall be so a"tly dis"osed$ as they shall free the rest
from danger or offence& fire-trades$ as smiths$ forge-men$ bre'ers$ ba%ers$
metal-men$ Fc.$ shall d'ell a"art by themsel#es& dyers$ tanners$
fellmongers$ and such as use 'ater in con#enient "laces by themsel#es&
noisome or fulsome for bad smells$ as butchers! slaughterhouses$ chandlers$
curriers$ in remote "laces$ and some bac% lanes. 7raternities and
com"anies$ I a""ro#e of$ as merchants! bourses$ colleges of druggists$
"hysicians$ musicians$ Fc.$ but all trades to be rated in the sale of
'ares$ as our cler%s of the mar%et do ba%ers and bre'ers< corn itself$ 'hat
scarcity soe#er shall come$ not to e+tend such a "rice. 2f such 'ares as
are trans"orted or brought in$ ;-=/Gif they be necessary$ commodious$ and
such as nearly concern man!s life$ as corn$ 'ood$ coal$ Fc.$ and such
"ro#ision 'e cannot 'ant$ I 'ill ha#e little or no custom "aid$ no ta+es<
but for such things as are for "leasure$ delight$ or ornament$ as 'ine$
s"ice$ tobacco$ sil%$ #el#et$ cloth of gold$ lace$ je'els$ Fc.$ a greater
im"ost. I 'ill ha#e certain shi"s sent out for ne' disco#eries e#ery year$
;-=BGand some discreet men a""ointed to tra#el into all neighbouring
%ingdoms by land$ 'hich shall obser#e 'hat artificial in#entions and good
la's are in other countries$ customs$ alterations$ or aught else$
concerning 'ar or "eace$ 'hich may tend to the common good. Ecclesiastical
disci"line$ _"enes E"isco"os_$ subordinate as the other. 8o im"ro"riations$
no lay "atrons of church li#ings$ or one "ri#ate man$ but common societies$
cor"orations$ Fc.$ and those rectors of benefices to be chosen out of the
Hni#ersities$ e+amined and a""ro#ed$ as the literati in :hina. 8o "arish to
contain abo#e a thousand auditors. If it 'ere "ossible$ I 'ould ha#e such
"riest as should imitate :hrist$ charitable la'yers should lo#e their
neighbours as themsel#es$ tem"erate and modest "hysicians$ "oliticians
contemn the 'orld$ "hiloso"hers should %no' themsel#es$ noblemen li#e
honestly$ tradesmen lea#e lying and cozening$ magistrates corru"tion$ Fc.$
but this is im"ossible$ I must get such as I may. I 'ill therefore ha#e
;-.CGof la'yers$ judges$ ad#ocates$ "hysicians$ chirurgeons$ Fc.$ a set
number$ ;-.,Gand e#ery man$ if it be "ossible$ to "lead his o'n cause$ to
tell that tale to the judge 'hich he doth to his ad#ocate$ as at 7ez in
Africa$ antam$ Ale""o$ 1agusa$ _suam 0uis0ue causam dicere tenetur_. Those
ad#ocates$ chirurgeons$ and ;-.=G"hysicians$ 'hich are allo'ed to be
maintained out of the ;-..Gcommon treasury$ no fees to be gi#en or ta%en
u"on "ain of losing their "laces< or if they do$ #ery small fees$ and 'hen
the ;-.?Gcause is fully ended. ;-.@G5e that sues any man shall "ut in a
"ledge$ 'hich if it be "ro#ed he hath 'rongfully sued his ad#ersary$ rashly
or maliciously$ he shall forfeit$ and lose. 2r else before any suit begin$
the "laintiff shall ha#e his com"laint a""ro#ed by a set delegacy to that
"ur"ose< if it be of moment he shall be suffered as before$ to "roceed$ if
other'ise they shall determine it. All causes shall be "leaded _su""resso
nomine_$ the "arties! names concealed$ if some circumstances do not
other'ise re0uire. Dudges and other officers shall be a"tly dis"osed in
each "ro#ince$ #illages$ cities$ as common arbitrators to hear causes$ and
end all contro#ersies$ and those not single$ but three at least on the
bench at once$ to determine or gi#e sentence$ and those again to sit by
turns or lots$ and not to continue still in the same office. 8o contro#ersy
to de"end abo#e a year$ but 'ithout all delays and further a""eals to be
s"eedily des"atched$ and finally concluded in that time allotted. These and
all other inferior magistrates to be chosen ;-.-Gas the literati in :hina$
or by those e+act suffrages of the ;-.AGIenetians$ and such again not to be
eligible$ or ca"able of magistracies$ honours$ offices$ e+ce"t they be
sufficiently ;-./G0ualified for learning$ manners$ and that by the strict
a""robation of de"uted e+aminers& ;-.BGfirst scholars to ta%e "lace$ then
soldiers< for I am of Iigetius his o"inion$ a scholar deser#es better than
a soldier$ because _Hnius aetatis sunt 0uae fortiter fiunt$ 0uae #ero "ro
utilitate 1ei"ub. scribuntur$ aeterna_& a soldier!s 'or% lasts for an age$
a scholar!s for e#er. If they ;-?CGmisbeha#e themsel#es$ they shall be
de"osed$ and accordingly "unished$ and 'hether their offices be annual
;-?,Gor other'ise$ once a year they shall be called in 0uestion$ and gi#e
an account< for men are "artial and "assionate$ merciless$ co#etous$
corru"t$ subject to lo#e$ hate$ fear$ fa#our$ Fc.$ _omne sub regno gra#iore
regnum_& li%e 9olon!s Areo"agites$ or those 1oman :ensors$ some shall #isit
others$ and ;-?=Gbe #isited _in#icem_ themsel#es$ ;-?.G they shall o#ersee
that no "ro'ling officer$ under colour of authority$ shall insult o#er his
inferiors$ as so many 'ild beasts$ o""ress$ domineer$ flea$ grind$ or
tram"le on$ be "artial or corru"t$ but that there be _ae0uabile jus_$
justice e0ually done$ li#e as friends and brethren together< and 'hich
;-??G9esellius 'ould ha#e and so much desires in his %ingdom of 7rance$ La
dia"ason and s'eet harmony of %ings$ "rinces$ nobles$ and "lebeians so
mutually tied and in#ol#ed in lo#e$ as 'ell as la's and authority$ as that
they ne#er disagree$ insult$ or encroach one u"on another.L If any man
deser#e 'ell in his office he shall be re'arded.
------L0uis enim #irtutem am"lectitur i"sam$
Proemia si tollasNL------;-?@G
5e that in#ents anything for "ublic good in any art or science$ 'rites a
treatise$ ;-?-Gor "erforms any noble e+"loit$ at home or abroad$ ;-?AG
shall be accordingly enriched$ ;-?/Ghonoured$ and "referred. I say 'ith
5annibal in Ennius$ _5ostem 0ui feriet erit mihi :arthaginensis_$ let him
be of 'hat condition he 'ill$ in all offices$ actions$ he that deser#es
best shall ha#e best.
Tilianus in Philonius$ out of a charitable mind no doubt$ 'ished all his
boo%s 'ere gold and sil#er$ je'els and "recious stones$ ;-?BGto redeem
ca"ti#es$ set free "risoners$ and relie#e all "oor distressed souls that
'anted means< religiously done. I deny not$ but to 'hat "ur"oseN 9u""ose
this 'ere so 'ell done$ 'ithin a little after$ though a man had :roesus!
'ealth to besto'$ there 'ould be as many more. 4herefore I 'ill suffer no
;-@CGbeggars$ rogues$ #agabonds$ or idle "ersons at all$ that cannot gi#e
an account of their li#es ho' they ;-@,Gmaintain themsel#es. If they be
im"otent$ lame$ blind$ and single$ they shall be sufficiently maintained in
se#eral hos"itals$ built for that "ur"ose< if married and infirm$ "ast
'or%$ or by ine#itable loss$ or some such li%e misfortune cast behind$ by
distribution of ;-@=Gcorn$ house-rent free$ annual "ensions or money$ they
shall be relie#ed$ and highly re'arded for their good ser#ice they ha#e
formerly done< if able$ they shall be enforced to 'or%. ;-@.GL7or I see no
reasonL (as ;-@?Ghe said) L'hy an e"icure or idle drone$ a rich glutton$ a
usurer$ should li#e at ease$ and do nothing$ li#e in honour$ in all manner
of "leasures$ and o""ress others$ 'hen as in the meantime a "oor labourer$
a smith$ a car"enter$ an husbandman that hath s"ent his time in continual
labour$ as an ass to carry burdens$ to do the common'ealth good$ and
'ithout 'hom 'e cannot li#e$ shall be left in his old age to beg or star#e$
and lead a miserable life 'orse than a jument.L As ;-@@Gall conditions
shall be tied to their tas%$ so none shall be o#ertired$ but ha#e their set
times of recreations and holidays$ _indulgere genio_$ feasts and merry
meetings$ e#en to the meanest artificer$ or basest ser#ant$ once a 'ee% to
sing or dance$ (though not all at once) or do 'hatsoe#er he shall "lease<
li%e ;-@-Gthat _9accarum festum_ amongst the Persians$ those 9aturnals in
1ome$ as 'ell as his master. ;-@AGIf any be drun%$ he shall drin% no more
'ine or strong drin% in a t'el#emonth after. A ban%ru"t shall be ;-@/G
_:atademiatus in Am"hitheatro_$ "ublicly shamed$ and he that cannot "ay his
debts$ if by riot or negligence he ha#e been im"o#erished$ shall be for a
t'el#emonth im"risoned$ if in that s"ace his creditors be not satisfied$
;-@BGhe shall be hanged. 5e ;--CGthat commits sacrilege shall lose his
hands< he that bears false 'itness$ or is of "erjury con#icted$ shall ha#e
his tongue cut out$ e+ce"t he redeem it 'ith his head. Murder$ ;--,G
adultery$ shall be "unished by death$ ;--=Gbut not theft$ e+ce"t it be some
more grie#ous offence$ or notorious offenders& other'ise they shall be
condemned to the galleys$ mines$ be his sla#es 'hom they ha#e offended$
during their li#es. I hate all hereditary sla#es$ and that _duram Persarum
legem_ as ;--.Grisonius calls it< or as ;--?GAmmianus$ _im"endio
formidatas et abominandas leges$ "er 0uas ob no+am unius$ omnis
"ro"in0uitas "erit_ hard la' that 'ife and children$ friends and allies$
should suffer for the father!s offence.
8o man shall marry until he ;--@Gbe =@$ no 'oman till she be =C$ ;---G
_nisi alitur dis"ensatum fuerit_. If one ;--AGdie$ the other "arty shall
not marry till si+ months after< and because many families are com"elled to
li#e niggardly$ e+haust and undone by great do'ers$ ;--/Gnone shall be
gi#en at all$ or #ery little$ and that by su"er#isors rated$ they that are
foul shall ha#e a greater "ortion< if fair$ none at all$ or #ery little&
;--BGho'soe#er not to e+ceed such a rate as those su"er#isors shall thin%
fit. And 'hen once they come to those years$ "o#erty shall hinder no man
from marriage$ or any other res"ect$ ;-ACGbut all shall be rather enforced
than hindered$ ;-A,Ge+ce"t they be ;-A=Gdismembered$ or grie#ously
deformed$ infirm$ or #isited 'ith some enormous hereditary disease$ in body
or mind< in such cases u"on a great "ain$ or mulct$ ;-A.Gman or 'oman shall
not marry$ other order shall be ta%en for them to their content. If "eo"le
o#erabound$ they shall be eased by ;-A?Gcolonies.
;-A@G8o man shall 'ear 'ea"ons in any city. The same attire shall be %e"t$
and that "ro"er to se#eral callings$ by 'hich they shall be distinguished.
;-A-G_*u+us funerum_ shall be ta%en a'ay$ that intem"esti#e e+"ense
moderated$ and many others. ro%ers$ ta%ers of "a'ns$ biting usurers$ I
'ill not admit< yet because _hic cum hominibus non cum diis agitur_$ 'e
con#erse here 'ith men$ not 'ith gods$ and for the hardness of men!s hearts
I 'ill tolerate some %ind of usury. ;-AAGIf 'e 'ere honest$ I confess$ _si
"robi essemus_$ 'e should ha#e no use of it$ but being as it is$ 'e must
necessarily admit it. 5o'soe#er most di#ines contradict it$ _dicimus
inficias$ sed #o+ ea sola re"erta est_$ it must be 'in%ed at by
"oliticians. And yet some great doctors a""ro#e of it$ :al#in$ ucer$
>anchius$ P. Martyr$ because by so many grand la'yers$ decrees of em"erors$
"rinces! statutes$ customs of common'ealths$ churches! a""robations it is
"ermitted$ Fc. I 'ill therefore allo' it. ut to no "ri#ate "ersons$ nor to
e#ery man that 'ill$ to or"hans only$ maids$ 'ido's$ or such as by reason
of their age$ se+$ education$ ignorance of trading$ %no' not other'ise ho'
to em"loy it< and those so a""ro#ed$ not to let it out a"art$ but to bring
their money to a ;-A/Gcommon ban% 'hich shall be allo'ed in e#ery city$ as
in Genoa$ Gene#a$ 8uremberg$ Ienice$ at ;-ABG@$ -$ A$ not abo#e / "er
centum$ as the su"er#isors$ or _aerarii "raefecti_ shall thin% fit.
;-/CGAnd as it shall not be la'ful for each man to be an usurer that 'ill$
so shall it not be la'ful for all to ta%e u" money at use$ not to "rodigals
and s"endthrifts$ but to merchants$ young tradesmen$ such as stand in need$
or %no' honestly ho' to em"loy it$ 'hose necessity$ cause and condition the
said su"er#isors shall a""ro#e of.
I 'ill ha#e no "ri#ate mono"olies$ to enrich one man$ and beggar a
multitude$ ;-/,Gmulti"licity of offices$ of su""lying by de"uties$ 'eights
and measures$ the same throughout$ and those rectified by the _Primum
mobile_ and sun!s motion$ threescore miles to a degree according to
obser#ation$ ,CCC geometrical "aces to a mile$ fi#e foot to a "ace$ t'el#e
inches to a foot$ Fc. and from measures %no'n it is an easy matter to
rectify 'eights$ Fc. to cast u" all$ and resol#e bodies by algebra$
stereometry. I hate 'ars if they be not _ad "o"uli salutem_ u"on urgent
occasion$ ;-/=G_odimus acci"itrim$ 0uia sem"er #i#it in armis_ ;-/.G
offensi#e 'ars$ e+ce"t the cause be #ery just$ I 'ill not allo' of. 7or I
do highly magnify that saying of 5annibal to 9ci"io$ in ;-/?G*i#y$ LIt had
been a blessed thing for you and us$ if God had gi#en that mind to our
"redecessors$ that you had been content 'ith Italy$ 'e 'ith Africa. 7or
neither 9icily nor 9ardinia are 'orth such cost and "ains$ so many fleets
and armies$ or so many famous :a"tains! li#es.L _2mnia "rius tentanda_$
fair means shall first be tried. ;-/@G_Peragit tran0uilla "otestas$ Kuod
#iolenta ne0uit_. I 'ill ha#e them "roceed 'ith all moderation& but hear
you$ 7abius my general$ not Minutius$ _nam ;-/-G0ui :onsilio nititur "lus
hostibus nocet$ 0uam 0ui sini animi ratione$ #iribus_& And in such 'ars to
abstain as much as is "ossible from ;-/AGde"o"ulations$ burning of to'ns$
massacring of infants$ Fc. 7or defensi#e 'ars$ I 'ill ha#e forces still
ready at a small 'arning$ by land and sea$ a "re"ared na#y$ soldiers _in
"rocinctu$ et 0uam ;-//Gonfinius a"ud 5ungaros suos #ult$ #irgam ferream_$
and money$ 'hich is _ner#es belli_$ still in a readiness$ and a sufficient
re#enue$ a third "art as in old ;-/BG1ome and Egy"t$ reser#ed for the
common'ealth< to a#oid those hea#y ta+es and im"ositions$ as 'ell to defray
this charge of 'ars$ as also all other "ublic defalcations$ e+"enses$ fees$
"ensions$ re"arations$ chaste s"orts$ feasts$ donaries$ re'ards$ and
entertainments. All things in this nature es"ecially I 'ill ha#e maturely
done$ and 'ith great ;-BCGdeliberation& _ne 0uid ;-B,G temere$ ne 0uid
remisse ac timide fiat< 9id 0uo feror hos"es_N To "rosecute the rest 'ould
re0uire a #olume. _Manum de tabella_$ I ha#e been o#er tedious in this
subject< I could ha#e here 'illingly ranged$ but these straits 'herein I am
included 'ill not "ermit.
7rom common'ealths and cities$ I 'ill descend to families$ 'hich ha#e as
many corsi#es and molestations$ as fre0uent discontents as the rest. Great
affinity there is bet'i+t a "olitical and economical body< they differ only
in magnitude and "ro"ortion of business (so 9caliger ;-B=G'rites) as they
ha#e both li%ely the same "eriod$ as ;-B.Godin and ;-B?GPeucer hold$ out
of Plato$ si+ or se#en hundred years$ so many times they ha#e the same
means of their #e+ation and o#erthro's< as namely$ riot$ a common ruin of
both$ riot in building$ riot in "rofuse s"ending$ riot in a""arel$ Fc. be
it in 'hat %ind soe#er$ it "roduceth the same effects. A ;-B@Gchorogra"her
of ours s"ea%ing _obiter_ of ancient families$ 'hy they are so fre0uent in
the north$ continue so long$ are so soon e+tinguished in the south$ and so
fe'$ gi#es no other reason but this$ _lu+us omnia dissi"a#it_$ riot hath
consumed all$ fine clothes and curious buildings came into this island$ as
he notes in his annals$ not so many years since< _non sine dis"endio
hos"italitatis_ to the decay of hos"itality. 5o'beit many times that 'ord
is mista%en$ and under the name of bounty and hos"itality$ is shrouded riot
and "rodigality$ and that 'hich is commendable in itself 'ell used$ hath
been mista%en heretofore$ is become by his abuse$ the bane and utter ruin
of many a noble family. 7or some men li#e li%e the rich glutton$ consuming
themsel#es and their substance by continual feasting and in#itations$ 'ith
;-B-GA+ilon in 5omer$ %ee" o"en house for all comers$ gi#ing entertainment
to such as #isit them$ ;-BAG%ee"ing a table beyond their means$ and a
com"any of idle ser#ants (though not so fre0uent as of old) are blo'n u" on
a sudden< and as Actaeon 'as by his hounds$ de#oured by their %insmen$
friends$ and multitude of follo'ers. ;-B/GIt is a 'onder that Paulus Do#ius
relates of our northern countries$ 'hat an infinite deal of meat 'e consume
on our tables< that I may truly say$ !tis not bounty$ not hos"itality$ as
it is often abused$ but riot and e+cess$ gluttony and "rodigality< a mere
#ice< it brings in debt$ 'ant$ and beggary$ hereditary diseases$ consumes
their fortunes$ and o#erthro's the good tem"erature of their bodies. To
this I might here 'ell add their inordinate e+"ense in building$ those
fantastical houses$ turrets$ 'al%s$ "ar%s$ Fc. gaming$ e+cess of "leasure$
and that "rodigious riot in a""arel$ by 'hich means they are com"elled to
brea% u" house$ and cree" into holes. 9esellius in his common'ealth of
;-BBG7rance$ gi#es three reasons 'hy the 7rench nobility 'ere so fre0uently
ban%ru"ts& L7irst$ because they had so many la'suits and contentions one
u"on another$ 'hich 'ere tedious and costly< by 'hich means it came to
"ass$ that commonly la'yers bought them out of their "ossessions. A second
cause 'as their riot$ they li#ed beyond their means$ and 'ere therefore
s'allo'ed u" by merchants.L (*a 8o#e$ a 7rench 'riter$ yields fi#e reasons
of his countrymen!s "o#erty$ to the same effect almost$ and thin%s #erily
if the gentry of 7rance 'ere di#ided into ten "arts$ eight of them 'ould be
found much im"aired$ by sales$ mortgages$ and debts$ or 'holly sun% in
their estates.) LThe last 'as immoderate e+cess in a""arel$ 'hich consumed
their re#enues.L 5o' this concerns and agrees 'ith our "resent state$ loo%
you. ut of this else'here. As it is in a man!s body$ if either head$
heart$ stomach$ li#er$ s"leen$ or any one "art be misaffected$ all the rest
suffer 'ith it& so is it 'ith this economical body. If the head be naught$
a s"endthrift$ a drun%ard$ a 'horemaster$ a gamester$ ho' shall the family
li#e at easeN ;ACCG_I"sa si cu"iat solus ser#are$ "rorsus$ non "otest hanc
familiam_$ as 3emea said in the comedy$ 9afety herself cannot sa#e it. A
good$ honest$ "ainful man many times hath a shre' to his 'ife$ a sic%ly$
dishonest$ slothful$ foolish$ careless 'oman to his mate$ a "roud$ "ee#ish
flirt$ a li0uorish$ "rodigal 0uean$ and by that means all goes to ruin& or
if they differ in nature$ he is thrifty$ she s"ends all$ he 'ise$ she
sottish and soft< 'hat agreement can there beN 'hat friendshi"N *i%e that
of the thrush and s'allo' in Aeso"$ instead of mutual lo#e$ %ind
com"ellations$ 'hore and thief is heard$ they fling stools at one another!s
heads. ;AC,G_Kuae intem"eries #e+at hanc familiam_N All enforced marriages
commonly "roduce such effects$ or if on their behal#es it be 'ell$ as to
li#e and agree lo#ingly together$ they may ha#e disobedient and unruly
children$ that ta%e ill courses to dis0uiet them$ ;AC=GLtheir son is a
thief$ a s"endthrift$ their daughter a 'hore<L a ste" ;AC.Gmother$ or a
daughter-in-la' distem"ers all< ;AC?Gor else for 'ant of means$ many
torturers arise$ debts$ dues$ fees$ do'ries$ jointures$ legacies to be
"aid$ annuities issuing out$ by means of 'hich$ they ha#e not 'here'ithal
to maintain themsel#es in that "om" as their "redecessors ha#e done$ bring
u" or besto' their children to their callings$ to their birth and 0uality$
;AC@Gand 'ill not descend to their "resent fortunes. 2ftentimes$ too$ to
aggra#ate the rest$ concur many other incon#eniences$ unthan%ful friends$
decayed friends$ bad neighbours$ negligent ser#ants ;AC-G_ser#i furaces$
Iersi"elles$ callidi$ occlusa sibi mille cla#ibus reserant$ furtim0ue<
ra"tant$ consumunt$ liguriunt_< casualties$ ta+es$ mulcts$ chargeable
offices$ #ain e+"enses$ entertainments$ loss of stoc%$ enmities$
emulations$ fre0uent in#itations$ losses$ suretyshi"$ sic%ness$ death of
friends$ and that 'hich is the gulf of all$ im"ro#idence$ ill husbandry$
disorder and confusion$ by 'hich means they are drenched on a sudden in
their estates$ and at una'ares "reci"itated insensibly into an ine+tricable
labyrinth of debts$ cares$ 'oes$ 'ant$ grief$ discontent and melancholy
I ha#e done 'ith families$ and 'ill no' briefly run o#er some fe' sorts and
conditions of men. The most secure$ ha""y$ jo#ial$ and merry in the 'orld!s
esteem are "rinces and great men$ free from melancholy& but for their
cares$ miseries$ sus"icions$ jealousies$ discontents$ folly and madness$ I
refer you to Jeno"hon!s Tyrannus$ 'here %ing 5ieron discourseth at large
'ith 9imonides the "oet$ of this subject. 2f all others they are most
troubled 'ith "er"etual fears$ an+ieties$ insomuch$ that as he said in
;ACAGIalerius$ if thou %ne'est 'ith 'hat cares and miseries this robe 'ere
stuffed$ thou 'ouldst not stoo" to ta%e it u". 2r "ut case they be secure
and free from fears and discontents$ yet they are #oid ;AC/Gof reason too
oft$ and "reci"itate in their actions$ read all our histories$ _0uos de
stultis "rodidere stulti_$ Iliades$ Aeneides$ Annales$ and 'hat is the
L9tultorum regum$ et "o"ulorum continet aestus.L
LThe giddy tumults and the foolish rage
2f %ings and "eo"le.L
5o' mad they are$ ho' furious$ and u"on small occasions$ rash and
inconsiderate in their "roceedings$ ho' they dote$ e#ery "age almost 'ill
------Ldelirant reges$ "lectuntur Achi#i.L
L4hen doting monarchs urge
Hnsound resol#es$ their subjects feel the scourge.L
8e+t in "lace$ ne+t in miseries and discontents$ in all manner of
hair-brain actions$ are great men$ _"rocul a Do#e$ "rocul a fulmine_$ the
nearer the 'orse. If they li#e in court$ they are u" and do'n$ ebb and flo'
'ith their "rinces! fa#ours$ _Ingenium #ultu stat0ue cadit0ue suo_$ no'
aloft$ tomorro' do'n$ as ;ACBGPolybius describes them$ Lli%e so many
casting counters$ no' of gold$ tomorro' of sil#er$ that #ary in 'orth as
the com"utant 'ill< no' they stand for units$ tomorro' for thousands< no'
before all$ and anon behind.L eside$ they torment one another 'ith mutual
factions$ emulations& one is ambitious$ another enamoured$ a third in debt$
a "rodigal$ o#erruns his fortunes$ a fourth solicitous 'ith cares$ gets
nothing$ Fc. ut for these men!s discontents$ an+ieties$ I refer you to
*ucian!s Tract$ _de mercede conductis_$ ;A,CGAeneas 9yl#ius (_libidinis et
stultitiae ser#os_$ he calls them)$ Agri""a$ and many others.
2f "hiloso"hers and scholars _"riscae sa"ientiae dictatores_$ I ha#e
already s"o%en in general terms$ those su"erintendents of 'it and learning$
men abo#e men$ those refined men$ minions of the muses$
;A,,G ------Lmentem0ue habere 0ueis bonam
Et esse ;A,=Gcorculis datum est.L------
;A,.GThese acute and subtle so"histers$ so much honoured$ ha#e as much need
of hellebore as others.--;A,?G_2 medici mediam "ertundite #enam._ 1ead
*ucian!s Piscator$ and tell ho' he esteemed them< Agri""a!s Tract of the
#anity of 9ciences< nay read their o'n 'or%s$ their absurd tenets$
"rodigious "arado+es$ _et risum teneatis amici_N Eou shall find that of
Aristotle true$ _nullum magnum ingenium sine mi+tura dementiae_$ they ha#e
a 'orm as 'ell as others< you shall find a fantastical strain$ a fustian$ a
bombast$ a #ainglorious humour$ an affected style$ Fc.$ li%e a "rominent
thread in an une#en 'o#en cloth$ run "arallel throughout their 'or%s. And
they that teach 'isdom$ "atience$ mee%ness$ are the #eriest dizzards$
harebrains$ and most discontent. ;A,@GLIn the multitude of 'isdom is grief$
and he that increaseth 'isdom$ increaseth sorro'.L I need not 0uote mine
author< they that laugh and contemn others$ condemn the 'orld of folly$
deser#e to be moc%ed$ are as giddy-headed$ and lie as o"en as any other.
;A,-G3emocritus$ that common flouter of folly$ 'as ridiculous himself$
bar%ing Meni""us$ scoffing *ucian$ satirical *ucilius$ Petronius$ Iarro$
Persius$ Fc.$ may be censured 'ith the rest$ _*ori"edem rectus derideat$
Aethio"em albus._ ale$ Erasmus$ 5os"inian$ Ii#es$ 6emnisius$ e+"lode as a
#ast ocean of obs and sols$ school di#inity. ;A,AGA labyrinth of intricable
0uestions$ un"rofitable contentions$ _incredibilem delirationem_$ one calls
it. If school di#inity be so censured$ _subtilis ;A,/G9cotus lima
#eritatis$ 2ccam irrefragabilis$ cujus ingenium #etera omnia ingenia
sub#ertit_$ Fc. aconthro"e$ 3r. 1esolutus$ and _:orculum Theolgiae_$
Thomas himself$ 3octor ;A,BG9era"hicus$ _cui dicta#it Angelus_$ Fc. 4hat
shall become of humanityN _Ars stulta_$ 'hat can she "leadN 'hat can her
follo'ers say for themsel#esN Much learning$ ;A=CG _cere-diminuit-brum_$
hath crac%ed their sconce$ and ta%en such root$ that _tribus Anticyris
ca"ut insanabile_$ hellebore itself can do no good$ nor that reno'ned
;A=,Glantern of E"ictetus$ by 'hich if any man studied$ he should be as
'ise as he 'as. ut all 'ill not ser#e< rhetoricians$ _in ostentationem
lo0uacitatis multa agitant_$ out of their #olubility of tongue$ 'ill tal%
much to no "ur"ose$ orators can "ersuade other men 'hat they 'ill$ _0uo
#olunt$ unde #olunt_$ mo#e$ "acify$ Fc.$ but cannot settle their o'n
brains$ 'hat saith TullyN _Malo indisertam "rudentiam$ 0uam lo0uacem$
stultitiam_< and as ;A==G9eneca seconds him$ a 'ise man!s oration should
not be "olite or solicitous. ;A=.G7abius esteems no better of most of them$
either in s"eech$ action$ gesture$ than as men beside themsel#es$ _insanos
declamatores_< so doth Gregory$ _8on mihi sa"it 0ui sermone$ sed 0ui factis
sa"it._ Ma%e the best of him$ a good orator is a turncoat$ an e#il man$
_bonus orator "essimus #ir_$ his tongue is set to sale$ he is a mere #oice$
as ;A=?Ghe said of a nightingale$ _dat sine mente sonum_$ an hy"erbolical
liar$ a flatterer$ a "arasite$ and as ;A=@G Ammianus Marcellinus 'ill$ a
corru"ting cozener$ one that doth more mischief by his fair s"eeches$ than
he that bribes by money< for a man may 'ith more facility a#oid him that
circum#ents by money$ than him that decei#es 'ith glozing terms< 'hich made
;A=-G9ocrates so much abhor and e+"lode them. ;A=AG7racastorius$ a famous
"oet$ freely grants all "oets to be mad< so doth ;A=/G9caliger< and 'ho
doth notN _Aut insanit homo$ aut #ersus facit_ (5e!s mad or ma%ing #erses)$
5or. _9at. #ii. l. =._ _Insanire lubet$ i. #ersus com"onere._ Iirg. _.
Ecl._< so 9er#ius inter"rets it$ all "oets are mad$ a com"any of bitter
satirists$ detractors$ or else "arasitical a""lauders& and 'hat is "oetry
itself$ but as Austin holds$ _Iinum erroris ab ebriis doctoribus
"ro"inatum_N Eou may gi#e that censure of them in general$ 'hich 9ir Thomas
More once did of Germanus ri+ius! "oems in "articular.
In rate stultitiae syl#am habitant 7uriae.L;A=BG
udaeus$ in an e"istle of his to *u"setus$ 'ill ha#e ci#il la' to be the
to'er of 'isdom< another honours "hysic$ the 0uintessence of nature< a
third tumbles them both do'n$ and sets u" the flag of his o'n "eculiar
science. Eour su"ercilious critics$ grammatical triflers$ note-ma%ers$
curious anti0uaries$ find out all the ruins of 'it$ _ine"tiarum delicias_$
amongst the rubbish of old 'riters< ;A.CG_Pro stultis habent nisi ali0uid
sufficiant in#enire$ 0uod in aliorum scri"tis #ertant #itio_$ all fools
'ith them that cannot find fault< they correct others$ and are hot in a
cold cause$ "uzzle themsel#es to find out ho' many streets in 1ome$ houses$
gates$ to'ers$ 5omer!s country$ Aeneas!s mother$ 8iobe!s daughters$ _an
9a""ho "ublica fueritN o#um ;A.,G"rius e+titerit an gallinaO Fc. et alia
0uae dediscenda essent scire$ si scires_$ as ;A.=G9eneca holds. 4hat
clothes the senators did 'ear in 1ome$ 'hat shoes$ ho' they sat$ 'here they
'ent to the close-stool$ ho' many dishes in a mess$ 'hat sauce$ 'hich for
the "resent for an historian to relate$ ;A..Gaccording to *odo#ic. Ii#es$
is #ery ridiculous$ is to them most "recious elaborate stuff$ they admired
for it$ and as "roud$ as trium"hant in the meantime for this disco#ery$ as
if they had 'on a city$ or con0uered a "ro#ince< as rich as if they had
found a mine of gold ore. _Kuos#is auctores absurdis commentis suis
"ercacant et stercorant_$ one saith$ they be'ray and daub a com"any of
boo%s and good authors$ 'ith their absurd comments$ _correctorum
ster0uilinia_ ;A.?G9caliger calls them$ and sho' their 'it in censuring
others$ a com"any of foolish note-ma%ers$ humble-bees$ dors$ or beetles$
_inter stercora ut "lurimum #ersantur_$ they ra%e o#er all those rubbish
and dunghills$ and "refer a manuscri"t many times before the Gos"el itself$
;A.@G_thesaurum criticum_$ before any treasure$ and 'ith their deleaturs$
_alii legunt sic$ meus code+ sic habet_$ 'ith their _"ostremae editiones_$
annotations$ castigations$ Fc. ma%e boo%s dear$ themsel#es ridiculous$ and
do nobody good$ yet if any man dare o""ose or contradict$ they are mad$ u"
in arms on a sudden$ ho' many sheets are 'ritten in defence$ ho' bitter
in#ecti#es$ 'hat a"ologiesN ;A.-G_E"i"hilledes hae sunt ut merae$ nugae_.
ut I dare say no more of$ for$ 'ith$ or against them$ because I am liable
to their lash as 'ell as others. 2f these and the rest of our artists and
"hiloso"hers$ I 'ill generally conclude they are a %ind of madmen$ as ;A.AG
9eneca esteems of them$ to ma%e doubts and scru"les$ ho' to read them
truly$ to mend old authors$ but 'ill not mend their o'n li#es$ or teach us
_inge#ia sanare$ memoriam officiorum ingerere$ ac fidem in rebus humanis
retinere_$ to %ee" our 'its in order$ or rectify our manners. _8um0uid tibi
demens #idetur$ si istis o"eram im"enderit_N Is not he mad that dra's lines
'ith Archimedes$ 'hilst his house is ransac%ed$ and his city besieged$ 'hen
the 'hole 'orld is in combustion$ or 'e 'hilst our souls are in danger$
(_mors se0uitur$ #ita fugit_) to s"end our time in toys$ idle 0uestions$
and things of no 'orthN
That ;A./Glo#ers are mad$ I thin% no man 'ill deny$ _Amare simul et sa"ere$
i"si Do#i non datur_$ Du"iter himself cannot intend both at once.
;A.BG L8on bene con#eniunt$ nec in una sede morantur
Majestas et amor.L
Tully$ 'hen he 'as in#ited to a second marriage$ re"lied$ he could not
_simul amare et sa"ere_ be 'ise and lo#e both together. ;A?CG_Est orcus
ille$ #is est immedicabilis$ est rabies insana_$ lo#e is madness$ a hell$
an incurable disease< _in"otentem et insanam libidinem_ ;A?,G9eneca calls
it$ an im"otent and raging lust. I shall dilate this subject a"art< in the
meantime let lo#ers sigh out the rest.
;A?=G8e#isanus the la'yer holds it for an a+iom$ Lmost 'omen are fools$L
;A?.G_consilium foeminis in#alidum_< 9eneca$ men$ be they young or old< 'ho
doubts it$ youth is mad as Elius in Tully$ _9tulti adolescentuli_$ old age
little better$ _deleri senes_$ Fc. Theo"hrastes$ in the ,CAth year of his
age$ ;A??Gsaid he then began to be to 'ise$ _tum sa"ere coe"it_$ and
therefore lamented his de"arture. If 'isdom come so late$ 'here shall 'e
find a 'ise manN 2ur old ones dote at threescore-and-ten. I 'ould cite more
"roofs$ and a better author$ but for the "resent$ let one fool "oint at
another. ;A?@G8e#isanus hath as hard an o"inion of ;A?-Grich men$ L'ealth
and 'isdom cannot d'ell together$L _stultitiam "atiuntur o"es_$ ;A?AGand
they do commonly ;A?/G_infatuare cor hominis_$ besot men< and as 'e see it$
Lfools ha#e fortune&L ;A?BG_9a"ientia non in#enitur in terra sua#iter
#i#entium_. 7or beside a natural contem"t of learning$ 'hich accom"anies
such %ind of men$ innate idleness (for they 'ill ta%e no "ains)$ and 'hich
;A@CGAristotle obser#es$ _ubi mens "lurima$ ibi minima fortuna$ ubi "lurima
fortuna$ ibi mens "ere+igua_$ great 'ealth and little 'it go commonly
together& they ha#e as much brains some of them in their heads as in their
heels< besides this inbred neglect of liberal sciences$ and all arts$ 'hich
should _e+colere mentem_$ "olish the mind$ they ha#e most "art some gullish
humour or other$ by 'hich they are led< one is an E"icure$ an Atheist$ a
second a gamester$ a third a 'horemaster (fit subjects all for a satirist
to 'or% u"on)<
;A@,G L5ic nu"tarum insanit amoribus$ hic "uerorum.L
L2ne burns to madness for the 'edded dame<
Hnnatural lusts another!s heart inflame.L
;A@=Gone is mad of ha'%ing$ hunting$ coc%ing< another of carousing$
horse-riding$ s"ending< a fourth of building$ fighting$ Fc.$ _Insanit
#eteres statuas 3amasi""us emendo_$ 3amasi""us hath an humour of his o'n$
to be tal%ed of& ;A@.G5eliodorus the :arthaginian another. In a 'ord$ as
9caliger concludes of them all$ they are _9tatuae erectae stultitiae_$ the
#ery statutes or "illars of folly. :hoose out of all stories him that hath
been most admired$ you shall still find$ _multa ad laudem$ multa ad
#itu"erationem magnifica_$ as ;A@?Gerosus of 9emiramis< _omnes mortales
militia trium"his$ di#itiis_$ Fc.$ _tum et lu+u$ caede$ caeteris0ue #itiis
antecessit_$ as she had some good$ so had she many bad "arts.
Ale+ander$ a 'orthy man$ but furious in his anger$ o#erta%en in drin%&
:aesar and 9ci"io #aliant and 'ise$ but #ainglorious$ ambitious& Ies"asian
a 'orthy "rince$ but co#etous& ;A@@G5annibal$ as he had mighty #irtues$ so
had he many #ices< _unam #irtutem mille #itia comitantur_$ as Machia#el of
:osmo de Medici$ he had t'o distinct "ersons in him. I 'ill determine of
them all$ they are li%e these double or turning "ictures< stand before
'hich you see a fair maid$ on the one side an a"e$ on the other an o'l<
loo% u"on them at the first sight$ all is 'ell$ but farther e+amine$ you
shall find them 'ise on the one side$ and fools on the other< in some fe'
things "raise'orthy$ in the rest incom"arably faulty. I 'ill say nothing of
their diseases$ emulations$ discontents$ 'ants$ and such miseries& let
"o#erty "lead the rest in Aristo"hanes! Plutus.
:o#etous men$ amongst others$ are most mad$ ;A@-Gthey ha#e all the sym"toms
of melancholy$ fear$ sadness$ sus"icion$ Fc.$ as shall be "ro#ed in its
"ro"er "lace$
L3anda est 5ellebori multo "ars ma+ima a#aris.L
LMisers ma%e Anticyra their o'n<
Its hellebore reser#ed for them alone.L
And yet methin%s "rodigals are much madder than they$ be of 'hat condition
they 'ill$ that bear a "ublic or "ri#ate "urse< as a ;A@AG3utch 'riter
censured 1ichard the rich du%e of :orn'all$ suing to be em"eror$ for his
"rofuse s"ending$ _0ui effudit "ecuniam$ ante "edes "rinci"ium Electorum
sicut a0uam_$ that scattered money li%e 'ater< I do censure them$ _9tulta
Anglia_ (saith he) _0uae$ tot denariis s"onte est "ri#ata$ stulti "rinci"es
Alemaniae$ 0ui nobile jus suum "ro "ecunia #endiderunt_< s"endthrifts$
bribers$ and bribe-ta%ers are fools$ and so are ;A@/Gall they that cannot
%ee"$ disburse$ or s"end their moneys 'ell.
I might say the li%e of angry$ "ee#ish$ en#ious$ ambitious< ;A@BG
_Anticyras melior sorbere meracas_< E"icures$ Atheists$ 9chismatics$
5eretics< _hi omnes habent imaginationem laesam_ (saith 8ymannus) Land
their madness shall be e#ident$L = Tim. iii. B. ;A-CG7abatus$ an Italian$
holds seafaring men all mad< Lthe shi" is mad$ for it ne#er stands still<
the mariners are mad$ to e+"ose themsel#es to such imminent dangers& the
'aters are raging mad$ in "er"etual motion& the 'inds are as mad as the
rest$ they %no' not 'hence they come$ 'hither they 'ould go& and those men
are maddest of all that go to sea< for one fool at home$ they find forty
abroad.L 5e 'as a madman that said it$ and thou "erad#enture as mad to read
it. ;A-,G 7eli+ Platerus is of o"inion all alchemists are mad$ out of their
'its< ;A-=GAtheneus saith as much of fiddlers$ _et musarum luscinias_$
;A-.G Musicians$ _omnes tibicines insaniunt$ ubi semel efflant$ a#olat
illico mens_$ in comes music at one ear$ out goes 'it at another. Proud and
#ainglorious "ersons are certainly mad< and so are ;A-?Glasci#ious< I can
feel their "ulses beat hither< horn-mad some of them$ to let others lie
'ith their 'i#es$ and 'in% at it.
To insist ;A-@Gin all "articulars$ 'ere an 5erculean tas%$ to ;A--Grec%on
u" ;A-AG_insanas substructiones$ insanos labores$ insanum lu+um_$ mad
labours$ mad boo%s$ endea#ours$ carriages$ gross ignorance$ ridiculous
actions$ absurd gestures< _insanam gulam$ insaniam #illarum$ insana
jurgia_$ as Tully terms them$ madness of #illages$ stu"end structures< as
those Egy"tian Pyramids$ *abyrinths and 9"hin+es$ 'hich a com"any of
cro'ned asses$ _ad ostentationem o"um_$ #ainly built$ 'hen neither the
architect nor %ing that made them$ or to 'hat use and "ur"ose$ are yet
%no'n& to insist in their hy"ocrisy$ inconstancy$ blindness$ rashness$
_dementem temeritatem_$ fraud$ cozenage$ malice$ anger$ im"udence$
ingratitude$ ambition$ gross su"erstition$ ;A-/G_tem"ora infecta et
adulatione sordida_$ as in Tiberius! times$ such base flattery$ stu"end$
"arasitical fa'ning and colloguing$ Fc. bra'ls$ conflicts$ desires$
contentions$ it 'ould as% an e+"ert Iesalius to anatomise e#ery member.
9hall I sayN Du"iter himself$ A"ollo$ Mars$ Fc. doted< and
monster-con0uering 5ercules that subdued the 'orld$ and hel"ed others$
could not relie#e himself in this$ but mad he 'as at last. And 'here shall
a man 'al%$ con#erse 'ith 'hom$ in 'hat "ro#ince$ city$ and not meet 'ith
9ignior 3eliro$ or 5ercules 7urens$ Maenads$ and :orybantesN Their s"eeches
say no less. ;A-BG_E fungis nati homines_$ or else they fetched their
"edigree from those that 'ere struc% by 9amson 'ith the ja'-bone of an ass.
2r from 3eucalion and Pyrrha!s stones$ for _durum genus sumus_$ ;AACG
_marmorei sumus_$ 'e are stony-hearted$ and sa#our too much of the stoc%$
as if they had all heard that enchanted horn of Astol"ho$ that English du%e
in Ariosto$ 'hich ne#er sounded but all his auditors 'ere mad$ and for fear
ready to ma%e a'ay 'ith themsel#es< ;AA,Gor landed in the mad ha#en in the
Eu+ine sea of _3a"hnis insana_$ 'hich had a secret 0uality to dementate<
they are a com"any of giddy-heads$ afternoon men$ it is Midsummer moon
still$ and the dog-days last all the year long$ they are all mad. 4hom
shall I then e+ce"tN Hlricus 5uttenus ;AA=G_nemo$ nam$ nemo omnibus horis
sa"it$ 8emo nascitur sine #itiis$ :rimine 8emo caret$ 8emo sorte sua #i#it
contentus$ 8emo in amore sa"it$ 8emo bonus$ 8emo sa"iens$ 8emo$ est e+ omni
"arti beatus_$ Fc. ;AA.Gand therefore 8icholas 8emo$ or Monsieur 8obody
shall go free$ _Kuid #aleat nemo$ 8emo referre "otest_N ut 'hom shall I
e+ce"t in the second "laceN such as are silent$ _#ir sa"it 0ui "auca
lo0uitur_< ;AA?Gno better 'ay to a#oid folly and madness$ than by
taciturnity. 4hom in a thirdN all senators$ magistrates< for all fortunate
men are 'ise$ and con0uerors #aliant$ and so are all great men$ _non est
bonum ludere cum diis_$ they are 'ise by authority$ good by their office
and "lace$ _his licet im"une "essimos esse_$ (some say) 'e must not s"ea%
of them$ neither is it fit< _"er me sint omnia "rotinus alba_$ I 'ill not
thin% amiss of them. 4hom ne+tN 9toicsN _9a"iens 9toicus_$ and he alone is
subject to no "erturbations$ as ;AA@GPlutarch scoffs at him$ Lhe is not
#e+ed 'ith torments$ or burnt 'ith fire$ foiled by his ad#ersary$ sold of
his enemy& though he be 'rin%led$ sand-blind$ toothless$ and deformed< yet
he is most beautiful$ and li%e a god$ a %ing in conceit$ though not 'orth a
groat. 5e ne#er dotes$ ne#er mad$ ne#er sad$ drun%$ because #irtue cannot
be ta%en a'ay$L as ;AA-G>eno holds$ Lby reason of strong a""rehension$L but
he 'as mad to say so. ;AAAG_Anticyrae caelo huic est o"us aut dolabra_$ he
had need to be bored$ and so had all his fello's$ as 'ise as they 'ould
seem to be. :hrysi""us himself liberally grants them to be fools as 'ell as
others$ at certain times$ u"on some occasions$ _amitti #irtutem ait "er
ebrietatem$ aut atribilarium morbum_$ it may be lost by drun%enness or
melancholy$ he may be sometimes crazed as 'ell as the rest& ;AA/G_ad summum
sa"iens nisi 0uum "ituita molesta_. I should here e+ce"t some :ynics$
Meni""us$ 3iogenes$ that Theban :rates< or to descend to these times$ that
omniscious$ only 'ise fraternity ;AABGof the 1osicrucians$ those great
theologues$ "oliticians$ "hiloso"hers$ "hysicians$ "hilologers$ artists$
Fc. of 'hom 9. ridget$ Albas Doacchimus$ *eicenbergius$ and such di#ine
s"irits ha#e "ro"hesied$ and made "romise to the 'orld$ if at least there
be any such (5en. ;A/CG8euhusius ma%es a doubt of it$ ;A/,G Ialentinus
Andreas and others) or an Elias artife+ their Theo"hrastian master< 'hom
though *iba#ius and many deride and car" at$ yet some 'ill ha#e to be Lthe
;A/=Grene'er of all arts and sciences$L reformer of the 'orld$ and no'
li#ing$ for so Dohannes Montanus 9trigoniensis$ that great "atron of
Paracelsus$ contends$ and certainly a#ers ;A/.GLa most di#ine man$L and the
0uintessence of 'isdom 'heresoe#er he is< for he$ his fraternity$ friends$
Fc. are all ;A/?GLbetrothed to 'isdom$L if 'e may belie#e their disci"les
and follo'ers. I must needs e+ce"t *i"sius and the Po"e$ and e+"unge their
name out of the catalogue of fools. 7or besides that "arasitical testimony
of 3ousa$
LA 9ole e+oriente Maeotidas us0ue "aludes$
8emo est 0ui justo se ae0ui"arare 0ueat.L;A/@G
*i"sius saith of himself$ that he 'as ;A/-G_humani generis 0uidem
"aedagogus #oce et stylo_$ a grand signior$ a master$ a tutor of us all$
and for thirteen years he brags ho' he so'ed 'isdom in the *o' :ountries$
as Ammonius the "hiloso"her sometimes did in Ale+andria$ ;A/AG_cum
humanitate literas et sa"ientiam cum "rudentia& antistes sa"ientiae_$ he
shall be _9a"ientum 2cta#us_. The Po"e is more than a man$ as ;A//Ghis
"arrots often ma%e him$ a demigod$ and besides his holiness cannot err$ _in
:athedra_ beli%e& and yet some of them ha#e been magicians$ 5eretics$
Atheists$ children$ and as Platina saith of Dohn ==$ _Et si #ir literatus$
multa stoliditatem et lae#itatem "rae se ferentia egit$ stolidi et socordis
#ir ingenii_$ a scholar sufficient$ yet many things he did foolishly$
lightly. I can say no more than in "articular$ but in general terms to the
rest$ they are all mad$ their 'its are e#a"orated$ and$ as Ariosto feigns$
_l. .?_$ %e"t in jars abo#e the moon.
L9ome lose their 'its 'ith lo#e$ some 'ith ambition$
9ome follo'ing ;A/BG*ords and men of high condition.
9ome in fair je'els rich and costly set$
2thers in Poetry their 'its forget.
Another thin%s to be an Alchemist$
Till all be s"ent$ and that his number!s mist.L
:on#icted fools they are$ madmen u"on record< and I am afraid "ast cure
many of them$ ;ABCG_cre"unt inguina_$ the sym"toms are manifest$ they are
all of Gotam "arish&
;AB,G LKuum furor haud dubius$ 0uum sit manifesta "hrenesis$L
L9ince madness is indis"utable$ since frenzy is ob#ious.L
'hat remains then ;AB=Gbut to send for *orarios$ those officers to carry
them all together for com"any to edlam$ and set 1abelais to be their
If any man shall as% in the meantime$ 'ho I am that so boldly censure
others$ _tu nullane habes #itia_N ha#e I no faultsN ;AB.GEes$ more than
thou hast$ 'hatsoe#er thou art. _8os numerus sumus_$ I confess it again$ I
am as foolish$ as mad as any one.
;AB?G LInsanus #obis #ideor$ non de"recor i"se$
Kuo minus insanus$L------
I do not deny it$ _demens de "o"ulo dematur_. My comfort is$ I ha#e more
fello's$ and those of e+cellent note. And though I be not so right or so
discreet as I should be$ yet not so mad$ so bad neither$ as thou "erha"s
ta%est me to be.
To conclude$ this being granted$ that all the 'orld is melancholy$ or mad$
dotes$ and e#ery member of it$ I ha#e ended my tas%$ and sufficiently
illustrated that 'hich I too% u"on me to demonstrate at first. At this
"resent I ha#e no more to say< _5is sanam mentem 3emocritus_$ I can but
'ish myself and them a good "hysician$ and all of us a better mind.
And although for the abo#e-named reasons$ I had a just cause to underta%e
this subject$ to "oint at these "articular s"ecies of dotage$ that so men
might ac%no'ledge their im"erfections$ and see% to reform 'hat is amiss<
yet I ha#e a more serious intent at this time< and to omit all im"ertinent
digressions$ to say no more of such as are im"ro"erly melancholy$ or
meta"horically mad$ lightly mad$ or in dis"osition$ as stu"id$ angry$
drun%en$ silly$ sottish$ sullen$ "roud$ #ainglorious$ ridiculous$ beastly$
"ee#ish$ obstinate$ im"udent$ e+tra#agant$ dry$ doting$ dull$ des"erate$
harebrain$ Fc. mad$ frantic$ foolish$ heteroclites$ 'hich no ne' ;AB@G
hos"ital can hold$ no "hysic hel"< my "ur"ose and endea#our is$ in the
follo'ing discourse to anatomise this humour of melancholy$ through all its
"arts and s"ecies$ as it is an habit$ or an ordinary disease$ and that
"hiloso"hically$ medicinally$ to sho' the causes$ sym"toms$ and se#eral
cures of it$ that it may be the better a#oided. Mo#ed thereunto for the
generality of it$ and to do good$ it being a disease so fre0uent$ as ;AB-G
Mercurialis obser#es$ Lin these our days< so often ha""ening$L saith ;ABAG
*aurentius$ Lin our miserable times$L as fe' there are that feel not the
smart of it. 2f the same mind is Aelian Montaltus$ ;AB/GMelancthon$ and
others< ;ABBGDulius :aesar :laudinus calls it the Lfountain of all other
diseases$ and so common in this crazed age of ours$ that scarce one of a
thousand is free from it<L and that s"lenetic hy"ochondriacal 'ind
es"ecially$ 'hich "roceeds from the s"leen and short ribs. eing then a
disease so grie#ous$ so common$ I %no' not 'herein to do a more general
ser#ice$ and s"end my time better$ than to "rescribe means ho' to "re#ent
and cure so uni#ersal a malady$ an e"idemical disease$ that so often$ so
much crucifies the body and mind.
If I ha#e o#ershot myself in this 'hich hath been hitherto said$ or that it
is$ 'hich I am sure some 'ill object$ too fantastical$ Ltoo light and
comical for a 3i#ine$ too satirical for one of my "rofession$L I 'ill
"resume to ans'er 'ith ;/CCGErasmus$ in li%e case$ !tis not I$ but
3emocritus$ 3emocritus _di+it_& you must consider 'hat it is to s"ea% in
one!s o'n or another!s "erson$ an assumed habit and name< a difference
bet'i+t him that affects or acts a "rince!s$ a "hiloso"her!s$ a
magistrate!s$ a fool!s "art$ and him that is so indeed< and 'hat liberty
those old satirists ha#e had< it is a cento collected from others< not I$
but they that say it.
;/C,G L3i+ero si 0uid forte jocosius$ hoc mihi juris
:um #enia$ dabisL------
LEet some indulgence I may justly claim$
If too familiar 'ith another!s fame.L
Ta%e heed you mista%e me not. If I do a little forget myself$ I ho"e you
'ill "ardon it. And to say truth$ 'hy should any man be offended$ or ta%e
e+ce"tions at itN
L*icuit$ sem"er0ue licebit$
Parcere "ersonis$ dicere de #itiis.L
LIt la'ful 'as of old$ and still 'ill be$
To s"ea% of #ice$ but let the name go free.L
I hate their #ices$ not their "ersons. If any be dis"leased$ or ta%e aught
unto himself$ let him not e+"ostulate or ca#il 'ith him that said it (so
did ;/C=GErasmus e+cuse himself to 3or"ius$ _si "ar#a licet com"onere
magnis_) and so do I< Lbut let him be angry 'ith himself$ that so betrayed
and o"ened his o'n faults in a""lying it to himself&L ;/C.GLif he be guilty
and deser#e it$ let him amend$ 'hoe#er he is$ and not be angry.L L5e that
hateth correction is a fool$L Pro#. +ii. ,. If he be not guilty$ it
concerns him not< it is not my freeness of s"eech$ but a guilty conscience$
a galled bac% of his o'n that ma%es him 'ince.
L9us"icione si 0uis errabit sua$
Et ra"iet ad se$ 0uod erit commune omnium$
9tulte nudabit animi conscientiam.L;/C?G
I deny not this 'hich I ha#e said sa#ours a little of 3emocritus< ;/C@G
_Kuam#is ridentem dicere #erum 0uid #elat_< one may s"ea% in jest$ and yet
s"ea% truth. It is some'hat tart$ I grant it< _acriora ore+im e+citant
embammata_$ as he said$ shar" sauces increase a""etite$ ;/C-G_nec cibus
i"se ju#at morsu fraudatus aceti_. 2bject then and ca#il 'hat thou 'ilt$ I
'ard all 'ith ;/CAG3emocritus!s buc%ler$ his medicine shall sal#e it<
stri%e 'here thou 'ilt$ and 'hen& _3emocritus di+it_$ 3emocritus 'ill
ans'er it. It 'as 'ritten by an idle fello'$ at idle times$ about our
9aturnalian or 3ionysian feasts$ 'hen as he said$ _nullum libertati
"ericulum est_$ ser#ants in old 1ome had liberty to say and do 'hat them
list. 4hen our countrymen sacrificed to their goddess ;/C/GIacuna$ and sat
ti""ling by their Iacunal fires. I 'rit this$ and "ublished this ;Gree%&
houtis helegenG$ it is _neminis nihil_. The time$ "lace$ "ersons$ and all
circumstances a"ologise for me$ and 'hy may not I then be idle 'ith othersN
s"ea% my mind freelyN If you deny me this liberty$ u"on these "resum"tions
I 'ill ta%e it& I say again$ I 'ill ta%e it.
;/CBG L9i 0uis est 0ui dictum in se inclementius
E+istima#it esse$ sic e+istimet.L
If any man ta%e e+ce"tions$ let him turn the buc%le of his girdle$ I care
not. I o'e thee nothing (1eader)$ I loo% for no fa#our at thy hands$ I am
inde"endent$ I fear not.
8o$ I recant$ I 'ill not$ I care$ I fear$ I confess my fault$ ac%no'ledge a
great offence$
------Lmotos "raestat com"onere fluctus.L
------Llet!s first assuage the troubled 'a#esL
I ha#e o#ershot myself$ I ha#e s"o%en foolishly$ rashly$ unad#isedly$
absurdly$ I ha#e anatomised mine o'n folly. And no' methin%s u"on a sudden
I am a'a%ed as it 'ere out of a dream< I ha#e had a ra#ing fit$ a
fantastical fit$ ranged u" and do'n$ in and out$ I ha#e insulted o#er the
most %ind of men$ abused some$ offended others$ 'ronged myself< and no'
being reco#ered$ and "ercei#ing mine error$ cry 'ith ;/,CG2rlando$ _9ol#ite
me_$ "ardon (_o boni_) that 'hich is "ast$ and I 'ill ma%e you amends in
that 'hich is to come< I "romise you a more sober discourse in my follo'ing
If through 'ea%ness$ folly$ "assion$ ;/,,Gdiscontent$ ignorance$ I ha#e
said amiss$ let it be forgotten and forgi#en. I ac%no'ledge that of ;/,=G
Tacitus to be true$ _As"erae facetiae$ ubi nimis e+ #ero tra+ere$ acrem sui
memoriam relin0uunt_$ a bitter jest lea#es a sting behind it& and as an
honourable man obser#es$ ;/,.GLThey fear a satirist!s 'it$ he their
memories.L I may justly sus"ect the 'orst< and though I ho"e I ha#e 'ronged
no man$ yet in Medea!s 'ords I 'ill cra#e "ardon$
------LIllud jam #oce e+trema "eto$
8e si 0ua noster dubius effudit dolor$
Maneant in animo #erba$ sed melior tibi
Memoria nostri subeat$ haec irae data
LAnd in my last 'ords this I do desire$
That 'hat in "assion I ha#e said$ or ire$
May be forgotten$ and a better mind$
e had of us$ hereafter as you find.L
I earnestly re0uest e#ery "ri#ate man$ as 9caliger did :ardan$ not to ta%e
offence. I 'ill conclude in his lines$ _9i me cognitum haberes$ non solum
donares nobis has facetias nostras$ sed etiam indignum duceres$ tam humanum
aninum$ lene ingenium$ #el minimam sus"icionem de"recari o"ortere_. If thou
%ne'est my ;/,?Gmodesty and sim"licity$ thou 'ouldst easily "ardon and
forgi#e 'hat is here amiss$ or by thee misconcei#ed. If hereafter
anatomizing this surly humour$ my hand sli"$ as an uns%ilful !"rentice I
lance too dee"$ and cut through s%in and all at una'ares$ ma%e it smart$ or
cut a'ry$ ;/,@G"ardon a rude hand$ an uns%ilful %nife$ !tis a most
difficult thing to %ee" an e#en tone$ a "er"etual tenor$ and not sometimes
to lash out< _difficile est 9atyram non scribere_$ there be so many objects
to di#ert$ in'ard "erturbations to molest$ and the #ery best may sometimes
err< _ali0uando bonus dormitat 5omerus_ (some times that e+cellent 5omer
ta%es a na")$ it is im"ossible not in so much to o#ershoot<--_o"ere in
longo fas est obre"ere$ summum_. ut 'hat needs all thisN I ho"e there 'ill
no such cause of offence be gi#en< if there be$ ;/,-G_8emo ali0uid
recognoscat$ nos mentimur omnia_. I!ll deny all (my last refuge)$ recant
all$ renounce all I ha#e said$ if any man e+ce"t$ and 'ith as much facility
e+cuse$ as he can accuse< but I "resume of thy good fa#our$ and gracious
acce"tance (gentle reader). 2ut of an assured ho"e and confidence thereof$
I 'ill begin.
*E:T21I MA*E 7E1IAT2.
Tu #ero ca#esis edico 0uis0uis es$ ne temere sugilles Auctorem hujusce
o"eris$ aut ca#illator irrideas. Imo ne #el e+ aliorum censura tacite
oblo0uaris (#is dicam #erbo) ne0uid nasutulus ine"te im"robes$ aut falso
fingas. 8am si talis re#era sit$ 0ualem "rae se fert Dunior 3emocritus$
seniori 3emocrito saltem affinis$ aut ejus Genium #el tantillum sa"iat<
actum de te$ censorem ae0ue ac delatorem ;/,AGaget econtra (_"etulanti
s"lene cum sit_) sufflabit te in jocos$ comminuet in sales$ addo etiam$ _et
deo risui_ te sacrificabit.
Iterum moneo$ ne 0uid ca#illere$ ne dum 3emocritum Duniorem con#iciis
infames$ aut ignominiose #itu"eres$ de te non male sentientem$ tu idem
audias ab amico cordato$ 0uod olim #ulgus Abderitanum ab ;/,/G 5i""ocrate$
conci#em bene meritum et "o"ularem suum 3emocritum$ "ro insano habens. _8e
tu 3emocrite sa"is$ stulti autem et insani Abderitae_.
;/,BG LAbderitanae "ectora "lebis habes.L
5aec te "aucis admonitum #olo (male feriate *ector) abi.
T2 T5E 1EA3E1 AT *EI9H1E.
4hoe#er you may be$ I caution you against rashly defaming the author of
this 'or%$ or ca#illing in jest against him. 8ay$ do not silently re"roach
him in conse0uence of others! censure$ nor em"loy your 'it in foolish
disa""ro#al$ or false accusation. 7or$ should 3emocritus Dunior "ro#e to be
'hat he "rofesses$ e#en a %insman of his elder namesa%e$ or be e#er so
little of the same %idney$ it is all o#er 'ith you& he 'ill become both
accuser and judge of you in your s"leen$ 'ill dissi"ate you in jests$
"ul#erise you into salt$ and sacrifice you$ I can "romise you$ to the God
of Mirth.
I further ad#ise you$ not to as"erse$ or calumniate$ or slander$ 3emocritus
Dunior$ 'ho "ossibly does not thin% ill of you$ lest you may hear from some
discreet friend$ the same remar% the "eo"le of Abdera did from 5i""ocrates$
of their meritorious and "o"ular fello'-citizen$ 'hom they had loo%ed on as
a madman< LIt is not that you$ 3emocritus$ that art 'ise$ but that the
"eo"le of Abdera are fools and madmen.L LEou ha#e yourself an Abderitian
soul<L and ha#ing just gi#en you$ gentle reader$ these fe' 'ords of
admonition$ fare'ell.
L5eraclite fleas$ misero sic con#enit ae#o$
8il nisi tur"e #ides$ nil nisi triste #ides.
1ide etiam$ 0uantum0ue lubet$ 3emocrite ride
8on nisi #ana #ides$ non nisi stulta #ides.
Is fletu$ his risu modo gaudeat$ unus utri0ue
9it licet us0ue labor$ sit licet us0ue dolor.
8unc o"es est (nam totus eheu jam desi"it orbis)
Mille 5eraclitis$ mille0ue 3emocritis.
8unc o"us est (tanta est insania) transeat omnis
Mundus in Anticyras$ gramen in 5elleborum.L
L4ee"$ 2 5eraclitus$ it suits the age$
Hnless you see nothing base$ nothing sad.
*augh$ 2 3emocritus$ as much as you "lease$
Hnless you see nothing either #ain or foolish.
*et one rejoice in smiles$ the other in tears<
*et the same labour or "ain be the office of both.
8o' (for alasO ho' foolish the 'orld has become)$
A thousand 5eraclitus!$ a thousand 3emocritus! are re0uired.
8o' (so much does madness "re#ail)$ all the 'orld must be
9ent to Anticyra$ to graze on 5ellebore.L
T5E 9E82P9I9 27 T5E 7I19T PA1TITI28.
In diseases$ consider _9ect. ,. Memb. ,._
Their :auses. _9ubs. ,._
9in$ concu"iscence$ Fc.
Intem"erance$ all second causes$ Fc.
2r 3efinition$ Member$ 3i#ision. _9ubs. =._
2f the body .CC$ 'hich are
E"idemical$ as Plague$ Plica$ Fc.
2r Particular as Gout$ 3ro"sy$ Fc.
2r 2f the head or mind. _9ubs. .._
In dis"osition< as all "erturbations$ e#il affection$ Fc.
2r 5abits$ as _9ubs. ?._
:horus sancti Iiti.
Possession or obsession of 3e#ils.
Melancholy. 9ee ;9ymbol& AriesG.
;9ymbol& AriesG Melancholy& in 'hich consider
Its E0ui#ocations$ in 3is"osition$ Im"ro"er$ Fc. _9ubsect. @._
_Memb. =._
To its e+"lication$ a digression of anatomy$ in 'hich obser#e "arts of
_9ubs. ,._
ody hath "arts _9ubs. =._
contained as
5umours$ ?. lood$ Phlegm$ Fc.
9"irits< #ital$ natural$ animal.
or containing
9imilar< s"ermatical$ or flesh$ bones$ ner#es$ Fc. _9ubs. .._
3issimilar< brain$ heart$ li#er$ Fc. _9ubs. ?._
9oul and its faculties$ as
Iegetal. _9ubs. @._
9ensible. _9ubs. -$ A$ /._
1ational. _9ubsect. B$ ,C$ ,,._
_Memb. .._
Its definition$ name$ difference$ _9ubs. ,._
The "art and "arties affected$ affection$ Fc. _9ubs. =._
The matter of melancholy$ natural$ Fc. _9ubs. .._
9"ecies$ or %inds ;_9ubs. ?._G$ 'hich are
Pro"er to "arts$ as
2f the head alone$ hy"ochondriacal$ or 'indy melancholy. 2f the
'hole body.
'ith their se#eral causes$ sym"toms$ "rognostics$ cures
2r Indefinite< as *o#e-melancholy$ the subject of the third
Its :auses in general. _9ect. =._ A.
Its 9ym"toms or signs. _9ect. .._ .
Its Prognostics or indications. _9ect. ?._ :.
Its :ures< the subject of the second Partition.
A. _9ect. =._ :auses of Melancholy are either
General$ as _Memb. ,._
As from God immediately$ or by second causes. _9ubs. ,._
2r from the de#il immediately$ 'ith a digression of the nature of
s"irits and de#ils. _9ubs. =._
2r mediately$ by magicians$ 'itches. _9ubs. .._
2r 8atural
Primary$ as stars$ "ro#ed by a"horisms$ signs from "hysiognomy$
meto"osco"y$ chiromancy. _9ubs. ?._
2r 9econdary$ as
:ongenite$ in'ard from
2ld age$ tem"erament$ _9ubs. @._
Parents$ it being an hereditary disease$ _9ubs. -._
2r 2ut'ard or ad#entitious$ 'hich are
E#ident$ out'ard$ remote$ ad#entitious$ as$
8ecessary$ see ;9ymbol& TaurusG.
8ot necessary$ as _M. ?. 9. =._
8urses$ _9ubs. ,._
Education$ _9ubs. =._
Terrors$ affrights$ _9ubs. .._
9coffs$ calumnies$ bitter jests$ _9ubs. ?._
*oss of liberty$ ser#itude$ im"risonment$ _9ubs.
Po#erty and 'ant$ _9ubs. -.
A hea" of other accidents$ death of friends$
loss$ Fc. _9ubs. A._
2r :ontingent$ in'ard$ antecedent$ nearest. _Memb. @.
9ect. =._
In 'hich the body 'or%s on the mind$ and this malady
is caused by "recedent diseases< as agues$ "o+$
Fc.$ or tem"erature$ innate _9ubs. ,._
2r by "articular "arts distem"ered$ as brain$ heart$
s"leen$ li#er$ mesentery$ "ylorus$ stomach Fc.
_9ubs. =._
Particular to the three s"ecies. 9ee ;9ymbol& GeminiG.
;9ymbol& GeminiG Particular causes. _9ect. =. Memb. @._
2f head Melancholy are _9ubs. .._
Innate humour$ or from tem"erature adjust.
A hot brain$ corru"ted blood in the brain
E+cess of #enery$ or defect
Agues$ or some "recedent disease
7umes arising from the stomach$ Fc.
2r 2ut'ard
5eat of the sun$ immoderate
A blo' on the head
2#ermuch use of hot 'ines$ s"ices$ garlic$ onions$ hot baths$
o#ermuch 'a%ing$ Fc.
Idleness$ solitariness$ or o#ermuch study$ #ehement labour$ Fc.
Passions$ "erturbations$ Fc.
2f hy"ochondriacal or 'indy melancholy are$ ;_9ubs. ?._G
3efault of s"leen$ belly$ bo'els$ stomach$ mesentery$ miseraic
#eins$ li#er$ Fc.
Months or hemorrhoids sto""ed$ or any other ordinary e#acuation
or 2ut'ard
Those si+ non-natural things abused.
2#er all the body are$ _9ubs. @._
*i#er distem"ered$ sto""ed$ o#er-hot$ a"t to engender melancholy$
tem"erature innate.
or 2ut'ard
ad diet$ su""ression of hemorrhoids Fc. and such e#acuations$
"assions$ cares$ Fc. those si+ non-natural things abused.
;9ymbol& TaurusG 8ecessary causes$ as those si+ non-natural things$ 'hich
are$ _9ect. = Memb. =._
3iet offending in _9ubs. ,._
read< course and blac%$ Fc.
3rin%< thic%$ thin$ sour$ Fc.
4ater unclean$ mil%$ oil$ #inegar$ 'ine$ s"ices Fc.
Parts& heads$ feet$ entrails$ fat$ bacon$ blood$ Fc.
eef$ "or%$ #enison$ hares$ goats$ "igeons$ "eacoc%s$
fen-fo'l$ Fc.
5erbs$ 7ish$ Fc.
2f fish< all shellfish$ hard and slimy fish$ Fc.
2f herbs< "ulse$ cabbage$ melons$ garlic$ onions$ Fc.
All roots$ ra' fruits$ hard and 'indy meats
Kuality$ as in
Pre"aring$ dressing$ shar" sauces$ salt meats$ indurate$ soused$
fried$ broiled or made-dishes$ Fc.
3isorder in eating$ immoderate eating$ or at unseasonable times$
Fc. _9ubs. =_
:ustom< delight$ a""etite$ altered$ Fc. _9ubs. .._
1etention and e#acuation$ _9ubs. ?._
:osti#eness$ hot baths$ s'eating$ issues sto""ed$ Ienus in e+cess$ or
in defect$ "hlebotomy$ "urging$ Fc.
Air< hot$ cold$ tem"estuous$ dar%$ thic%$ foggy$ moorish$ Fc. _9ubs. @._
E+ercise$ _9ubs. -._
Hnseasonable$ e+cessi#e$ or defecti#e$ of body or mind$ solitariness$
idleness$ a life out of action$ Fc.
9lee" and 'a%ing$ unseasonable$ inordinate$ o#ermuch$ o#erlittle$ Fc.
_9ubs. A._
_Memb. .. 9ect. =._
Passions and "erturbations of the mind$ _9ubs. ,._ 4ith a digression of
the force of imagination. _9ubs. =._ and di#ision of "assions into
_9ubs. .._
9orro'$ cause and sym"tom$ _9ubs. ?._
7ear$ cause and sym"tom$ _9ubs. @._
9hame$ re"ulse$ disgrace$ Fc. _9ubs. -._
En#y and malice$ _9ubs. A._
Emulation$ hatred$ faction$ desire of re#enge$ _9ubs. /._
Anger a cause$ _9ubs. B._
3iscontents$ cares$ miseries$ Fc. _9ubs. ,C._
or concu"iscible.
Iehement desires$ ambition$ _9ubs. ,,._
:o#etousness$ ;Gree%& "hilargurianG$ _9ubs. ,=._
*o#e of "leasures$ gaming in e+cess$ Fc. _9ubs. ,.._
3esire of "raise$ "ride$ #ainglory$ Fc. _9ubs. ,?._
*o#e of learning$ study in e+cess$ 'ith a digression$ of the
misery of scholars$ and 'hy the Muses are melancholy$ _9ubs.
. 9ym"toms of melancholy are either _9ect. .._
General$ as of _Memb. ,._
ody$ as ill digestion$ crudity$ 'ind$ dry brains$ hard belly$ thic%
blood$ much 'a%ing$ hea#iness$ and "al"itation of heart$ lea"ing in
many "laces$ Fc.$ _9ubs. ,._
or Mind
:ommon to all or most.
7ear and sorro' 'ithout a just cause$ sus"icion$ jealousy$
discontent$ solitariness$ ir%someness$ continual cogitations$
restless thoughts$ #ain imaginations$ Fc. _9ubs. =._
2r Particular to "ri#ate "ersons$ according to _9ubs. .. ?._
:elestial influences$ as ;9ymbol& 9aturnG ;9ymbol& Du"iterG
;9ymbol& MarsG$ Fc. "arts of the body$ heart$ brain$ li#er$
s"leen$ stomach$ Fc.
9anguine are merry still$ laughing$ "leasant$ meditating
on "lays$ 'omen$ music$ Fc.
Phlegmatic$ slothful$ dull$ hea#y$ Fc.
:holeric$ furious$ im"atient$ subject to hear and see
strange a""aritions$ Fc.
lac%$ solitary$ sad< they thin% they are be'itched$
dead$ Fc.
2r mi+ed of these four humours adust$ or not adust$
infinitely #aried.
Their se#eral customs$ conditions$ inclinations$ disci"line$
Ambitious$ thin%s himself a %ing$ a lord< co#etous$ runs
on his money< lasci#ious on his mistress< religious$ hath
re#elations$ #isions$ is a "ro"het$ or troubled in mind<
a scholar on his boo%$ Fc.
:ontinuance of time as the humour is intended or remitted$
Pleasant at first$ hardly discerned< after'ards harsh and
intolerable$ if in#eterate. 5ence some ma%e three
,. _7alsa cogitatio._
=. _:ogitata lo0ui._
.. _E+e0ui lo0uutum._
y fits$ or continuate$ as the object #aries$ "leasing$
or dis"leasing.
9im"le$ or as it is mi+ed 'ith other diseases$ a"o"le+ies$ gout$ _caninus
a""etitus_$ Fc. so the sym"toms are #arious.
;9ymbol& :ancerG Particular sym"toms to the three distinct s"ecies. _9ect.
.. Memb. =._
5ead melancholy. _9ubs. ,._
In body
5eadache$ binding and hea#iness$ #ertigo$ lightness$ singing of
the ears$ much 'a%ing$ fi+ed eyes$ high colour$ red eyes$ hard
belly$ dry body< no great sign of melancholy in the other "arts.
2r In mind.
:ontinual fear$ sorro'$ sus"icion$ discontent$ su"erfluous cares$
solicitude$ an+iety$ "er"etual cogitation of such toys they are
"ossessed 'ith$ thoughts li%e dreams$ Fc.
5y"ochondriacal$ or 'indy melancholy. _9ubs. =._
In body
4ind$ rumbling in the guts$ bellyache$ heat in the bo'els$
con#ulsions$ crudities$ short 'ind$ sour and shar" belchings$
cold s'eat$ "ain in the left side$ suffocation$ "al"itation$
hea#iness of the heart$ singing in the ears$ much s"ittle$ and
moist$ Fc.
2r In mind.
7earful$ sad$ sus"icious$ discontent$ an+iety$ Fc. *asci#ious by
reason of much 'ind$ troublesome dreams$ affected by fits$ Fc.
2#er all the body. _9ubs. .._
In body
lac%$ most "art lean$ broad #eins$ gross$ thic% blood$ their
hemorrhoids commonly sto""ed$ Fc.
2r In mind.
7earful$ sad$ solitary$ hate light$ a#erse from com"any$ fearful
dreams$ Fc.
9ym"toms of nuns$ maids$ and 'ido's melancholy$ in body and mind$ Fc.
;_9ubs. ?_G
A reason of these sym"toms. _Memb. .._
4hy they are so fearful$ sad$ sus"icious 'ithout a cause$ 'hy
solitary$ 'hy melancholy men are 'itty$ 'hy they su""ose they hear
and see strange #oices$ #isions$ a""aritions.
4hy they "ro"hesy$ and s"ea% strange languages< 'hence comes their
crudity$ rumbling$ con#ulsions$ cold s'eat$ hea#iness of heart$
"al"itation$ cardiaca$ fearful dreams$ much 'a%ing$ "rodigious
:. Prognostics of melancholy. _9ect. ?._
Tending to good$ as
Mor"he'$ scabs$ itch$ brea%ing out$ Fc.
lac% jaundice.
If the hemorrhoids #oluntarily o"en.
If #arices a""ear.
Tending to e#il$ as
*eanness$ dryness$ hollo'-eyed$ Fc.
In#eterate melancholy is incurable.
If cold$ it degenerates often into e"ile"sy$ a"o"le+y$ dotage$ or
into blindness.
If hot$ into madness$ des"air$ and #iolent death.
:orollaries and 0uestions.
The grie#ousness of this abo#e all other diseases.
The diseases of the mind are more grie#ous than those of the body.
4hether it be la'ful$ in this case of melancholy$ for a man to offer
#iolence to himself. _8eg._
5o' a melancholy or mad man offering #iolence to himself$ is to be
T5E 7I19T PA1TITI28.
T5E 7I19T 9E:TI28$ MEME1$ 9H9E:TI28.
_Man!s E+cellency$ 7all$ Miseries$ Infirmities< The causes of them_.
_Man!s E+cellency_.G Man the most e+cellent and noble creature of the
'orld$ Lthe "rinci"al and mighty 'or% of God$ 'onder of 8ature$L as
>oroaster calls him< _audacis naturae miraculum_$ Lthe ;/=CGmar#el of
mar#els$L as Plato< Lthe ;/=,Gabridgment and e"itome of the 'orld$L as
Pliny< _microcosmus_$ a little 'orld$ a model of the 'orld$ ;/==Gso#ereign
lord of the earth$ #iceroy of the 'orld$ sole commander and go#ernor of all
the creatures in it< to 'hose em"ire they are subject in "articular$ and
yield obedience< far sur"assing all the rest$ not in body only$ but in
soul< ;/=.G_imaginis imago_$ ;/=?Gcreated to God!s o'n ;/=@Gimage$ to that
immortal and incor"oreal substance$ 'ith all the faculties and "o'ers
belonging unto it< 'as at first "ure$ di#ine$ "erfect$ ha""y$ ;/=-G
Lcreated after God in true holiness and righteousness<L _3eo congruens_$
free from all manner of infirmities$ and "ut in Paradise$ to %no' God$ to
"raise and glorify him$ to do his 'ill$ _Ht diis consimiles "arturiat deos_
(as an old "oet saith) to "ro"agate the church.
_Man!s 7all and Misery_.G ut this most noble creature$ _5eu tristis$ et
lachrymosa commutatio_ (;/=AGone e+claims) 2 "itiful changeO is fallen from
that he 'as$ and forfeited his estate$ become _miserabilis homuncio_$ a
casta'ay$ a caitiff$ one of the most miserable creatures of the 'orld$ if
he be considered in his o'n nature$ an unregenerate man$ and so much
obscured by his fall that (some fe' relics e+ce"ted) he is inferior to a
beast$ ;/=/GLMan in honour that understandeth not$ is li%e unto beasts that
"erish$L so 3a#id esteems him& a monster by stu"end metamor"hoses$ ;/=BGa
fo+$ a dog$ a hog$ 'hat notN _Kuantum mutatus ab illo_N 5o' much altered
from that he 'as< before blessed and ha""y$ no' miserable and accursed<
;/.CGL5e must eat his meat in sorro'$L subject to death and all manner of
infirmities$ all %ind of calamities.
_A 3escri"tion of Melancholy_.G ;/.,GLGreat tra#ail is created for all men$
and an hea#y yo%e on the sons of Adam$ from the day that they go out of
their mother!s 'omb$ unto that day they return to the mother of all things.
8amely$ their thoughts$ and fear of their hearts$ and their imagination of
things they 'ait for$ and the day of death. 7rom him that sitteth in the
glorious throne$ to him that sitteth beneath in the earth and ashes< from
him that is clothed in blue sil% and 'eareth a cro'n$ to him that is
clothed in sim"le linen. 4rath$ en#y$ trouble$ and un0uietness$ and fear of
death$ and rigour$ and strife$ and such things come to both man and beast$
but se#enfold to the ungodly.L All this befalls him in this life$ and
"erad#enture eternal misery in the life to come.
_Im"ulsi#e :ause of Man!s Misery and Infirmities_.G The im"ulsi#e cause of
these miseries in man$ this "ri#ation or destruction of God!s image$ the
cause of death and diseases$ of all tem"oral and eternal "unishments$ 'as
the sin of our first "arent Adam$ ;/.=Gin eating of the forbidden fruit$ by
the de#il!s instigation and allurement. 5is disobedience$ "ride$ ambition$
intem"erance$ incredulity$ curiosity< from 'hence "roceeded original sin$
and that general corru"tion of man%ind$ as from a fountain$ flo'ed all bad
inclinations and actual transgressions 'hich cause our se#eral calamities
inflicted u"on us for our sins. And this beli%e is that 'hich our fabulous
"oets ha#e shado'ed unto us in the tale of ;/..G Pandora!s bo+$ 'hich being
o"ened through her curiosity$ filled the 'orld full of all manner of
diseases. It is not curiosity alone$ but those other crying sins of ours$
'hich "ull these se#eral "lagues and miseries u"on our heads. 7or _Hbi
"eccatum$ ibi "rocella_$ as ;/.?G:hrysostom 'ell obser#es. ;/.@GL7ools by
reason of their transgression$ and because of their ini0uities$ are
afflicted.L ;/.-GL7ear cometh li%e sudden desolation$ and destruction li%e
a 'hirl'ind$ affliction and anguish$L because they did not fear God.
;/.AGLAre you sha%en 'ith 'arsNL as :y"rian 'ell urgeth to 3emetrius$ Lare
you molested 'ith dearth and famineN is your health crushed 'ith raging
diseasesN is man%ind generally tormented 'ith e"idemical maladiesN !tis all
for your sins$L 5ag. i. B$ ,C< Amos i.< Der. #ii. God is angry$ "unisheth
and threateneth$ because of their obstinacy and stubbornness$ they 'ill not
turn unto him. ;/./GLIf the earth be barren then for 'ant of rain$ if dry
and s0ualid$ it yield no fruit$ if your fountains be dried u"$ your 'ine$
corn$ and oil blasted$ if the air be corru"ted$ and men troubled 'ith
diseases$ !tis by reason of their sins&L 'hich li%e the blood of Abel cry
loud to hea#en for #engeance$ *am. #. ,@. LThat 'e ha#e sinned$ therefore
our hearts are hea#y$L Isa. li+. ,,$ ,=. L4e roar li%e bears$ and mourn
li%e do#es$ and 'ant health$ Fc. for our sins and tres"asses.L ut this 'e
cannot endure to hear or to ta%e notice of$ Der. ii. .C. L4e are smitten in
#ain and recei#e no correction<L and ca". #. .. LThou hast stric%en them$
but they ha#e not sorro'ed< they ha#e refused to recei#e correction< they
ha#e not returned. Pestilence he hath sent$ but they ha#e not turned to
him$L Amos i#. ;/.BG5erod could not abide Dohn a"tist$ nor ;/?CG3omitian
endure A"ollonius to tell the causes of the "lague at E"hesus$ his
injustice$ incest$ adultery$ and the li%e.
To "unish therefore this blindness and obstinacy of ours as a concomitant
cause and "rinci"al agent$ is God!s just judgment in bringing these
calamities u"on us$ to chastise us$ I say$ for our sins$ and to satisfy
God!s 'rath. 7or the la' re0uires obedience or "unishment$ as you may read
at large$ 3eut. ++#iii. ,@. LIf they 'ill not obey the *ord$ and %ee" his
commandments and ordinances$ then all these curses shall come u"on them.L
;/?,GL:ursed in the to'n and in the field$L Fc. ;/?=GL:ursed in the fruit
of the body$L Fc. ;/?.GLThe *ord shall send thee trouble and shame$ because
of thy 'ic%edness.L And a little after$ ;/??GLThe *ord shall smite thee
'ith the botch of Egy"t$ and 'ith emerods$ and scab$ and itch$ and thou
canst not be healed< ;/?@G'ith madness$ blindness$ and astonishing of
heart.L This Paul seconds$ 1om. ii. B. LTribulation and anguish on the soul
of e#ery man that doeth e#il.L 2r else these chastisements are inflicted
u"on us for our humiliation$ to e+ercise and try our "atience here in this
life to bring us home$ to ma%e us to %no' God oursel#es$ to inform and
teach us 'isdom. ;/?-GLTherefore is my "eo"le gone into ca"ti#ity$ because
they had no %no'ledge< therefore is the 'rath of the *ord %indled against
his "eo"le$ and he hath stretched out his hand u"on them.L 5e is desirous
of our sal#ation. ;/?AG_8ostrae salutis a#idus_$ saith *emnius$ and for
that cause "ulls us by the ear many times$ to "ut us in mind of our duties&
LThat they 'hich erred might ha#e understanding$ (as Isaiah s"ea%s ++i+.
=?) and so to be reformed.L ;/?/GLI am afflicted$ and at the "oint of
death$L so 3a#id confesseth of himself$ Psal. l+++#iii. #. ,@$ #. B. LMine
eyes are sorro'ful through mine affliction&L and that made him turn unto
God. Great Ale+ander in the midst of all his "ros"erity$ by a com"any of
"arasites deified$ and no' made a god$ 'hen he sa' one of his 'ounds bleed$
remembered that he 'as but a man$ and remitted of his "ride. _In morbo
recolligit se animus_$;/?BG as ;/@CGPliny 'ell "ercei#ed< LIn sic%ness the
mind reflects u"on itself$ 'ith judgment sur#eys itself$ and abhors its
former courses<L insomuch that he concludes to his friend Marius$;/@,G
Lthat it 'ere the "eriod of all "hiloso"hy$ if 'e could so continue sound$
or "erform but a "art of that 'hich 'e "romised to do$ being sic%. 4hoso is
'ise then$ 'ill consider these things$L as 3a#id did (Psal. c+li#.$ #erse
last)< and 'hatsoe#er fortune befall him$ ma%e use of it. If he be in
sorro'$ need$ sic%ness$ or any other ad#ersity$ seriously to recount 'ith
himself$ 'hy this or that malady$ misery$ this or that incurable disease is
inflicted u"on him< it may be for his good$ ;/@=G_sic e+"edit_ as Peter
said of his daughter!s ague. odily sic%ness is for his soul!s health$
_"eriisset nisi "eriisset_$ had he not been #isited$ he had utterly
"erished< for ;/@.GLthe *ord correcteth him 'hom he lo#eth$ e#en as a
father doth his child in 'hom he delighteth.L If he be safe and sound on
the other side$ and free from all manner of infirmity< ;/@?G_et cui_
LGratia$ forma$ #aletudo contingat abunde
Et mundus #ictus$ non deficiente crumena.L
LAnd that he ha#e grace$ beauty$ fa#our$ health$
A cleanly diet$ and abound in 'ealth.L
Eet in the midst of his "ros"erity$ let him remember that ca#eat of Moses$
;/@@GLe'are that he do not forget the *ord his God<L that he be not "uffed
u"$ but ac%no'ledge them to be his good gifts and benefits$ and ;/@-GLthe
more he hath$ to be more than%ful$L (as Aga"etianus ad#iseth) and use them
_Instrumental :auses of our Infirmities_.G 8o' the instrumental causes of
these our infirmities$ are as di#erse as the infirmities themsel#es< stars$
hea#ens$ elements$ Fc. And all those creatures 'hich God hath made$ are
armed against sinners. They 'ere indeed once good in themsel#es$ and that
they are no' many of them "ernicious unto us$ is not in their nature$ but
our corru"tion$ 'hich hath caused it. 7or from the fall of our first "arent
Adam$ they ha#e been changed$ the earth accursed$ the influence of stars$
altered$ the four elements$ beasts$ birds$ "lants$ are no' ready to offend
us. LThe "rinci"al things for the use of man$ are 'ater$ fire$ iron$ salt$
meal$ 'heat$ honey$ mil%$ oil$ 'ine$ clothing$ good to the godly$ to the
sinners turned to e#il$L Ecclus. +++i+. =-. L7ire$ and hail$ and famine$
and dearth$ all these are created for #engeance$L Ecclus. +++i+. =B. The
hea#ens threaten us 'ith their comets$ stars$ "lanets$ 'ith their great
conjunctions$ ecli"ses$ o""ositions$ 0uartiles$ and such unfriendly
as"ects. The air 'ith his meteors$ thunder and lightning$ intem"erate heat
and cold$ mighty 'inds$ tem"ests$ unseasonable 'eather< from 'hich "roceed
dearth$ famine$ "lague$ and all sorts of e"idemical diseases$ consuming
infinite myriads of men. At :airo in Egy"t$ e#ery third year$ (as it is
related by ;/@AGoterus$ and others) .CC$CCC die of the "lague< and
=CC$CCC$ in :onstantino"le$ e#ery fifth or se#enth at the utmost. 5o' doth
the earth terrify and o""ress us 'ith terrible earth0ua%es$ 'hich are most
fre0uent in ;/@/G:hina$ Da"an$ and those eastern climes$ s'allo'ing u"
sometimes si+ cities at onceN 5o' doth the 'ater rage 'ith his inundations$
irru"tions$ flinging do'n to'ns$ cities$ #illages$ bridges$ Fc. besides
shi"'rec%s< 'hole islands are sometimes suddenly o#er'helmed 'ith all their
inhabitants in ;/@BG>ealand$ 5olland$ and many "arts of the continent
dro'ned$ as the ;/-CGla%e Erne in IrelandN ;/-,G_8ihil0ue "raeter arcium
cada#era "atenti cernimus freto._ In the fens of 7riesland ,=.C$ by reason
of tem"ests$ ;/-=Gthe sea dro'ned _multa hominum millia$ et jumenta sine
numero_$ all the country almost$ men and cattle in it. 5o' doth the fire
rage$ that merciless element$ consuming in an instant 'hole citiesN 4hat
to'n of any anti0uity or note hath not been once$ again and again$ by the
fury of this merciless element$ defaced$ ruinated$ and left desolateN In a
;/-.G LIgnis "e"ercit$ unda mergit$ aeris
Iis "estilentis ae0uori ere"tum necat$
ello su"erstes$ tabidus morbo "erit.L
L4hom fire s"ares$ sea doth dro'n< 'hom sea$
Pestilent air doth send to clay<
4hom 'ar !sca"es$ sic%ness ta%es a'ay.L
To descend to more "articulars$ ho' many creatures are at deadly feud 'ith
menN *ions$ 'ol#es$ bears$ Fc. 9ome 'ith hoofs$ horns$ tus%s$ teeth$ nails&
5o' many no+ious ser"ents and #enomous creatures$ ready to offend us 'ith
stings$ breath$ sight$ or 0uite %ill usN 5o' many "ernicious fishes$
"lants$ gums$ fruits$ seeds$ flo'ers$ Fc. could I rec%on u" on a sudden$
'hich by their #ery smell many of them$ touch$ taste$ cause some grie#ous
malady$ if not death itselfN 9ome ma%e mention of a thousand se#eral
"oisons& but these are but trifles in res"ect. The greatest enemy to man$
is man$ 'ho by the de#il!s instigation is still ready to do mischief$ his
o'n e+ecutioner$ a 'olf$ a de#il to himself$ and others. ;/-?G4e are all
brethren in :hrist$ or at least should be$ members of one body$ ser#ants of
one lord$ and yet no fiend can so torment$ insult o#er$ tyrannise$ #e+$ as
one man doth another. *et me not fall therefore (saith 3a#id$ 'hen 'ars$
"lague$ famine 'ere offered) into the hands of men$ merciless and 'ic%ed
;/-@G ------LIi+ sunt homines hoc nomine digni$
Kuam0ue lu"i$ sae#ae "lus feritatis habent.L
4e can most "art foresee these e"idemical diseases$ and li%ely a#oid them<
3earths$ tem"ests$ "lagues$ our astrologers foretell us< Earth0ua%es$
inundations$ ruins of houses$ consuming fires$ come by little and little$
or ma%e some noise beforehand< but the %na#eries$ im"ostures$ injuries and
#illainies of men no art can a#oid. 4e can %ee" our "rofessed enemies from
our cities$ by gates$ 'alls and to'ers$ defend oursel#es from thie#es and
robbers by 'atchfulness and 'ea"ons< but this malice of men$ and their
"ernicious endea#ours$ no caution can di#ert$ no #igilancy foresee$ 'e ha#e
so many secret "lots and de#ices to mischief one another.
9ometimes by the de#il!s hel" as magicians$ ;/--G'itches& sometimes by
im"ostures$ mi+tures$ "oisons$ stratagems$ single combats$ 'ars$ 'e hac%
and he'$ as if 'e 'ere _ad internecionem nati_$ li%e :admus! soldiers born
to consume one another. !Tis an ordinary thing to read of a hundred and t'o
hundred thousand men slain in a battle. esides all manner of tortures$
brazen bulls$ rac%s$ 'heels$ stra""adoes$ guns$ engines$ Fc. ;/-AG_Ad unum
cor"us humanum su""licia "lura$ 0uam membra_& 4e ha#e in#ented more
torturing instruments$ than there be se#eral members in a man!s body$ as
:y"rian 'ell obser#es. To come nearer yet$ our o'n "arents by their
offences$ indiscretion and intem"erance$ are our mortal enemies. ;/-/GLThe
fathers ha#e eaten sour gra"es$ and the children!s teeth are set on edge.L
They cause our grief many times$ and "ut u"on us hereditary diseases$
ine#itable infirmities& they torment us$ and 'e are ready to injure our
;/-BG ------Lmo+ daturi "rogeniem #itiosiorem.L
LAnd yet 'ith crimes to us un%no'n$
2ur sons shall mar% the coming age their o'n<L
and the latter end of the 'orld$ as ;/ACGPaul foretold$ is still li%e to be
the 'orst. 4e are thus bad by nature$ bad by %ind$ but far 'orse by art$
e#ery man the greatest enemy unto himself. 4e study many times to undo
oursel#es$ abusing those good gifts 'hich God hath besto'ed u"on us$
health$ 'ealth$ strength$ 'it$ learning$ art$ memory to our o'n
destruction$ ;/A,G_Perditio tua e+ te_. As ;/A=GDudas Maccabeus %illed
A"ollonius 'ith his o'n 'ea"ons$ 'e arm oursel#es to our o'n o#erthro's<
and use reason$ art$ judgment$ all that should hel" us$ as so many
instruments to undo us. 5ector ga#e Aja+ a s'ord$ 'hich so long as he
fought against enemies$ ser#ed for his hel" and defence< but after he began
to hurt harmless creatures 'ith it$ turned to his o'n hurtless bo'els.
Those e+cellent means God hath besto'ed on us$ 'ell em"loyed$ cannot but
much a#ail us< but if other'ise "er#erted$ they ruin and confound us& and
so by reason of our indiscretion and 'ea%ness they commonly do$ 'e ha#e too
many instances. This 9t. Austin ac%no'ledgeth of himself in his humble
confessions$ L"rom"tness of 'it$ memory$ elo0uence$ they 'ere God!s good
gifts$ but he did not use them to his glory.L If you 'ill "articularly %no'
ho'$ and by 'hat means$ consult "hysicians$ and they 'ill tell you$ that it
is in offending in some of those si+ non-natural things$ of 'hich I shall
;/A.Gdilate more at large< they are the causes of our infirmities$ our
surfeiting$ and drun%enness$ our immoderate insatiable lust$ and "rodigious
riot. _Plures cra"ula$ 0uam gladius_$ is a true saying$ the board consumes
more than the s'ord. 2ur intem"erance it is$ that "ulls so many se#eral
incurable diseases u"on our heads$ that hastens ;/A?Gold age$ "er#erts our
tem"erature$ and brings u"on us sudden death. And last of all$ that 'hich
crucifies us most$ is our o'n folly$ madness (_0uos Du"iter "erdit$
dementat_< by subtraction of his assisting grace God "ermits it) 'ea%ness$
'ant of go#ernment$ our facility and "roneness in yielding to se#eral
lusts$ in gi#ing 'ay to e#ery "assion and "erturbation of the mind& by
'hich means 'e metamor"hose oursel#es and degenerate into beasts. All 'hich
that "rince of ;/A@G"oets obser#ed of Agamemnon$ that 'hen he 'as 'ell
"leased$ and could moderate his "assion$ he 'as--_os oculos0ue Do#i "ar_&
li%e Du"iter in feature$ Mars in #alour$ Pallas in 'isdom$ another god< but
'hen he became angry$ he 'as a lion$ a tiger$ a dog$ Fc.$ there a""eared no
sign or li%eness of Du"iter in him< so 'e$ as long as 'e are ruled by
reason$ correct our inordinate a""etite$ and conform oursel#es to God!s
'ord$ are as so many saints& but if 'e gi#e reins to lust$ anger$ ambition$
"ride$ and follo' our o'n 'ays$ 'e degenerate into beasts$ transform
oursel#es$ o#erthro' our constitutions$ ;/A-G"ro#o%e God to anger$ and hea"
u"on us this of melancholy$ and all %inds of incurable diseases$ as a just
and deser#ed "unishment of our sins.
9H9E:T. II.--_The 3efinition$ 8umber$ 3i#ision of 3iseases_.
4hat a disease is$ almost e#ery "hysician defines. ;/AAG7ernelius calleth
it an Laffection of the body contrary to nature.L ;/A/G7uschius and :rato$
Lan hindrance$ hurt$ or alteration of any action of the body$ or "art of
it.L ;/ABGTholosanus$ La dissolution of that league 'hich is bet'een body
and soul$ and a "erturbation of it< as health the "erfection$ and ma%es to
the "reser#ation of it.L ;//CG*abeo in Agellius$ Lan ill habit of the body$
o""osite to nature$ hindering the use of it.L 2thers other'ise$ all to this
_8umber of 3iseases_.G 5o' many diseases there are$ is a 0uestion not yet
determined< ;//,GPliny rec%ons u" .CC from the cro'n of the head to the
sole of the foot& else'here he saith$ _morborum infinita multitudo_$ their
number is infinite. 5o'soe#er it 'as in those times$ it boots not< in our
days I am sure the number is much augmented&
;//=G ------Lmacies$ et no#a febrium
Terris incubit cohors.L
7or besides many e"idemical diseases unheard of$ and altogether un%no'n to
Galen and 5i""ocrates$ as scorbutum$ small-"o+$ "lica$ s'eating sic%ness$
morbus Gallicus$ Fc.$ 'e ha#e many "ro"er and "eculiar almost to e#ery
_8o man free from some 3isease or other_.G 8o man amongst us so sound$ of
so good a constitution$ that hath not some im"ediment of body or mind.
_Kuis0ue suos "atimur manes_$ 'e ha#e all our infirmities$ first or last$
more or less. There 'ill be "erad#enture in an age$ or one of a thousand$
li%e >eno"hilus the musician in ;//.GPliny$ that may ha""ily li#e ,C@ years
'ithout any manner of im"ediment< a Pollio 1omulus$ that can "reser#e
himself ;//?GL'ith 'ine and oil<L a man as fortunate as K. Metellus$ of
'hom Ialerius so much brags< a man as healthy as 2tto 5er'ardus$ a senator
of Augsburg in Germany$ 'hom ;//@G*eo#itius the astrologer brings in for an
e+am"le and instance of certainty in his art< 'ho because he had the
significators in his geniture fortunate$ and free from the hostile as"ects
of 9aturn and Mars$ being a #ery cold man$ ;//-GLcould not remember that
e#er he 'as sic%.L ;//AGParacelsus may brag that he could ma%e a man li#e
?CC years or more$ if he might bring him u" from his infancy$ and diet him
as he list< and some "hysicians hold$ that there is no certain "eriod of
man!s life< but it may still by tem"erance and "hysic be "rolonged. 4e find
in the meantime$ by common e+"erience$ that no man can esca"e$ but that of
;///G5esiod is true&
L;Gree%& "leiae men gar gaia %a%on$ "leiae de thalassa$
nousoid! anthro"oi ein e"h! haemerae$ aed! e"i nu%ti
5automatoi "hoitosi.GL------
LTh! earth!s full of maladies$ and full the sea$
4hich set u"on us both by night and day.L
_3i#ision of 3iseases_.G If you re0uire a more e+act di#ision of these
ordinary diseases 'hich are incident to men$ I refer you to "hysicians<
;//BGthey 'ill tell you of acute and chronic$ first and secondary$ lethals$
salutares$ errant$ fi+ed$ sim"le$ com"ound$ conne+ed$ or conse0uent$
belonging to "arts or the 'hole$ in habit$ or in dis"osition$ Fc. My
di#ision at this time (as most befitting my "ur"ose) shall be into those of
the body and mind. 7or them of the body$ a brief catalogue of 'hich
7uschius hath made$ _Institut. lib. .$ sect. ,$ ca". ,,._ I refer you to
the #oluminous tomes of Galen$ Areteus$ 1hasis$ A#icenna$ Ale+ander$ Paulus
Aetius$ Gordonerius& and those e+act 8eoterics$ 9a#anarola$ :a"i#accius$
3onatus Altomarus$ 5ercules de 9a+onia$ Mercurialis$ Iictorius 7a#entinus$
4ec%er$ Piso$ Fc.$ that ha#e methodically and elaborately 'ritten of them
all. Those of the mind and head I 'ill briefly handle$ and a"art.
9H9E:T. III.--_3i#ision of the 3iseases of the 5ead_.
These diseases of the mind$ forasmuch as they ha#e their chief seat and
organs in the head$ 'hich are commonly re"eated amongst the diseases of the
head 'hich are di#ers$ and #ary much according to their site. 7or in the
head$ as there be se#eral "arts$ so there be di#ers grie#ances$ 'hich
according to that di#ision of ;/BCG5eurnius$ ('hich he ta%es out of
Arculanus$) are in'ard or out'ard (to omit all others 'hich "ertain to eyes
and ears$ nostrils$ gums$ teeth$ mouth$ "alate$ tongue$ 'eezle$ cho"s$
face$ Fc.) belonging "ro"erly to the brain$ as baldness$ falling of hair$
furfur$ lice$ Fc. ;/B,GIn'ard belonging to the s%ins ne+t to the brain$
called _dura_ and _"ia mater_$ as all headaches$ Fc.$ or to the #entricles$
caules$ %ells$ tunicles$ cree%s$ and "arts of it$ and their "assions$ as
caro$ #ertigo$ incubus$ a"o"le+y$ falling sic%ness. The diseases of the
ner#es$ cram"s$ stu"or$ con#ulsion$ tremor$ "alsy& or belonging to the
e+crements of the brain$ catarrhs$ sneezing$ rheums$ distillations& or else
those that "ertain to the substance of the brain itself$ in 'hich are
concei#ed frenzy$ lethargy$ melancholy$ madness$ 'ea% memory$ so"or$ or
_:oma Iigilia et #igil :oma_. 2ut of these again I 'ill single such as
"ro"erly belong to the "hantasy$ or imagination$ or reason itself$ 'hich
;/B=G*aurentius calls the disease of the mind< and 5ildesheim$ _morbos
imaginationis$ aut rationis laesae_$ (diseases of the imagination$ or of
injured reason$) 'hich are three or four in number$ frenzy$ madness$
melancholy$ dotage$ and their %inds& as hydro"hobia$ lycanthro"ia$ _:horus
sancti #iti$ morbi daemoniaci_$ (9t. Iitus!s dance$ "ossession of de#ils$)
'hich I 'ill briefly touch and "oint at$ insisting es"ecially in this of
melancholy$ as more eminent than the rest$ and that through all his %inds$
causes$ sym"toms$ "rognostics$ cures& as *onicerus hath done _de
a"o"le+ia_$ and many other of such "articular diseases. 8ot that I find
fault 'ith those 'hich ha#e 'ritten of this subject before$ as Dason
Pratensis$ *aurentius$ Montaltus$ T. right$ Fc.$ they ha#e done #ery 'ell
in their se#eral %inds and methods< yet that 'hich one omits$ another may
ha"ly see< that 'hich one contracts$ another may enlarge. To conclude 'ith
;/B.G9cribanius$ Lthat 'hich they had neglected$ or "erfunctorily handled$
'e may more thoroughly e+amine< that 'hich is obscurely deli#ered in them$
may be "ers"icuously dilated and am"lified by us&L and so made more
familiar and easy for e#ery man!s ca"acity$ and the common good$ 'hich is
the chief end of my discourse.
9H9E:T. II.--_3otage$ 7renzy$ Madness$ 5ydro"hobia$ *ycanthro"ia$ :horus
sancti Iiti$ E+tasis_.
_3elirium$ 3otage_.G 3otage$ fatuity$ or folly$ is a common name to all the
follo'ing s"ecies$ as some 'ill ha#e it. ;/B?G*aurentius and ;/B@G
Altomarus com"rehended madness$ melancholy$ and the rest under this name$
and call it the _summum genus_ of them all. If it be distinguished from
them$ it is natural or ingenite$ 'hich comes by some defect of the organs$
and o#ermuch brain$ as 'e see in our common fools< and is for the most "art
intended or remitted in "articular men$ and thereu"on some are 'iser than
others& or else it is ac0uisite$ an a""endi+ or sym"tom of some other
disease$ 'hich comes or goes< or if it continue$ a sign of melancholy
_7renzy_.G _Phrenitis_$ 'hich the Gree%s deri#e from the 'ord ;Gree%&
"hraenG$ is a disease of the mind$ 'ith a continual madness or dotage$
'hich hath an acute fe#er anne+ed$ or else an inflammation of the brain$ or
the membranes or %ells of it$ 'ith an acute fe#er$ 'hich causeth madness
and dotage. It differs from melancholy and madness$ because their dotage is
'ithout an ague& this continual$ 'ith 'a%ing$ or memory decayed$ Fc.
Melancholy is most "art silent$ this clamorous< and many such li%e
differences are assigned by "hysicians.
_Madness_.G Madness$ frenzy$ and melancholy are confounded by :elsus$ and
many 'riters< others lea#e out frenzy$ and ma%e madness and melancholy but
one disease$ 'hich ;/B-GDason Pratensis es"ecially labours$ and that they
differ only _secundam majus_ or _minus_$ in 0uantity alone$ the one being a
degree to the other$ and both "roceeding from one cause. They differ
_intenso et remisso gradu_$ saith ;/BAGGordonius$ as the humour is intended
or remitted. 2f the same mind is ;/B/GAreteus$ Ale+ander Tertullianus$
Guianerius$ 9a#anarola$ 5eurnius< and Galen himself 'rites "romiscuously of
them both by reason of their affinity& but most of our neoterics do handle
them a"art$ 'hom I 'ill follo' in this treatise. Madness is therefore
defined to be a #ehement dotage< or ra#ing 'ithout a fe#er$ far more
#iolent than melancholy$ full of anger and clamour$ horrible loo%s$
actions$ gestures$ troubling the "atients 'ith far greater #ehemency both
of body and mind$ 'ithout all fear and sorro'$ 'ith such im"etuous force
and boldness$ that sometimes three or four men cannot hold them. 3iffering
only in this from frenzy$ that it is 'ithout a fe#er$ and their memory is
most "art better. It hath the same causes as the other$ as choler adust$
and blood incensed$ brains inflamed$ Fc. ;/BBG7racastorius adds$ La due
time$ and full ageL to this definition$ to distinguish it from children$
and 'ill ha#e it confirmed im"otency$ to se"arate it from such as
accidentally come and go again$ as by ta%ing henbane$ nightshade$ 'ine$ Fc.
2f this fury there be di#ers %inds< ;BCCGecstasy$ 'hich is familiar 'ith
some "ersons$ as :ardan saith of himself$ he could be in one 'hen he list<
in 'hich the Indian "riests deli#er their oracles$ and the 'itches in
*a"land$ as 2laus Magnus 'riteth$ _l. .$ ca". ,/._ _E+tasi omnia
"raedicere_$ ans'er all 0uestions in an ecstasis you 'ill as%< 'hat your
friends do$ 'here they are$ ho' they fare$ Fc. The other s"ecies of this
fury are enthusiasms$ re#elations$ and #isions$ so often mentioned by
Gregory and ede in their 'or%s< obsession or "ossession of de#ils$
sibylline "ro"hets$ and "oetical furies< such as come by eating no+ious
herbs$ tarantulas stinging$ Fc.$ 'hich some reduce to this. The most %no'n
are these$ lycanthro"ia$ hydro"hobia$ chorus sancti Iiti.
_*ycanthro"ia_.G *ycanthro"ia$ 'hich A#icenna calls _cucubuth_$ others
_lu"inam insaniam_$ or 'olf-madness$ 'hen men run ho'ling about gra#es and
fields in the night$ and 'ill not be "ersuaded but that they are 'ol#es$ or
some such beasts. ;BC,GAetius and ;BC=GPaulus call it a %ind of melancholy<
but I should rather refer it to madness$ as most do. 9ome ma%e a doubt of
it 'hether there be any such disease. ;BC.G3onat ab Altomari saith$ that he
sa' t'o of them in his time& ;BC?G4ierus tells a story of such a one at
Padua ,@?,$ that 'ould not belie#e to the contrary$ but that he 'as a 'olf.
5e hath another instance of a 9"aniard$ 'ho thought himself a bear<
;BC@G7orrestus confirms as much by many e+am"les< one amongst the rest of
'hich he 'as an eye'itness$ at Alcmaer in 5olland$ a "oor husbandman that
still hunted about gra#es$ and %e"t in churchyards$ of a "ale$ blac%$ ugly$
and fearful loo%. 9uch beli%e$ or little better$ 'ere %ing Praetus!
;BC-Gdaughters$ that thought themsel#es %ine. And 8ebuchadnezzar in 3aniel$
as some inter"reters hold$ 'as only troubled 'ith this %ind of madness.
This disease "erha"s ga#e occasion to that bold assertion of ;BCAGPliny$
Lsome men 'ere turned into 'ol#es in his time$ and from 'ol#es to men
again&L and to that fable of Pausanias$ of a man that 'as ten years a 'olf$
and after'ards turned to his former sha"e& to ;BC/G2#id!s tale of *ycaon$
Fc. 5e that is desirous to hear of this disease$ or more e+am"les$ let him
read Austin in his ,/th boo% _de :i#itate 3ei$ ca". @._ Mizaldus$ _cent. @.
AA._ 9c%en%ius$ _lib. ,._ 5ildesheim$ _s"icel. =. de Mania_. 7orrestus
_lib. ,C. de morbis cerebri._ 2laus Magnus$ Iincentius ella#icensis$
_s"ec. met. lib. .,. c. ,==._ Pierius$ odine$ >uinger$ >eilger$ Peucer$
4ierus$ 9"ranger$ Fc. This malady$ saith A#icenna$ troubleth men most in
7ebruary$ and is no'adays fre0uent in ohemia and 5ungary$ according to
;BCBG5eurnius. 9cheretzius 'ill ha#e it common in *i#onia. They lie hid
most "art all day$ and go abroad in the night$ bar%ing$ ho'ling$ at gra#es
and deserts< ;B,CGLthey ha#e usually hollo' eyes$ scabbed legs and thighs$
#ery dry and "ale$L ;B,,Gsaith Altomarus< he gi#es a reason there of all
the sym"toms$ and sets do'n a brief cure of them.
_5ydro"hobia_ is a %ind of madness$ 'ell %no'n in e#ery #illage$ 'hich
comes by the biting of a mad dog$ or scratching$ saith ;B,=GAurelianus<
touching$ or smelling alone sometimes as ;B,.G9c%en%ius "ro#es$ and is
incident to many other creatures as 'ell as men& so called because the
"arties affected cannot endure the sight of 'ater$ or any li0uor$ su""osing
still they see a mad dog in it. And 'hich is more 'onderful< though they be
#ery dry$ (as in this malady they are) they 'ill rather die than drin%&
;B,?Gde Ienenis :aelius Aurelianus$ an ancient 'riter$ ma%es a doubt
'hether this 5ydro"hobia be a "assion of the body or the mind. The "art
affected is the brain& the cause$ "oison that comes from the mad dog$ 'hich
is so hot and dry$ that it consumes all the moisture in the body. ;B,@G
5ildesheim relates of some that died so mad< and being cut u"$ had no
'ater$ scarce blood$ or any moisture left in them. To such as are so
affected$ the fear of 'ater begins at fourteen days after they are bitten$
to some again not till forty or si+ty days after& commonly saith 5eurnius$
they begin to ra#e$ fly 'ater and glasses$ to loo% red$ and s'ell in the
face$ about t'enty days after (if some remedy be not ta%en in the meantime)
to lie a'a%e$ to be "ensi#e$ sad$ to see strange #isions$ to bar% and ho'l$
to fall into a s'oon$ and oftentimes fits of the falling sic%ness. ;B,-G
9ome say$ little things li%e 'hel"s 'ill be seen in their urine. If any of
these signs a""ear$ they are "ast reco#ery. Many times these sym"toms 'ill
not a""ear till si+ or se#en months after$ saith ;B,AG:odronchus< and
sometimes not till se#en or eight years$ as Guianerius< t'el#e as Albertus<
si+ or eight months after$ as Galen holds. aldus the great la'yer died of
it& an Augustine friar$ and a 'oman in 3elft$ that 'ere ;B,/G7orrestus!
"atients$ 'ere miserably consumed 'ith it. The common cure in the country
(for such at least as d'ell near the seaside) is to duc% them o#er head and
ears in sea 'ater< some use charms& e#ery good 'ife can "rescribe
medicines. ut the best cure to be had in such cases$ is from the most
a""ro#ed "hysicians< they that 'ill read of them$ may consult 'ith
3ioscorides$ _lib. -. c. .A_$ 5eurnius$ 5ildesheim$ :a"i#accius$ 7orrestus$
9c%en%ius and before all others :odronchus an Italian$ 'ho hath lately
'ritten t'o e+0uisite boo%s on the subject.
_:horus sancti Iiti_$ or 9t. Iitus!s dance< the lasci#ious dance$ ;B,BG
Paracelsus calls it$ because they that are ta%en from it$ can do nothing
but dance till they be dead$ or cured. It is so called$ for that the
"arties so troubled 'ere 'ont to go to 9t. Iitus for hel"$ and after they
had danced there a'hile$ they 'ere ;B=CGcertainly freed. !Tis strange to
hear ho' long they 'ill dance$ and in 'hat manner$ o#er stools$ forms$
tables< e#en great bellied 'omen sometimes (and yet ne#er hurt their
children) 'ill dance so long that they can stir neither hand nor foot$ but
seem to be 0uite dead. 2ne in red clothes they cannot abide. Music abo#e
all things they lo#e$ and therefore magistrates in Germany 'ill hire
musicians to "lay to them$ and some lusty sturdy com"anions to dance 'ith
them. This disease hath been #ery common in Germany$ as a""ears by those
relations of ;B=,G9c%en%ius$ and Paracelsus in his boo% of Madness$ 'ho
brags ho' many se#eral "ersons he hath cured of it. 7eli+ Plateras _de
mentis alienat. ca". ._$ re"orts of a 'oman in asil 'hom he sa'$ that
danced a 'hole month together. The Arabians call it a %ind of "alsy. odine
in his @th boo% _de 1e"ub. ca". ,_$ s"ea%s of this infirmity< Mona#ius in
his last e"istle to 9coltizius$ and in another to 3udithus$ 'here you may
read more of it.
The last %ind of madness or melancholy$ is that demoniacal (if I may so
call it) obsession or "ossession of de#ils$ 'hich Platerus and others 'ould
ha#e to be "reternatural& stu"end things are said of them$ their actions$
gestures$ contortions$ fasting$ "ro"hesying$ s"ea%ing languages they 'ere
ne#er taught$ Fc. Many strange stories are related of them$ 'hich because
some 'ill not allo'$ (for 3eacon and 3arrel ha#e 'ritten large #olumes on
this subject "ro and con.) I #oluntarily omit.
;B==G7uschius$ _Institut. lib. .. sec. ,. ca". ,,_$ 7eli+ Plater$
;B=.G*aurentius$ add to these another fury that "roceeds from lo#e$ and
another from study$ another di#ine or religious fury< but these more
"ro"erly belong to melancholy< of all 'hich I 'ill s"ea% ;B=?Ga"art$
intending to 'rite a 'hole boo% of them.
9H9E:T. I.--_Melancholy in 3is"osition$ im"ro"erly so called$
Melancholy$ the subject of our "resent discourse$ is either in dis"osition
or habit. In dis"osition$ is that transitory melancholy 'hich goes and
comes u"on e#ery small occasion of sorro'$ need$ sic%ness$ trouble$ fear$
grief$ "assion$ or "erturbation of the mind$ any manner of care$
discontent$ or thought$ 'hich causeth anguish$ dullness$ hea#iness and
#e+ation of s"irit$ any 'ays o""osite to "leasure$ mirth$ joy$ delight$
causing fro'ardness in us$ or a disli%e. In 'hich e0ui#ocal and im"ro"er
sense$ 'e call him melancholy that is dull$ sad$ sour$ lum"ish$ ill
dis"osed$ solitary$ any 'ay mo#ed$ or dis"leased. And from these melancholy
dis"ositions$ ;B=@Gno man li#ing is free$ no stoic$ none so 'ise$ none so
ha""y$ none so "atient$ so generous$ so godly$ so di#ine$ that can
#indicate himself< so 'ell com"osed$ but more or less$ some time or other
he feels the smart of it. Melancholy in this sense is the character of
mortality. ;B=-GLMan that is born of a 'oman$ is of short continuance$ and
full of trouble.L >eno$ :ato$ 9ocrates himself$ 'hom ;B=AGAelian so highly
commends for a moderate tem"er$ that Lnothing could disturb him$ but going
out$ and coming in$ still 9ocrates %e"t the same serenity of countenance$
'hat misery soe#er befell him$L (if 'e may belie#e Plato his disci"le) 'as
much tormented 'ith it. K. Metellus$ in 'hom ;B=/GIalerius gi#es instance
of all ha""iness$ Lthe most fortunate man then li#ing$ born in that most
flourishing city of 1ome$ of noble "arentage$ a "ro"er man of "erson$ 'ell
0ualified$ healthful$ rich$ honourable$ a senator$ a consul$ ha""y in his
'ife$ ha""y in his children$L Fc. yet this man 'as not #oid of melancholy$
he had his share of sorro'. ;B=BGPolycrates 9amius$ that flung his ring
into the sea$ because he 'ould "artici"ate of discontent 'ith others$ and
had it miraculously restored to him again shortly after$ by a fish ta%en as
he angled$ 'as not free from melancholy dis"ositions. 8o man can cure
himself< the #ery gods had bitter "angs$ and fre0uent "assions$ as their
o'n ;B.CG"oets "ut u"on them. In general$ ;B.,GLas the hea#en$ so is our
life$ sometimes fair$ sometimes o#ercast$ tem"estuous$ and serene< as in a
rose$ flo'ers and "ric%les< in the year itself$ a tem"erate summer
sometimes$ a hard 'inter$ a drought$ and then again "leasant sho'ers& so is
our life intermi+ed 'ith joys$ ho"es$ fears$ sorro's$ calumnies& _In#icem
cedunt dolor et #olu"tas_$L there is a succession of "leasure and "ain.
;B.=G ------Lmedio de fonte le"orum
9urgit amari ali0uid$ in i"sis floribus angat.L
LE#en in the midst of laughing there is sorro'$L (as ;B..G9olomon holds)&
e#en in the midst of all our feasting and jollity$ as ;B.?GAustin infers in
his _:om. on the ?,st Psalm_$ there is grief and discontent. _Inter
delicias sem"er ali0uid sae#i nos strangulat_$ for a "int of honey thou
shalt here li%ely find a gallon of gall$ for a dram of "leasure a "ound of
"ain$ for an inch of mirth an ell of moan< as i#y doth an oa%$ these
miseries encom"ass our life. And it is most absurd and ridiculous for any
mortal man to loo% for a "er"etual tenure of ha""iness in his life. 8othing
so "ros"erous and "leasant$ but it hath ;B.@Gsome bitterness in it$ some
com"laining$ some grudging< it is all ;Gree%& glu%u"i%ronG$ a mi+ed
"assion$ and li%e a che0uer table blac% and 'hite& men$ families$ cities$
ha#e their falls and 'anes< no' trines$ se+tiles$ then 0uartiles and
o""ositions. 4e are not here as those angels$ celestial "o'ers and bodies$
sun and moon$ to finish our course 'ithout all offence$ 'ith such
constancy$ to continue for so many ages& but subject to infirmities$
miseries$ interru"ted$ tossed and tumbled u" and do'n$ carried about 'ith
e#ery small blast$ often molested and dis0uieted u"on each slender
occasion$ ;B.-Guncertain$ brittle$ and so is all that 'e trust unto. ;B.AG
LAnd he that %no's not this is not armed to endure it$ is not fit to li#e
in this 'orld (as one condoles our time)$ he %no's not the condition of it$
'here 'ith a reci"rocalty$ "leasure and "ain are still united$ and succeed
one another in a ring.L _E+i e mundo_$ get thee gone hence if thou canst
not broo% it< there is no 'ay to a#oid it$ but to arm thyself 'ith
"atience$ 'ith magnanimity$ to ;B./Go""ose thyself unto it$ to suffer
affliction as a good soldier of :hrist< as ;B.BGPaul ad#iseth constantly to
bear it. ut forasmuch as so fe' can embrace this good council of his$ or
use it aright$ but rather as so many brute beasts gi#e a'ay to their
"assion$ #oluntary subject and "reci"itate themsel#es into a labyrinth of
cares$ 'oes$ miseries$ and suffer their souls to be o#ercome by them$
cannot arm themsel#es 'ith that "atience as they ought to do$ it falleth
out oftentimes that these dis"ositions become habits$ and Lmany affects
contemnedL (as ;B?CG9eneca notes) Lma%e a disease. E#en as one
distillation$ not yet gro'n to custom$ ma%es a cough< but continual and
in#eterate causeth a consum"tion of the lungs<L so do these our melancholy
"ro#ocations& and according as the humour itself is intended$ or remitted
in men$ as their tem"erature of body$ or rational soul is better able to
ma%e resistance< so are they more or less affected. 7or that 'hich is but a
flea-biting to one$ causeth insufferable torment to another< and 'hich one
by his singular moderation$ and 'ell-com"osed carriage can ha""ily
o#ercome$ a second is no 'hit able to sustain$ but u"on e#ery small
occasion of misconcei#ed abuse$ injury$ grief$ disgrace$ loss$ cross$
humour$ Fc. (if solitary$ or idle) yields so far to "assion$ that his
com"le+ion is altered$ his digestion hindered$ his slee" gone$ his s"irits
obscured$ and his heart hea#y$ his hy"ochondries misaffected< 'ind$
crudity$ on a sudden o#erta%e him$ and he himself o#ercome 'ith melancholy.
As it is 'ith a man im"risoned for debt$ if once in the gaol$ e#ery
creditor 'ill bring his action against him$ and there li%ely hold him. If
any discontent seize u"on a "atient$ in an instant all other "erturbations
(for--_0ua data "orta ruunt_) 'ill set u"on him$ and then li%e a lame dog
or bro%en-'inged goose he droo"s and "ines a'ay$ and is brought at last to
that ill habit or malady of melancholy itself. 9o that as the "hiloso"hers
ma%e ;B?,Geight degrees of heat and cold$ 'e may ma%e eighty-eight of
melancholy$ as the "arts affected are di#ersely seized 'ith it$ or ha#e
been "lunged more or less into this infernal gulf$ or 'aded dee"er into it.
ut all these melancholy fits$ ho'soe#er "leasing at first$ or dis"leasing$
#iolent and tyrannizing o#er those 'hom they seize on for the time< yet
these fits I say$ or men affected$ are but im"ro"erly so called$ because
they continue not$ but come and go$ as by some objects they aye mo#ed. This
melancholy of 'hich 'e are to treat$ is a habit$ _mosbus sonticus_$ or
_chronicus_$ a chronic or continuate disease$ a settled humour$ as ;B?=G
Aurelianus and ;B?.Gothers call it$ not errant$ but fi+ed< and as it 'as
long increasing$ so no' being ("leasant$ or "ainful) gro'n to an habit$ it
'ill hardly be remo#ed.
9E:T. I. MEM. II.
9H9E:T. I.--_3igression of Anatomy_.
efore I "roceed to define the disease of melancholy$ 'hat it is$ or to
discourse farther of it$ I hold it not im"ertinent to ma%e a brief
digression of the anatomy of the body and faculties of the soul$ for the
better understanding of that 'hich is to follo'< because many hard 'ords
'ill often occur$ as mirach$ hy"ocondries$ emerods$ Fc.$ imagination$
reason$ humours$ s"irits$ #ital$ natural$ animal$ ner#es$ #eins$ arteries$
chylus$ "ituita< 'hich by the #ulgar 'ill not so easily be "ercei#ed$ 'hat
they are$ ho' cited$ and to 'hat end they ser#e. And besides$ it may
"erad#enture gi#e occasion to some men to e+amine more accurately$ search
further into this most e+cellent subject$ and thereu"on 'ith that royal
;B??G"ro"het to "raise God$ (Lfor a man is fearfully and 'onderfully made$
and curiously 'roughtL) that ha#e time and leisure enough$ and are
sufficiently informed in all other 'orldly businesses$ as to ma%e a good
bargain$ buy and sell$ to %ee" and ma%e choice of a fair ha'%$ hound$
horse$ Fc. ut for such matters as concern the %no'ledge of themsel#es$
they are 'holly ignorant and careless< they %no' not 'hat this body and
soul are$ ho' combined$ of 'hat "arts and faculties they consist$ or ho' a
man differs from a dog. And 'hat can be more ignominious and filthy (as
;B?@GMelancthon 'ell in#eighs) Lthan for a man not to %no' the structure
and com"osition of his o'n body$ es"ecially since the %no'ledge of it tends
so much to the "reser#ation$ of his health$ and information of his
mannersNL To stir them u" therefore to this study$ to "eruse those
elaborate 'or%s of ;B?-GGalen$ auhines$ Plater$ Iesalius$ 7alo"ius$
*aurentius$ 1emelinus$ Fc.$ 'hich ha#e 'ritten co"iously in *atin< or that
'hich some of our industrious countrymen ha#e done in our mother tongue$
not long since$ as that translation of ;B?AG:olumbus and ;B?/G
Microcosmogra"hia$ in thirteen boo%s$ I ha#e made this brief digression.
Also because ;B?BG4ec%er$ ;B@CGMelancthon$ ;B@,G7ernelius$ ;B@=G 7uschius$
and those tedious Tracts _de Anima_ ('hich ha#e more com"endiously handled
and 'ritten of this matter$) are not at all times ready to be had$ to gi#e
them some small taste$ or notice of the rest$ let this e"itome suffice.
9H9E:T. II.--_3i#ision of the ody$ 5umours$ 9"irits_.
2f the "arts of the body there may be many di#isions& the most a""ro#ed is
that of ;B@.G*aurentius$ out of 5i""ocrates& 'hich is$ into "arts
contained$ or containing. :ontained$ are either humours or s"irits.
_5umours_.G A humour is a li0uid or fluent "art of the body$ com"rehended
in it$ for the "reser#ation of it< and is either innate or born 'ith us$ or
ad#entitious and ac0uisite. The radical or innate$ is daily su""lied by
nourishment$ 'hich some call cambium$ and ma%e those secondary humours of
ros and gluten to maintain it& or ac0uisite$ to maintain these four first
"rimary humours$ coming and "roceeding from the first concoction in the
li#er$ by 'hich means chylus is e+cluded. 9ome di#ide them into "rofitable
and e+crementitious. ut ;B@?G:rato out of 5i""ocrates 'ill ha#e all four
to be juice$ and not e+crements$ 'ithout 'hich no li#ing creature can be
sustained& 'hich four$ though they be com"rehended in the mass of blood$
yet they ha#e their se#eral affections$ by 'hich they are distinguished
from one another$ and from those ad#entitious$ "eccant$ or ;B@@Gdiseased
humours$ as Melancthon calls them.
_lood_.G lood is a hot$ s'eet$ tem"erate$ red humour$ "re"ared in the
mesaraic #eins$ and made of the most tem"erate "arts of the chylus in the
li#er$ 'hose office is to nourish the 'hole body$ to gi#e it strength and
colour$ being dis"ersed by the #eins through e#ery "art of it. And from it
s"irits are first begotten in the heart$ 'hich after'ards by the arteries
are communicated to the other "arts.
Pituita$ or "hlegm$ is a cold and moist humour$ begotten of the colder "art
of the chylus (or 'hite juice coming out of the meat digested in the
stomach$) in the li#er< his office is to nourish and moisten the members of
the body$ 'hich as the tongue are mo#ed$ that they be not o#er dry.
:holer$ is hot and dry$ bitter$ begotten of the hotter "arts of the chylus$
and gathered to the gall& it hel"s the natural heat and senses$ and ser#es
to the e+"elling of e+crements.
_Melancholy_.G Melancholy$ cold and dry$ thic%$ blac%$ and sour$ begotten
of the more feculent "art of nourishment$ and "urged from the s"leen$ is a
bridle to the other t'o hot humours$ blood and choler$ "reser#ing them in
the blood$ and nourishing the bones. These four humours ha#e some analogy
'ith the four elements$ and to the four ages in man.
_9erum$ 9'eat$ Tears_.G To these humours you may add serum$ 'hich is the
matter of urine$ and those e+crementitious humours of the third concoction$
s'eat and tears.
_9"irits_.G 9"irit is a most subtle #a"our$ 'hich is e+"ressed from the
blood$ and the instrument of the soul$ to "erform all his actions< a common
tie or medium bet'een the body and the soul$ as some 'ill ha#e it< or as
;B@-GParacelsus$ a fourth soul of itself. Melancthon holds the fountain of
those s"irits to be the heart$ begotten there< and after'ard con#eyed to
the brain$ they ta%e another nature to them. 2f these s"irits there be
three %inds$ according to the three "rinci"al "arts$ brain$ heart$ li#er<
natural$ #ital$ animal. The natural are begotten in the li#er$ and thence
dis"ersed through the #eins$ to "erform those natural actions. The #ital
s"irits are made in the heart of the natural$ 'hich by the arteries are
trans"orted to all the other "arts& if the s"irits cease$ then life
ceaseth$ as in a synco"e or s'ooning. The animal s"irits formed of the
#ital$ brought u" to the brain$ and diffused by the ner#es$ to the
subordinate members$ gi#e sense and motion to them all.
9H9E:T. III.--_9imilar Parts_.
_9imilar Parts_G :ontaining "arts$ by reason of their more solid substance$
are either homogeneal or heterogeneal$ similar or dissimilar< so Aristotle
di#ides them$ _lib. ,$ ca". ,$ de 5ist. Animal._< *aurentius$ _ca". =C$
lib. ,._ 9imilar$ or homogeneal$ are such as$ if they be di#ided$ are still
se#ered into "arts of the same nature$ as 'ater into 'ater. 2f these some
be s"ermatical$ some fleshy or carnal. ;B@AG9"ermatical are such as are
immediately begotten of the seed$ 'hich are bones$ gristles$ ligaments$
membranes$ ner#es$ arteries$ #eins$ s%ins$ fibres or strings$ fat.
_ones_.G The bones are dry and hard$ begotten of the thic%est of the seed$
to strengthen and sustain other "arts& some say there be .C?$ some .CA$ or
.,. in man!s body. They ha#e no ner#es in them$ and are therefore 'ithout
A gristle is a substance softer than bone$ and harder than the rest$
fle+ible$ and ser#es to maintain the "arts of motion.
*igaments are they that tie the bones together$ and other "arts to the
bones$ 'ith their subser#ing tendons& membranes! office is to co#er the
8er#es$ or sine's$ are membranes 'ithout$ and full of marro' 'ithin< they
"roceed from the brain$ and carry the animal s"irits for sense and motion.
2f these some be harder$ some softer< the softer ser#e the senses$ and
there be se#en "air of them. The first be the o"tic ner#es$ by 'hich 'e
see< the second mo#e the eyes< the third "air ser#e for the tongue to
taste< the fourth "air for the taste in the "alate< the fifth belong to the
ears< the si+th "air is most am"le$ and runs almost o#er all the bo'els<
the se#enth "air mo#es the tongue. The harder sine's ser#e for the motion
of the inner "arts$ "roceeding from the marro' in the bac%$ of 'hom there
be thirty combinations$ se#en of the nec%$ t'el#e of the breast$ Fc.
_Arteries_.G Arteries are long and hollo'$ 'ith a double s%in to con#ey the
#ital s"irit< to discern 'hich the better$ they say that Iesalius the
anatomist 'as 'ont to cut u" men ali#e. ;B@/GThey arise in the left side of
the heart$ and are "rinci"ally t'o$ from 'hich the rest are deri#ed$ aorta
and #enosa& aorta is the root of all the other$ 'hich ser#e the 'hole body<
the other goes to the lungs$ to fetch air to refrigerate the heart.
_Ieins_.G Ieins are hollo' and round$ li%e "i"es$ arising from the li#er$
carrying blood and natural s"irits< they feed all the "arts. 2f these there
be t'o chief$ _Iena "orta_ and _Iena ca#a_$ from 'hich the rest are
corri#ated. That _Iena "orta_ is a #ein coming from the conca#e of the
li#er$ and recei#ing those mesaraical #eins$ by 'hom he ta%es the chylus
from the stomach and guts$ and con#eys it to the li#er. The other deri#es
blood from the li#er to nourish all the other dis"ersed members. The
branches of that _Iena "orta_ are the mesaraical and haemorrhoids. The
branches of the _ca#a_ are in'ard or out'ard. In'ard$ seminal or emulgent.
2ut'ard$ in the head$ arms$ feet$ Fc.$ and ha#e se#eral names.
_7ibrae$ 7at$ 7lesh_.G 7ibrae are strings$ 'hite and solid$ dis"ersed
through the 'hole member$ and right$ obli0ue$ trans#erse$ all 'hich ha#e
their se#eral uses. 7at is a similar "art$ moist$ 'ithout blood$ com"osed
of the most thic% and unctuous matter of the blood. The ;B@BGs%in co#ers
the rest$ and hath _cuticulum_$ or a little s%in tinder it. 7lesh is soft
and ruddy$ com"osed of the congealing of blood$ Fc.
9H9E:T. II.--_3issimilar Parts_.
3issimilar "arts are those 'hich 'e call organical$ or instrumental$ and
they be in'ard or out'ard. The chiefest out'ard "arts are situate for'ard
or bac%'ard&--for'ard$ the cro'n and foreto" of the head$ s%ull$ face$
forehead$ tem"les$ chin$ eyes$ ears$ nose$ Fc.$ nec%$ breast$ chest$ u""er
and lo'er "art of the belly$ hy"ocondries$ na#el$ groin$ flan%$ Fc.<
bac%'ard$ the hinder "art of the head$ bac%$ shoulders$ sides$ loins$
hi"bones$ _os sacrum_$ buttoc%s$ Fc. 2r joints$ arms$ hands$ feet$ legs$
thighs$ %nees$ Fc. 2r common to both$ 'hich$ because they are ob#ious and
'ell %no'n$ I ha#e carelessly re"eated$ _ea0ue "raeci"ua et grandiora
tantum< 0uod reli0uum e+ libris de anima 0ui #olet$ acci"iat_.
In'ard organical "arts$ 'hich cannot be seen$ are di#ers in number$ and
ha#e se#eral names$ functions$ and di#isions< but that of ;B-CG*aurentius
is most notable$ into noble or ignoble "arts. 2f the noble there be three
"rinci"al "arts$ to 'hich all the rest belong$ and 'hom they ser#e--brain$
heart$ li#er< according to 'hose site$ three regions$ or a threefold
di#ision$ is made of the 'hole body. As first of the head$ in 'hich the
animal organs are contained$ and brain itself$ 'hich by his ner#es gi#e
sense and motion to the rest$ and is$ as it 'ere$ a "ri#y counsellor and
chancellor to the heart. The second region is the chest$ or middle belly$
in 'hich the heart as %ing %ee"s his court$ and by his arteries
communicates life to the 'hole body. The third region is the lo'er belly$
in 'hich the li#er resides as a _*egat a latere_$ 'ith the rest of those
natural organs$ ser#ing for concoction$ nourishment$ e+"elling of
e+crements. This lo'er region is distinguished from the u""er by the
midriff$ or dia"hragma$ and is subdi#ided again by ;B-,Gsome into three
conca#ities or regions$ u""er$ middle$ and lo'er. The u""er of the
hy"ocondries$ in 'hose right side is the li#er$ the left the s"leen< from
'hich is denominated hy"ochondriacal melancholy. The second of the na#el
and flan%s$ di#ided from the first by the rim. The last of the 'ater
course$ 'hich is again subdi#ided into three other "arts. The Arabians ma%e
t'o "arts of this region$ _E"igastrium_ and _5y"ogastrium_$ u""er or lo'er.
_E"igastrium_ they call _Mirach_$ from 'hence comes _Mirachialis
Melancholia_$ sometimes mentioned of them. 2f these se#eral regions I 'ill
treat in brief a"art< and first of the third region$ in 'hich the natural
organs are contained.
_3e Anima.--The *o'er 1egion$ 8atural 2rgans_.G ut you that are readers in
the meantime$ L9u""ose you 'ere no' brought into some sacred tem"le$ or
majestical "alaceL (as ;B-=GMelancthon saith)$ Lto behold not the matter
only$ but the singular art$ 'or%manshi"$ and counsel of this our great
:reator. And it is a "leasant and "rofitable s"eculation$ if it be
considered aright.L The "arts of this region$ 'hich "resent themsel#es to
your consideration and #ie'$ are such as ser#e to nutrition or generation.
Those of nutrition ser#e to the first or second concoction< as the
oeso"hagus or gullet$ 'hich brings meat and drin% into the stomach. The
#entricle or stomach$ 'hich is seated in the midst of that "art of the
belly beneath the midriff$ the %itchen$ as it 'ere$ of the first
concoction$ and 'hich turns our meat into chylus. It hath t'o mouths$ one
abo#e$ another beneath. The u""er is sometimes ta%en for the stomach
itself< the lo'er and nether door (as 4ec%er calls it) is named Pylorus.
This stomach is sustained by a large %ell or caul$ called omentum< 'hich
some 'ill ha#e the same 'ith "eritoneum$ or rim of the belly. 7rom the
stomach to the #ery fundament are "roduced the guts$ or intestina$ 'hich
ser#e a little to alter and distribute the chylus$ and con#ey a'ay the
e+crements. They are di#ided into small and great$ by reason of their site
and substance$ slender or thic%er& the slender is duodenum$ or 'hole gut$
'hich is ne+t to the stomach$ some t'el#e inches long$ saith ;B-.G
7uschius. Dejunum$ or em"ty gut$ continuate to the other$ 'hich hath many
mesaraic #eins anne+ed to it$ 'hich ta%e "art of the chylus to the li#er
from it. Ilion the third$ 'hich consists of many crin%les$ 'hich ser#es
'ith the rest to recei#e$ %ee"$ and distribute the chylus from the stomach.
The thic% guts are three$ the blind gut$ colon$ and right gut. The blind is
a thic% and short gut$ ha#ing one mouth$ in 'hich the ilium and colon meet&
it recei#es the e+crements$ and con#eys them to the colon. This colon hath
many 'indings$ that the e+crements "ass not a'ay too fast& the right gut is
straight$ and con#eys the e+crements to the fundament$ 'hose lo'er "art is
bound u" 'ith certain muscles called s"hincters$ that the e+crements may be
the better contained$ until such time as a man be 'illing to go to the
stool. In the midst of these guts is situated the mesenterium or midriff$
com"osed of many #eins$ arteries$ and much fat$ ser#ing chiefly to sustain
the guts. All these "arts ser#e the first concoction. To the second$ 'hich
is busied either in refining the good nourishment or e+"elling the bad$ is
chiefly belonging the li#er$ li%e in colour to congealed blood$ the sho" of
blood$ situate in the right hy"ochondry$ in figure li%e to a half-moon$
_generosum membrum_ Melancthon styles it$ a generous "art< it ser#es to
turn the chylus to blood$ for the nourishment of the body. The e+crements
of it are either choleric or 'atery$ 'hich the other subordinate "arts
con#ey. The gall "laced in the conca#e of the li#er$ e+tracts choler to it&
the s"leen$ melancholy< 'hich is situate on the left side$ o#er against the
li#er$ a s"ongy matter$ that dra's this blac% choler to it by a secret
#irtue$ and feeds u"on it$ con#eying the rest to the bottom of the stomach$
to stir u" a""etite$ or else to the guts as an e+crement. That 'atery
matter the t'o %idneys e+"urgate by those emulgent #eins and ureters. The
emulgent dra' this su"erfluous moisture from the blood< the t'o ureters
con#ey it to the bladder$ 'hich$ by reason of his site in the lo'er belly$
is a"t to recei#e it$ ha#ing t'o "arts$ nec% and bottom& the bottom holds
the 'ater$ the nec% is constringed 'ith a muscle$ 'hich$ as a "orter$ %ee"s
the 'ater from running out against our 'ill.
Members of generation are common to both se+es$ or "eculiar to one< 'hich$
because they are im"ertinent to my "ur"ose$ I do #oluntarily omit.
_Middle 1egion_.G 8e+t in order is the middle region$ or chest$ 'hich
com"rehends the #ital faculties and "arts< 'hich (as I ha#e said) is
se"arated from the lo'er belly by the dia"hragma or midriff$ 'hich is a
s%in consisting of many ner#es$ membranes< and amongst other uses it hath$
is the instrument of laughing. There is also a certain thin membrane$ full
of sine's$ 'hich co#ereth the 'hole chest 'ithin$ and is called "leura$ the
seat of the disease called "leurisy$ 'hen it is inflamed< some add a third
s%in$ 'hich is termed mediastinus$ 'hich di#ides the chest into t'o "arts$
right and left< of this region the "rinci"al "art is the heart$ 'hich is
the seat and fountain of life$ of heat$ of s"irits$ of "ulse and
res"iration--the sun of our body$ the %ing and sole commander of it--the
seat and organ of all "assions and affections. _Primum #i#ens$ ultimum
moriens_$ it li#es first$ dies last in all creatures. 2f a "yramidical
form$ and not much unli%e to a "inea""le< a "art 'orthy of ;B-?G
admiration$ that can yield such #ariety of affections$ by 'hose motion it
is dilated or contracted$ to stir and command the humours in the body. As
in sorro'$ melancholy< in anger$ choler< in joy$ to send the blood
out'ardly< in sorro'$ to call it in< mo#ing the humours$ as horses do a
chariot. This heart$ though it be one sole member$ yet it may be di#ided
into t'o cree%s right and left. The right is li%e the moon increasing$
bigger than the other "art$ and recei#es blood from _#ena ca#a_$
distributing some of it to the lungs to nourish them< the rest to the left
side$ to engender s"irits. The left cree% hath the form of a cone$ and is
the seat of life$ 'hich$ as a torch doth oil$ dra's blood unto it$
begetting of it s"irits and fire< and as fire in a torch$ so are s"irits in
the blood< and by that great artery called aorta$ it sends #ital s"irits
o#er the body$ and ta%es air from the lungs by that artery 'hich is called
_#enosa_< so that both cree%s ha#e their #essels$ the right t'o #eins$ the
left t'o arteries$ besides those t'o common anfractuous ears$ 'hich ser#e
them both< the one to hold blood$ the other air$ for se#eral uses. The
lungs is a thin s"ongy "art$ li%e an o+ hoof$ (saith ;B-@G7ernelius) the
to'n-cler% or crier$ (;B--Gone terms it) the instrument of #oice$ as an
orator to a %ing< anne+ed to the heart$ to e+"ress their thoughts by #oice.
That it is the instrument of #oice$ is manifest$ in that no creature can
s"ea%$ or utter any #oice$ 'hich 'anteth these lights. It is$ besides$ the
instrument of res"iration$ or breathing< and its office is to cool the
heart$ by sending air unto it$ by the #enosal artery$ 'hich #ein comes to
the lungs by that _as"era arteria_ 'hich consists of many gristles$
membranes$ ner#es$ ta%ing in air at the nose and mouth$ and by it li%e'ise
e+hales the fumes of the heart.
In the u""er region ser#ing the animal faculties$ the chief organ is the
brain$ 'hich is a soft$ marro'ish$ and 'hite substance$ engendered of the
"urest "art of seed and s"irits$ included by many s%ins$ and seated 'ithin
the s%ull or brain "an< and it is the most noble organ under hea#en$ the
d'elling-house and seat of the soul$ the habitation of 'isdom$ memory$
judgment$ reason$ and in 'hich man is most li%e unto God< and therefore
nature hath co#ered it 'ith a s%ull of hard bone$ and t'o s%ins or
membranes$ 'hereof the one is called _dura mater_$ or menin+$ the other
_"ia mater_. The dura mater is ne+t to the s%ull$ abo#e the other$ 'hich
includes and "rotects the brain. 4hen this is ta%en a'ay$ the "ia mater is
to be seen$ a thin membrane$ the ne+t and immediate co#er of the brain$ and
not co#ering only$ but entering into it. The brain itself is di#ided into
t'o "arts$ the fore and hinder "art< the fore "art is much bigger than the
other$ 'hich is called the little brain in res"ect of it. This fore "art
hath many conca#ities distinguished by certain #entricles$ 'hich are the
rece"tacles of the s"irits$ brought hither by the arteries from the heart$
and are there refined to a more hea#enly nature$ to "erform the actions of
the soul. 2f these #entricles there are three--right$ left$ and middle. The
right and left ans'er to their site$ and beget animal s"irits< if they be
any 'ay hurt$ sense and motion ceaseth. These #entricles$ moreo#er$ are
held to be the seat of the common sense. The middle #entricle is a common
concourse and ca#ity of them both$ and hath t'o "assages--the one to
recei#e "ituita$ and the other e+tends itself to the fourth cree%< in this
they "lace imagination and cogitation$ and so the three #entricles of the
fore "art of the brain are used. The fourth cree% behind the head is common
to the cerebel or little brain$ and marro' of the bac%bone$ the last and
most solid of all the rest$ 'hich recei#es the animal s"irits from the
other #entricles$ and con#eys them to the marro' in the bac%$ and is the
"lace 'here they say the memory is seated.
9H9E:T. I.--_2f the 9oul and her 7aculties_.
According to ;B-AGAristotle$ the soul is defined to be ;Gree%&
entelecheiaG$ _"erfectio et actus "rimus cor"oris organici$ #itam habentis
in "otentia_& the "erfection or first act of an organical body$ ha#ing
"o'er of life$ 'hich most ;B-/G"hiloso"hers a""ro#e. ut many doubts arise
about the essence$ subject$ seat$ distinction$ and subordinate faculties of
it. 7or the essence and "articular %no'ledge$ of all other things it is
most hard (be it of man or beast) to discern$ as ;B-BGAristotle himself$
;BACGTully$ ;BA,GPicus Mirandula$ ;BA=GTolet$ and other neoteric
"hiloso"hers confess&--;BA.GL4e can understand all things by her$ but 'hat
she is 'e cannot a""rehend.L 9ome therefore ma%e one soul$ di#ided into
three "rinci"al faculties< others$ three distinct souls. 4hich 0uestion of
late hath been much contro#erted by Picolomineus and >abarel. ;BA?G
Paracelsus 'ill ha#e four souls$ adding to the three grand faculties a
s"iritual soul& 'hich o"inion of his$ :am"anella$ in his boo% _de sensu
rerum_ ;BA@Gmuch labours to demonstrate and "ro#e$ because carcasses bleed
at the sight of the murderer< 'ith many such arguments And ;BA-Gsome again$
one soul of all creatures 'hatsoe#er$ differing only in organs< and that
beasts ha#e reason as 'ell as men$ though$ for some defect of organs$ not
in such measure. 2thers ma%e a doubt 'hether it be all in all$ and all in
e#ery "art< 'hich is am"ly discussed in >abarel amongst the rest. The
;BAAGcommon di#ision of the soul is into three "rinci"al
faculties--#egetal$ sensiti#e$ and rational$ 'hich ma%e three distinct
%inds of li#ing creatures--#egetal "lants$ sensible beasts$ rational men.
5o' these three "rinci"al faculties are distinguished and connected$
_5umano ingenio inaccessum #idetur_$ is beyond human ca"acity$ as ;BA/G
Taurellus$ Phili"$ 7la#ins$ and others su""ose. The inferior may be alone$
but the su"erior cannot subsist 'ithout the other< so sensible includes
#egetal$ rational both< 'hich are contained in it (saith Aristotle) _ut
trigonus in tetragono_ as a triangle in a 0uadrangle.
_Iegetal 9oul_.G Iegetal$ the first of the three distinct faculties$ is
defined to be La substantial act of an organical body$ by 'hich it is
nourished$ augmented$ and begets another li%e unto itself.L In 'hich
definition$ three se#eral o"erations are s"ecified--altri+$ auctri+$
"rocreatri+< the first is ;BABGnutrition$ 'hose object is nourishment$
meat$ drin%$ and the li%e< his organ the li#er in sensible creatures< in
"lants$ the root or sa". 5is office is to turn the nutriment into the
substance of the body nourished$ 'hich he "erforms by natural heat. This
nutriti#e o"eration hath four other subordinate functions or "o'ers
belonging to it--attraction$ retention$ digestion$ e+"ulsion.
_Attraction_.G ;B/CGAttraction is a ministering faculty$ 'hich$ as a
loadstone doth iron$ dra's meat into the stomach$ or as a lam" doth oil<
and this attracti#e "o'er is #ery necessary in "lants$ 'hich suc% u"
moisture by the root$ as$ another mouth$ into the sa"$ as a li%e stomach.
_1etention_.G 1etention %ee"s it$ being attracted unto the stomach$ until
such time it be concocted< for if it should "ass a'ay straight$ the body
could not be nourished.
_3igestion_.G 3igestion is "erformed by natural heat< for as the flame of a
torch consumes oil$ 'a+$ tallo'$ so doth it alter and digest the nutriti#e
matter. Indigestion is o""osite unto it$ for 'ant of natural heat. 2f this
digestion there be three differences--maturation$ eli+ation$ assation.
_Maturation_.G Maturation is es"ecially obser#ed in the fruits of trees<
'hich are then said to be ri"e$ 'hen the seeds are fit to be so'n again.
:rudity is o""osed to it$ 'hich gluttons$ e"icures$ and idle "ersons are
most subject unto$ that use no e+ercise to stir natural heat$ or else cho%e
it$ as too much 'ood "uts out a fire.
_Eli+ation_.G Eli+ation is the seething of meat in the stomach$ by the said
natural heat$ as meat is boiled in a "ot< to 'hich corru"tion or
"utrefaction is o""osite.
_Assation_.G Assation is a concoction of the in'ard moisture by heat< his
o""osite is semiustulation.
_2rder of :oncoction fourfold_.G esides these three se#eral o"erations of
digestion$ there is a fourfold order of concoction&--mastication$ or
che'ing in the mouth< chilification of this so che'ed meat in the stomach<
the third is in the li#er$ to turn this chylus into blood$ called
sanguification< the last is assimilation$ 'hich is in e#ery "art.
_E+"ulsion_.G E+"ulsion is a "o'er of nutrition$ by 'hich it e+"els all
su"erfluous e+crements$ and relics of meat and drin%$ by the guts$ bladder$
"ores< as by "urging$ #omiting$ s"itting$ s'eating$ urine$ hairs$ nails$
_Augmentation_.G As this nutriti#e faculty ser#es to nourish the body$ so
doth the augmenting faculty (the second o"eration or "o'er of the #egetal
faculty) to the increasing of it in 0uantity$ according to all dimensions$
long$ broad$ thic%$ and to ma%e it gro' till it come to his due "ro"ortion
and "erfect sha"e< 'hich hath his "eriod of augmentation$ as of
consum"tion< and that most certain$ as the "oet obser#es&--
L9tat sua cui0ue dies$ bre#e et irre"arabile tem"us
2mnibus est #itae.L------
LA term of life is set to e#ery man$
4hich is but short$ and "ass it no one can.L
_Generation_.G The last of these #egetal faculties is generation$ 'hich
begets another by means of seed$ li%e unto itself$ to the "er"etual
"reser#ation of the s"ecies. To this faculty they ascribe three subordinate
o"erations&--the first to turn nourishment into seed$ Fc.
_*ife and 3eath concomitants of the Iegetal 7aculties_.G 8ecessary
concomitants or affections of this #egetal faculty are life and his
"ri#ation$ death. To the "reser#ation of life the natural heat is most
re0uisite$ though siccity and humidity$ and those first 0ualities$ be not
e+cluded. This heat is li%e'ise in "lants$ as a""ears by their increasing$
fructifying$ Fc.$ though not so easily "ercei#ed. In all bodies it must
ha#e radical ;B/,Gmoisture to "reser#e it$ that it be not consumed< to
'hich "reser#ation our clime$ country$ tem"erature$ and the good or bad use
of those si+ non-natural things a#ail much. 7or as this natural heat and
moisture decays$ so doth our life itself< and if not "re#ented before by
some #iolent accident$ or interru"ted through our o'n default$ is in the
end dried u" by old age$ and e+tinguished by death for 'ant of matter$ as a
lam" for defect of oil to maintain it.
9H9E:T. II.--_2f the sensible 9oul_.
8e+t in order is the sensible faculty$ 'hich is as far beyond the other in
dignity$ as a beast is "referred to a "lant$ ha#ing those #egetal "o'ers
included in it. !Tis defined an LAct of an organical body by 'hich it
li#es$ hath sense$ a""etite$ judgment$ breath$ and motion.L 5is object in
general is a sensible or "assible 0uality$ because the sense is affected
'ith it. The general organ is the brain$ from 'hich "rinci"ally the
sensible o"erations are deri#ed. This sensible soul is di#ided into t'o
"arts$ a""rehending or mo#ing. y the a""rehensi#e "o'er 'e "ercei#e the
s"ecies of sensible things "resent$ or absent$ and retain them as 'a+ doth
the "rint of a seal. y the mo#ing$ the body is out'ardly carried from one
"lace to another< or in'ardly mo#ed by s"irits and "ulse. The a""rehensi#e
faculty is subdi#ided into t'o "arts$ in'ard or out'ard. 2ut'ard$ as the
fi#e senses$ of touching$ hearing$ seeing$ smelling$ tasting$ to 'hich you
may add 9caliger!s si+th sense of titillation$ if you "lease< or that of
s"eech$ 'hich is the si+th e+ternal sense$ according to *ullius. In'ard are
three--common sense$ "hantasy$ memory. Those fi#e out'ard senses ha#e their
object in out'ard things only$ and such as are "resent$ as the eye sees no
colour e+ce"t it be at hand$ the ear sound. Three of these senses are of
commodity$ hearing$ sight$ and smell< t'o of necessity$ touch$ and taste$
'ithout 'hich 'e cannot li#e. esides$ the sensiti#e "o'er is acti#e or
"assi#e. Acti#e in sight$ the eye sees the colour< "assi#e 'hen it is hurt
by his object$ as the eye by the sunbeams. According to that a+iom$
_#isibile forte destruit sensum_. ;B/=G2r if the object be not "leasing$ as
a bad sound to the ear$ a stin%ing smell to the nose$ Fc.
_9ight_.G 2f these fi#e senses$ sight is held to be most "recious$ and the
best$ and that by reason of his object$ it sees the 'hole body at once. y
it 'e learn$ and discern all things$ a sense most e+cellent for use& to the
sight three things are re0uired< the object$ the organ$ and the medium. The
object in general is #isible$ or that 'hich is to be seen$ as colours$ and
all shining bodies. The medium is the illumination of the air$ 'hich comes
from ;B/.Glight$ commonly called dia"hanum< for in dar% 'e cannot see. The
organ is the eye$ and chiefly the a""le of it$ 'hich by those o"tic ner#es$
concurring both in one$ con#eys the sight to the common sense. et'een the
organ and object a true distance is re0uired$ that it be not too near$ or
too far offO Many e+cellent 0uestions a""ertain to this sense$ discussed by
"hiloso"hers& as 'hether this sight be caused _intra mittendo$ #el e+tra
mittendo_$ Fc.$ by recei#ing in the #isible s"ecies$ or sending of them
out$ 'hich ;B/?GPlato$ ;B/@GPlutarch$ ;B/-GMacrobius$ ;B/AG*actantius and
others dis"ute. And$ besides$ it is the subject of the "ers"ecti#es$ of
'hich Alhazen the Arabian$ Iitellio$ 1oger acon$ a"tista Porta$ Guidus
Hbaldus$ A0uilonius$ Fc.$ ha#e 'ritten 'hole #olumes.
_5earing_.G 5earing$ a most e+cellent out'ard sense$ Lby 'hich 'e learn and
get %no'ledge.L 5is object is sound$ or that 'hich is heard< the medium$
air< organ$ the ear. To the sound$ 'hich is a collision of the air$ three
things are re0uired< a body to stri%e$ as the hand of a musician< the body
struc%$ 'hich must be solid and able to resist< as a bell$ lute-string$ not
'ool$ or s"onge< the medium$ the air< 'hich is in'ard$ or out'ard< the
out'ard being struc% or collided by a solid body$ still stri%es the ne+t
air$ until it come to that in'ard natural air$ 'hich as an e+0uisite organ
is contained in a little s%in formed li%e a drum-head$ and struc% u"on by
certain small instruments li%e drum-stic%s$ con#eys the sound by a "air of
ner#es$ a""ro"riated to that use$ to the common sense$ as to a judge of
sounds. There is great #ariety and much delight in them< for the %no'ledge
of 'hich$ consult 'ith oethius and other musicians.
_9melling_.G 9melling is an Lout'ard sense$ 'hich a""rehends by the
nostrils dra'ing in air<L and of all the rest it is the 'ea%est sense in
men. The organ in the nose$ or t'o small hollo' "ieces of flesh a little
abo#e it& the medium the air to men$ as 'ater to fish& the object$ smell$
arising from a mi+ed body resol#ed$ 'hich$ 'hether it be a 0uality$ fume$
#a"our$ or e+halation$ I 'ill not no' dis"ute$ or of their differences$ and
ho' they are caused. This sense is an organ of health$ as sight and
hearing$ saith ;B//GAgellius$ are of disci"line< and that by a#oiding bad
smells$ as by choosing good$ 'hich do as much alter and affect the body
many times$ as diet itself.
_Taste_.G Taste$ a necessary sense$ L'hich "ercei#es all sa#ours by the
tongue and "alate$ and that by means of a thin s"ittle$ or 'atery juice.L
5is organ is the tongue 'ith his tasting ner#es< the medium$ a 'atery
juice< the object$ taste$ or sa#our$ 'hich is a 0uality in the juice$
arising from the mi+ture of things tasted. 9ome ma%e eight s"ecies or %inds
of sa#our$ bitter$ s'eet$ shar"$ salt$ Fc.$ all 'hich sic% men (as in an
ague) cannot discern$ by reason of their organs misaffected.
_Touching_.G Touch$ the last of the senses$ and most ignoble$ yet of as
great necessity as the other$ and of as much "leasure. This sense is
e+0uisite in men$ and by his ner#es dis"ersed all o#er the body$ "ercei#es
any tactile 0uality. 5is organ the ner#es< his object those first
0ualities$ hot$ dry$ moist$ cold< and those that follo' them$ hard$ soft$
thic%$ thin$ Fc. Many delightsome 0uestions are mo#ed by "hiloso"hers about
these fi#e senses< their organs$ objects$ mediums$ 'hich for bre#ity I
9H9E:T. III.--_2f the In'ard 9enses._
_:ommon 9ense_.G Inner senses are three in number$ so called$ because they
be 'ithin the brain"an$ as common sense$ "hantasy$ memory. Their objects
are not only things "resent$ but they "ercei#e the sensible s"ecies of
things to come$ "ast$ absent$ such as 'ere before in the sense. This common
sense is the judge or moderator of the rest$ by 'hom 'e discern all
differences of objects< for by mine eye I do not %no' that I see$ or by
mine ear that I hear$ but by my common sense$ 'ho judgeth of sounds and
colours& they are but the organs to bring the s"ecies to be censured< so
that all their objects are his$ and all their offices are his. The fore
"art of the brain is his organ or seat.
_Phantasy_.G Phantasy$ or imagination$ 'hich some call estimati#e$ or
cogitati#e$ (confirmed$ saith ;B/BG7ernelius$ by fre0uent meditation$) is
an inner sense 'hich doth more fully e+amine the s"ecies "ercei#ed by
common sense$ of things "resent or absent$ and %ee"s them longer$ recalling
them to mind again$ or ma%ing ne' of his o'n. In time of slee" this faculty
is free$ and many times concei#e strange$ stu"end$ absurd sha"es$ as in
sic% men 'e commonly obser#e. 5is organ is the middle cell of the brain<
his objects all the s"ecies communicated to him by the common sense$ by
com"arison of 'hich he feigns infinite other unto himself. In melancholy
men this faculty is most "o'erful and strong$ and often hurts$ "roducing
many monstrous and "rodigious things$ es"ecially if it be stirred u" by
some terrible object$ "resented to it from common sense or memory. In "oets
and "ainters imagination forcibly 'or%s$ as a""ears by their se#eral
fictions$ antics$ images& as 2#id!s house of slee"$ Psyche!s "alace in
A"uleius$ Fc. In men it is subject and go#erned by reason$ or at least
should be< but in brutes it hath no su"erior$ and is _ratio brutorum_$ all
the reason they ha#e.
_Memory_.G Memory lays u" all the s"ecies 'hich the senses ha#e brought in$
and records them as a good register$ that they may be forthcoming 'hen they
are called for by "hantasy and reason. 5is object is the same 'ith
"hantasy$ his seat and organ the bac% "art of the brain.
_Affections of the 9enses$ slee" and 'a%ing._G The affections of these
senses are slee" and 'a%ing$ common to all sensible creatures. L9lee" is a
rest or binding of the out'ard senses$ and of the common sense$ for the
"reser#ation of body and soulL (as 9caliger ;BBCGdefines it)< for 'hen the
common sense resteth$ the out'ard senses rest also. The "hantasy alone is
free$ and his commander reason& as a""ears by those imaginary dreams$ 'hich
are of di#ers %inds$ natural$ di#ine$ demoniacal$ Fc.$ 'hich #ary according
to humours$ diet$ actions$ objects$ Fc.$ of 'hich Artemidorus$ :ardanus$
and 9ambucus$ 'ith their se#eral inter"retators$ ha#e 'ritten great
#olumes. This litigation of senses "roceeds from an inhibition of s"irits$
the 'ay being sto""ed by 'hich they should come< this sto""ing is caused of
#a"ours arising out of the stomach$ filling the ner#es$ by 'hich the
s"irits should be con#eyed. 4hen these #a"ours are s"ent$ the "assage is
o"en$ and the s"irits "erform their accustomed duties& so that L'a%ing is
the action and motion of the senses$ 'hich the s"irits dis"ersed o#er all
"arts cause.L
9H9E:T. IIII.--_2f the Mo#ing 7aculty_.
_A""etite_G This mo#ing faculty is the other "o'er of the sensiti#e soul$
'hich causeth all those in'ard and out'ard animal motions in the body. It
is di#ided into t'o faculties$ the "o'er of a""etite$ and of mo#ing from
"lace to "lace. This of a""etite is threefold$ so some 'ill ha#e it<
natural$ as it signifies any such inclination$ as of a stone to fall
do'n'ard$ and such actions as retention$ e+"ulsion$ 'hich de"end not on
sense$ but are #egetal$ as the a""etite of meat and drin%< hunger and
thirst. 9ensiti#e is common to men and brutes. Ioluntary$ the third$ or
intellecti#e$ 'hich commands the other t'o in men$ and is a curb unto them$
or at least should be$ but for the most "art is ca"ti#ated and o#erruled by
them< and men are led li%e beasts by sense$ gi#ing reins to their
concu"iscence and se#eral lusts. 7or by this a""etite the soul is led or
inclined to follo' that good 'hich the senses shall a""ro#e$ or a#oid that
'hich they hold e#il& his object being good or e#il$ the one he embraceth$
the other he rejecteth< according to that a"horism$ _2mnia a""etunt bonum_$
all things see% their o'n good$ or at least seeming good. This "o'er is
inse"arable from sense$ for 'here sense is$ there are li%e'ise "leasure and
"ain. 5is organ is the same 'ith the common sense$ and is di#ided into t'o
"o'ers$ or inclinations$ concu"iscible or irascible& or (as one ;BB,G
translates it) co#eting$ anger in#ading$ or im"ugning. :oncu"iscible co#ets
al'ays "leasant and delightsome things$ and abhors that 'hich is
distasteful$ harsh$ and un"leasant. _Irascible$ 0uasi ;BB=G a#ersans "er
iram et odium_$ as a#oiding it 'ith anger and indignation. All affections
and "erturbations arise out of these t'o fountains$ 'hich$ although the
stoics ma%e light of$ 'e hold natural$ and not to be resisted. The good
affections are caused by some object of the same nature< and if "resent$
they "rocure joy$ 'hich dilates the heart$ and "reser#es the body& if
absent$ they cause ho"e$ lo#e$ desire$ and concu"iscence. The bad are
sim"le or mi+ed& sim"le for some bad object "resent$ as sorro'$ 'hich
contracts the heart$ macerates the soul$ sub#erts the good estate of the
body$ hindering all the o"erations of it$ causing melancholy$ and many
times death itself< or future$ as fear. 2ut of these t'o arise those mi+ed
affections and "assions of anger$ 'hich is a desire of re#enge< hatred$
'hich is in#eterate anger< zeal$ 'hich is offended 'ith him 'ho hurts that
he lo#es< and ;Gree%& e"i%aire%a%iaG$ a com"ound affection of joy and hate$
'hen 'e rejoice at other men!s mischief$ and are grie#ed at their
"ros"erity< "ride$ self-lo#e$ emulation$ en#y$ shame$ Fc.$ of 'hich
_Mo#ing from "lace to "lace_$ is a faculty necessarily follo'ing the other.
7or in #ain 'ere it other'ise to desire and to abhor$ if 'e had not
li%e'ise "o'er to "rosecute or esche'$ by mo#ing the body from "lace to
"lace& by this faculty therefore 'e locally mo#e the body$ or any "art of
it$ and go from one "lace to another. To the better "erformance of 'hich$
three things are re0uisite& that 'hich mo#es< by 'hat it mo#es< that 'hich
is mo#ed. That 'hich mo#es$ is either the efficient cause$ or end. The end
is the object$ 'hich is desired or esche'ed< as in a dog to catch a hare$
Fc. The efficient cause in man is reason$ or his subordinate "hantasy$
'hich a""rehends good or bad objects& in brutes imagination alone$ 'hich
mo#es the a""etite$ the a""etite this faculty$ 'hich by an admirable league
of nature$ and by meditation of the s"irit$ commands the organ by 'hich it
mo#es& and that consists of ner#es$ muscles$ cords$ dis"ersed through the
'hole body$ contracted and rela+ed as the s"irits 'ill$ 'hich mo#e the
muscles$ or ;BB.Gner#es in the midst of them$ and dra' the cord$ and so
_"er conse0uens_ the joint$ to the "lace intended. That 'hich is mo#ed$ is
the body or some member a"t to mo#e. The motion of the body is di#ers$ as
going$ running$ lea"ing$ dancing$ sitting$ and such li%e$ referred to the
"redicament of _situs_. 4orms cree"$ birds fly$ fishes s'im< and so of
"arts$ the chief of 'hich is res"iration or breathing$ and is thus
"erformed. The out'ard air is dra'n in by the #ocal artery$ and sent by
mediation of the midriff to the lungs$ 'hich$ dilating themsel#es as a "air
of bello's$ reci"rocally fetch it in$ and send it out to the heart to cool
it< and from thence no' being hot$ con#ey it again$ still ta%ing in fresh.
9uch a li%e motion is that of the "ulse$ of 'hich$ because many ha#e
'ritten 'hole boo%s$ I 'ill say nothing.
9H9E:T. IJ.--_2f the 1ational 9oul._
In the "recedent subsections I ha#e anatomised those inferior faculties of
the soul< the rational remaineth$ La "leasant$ but a doubtful subjectL (as
;BB?Gone terms it)$ and 'ith the li%e bre#ity to be discussed. Many
erroneous o"inions are about the essence and original of it< 'hether it be
fire$ as >eno held< harmony$ as Aristo+enus< number$ as Jenocrates< 'hether
it be organical$ or inorganical< seated in the brain$ heart or blood<
mortal or immortal< ho' it comes into the body. 9ome hold that it is _e+
traduce_$ as _Phil. ,. de Anima_$ Tertullian$ *actantius _de o"ific. 3ei$
ca". ,B._ 5ugo$ _lib. de 9"iritu et Anima_$ Iincentius ella#ic. _s"ec.
natural. lib. =.. ca". =. et ,,._ 5i""ocrates$ A#icenna$ and many ;BB@G
late 'riters< that one man begets another$ body and soul< or as a candle
from a candle$ to be "roduced from the seed& other'ise$ say they$ a man
begets but half a man$ and is 'orse than a beast that begets both matter
and form< and$ besides$ the three faculties of the soul must be together
infused$ 'hich is most absurd as they hold$ because in beasts they are
begot$ the t'o inferior I mean$ and may not be 'ell se"arated in men. ;BB-G
Galen su""oseth the soul _crasin esse_$ to be the tem"erature itself<
Trismegistus$ Musaeus$ 2r"heus$ 5omer$ Pindarus$ Phaerecides 9yrus$
E"ictetus$ 'ith the :haldees and Egy"tians$ affirmed the soul to be
immortal$ as did those ritish ;BBAG3ruids of old. The ;BB/GPythagoreans
defend Metem"sychosis< and Palingenesia$ that souls go from one body to
another$ _e"ota "rius *ethes unda_$ as men into 'ol#es$ bears$ dogs$ hogs$
as they 'ere inclined in their li#es$ or "artici"ated in conditions&
;BBBG ------Lin0ue ferinas
Possumus ire domus$ "ecudum0ue in cor"ora condi.L
;,CCCG*ucian!s coc% 'as first Eu"horbus$ a ca"tain&
LIlle ego (nam memini) Trojani tem"ore belli$
Panthoides Eu"horbus eram$L
a horse$ a man$ a s"onge. ;,CC,GDulian the A"ostate thought Ale+ander!s
soul 'as descended into his body& Plato in Timaeo$ and in his Phaedon$ (for
aught I can "ercei#e$) differs not much from this o"inion$ that it 'as from
God at first$ and %ne' all$ but being enclosed in the body$ it forgets$ and
learns ane'$ 'hich he calls _reminiscentia_$ or recalling$ and that it 'as
"ut into the body for a "unishment< and thence it goes into a beast!s$ or
man!s$ as a""ears by his "leasant fiction _de sortitione animarum$ lib. ,C.
de re"._ and after ;,CC=Gten thousand years is to return into the former
body again$
;,CC.G ------L"ost #arios annos$ "er mille figuras$
1ursus ad humanae fertur "rimordia #itae.L
2thers deny the immortality of it$ 'hich Pom"onatus of Padua decided out of
Aristotle not long since$ Plinias A#unculus$ _ca". ,. lib. =$ et lib. A.
ca". @@_< 9eneca$ _lib. A. e"ist. ad *ucilium$ e"ist. @@_< 3icearchus _in
Tull. Tusc._ E"icurus$ Aratus$ 5i""ocrates$ Galen$ *ucretius$ _lib. ,._
(Praeterea gigni "ariter cum cor"ore$ et una
:resere sentimus$ "ariter0ue senescere mentem.);,CC?G
A#erroes$ and I %no' not ho' many 8eoterics. ;,CC@GLThis 0uestion of the
immortality of the soul$ is di#ersely and 'onderfully im"ugned and
dis"uted$ es"ecially among the Italians of late$L saith Dab. :olerus$ _lib.
de immort. animae$ ca". ,._ The "o"es themsel#es ha#e doubted of it& *eo
3ecimus$ that E"icurean "o"e$ as ;,CC-Gsome record of him$ caused this
0uestion to be discussed "ro and con before him$ and concluded at last$ as
a "rofane and atheistical moderator$ 'ith that #erse of :ornelius Gallus$
Et redit in nihilum$ 0uod fuit ante nihil. It began of nothing$ and in
nothing it ends. >eno and his 9toics$ as ;,CCAGAustin 0uotes him$ su""osed
the soul so long to continue$ till the body 'as fully "utrified$ and
resol#ed into _materia "rima_& but after that$ _in fumos e#anescere_$ to be
e+tinguished and #anished< and in the meantime$ 'hilst the body 'as
consuming$ it 'andered all abroad$ _et e longin0uo multa annunciare_$ and
(as that :lazomenian 5ermotimus a#erred) sa' "retty #isions$ and suffered I
%no' not 'hat. ;,CC/GErrant e+angues sine cor"ore et ossibus umbrae. 2thers
grant the immortality thereof$ but they ma%e many fabulous fictions in the
meantime of it$ after the de"arture from the body& li%e Plato!s Elysian
fields$ and that Tur%ey "aradise. The souls of good men they deified< the
bad (saith ;,CCBGAustin) became de#ils$ as they su""osed< 'ith many such
absurd tenets$ 'hich he hath confuted. 5ierome$ Austin$ and other 7athers
of the church$ hold that the soul is immortal$ created of nothing$ and so
infused into the child or embryo in his mother!s 'omb$ si+ months after the
;,C,CGconce"tion< not as those of brutes$ 'hich are _e+ traduce_$ and dying
'ith them #anish into nothing. To 'hose di#ine treatises$ and to the
9cri"tures themsel#es$ I rejourn all such atheistical s"irits$ as Tully did
Atticus$ doubting of this "oint$ to Plato!s Phaedon. 2r if they desire
"hiloso"hical "roofs and demonstrations$ I refer them to 8i"hus$ 8ic.
7a#entinus! tracts of this subject. To 7ran. and Dohn Picus _in digress&
su". .. de Anima_$ Tholosanus$ Eugubinus$ To. 9oto$ :anas$ Thomas$
Peresius$ 3andinus$ :olerus$ to that elaborate tract in >anchius$ to
Tolet!s 9i+ty 1easons$ and *essius! T'enty-t'o Arguments$ to "ro#e the
immortality of the soul. :am"anella$ _lib. de sensu rerum_$ is large in the
same discourse$ Albertinus the 9choolman$ Dacob. 8actantus$ _tom. =. o"._
handleth it in four 0uestions$ Antony runus$ Aonius Palearius$ Marinus
Marcennus$ 'ith many others. This reasonable soul$ 'hich Austin calls a
s"iritual substance mo#ing itself$ is defined by "hiloso"hers to be Lthe
first substantial act of a natural$ humane$ organical body$ by 'hich a man
li#es$ "ercei#es$ and understands$ freely doing all things$ and 'ith
election.L 2ut of 'hich definition 'e may gather$ that this rational soul
includes the "o'ers$ and "erforms the duties of the t'o other$ 'hich are
contained in it$ and all three faculties ma%e one soul$ 'hich is
inorganical of itself$ although it be in all "arts$ and incor"oreal$ using
their organs$ and 'or%ing by them. It is di#ided into t'o chief "arts$
differing in office only$ not in essence. The understanding$ 'hich is the
rational "o'er a""rehending< the 'ill$ 'hich is the rational "o'er mo#ing&
to 'hich t'o$ all the other rational "o'ers are subject and reduced.
9H9E:T. J.--_2f the Hnderstanding_.
LHnderstanding is a "o'er of the soul$ ;,C,,Gby 'hich 'e "ercei#e$ %no'$
remember$ and judge as 'ell singulars$ as uni#ersals$ ha#ing certain innate
notices or beginnings of arts$ a reflecting action$ by 'hich it judgeth of
his o'n doings$ and e+amines them.L 2ut of this definition (besides his
chief office$ 'hich is to a""rehend$ judge all that he "erforms$ 'ithout
the hel" of any instruments or organs) three differences a""ear bet'i+t a
man and a beast. As first$ the sense only com"rehends singularities$ the
understanding uni#ersalities. 9econdly$ the sense hath no innate notions.
Thirdly$ brutes cannot reflect u"on themsel#es. ees indeed ma%e neat and
curious 'or%s$ and many other creatures besides< but 'hen they ha#e done$
they cannot judge of them. 5is object is God$ _ens_$ all nature$ and
'hatsoe#er is to be understood& 'hich successi#ely it a""rehends. The
object first mo#ing the understanding$ is some sensible thing< after by
discoursing$ the mind finds out the cor"oreal substance$ and from thence
the s"iritual. 5is actions (some say) are a""rehension$ com"osition$
di#ision$ discoursing$ reasoning$ memory$ 'hich some include in in#ention$
and judgment. The common di#isions are of the understanding$ agent$ and
"atient< s"eculati#e$ and "ractical< in habit$ or in act< sim"le$ or
com"ound. The agent is that 'hich is called the 'it of man$ acumen or
subtlety$ shar"ness of in#ention$ 'hen he doth in#ent of himself 'ithout a
teacher$ or learns ane'$ 'hich abstracts those intelligible s"ecies from
the "hantasy$ and transfers them to the "assi#e understanding$ ;,C,=G
Lbecause there is nothing in the understanding$ 'hich 'as not first in the
sense.L That 'hich the imagination hath ta%en from the sense$ this agent
judgeth of$ 'hether it be true or false< and being so judged he commits it
to the "assible to be %e"t. The agent is a doctor or teacher$ the "assi#e a
scholar< and his office is to %ee" and further judge of such things as are
committed to his charge< as a bare and rased table at first$ ca"able of all
forms and notions. 8o' these notions are t'ofold$ actions or habits&
actions$ by 'hich 'e ta%e notions of$ and "ercei#e things< habits$ 'hich
are durable lights and notions$ 'hich 'e may use 'hen 'e 'ill. 9ome rec%on
u" eight %inds of them$ sense$ e+"erience$ intelligence$ faith$ sus"icion$
error$ o"inion$ science< to 'hich are added art$ "rudency$ 'isdom& as also
;,C,.Gsynteresis$ _dictamen rationis_$ conscience< so that in all there be
fourteen s"ecies of the understanding$ of 'hich some are innate$ as the
three last mentioned< the other are gotten by doctrine$ learning$ and use.
Plato 'ill ha#e all to be innate& Aristotle rec%ons u" but fi#e
intellectual habits< t'o "ractical$ as "rudency$ 'hose end is to "ractise<
to fabricate< 'isdom to com"rehend the use and e+"eriments of all notions
and habits 'hatsoe#er. 4hich di#ision of Aristotle (if it be considered
aright) is all one 'ith the "recedent< for three being innate$ and fi#e
ac0uisite$ the rest are im"ro"er$ im"erfect$ and in a more strict
e+amination e+cluded. 2f all these I should more am"ly dilate$ but my
subject 'ill not "ermit. Three of them I 'ill only "oint at$ as more
necessary to my follo'ing discourse.
9ynteresis$ or the "urer "art of the conscience$ is an innate habit$ and
doth signify La con#ersation of the %no'ledge of the la' of God and 8ature$
to %no' good or e#il.L And (as our di#ines hold) it is rather in the
understanding than in the 'ill. This ma%es the major "ro"osition in a
"ractical syllogism. The _dictamen rationis_ is that 'hich doth admonish us
to do good or e#il$ and is the minor in the syllogism. The conscience is
that 'hich a""ro#es good or e#il$ justifying or condemning our actions$ and
is the conclusion of the syllogism& as in that familiar e+am"le of 1egulus
the 1oman$ ta%en "risoner by the :arthaginians$ and suffered to go to 1ome$
on that condition he should return again$ or "ay so much for his ransom.
The synteresis "ro"oseth the 0uestion< his 'ord$ oath$ "romise$ is to be
religiously %e"t$ although to his enemy$ and that by the la' of nature.
;,C,?GL3o not that to another 'hich thou 'ouldst not ha#e done to thyself.L
3ictamen a""lies it to him$ and dictates this or the li%e& 1egulus$ thou
'ouldst not another man should falsify his oath$ or brea% "romise 'ith
thee& conscience concludes$ therefore$ 1egulus$ thou dost 'ell to "erform
thy "romise$ and oughtest to %ee" thine oath. More of this in 1eligious
9H9E:T. JI.--_2f the 4ill_.
4ill is the other "o'er of the rational soul$ ;,C,@GL'hich co#ets or a#oids
such things as ha#e been before judged and a""rehended by the
understanding.L If good$ it a""ro#es< if e#il$ it abhors it& so that his
object is either good or e#il. Aristotle calls this our rational a""etite<
for as$ in the sensiti#e$ 'e are mo#ed to good or bad by our a""etite$
ruled and directed by sense< so in this 'e are carried by reason. esides$
the sensiti#e a""etite hath a "articular object$ good or bad< this an
uni#ersal$ immaterial& that res"ects only things delectable and "leasant<
this honest. Again$ they differ in liberty. The sensual a""etite seeing an
object$ if it be a con#enient good$ cannot but desire it< if e#il$ a#oid
it& but this is free in his essence$ ;,C,-GLmuch no' de"ra#ed$ obscured$
and fallen from his first "erfection< yet in some of his o"erations still
free$L as to go$ 'al%$ mo#e at his "leasure$ and to choose 'hether it 'ill
do or not do$ steal or not steal. 2ther'ise$ in #ain 'ere la's$
deliberations$ e+hortations$ counsels$ "rece"ts$ re'ards$ "romises$ threats
and "unishments& and God should be the author of sin. ut in ;,C,AG
s"iritual things 'e 'ill no good$ "rone to e#il (e+ce"t 'e be regenerate$
and led by the 9"irit)$ 'e are egged on by our natural concu"iscence$ and
there is ;Gree%& ata+iaG$ a confusion in our "o'ers$ ;,C,/GLour 'hole 'ill
is a#erse from God and his la'$L not in natural things only$ as to eat and
drin%$ lust$ to 'hich 'e are led headlong by our tem"erature and inordinate
;,C,BG L8ec nos obniti contra$ nec tendere tantum
'e cannot resist$ our concu"iscence is originally bad$ our heart e#il$ the
seat of our affections ca"ti#ates and enforceth our 'ill. 9o that in
#oluntary things 'e are a#erse from God and goodness$ bad by nature$ by
;,C=CGignorance 'orse$ by art$ disci"line$ custom$ 'e get many bad habits&
suffering them to domineer and tyrannise o#er us< and the de#il is still
ready at hand 'ith his e#il suggestions$ to tem"t our de"ra#ed 'ill to some
ill-dis"osed action$ to "reci"itate us to destruction$ e+ce"t our 'ill be
s'ayed and counter"oised again 'ith some di#ine "rece"ts$ and good motions
of the s"irit$ 'hich many times restrain$ hinder and chec% us$ 'hen 'e are
in the full career of our dissolute courses. 9o 3a#id corrected himself$
'hen he had 9aul at a #antage. 1e#enge and malice 'ere as t'o #iolent
o""ugners on the one side< but honesty$ religion$ fear of God$ 'ithheld him
on the other.
The actions of the 'ill are _#elle_ and _nolle_$ to 'ill and nill& 'hich
t'o 'ords com"rehend all$ and they are good or bad$ accordingly as they are
directed$ and some of them freely "erformed by himself< although the stoics
absolutely deny it$ and 'ill ha#e all things ine#itably done by destiny$
im"osing a fatal necessity u"on us$ 'hich 'e may not resist< yet 'e say
that our 'ill is free in res"ect of us$ and things contingent$ ho'soe#er in
res"ect of God!s determinate counsel$ they are ine#itable and necessary.
9ome other actions of the 'ill are "erformed by the inferior "o'ers$ 'hich
obey him$ as the sensiti#e and mo#ing a""etite< as to o"en our eyes$ to go
hither and thither$ not to touch a boo%$ to s"ea% fair or foul& but this
a""etite is many times rebellious in us$ and 'ill not be contained 'ithin
the lists of sobriety and tem"erance. It 'as (as I said) once 'ell agreeing
'ith reason$ and there 'as an e+cellent consent and harmony bet'een them$
but that is no' dissol#ed$ they often jar$ reason is o#erborne by "assion&
_7ertur e0uis auriga$ nec audit currus habenas_$ as so many 'ild horses run
a'ay 'ith a chariot$ and 'ill not be curbed. 4e %no' many times 'hat is
good$ but 'ill not do it$ as she said$
;,C=,G LTrahit in#itum no#a #is$ aliud0ue cu"ido$
Mens aliud suadet$L------
*ust counsels one thing$ reason another$ there is a ne' reluctancy in men.
;,C==G_2di$ nec "ossum$ cu"iens non esse$ 0uod odi_. 4e cannot resist$ but
as Phaedra confessed to her nurse$ ;,C=.G_0uae lo0ueris$ #era sunt$ sed
furor suggerit se0ui "ejora_& she said 'ell and true$ she did ac%no'ledge
it$ but headstrong "assion and fury made her to do that 'hich 'as o""osite.
9o 3a#id %ne' the filthiness of his fact$ 'hat a loathsome$ foul$ crying
sin adultery 'as$ yet not'ithstanding he 'ould commit murder$ and ta%e a'ay
another man!s 'ife$ enforced against reason$ religion$ to follo' his
Those natural and #egetal "o'ers are not commanded by 'ill at all< for L'ho
can add one cubit to his statureNL These other may$ but are not& and thence
come all those headstrong "assions$ #iolent "erturbations of the mind< and
many times #icious habits$ customs$ feral diseases< because 'e gi#e so much
'ay to our a""etite$ and follo' our inclination$ li%e so many beasts. The
"rinci"al habits are t'o in number$ #irtue and #ice$ 'hose "eculiar
definitions$ descri"tions$ differences$ and %inds$ are handled at large in
the ethics$ and are$ indeed$ the subject of moral "hiloso"hy.
9H9E:T. I.--_3efinition of Melancholy$ 8ame$ 3ifference_.
5a#ing thus briefly anatomised the body and soul of man$ as a "re"arati#e
to the rest< I may no' freely "roceed to treat of my intended object$ to
most men!s ca"acity< and after many ambages$ "ers"icuously define 'hat this
melancholy is$ sho' his name and differences. The name is im"osed from the
matter$ and disease denominated from the material cause& as ruel obser#es$
;Gree%& MelancholiaG 0uasi ;Gree%& MelainacholaeG$ from blac% choler. And
'hether it be a cause or an effect$ a disease or sym"tom$ let 3onatus
Altomarus and 9al#ianus decide< I 'ill not contend about it. It hath
se#eral descri"tions$ notations$ and definitions. ;,C=?G7racastorius$ in
his second boo% of intellect$ calls those melancholy$ L'hom abundance of
that same de"ra#ed humour of blac% choler hath so misaffected$ that they
become mad thence$ and dote in most things$ or in all$ belonging to
election$ 'ill$ or other manifest o"erations of the understanding.L ;,C=@G
Melanelius out of Galen$ 1uffus$ Aetius$ describe it to be La bad and
"ee#ish disease$ 'hich ma%es men degenerate into beasts&L Galen$ La
"ri#ation or infection of the middle cell of the head$L Fc. defining it
from the "art affected$ 'hich ;,C=-G5ercules de 9a+onia a""ro#es$ _lib. ,.
ca". ,-._ calling it La de"ra#ation of the "rinci"al function&L 7uschius$
_lib. ,. ca". =.._ Arnoldus _re#iar. lib. ,. ca". ,/._ Guianerius$ and
others& Ly reason of blac% choler$L Paulus adds. 5alyabbas sim"ly calls it
a Lcommotion of the mind.L Aretaeus$ ;,C=AGLa "er"etual anguish of the
soul$ fastened on one thing$ 'ithout an ague<L 'hich definition of his$
Mercurialis _de affect. ca". lib. ,. ca". ,C._ ta+eth& but Aelianus
Montaltus defends$ _lib. de morb. ca". ,. de Melan._ for sufficient and
good. The common sort define it to be La %ind of dotage 'ithout a fe#er$
ha#ing for his ordinary com"anions$ fear and sadness$ 'ithout any a""arent
occasion.L 9o doth *aurentius$ _ca". ?._ Piso. _lib. ,. ca". ?.._ 3onatus
Altomarus$ _ca". A. art. medic_. Dacchinus$ _in com. in lib. B. 1hasis ad
Almansor$ ca". ,@._ Ialesius$ _e+erc. ,A._ 7uschius$ _institut. .. sec. ,.
c. ,,._ Fc. 'hich common definition$ ho'soe#er a""ro#ed by most$
;,C=/G5ercules de 9a+onia 'ill not allo' of$ nor 3a#id :rucius$ _Theat.
morb. 5erm. lib. =. ca". -._ he holds it insufficient& as ;,C=BGrather
sho'ing 'hat it is not$ than 'hat it is& as omitting the s"ecific
difference$ the "hantasy and brain& but I descend to "articulars. The
_summum genus_ is Ldotage$ or anguish of the mind$L saith Aretaeus< Lof the
"rinci"al "arts$L 5ercules de 9a+onia adds$ to distinguish it from cram"
and "alsy$ and such diseases as belong to the out'ard sense and motions
;de"ra#edG ;,C.CGto distinguish it from folly and madness ('hich Montaltus
ma%es _angor animi_$ to se"arate) in 'hich those functions are not
de"ra#ed$ but rather abolished< ;'ithout an agueG is added by all$ to se#er
it from frenzy$ and that melancholy 'hich is in a "estilent fe#er. (7ear
and sorro') ma%e it differ from madness& ;'ithout a causeG is lastly
inserted$ to s"ecify it from all other ordinary "assions of ;fear and
sorro'.G 4e "ro"erly call that dotage$ as ;,C.,G*aurentius inter"rets it$
L'hen some one "rinci"al faculty of the mind$ as imagination$ or reason$ is
corru"ted$ as all melancholy "ersons ha#e.L It is 'ithout a fe#er$ because
the humour is most "art cold and dry$ contrary to "utrefaction. 7ear and
sorro' are the true characters and inse"arable com"anions of most
melancholy$ not all$ as 5er. de 9a+onia$ _Tract. de "osthumo de
Melancholia$ ca". =._ 'ell e+ce"ts< for to some it is most "leasant$ as to
such as laugh most "art< some are bold again$ and free from all manner of
fear and grief$ as hereafter shall be declared.
9H9E:T. II.--_2f the "art affected. Affection. Parties affected_.
9ome difference I find amongst 'riters$ about the "rinci"al "art affected
in this disease$ 'hether it be the brain$ or heart$ or some other member.
Most are of o"inion that it is the brain& for being a %ind of dotage$ it
cannot other'ise be but that the brain must be affected$ as a similar "art$
be it by ;,C.=Gconsent or essence$ not in his #entricles$ or any
obstructions in them$ for then it 'ould be an a"o"le+y$ or e"ile"sy$ as
;,C..G*aurentius 'ell obser#es$ but in a cold$ dry distem"erature of it in
his substance$ 'hich is corru"t and become too cold$ or too dry$ or else
too hot$ as in madmen$ and such as are inclined to it& and this ;,C.?G
5i""ocrates confirms$ Galen$ the Arabians$ and most of our ne' 'riters.
Marcus de 2ddis (in a consultation of his$ 0uoted by ;,C.@G5ildesheim) and
fi#e others there cited are of the contrary "art< because fear and sorro'$
'hich are "assions$ be seated in the heart. ut this objection is
sufficiently ans'ered by ;,C.-GMontaltus$ 'ho doth not deny that the heart
is affected (as ;,C.AGMelanelius "ro#es out of Galen) by reason of his
#icinity$ and so is the midriff and many other "arts. They do _com"ati_$
and ha#e a fello' feeling by the la' of nature& but forasmuch as this
malady is caused by "recedent imagination$ 'ith the a""etite$ to 'hom
s"irits obey$ and are subject to those "rinci"al "arts$ the brain must
needs "rimarily be misaffected$ as the seat of reason< and then the heart$
as the seat of affection. ;,C./G:a"i#accius and Mercurialis ha#e co"iously
discussed this 0uestion$ and both conclude the subject is the inner brain$
and from thence it is communicated to the heart and other inferior "arts$
'hich sym"athise and are much troubled$ es"ecially 'hen it comes by
consent$ and is caused by reason of the stomach$ or _mirach_$ as the
Arabians term it$ 'hole body$ li#er$ or ;,C.BGs"leen$ 'hich are seldom
free$ "ylorus$ mesaraic #eins$ Fc. 7or our body is li%e a cloc%$ if one
'heel be amiss$ all the rest are disordered< the 'hole fabric suffers& 'ith
such admirable art and harmony is a man com"osed$ such e+cellent
"ro"ortion$ as *udo#icus Ii#es in his 7able of Man hath elegantly declared.
As many doubts almost arise about the ;,C?CGaffection$ 'hether it be
imagination or reason alone$ or both$ 5ercules de 9a+onia "ro#es it out of
Galen$ Aetius$ and Altomarus$ that the sole fault is in ;,C?,Gimagination.
ruel is of the same mind& Montaltus in his _= ca"._ of Melancholy confutes
this tenet of theirs$ and illustrates the contrary by many e+am"les& as of
him that thought himself a shellfish$ of a nun$ and of a des"erate mon%
that 'ould not be "ersuaded but that he 'as damned< reason 'as in fault as
'ell as imagination$ 'hich did not correct this error& they ma%e a'ay
themsel#es oftentimes$ and su""ose many absurd and ridiculous things. 4hy
doth not reason detect the fallacy$ settle and "ersuade$ if she be freeN
;,C?=GA#icenna therefore holds both corru"t$ to 'hom most Arabians
subscribe. The same is maintained by ;,C?.GAreteus$ ;,C??GGorgonius$
Guianerius$ Fc. To end the contro#ersy$ no man doubts of imagination$ but
that it is hurt and misaffected here< for the other I determine 'ith ;,C?@G
Albertinus ottonus$ a doctor of Padua$ that it is first in Limagination$
and after'ards in reason< if the disease be in#eterate$ or as it is more or
less of continuance<L but by accident$ as ;,C?-G5erc. de 9a+onia adds<
Lfaith$ o"inion$ discourse$ ratiocination$ are all accidentally de"ra#ed by
the default of imagination.L
_Parties affected_.G To the "art affected$ I may here add the "arties$
'hich shall be more o""ortunely s"o%en of else'here$ no' only signified.
9uch as ha#e the moon$ 9aturn$ Mercury misaffected in their genitures$ such
as li#e in o#er cold or o#er hot climes& such as are born of melancholy
"arents< as offend in those si+ non-natural things$ are blac%$ or of a high
sanguine com"le+ion$ ;,C?AGthat ha#e little heads$ that ha#e a hot heart$
moist brain$ hot li#er and cold stomach$ ha#e been long sic%& such as are
solitary by nature$ great students$ gi#en to much contem"lation$ lead a
life out of action$ are most subject to melancholy. 2f se+es both$ but men
more often< yet ;,C?/G'omen misaffected are far more #iolent$ and
grie#ously troubled. 2f seasons of the year$ the autumn is most melancholy.
2f "eculiar times& old age$ from 'hich natural melancholy is almost an
inse"arable accident< but this artificial malady is more fre0uent in such
as are of a ;,C?BGmiddle age. 9ome assign ?C years$ Gario"ontus .C.
Dubertus e+ce"ts neither young nor old from this ad#entitious. 3aniel
9ennertus in#ol#es all of all sorts$ out of common e+"erience$ ;,C@CG_in
omnibus omnino cor"oribus cujuscun0ue constitutionis dominatar_. Aetius and
Aretius ;,C@,Gascribe into the number Lnot only ;,C@=Gdiscontented$
"assionate$ and miserable "ersons$ s'arthy$ blac%< but such as are most
merry and "leasant$ scoffers$ and high coloured.L LGenerally$L saith
1hasis$ ;,C@.GLthe finest 'its and most generous s"irits$ are before other
obno+ious to it<L I cannot e+ce"t any com"le+ion$ any condition$ se+$ or
age$ but ;,C@?Gfools and stoics$ 'hich$ according to ;,C@@G9ynesius$ are
ne#er troubled 'ith any manner of "assion$ but as Anacreon!s _cicada$ sine
sanguine et dolore< similes fere diis sunt_. Erasmus #indicates fools from
this melancholy catalogue$ because they ha#e most "art moist brains and
light hearts< ;,C@-Gthey are free from ambition$ en#y$ shame and fear< they
are neither troubled in conscience$ nor macerated 'ith cares$ to 'hich our
'hole life is most subject.
9H9E:T. III.--_2f the Matter of Melancholy_.
2f the matter of melancholy$ there is much 0uestion bet'i+t A#icen and
Galen$ as you may read in ;,C@AG:ardan!s :ontradictions$ ;,C@/GIalesius!
:ontro#ersies$ Montanus$ Pros"er :alenus$ :a"i#accius$ ;,C@BGright$
;,C-CG7icinus$ that ha#e 'ritten either 'hole tracts$ or co"iously of it$
in their se#eral treatises of this subject. ;,C-,GL4hat this humour is$ or
'hence it "roceeds$ ho' it is engendered in the body$ neither Galen$ nor
any old 'riter hath sufficiently discussed$L as Dacchinus thin%s& the
8eoterics cannot agree. Montanus$ in his :onsultations$ holds melancholy to
be material or immaterial& and so doth Arculanus& the material is one of
the four humours before mentioned$ and natural. The immaterial or
ad#entitious$ ac0uisite$ redundant$ unnatural$ artificial< 'hich ;,C-=G
5ercules de 9a+onia 'ill ha#e reside in the s"irits alone$ and to "roceed
from a Lhot$ cold$ dry$ moist distem"erature$ 'hich$ 'ithout matter$ alter
the brain and functions of it.L Paracelsus 'holly rejects and derides this
di#ision of four humours and com"le+ions$ but our Galenists generally
a""ro#e of it$ subscribing to this o"inion of Montanus.
This material melancholy is either sim"le or mi+ed< offending in 0uantity
or 0uality$ #arying according to his "lace$ 'here it settleth$ as brain$
s"leen$ mesaraic #eins$ heart$ 'omb$ and stomach< or differing according to
the mi+ture of those natural humours amongst themsel#es$ or four unnatural
adust humours$ as they are di#ersely tem"ered and mingled. If natural
melancholy abound in the body$ 'hich is cold and dry$ Lso that it be more
;,C-.Gthan the body is 'ell able to bear$ it must needs be distem"ered$L
saith 7a#entius$ Land diseased<L and so the other$ if it be de"ra#ed$
'hether it arise from that other melancholy of choler adust$ or from blood$
"roduceth the li%e effects$ and is$ as Montaltus contends$ if it come by
adustion of humours$ most "art hot and dry. 9ome difference I find$ 'hether
this melancholy matter may be engendered of all four humours$ about the
colour and tem"er of it. Galen holds it may be engendered of three alone$
e+cluding "hlegm$ or "ituita$ 'hose true assertion ;,C-?GIalesius and
Menardus stiffly maintain$ and so doth ;,C-@G7uschius$ Montaltus$ ;,C--G
Montanus. 5o' (say they) can 'hite become blac%N ut 5ercules de 9a+onia$
_lib. "ost. de mela. c. /_$ and ;,C-AG:ardan are of the o""osite "art (it
may be engendered of "hlegm$ _etsi raro contingat_$ though it seldom come
to "ass)$ so is ;,C-/GGuianerius and *aurentius$ _c. ,._ 'ith Melanct. in
his boo% _de Anima_$ and :ha". of 5umours< he calls it _asininam_$ dull$
s'inish melancholy$ and saith that he 'as an eye'itness of it& so is
;,C-BG4ec%er. 7rom melancholy adust ariseth one %ind< from choler another$
'hich is most brutish< another from "hlegm$ 'hich is dull< and the last
from blood$ 'hich is best. 2f these some are cold and dry$ others hot and
dry$ ;,CACG#arying according to their mi+tures$ as they are intended$ and
remitted. And indeed as 1odericus a 7ons. _cons. ,=. l. ,._ determines$
ichors$ and those serous matters being thic%ened become "hlegm$ and "hlegm
degenerates into choler$ choler adust becomes _aeruginosa melancholia_$ as
#inegar out of "urest 'ine "utrified or by e+halation of "urer s"irits is
so made$ and becomes sour and shar"< and from the shar"ness of this humour
"roceeds much 'a%ing$ troublesome thoughts and dreams$ Fc. so that I
conclude as before. If the humour be cold$ it is$ saith ;,CA,G7a#entinus$
La cause of dotage$ and "roduceth milder sym"toms& if hot$ they are rash$
ra#ing mad$ or inclining to it.L If the brain be hot$ the animal s"irits
are hot< much madness follo's$ 'ith #iolent actions& if cold$ fatuity and
sottishness$ ;,CA=G:a"i#accius. ;,CA.GLThe colour of this mi+ture #aries
li%e'ise according to the mi+ture$ be it hot or cold< !tis sometimes blac%$
sometimes not$L Altomarus. The same ;,CA?GMelanelius "ro#es out of Galen<
and 5i""ocrates in his oo% of Melancholy (if at least it be his)$ gi#ing
instance in a burning coal$ L'hich 'hen it is hot$ shines< 'hen it is cold$
loo%s blac%< and so doth the humour.L This di#ersity of melancholy matter
"roduceth di#ersity of effects. If it be 'ithin the ;,CA@Gbody$ and not
"utrified$ it causeth blac% jaundice< if "utrified$ a 0uartan ague< if it
brea% out to the s%in$ le"rosy< if to "arts$ se#eral maladies$ as scur#y$
Fc. If it trouble the mind< as it is di#ersely mi+ed$ it "roduceth se#eral
%inds of madness and dotage& of 'hich in their "lace.
9H9E:T. II.--_2f the s"ecies or %inds of Melancholy_.
4hen the matter is di#ers and confused$ ho' should it other'ise be$ but
that the s"ecies should be di#ers and confusedN Many ne' and old 'riters
ha#e s"o%en confusedly of it$ confounding melancholy and madness$ as ;,CA-G
5eurnius$ Guianerius$ Gordonius$ 9alustius 9al#ianus$ Dason Pratensis$
9a#anarola$ that 'ill ha#e madness no other than melancholy in e+tent$
differing (as I ha#e said) in degrees. 9ome ma%e t'o distinct s"ecies$ as
1uffus E"hesius$ an old 'riter$ :onstantinus Africanus$ Aretaeus$ ;,CAAG
Aurelianus$ ;,CA/GPaulus Aegineta& others ac%no'ledge a multitude of %inds$
and lea#e them indefinite$ as Aetius in his _Tetrabiblos_$ ;,CABGA#icenna$
_lib. .. 7en. ,. Tract. ?. ca". ,/._ Arculanus$ _ca". ,-. in B. 1asis_.
Montanus$ _med. "art. ,._ ;,C/CGLIf natural melancholy be adust$ it ma%eth
one %ind< if blood$ another< if choler$ a third$ differing from the first<
and so many se#eral o"inions there are about the %inds$ as there be men
themsel#es.L ;,C/,G5ercules de 9a+onia sets do'n t'o %inds$ Lmaterial and
immaterial< one from s"irits alone$ the other from humours and s"irits.L
9a#anarola$ _1ub. ,,. Tract. -. ca". ,. de aegritud. ca"itis_$ 'ill ha#e
the %inds to be infinite< one from the mirach$ called _myrachialis_ of the
Arabians< another _stomachalis_$ from the stomach< another from the li#er$
heart$ 'omb$ haemorrhoids$ ;,C/=GLone beginning$ another consummate.L
Melancthon seconds him$ ;,C/.GLas the humour is di#ersely adust and mi+ed$
so are the s"ecies di#ers<L but 'hat these men s"ea% of s"ecies I thin%
ought to be understood of sym"toms< and so doth ;,C/?G Arculanus inter"ret
himself& infinite s"ecies$ _id est_$ sym"toms< and in that sense$ as Do.
Gorrheus ac%no'ledgeth in his medicinal definitions$ the s"ecies are
infinite$ but they may be reduced to three %inds by reason of their seat<
head$ body$ and hy"ochrondries. This threefold di#ision is a""ro#ed by
5i""ocrates in his oo% of Melancholy$ (if it be his$ 'hich some sus"ect)
by Galen$ _lib. .. de loc. affectis$ ca". -._ by Ale+ander$ _lib. ,. ca".
,-._ 1asis$ _lib. ,. :ontinent. Tract. B. lib. ,. ca". ,-._ A#icenna and
most of our ne' 'riters. Th. Erastus ma%es t'o %inds< one "er"etual$ 'hich
is head melancholy< the other interru"t$ 'hich comes and goes by fits$
'hich he subdi#ides into the other t'o %inds$ so that all comes to the same
"ass. 9ome again ma%e four or fi#e %inds$ 'ith 1odericus a :astro$ _de
morbis mulier. lib. =. ca". .._ and *od. Mercatus$ 'ho in his second boo%
_de mulier. affect. ca". ?._ 'ill ha#e that melancholy of nuns$ 'ido's$ and
more ancient maids$ to be a "eculiar s"ecies of melancholy differing from
the rest& some 'ill reduce enthusiasts$ ecstatical and demoniacal "ersons
to this ran%$ adding ;,C/@G lo#e melancholy to the first$ and lycanthro"ia.
The most recei#ed di#ision is into three %inds. The first "roceeds from the
sole fault of the brain$ and is called head melancholy< the second
sym"athetically "roceeds from the 'hole body$ 'hen the 'hole tem"erature is
melancholy& the third ariseth from the bo'els$ li#er$ s"leen$ or membrane$
called _mesenterium_$ named hy"ochondriacal or 'indy melancholy$ 'hich
;,C/-G*aurentius subdi#ides into three "arts$ from those three members$
he"atic$ s"lenetic$ mesaraic. *o#e melancholy$ 'hich A#icenna calls
_ilishi_& and *ycanthro"ia$ 'hich he calls _cucubuthe_$ are commonly
included in head melancholy< but of this last$ 'hich Gerardus de 9olo calls
_amoreus_$ and most %night melancholy$ 'ith that of religious melancholy$
_#irginum et #iduarum_$ maintained by 1od. a :astro and Mercatus$ and the
other %inds of lo#e melancholy$ I 'ill s"ea% of a"art by themsel#es in my
third "artition. The three "recedent s"ecies are the subject of my "resent
discourse$ 'hich I 'ill anatomise and treat of through all their causes$
sym"toms$ cures$ together and a"art< that e#ery man that is in any measure
affected 'ith this malady$ may %no' ho' to e+amine it in himself$ and a""ly
remedies unto it.
It is a hard matter$ I confess$ to distinguish these three s"ecies one from
the other$ to e+"ress their se#eral causes$ sym"toms$ cures$ being that
they are so often confounded amongst themsel#es$ ha#ing such affinity$ that
they can scarce be discerned by the most accurate "hysicians< and so often
intermi+ed 'ith other diseases$ that the best e+"erienced ha#e been
"lunged. Montanus _consil. =-_$ names a "atient that had this disease of
melancholy and caninus a""etitus both together< and _consil. =._$ 'ith
#ertigo$ ;,C/AGDulius :aesar :laudinus 'ith stone$ gout$ jaundice.
Trinca#ellius 'ith an ague$ jaundice$ caninus a""etitus$ Fc. ;,C//GPaulus
1egoline$ a great doctor in his time$ consulted in this case$ 'as so
confounded 'ith a confusion of sym"toms$ that he %ne' not to 'hat %ind of
melancholy to refer it. ;,C/BGTrinca#ellius$ 7allo"ius$ and 7rancanzanus$
famous doctors in Italy$ all three conferred 'ith about one "arty$ at the
same time$ ga#e three different o"inions. And in another "lace$
Trinca#ellius being demanded 'hat he thought of a melancholy young man to
'hom he 'as sent for$ ingenuously confessed that he 'as indeed melancholy$
but he %ne' not to 'hat %ind to reduce it. In his se#enteenth consultation
there is the li%e disagreement about a melancholy mon%. Those sym"toms$
'hich others ascribe to misaffected "arts and humours$ ;,CBCG5erc. de
9a+onia attributes 'holly to distem"ered s"irits$ and those immaterial$ as
I ha#e said. 9ometimes they cannot 'ell discern this disease from others.
In 1einerus 9olenander!s counsels$ (_9ect$ consil. @_$) he and 3r. rande
both agreed$ that the "atient!s disease 'as hy"ochondriacal melancholy. 3r.
Matholdus said it 'as asthma$ and nothing else. ;,CB,G9olenander and
Guarionius$ lately sent for to the melancholy 3u%e of :le#e$ 'ith others$
could not define 'hat s"ecies it 'as$ or agree amongst themsel#es. The
s"ecies are so confounded$ as in :aesar :laudinus his forty-fourth
consultation for a Polonian :ount$ in his judgment ;,CB=GLhe laboured of
head melancholy$ and that 'hich "roceeds from the 'hole tem"erature both at
once.L I could gi#e instance of some that ha#e had all three %inds _semel
et simul_$ and some successi#ely. 9o that I conclude of our melancholy
s"ecies$ as ;,CB.Gmany "oliticians do of their "ure forms of common'ealths$
monarchies$ aristocracies$ democracies$ are most famous in contem"lation$
but in "ractice they are tem"erate and usually mi+ed$ (so ;,CB?GPolybius
informeth us) as the *acedaemonian$ the 1oman of old$ German no'$ and many
others. 4hat "hysicians say of distinct s"ecies in their boo%s it much
matters not$ since that in their "atients! bodies they are commonly mi+ed.
In such obscurity$ therefore$ #ariety and confused mi+ture of sym"toms$
causes$ ho' difficult a thing is it to treat of se#eral %inds a"art< to
ma%e any certainty or distinction among so many casualties$ distractions$
'hen seldom t'o men shall be li%e effected _"er omnia_N !Tis hard$ I
confess$ yet ne#ertheless I 'ill ad#enture through the midst of these
"er"le+ities$ and$ led by the clue or thread of the best 'riters$ e+tricate
myself out of a labyrinth of doubts and errors$ and so "roceed to the
9E:T. II. MEM. I.
9H9E:T. I.--_:auses of Melancholy. God a cause._
LIt is in #ain to s"ea% of cures$ or thin% of remedies$ until such time as
'e ha#e considered of the causes$L so ;,CB@GGalen "rescribes Glauco& and
the common e+"erience of others confirms that those cures must be
im"erfect$ lame$ and to no "ur"ose$ 'herein the causes ha#e not first been
searched$ as ;,CB-GPros"er :alenius 'ell obser#es in his tract _de atra
bile_ to :ardinal :aesius. Insomuch that ;,CBAGL7ernelius "uts a %ind of
necessity in the %no'ledge of the causes$ and 'ithout 'hich it is
im"ossible to cure or "re#ent any manner of disease.L Em"irics may ease$
and sometimes hel"$ but not thoroughly root out< _sublata causa tollitur
effectus_ as the saying is$ if the cause be remo#ed$ the effect is li%e'ise
#an0uished. It is a most difficult thing (I confess) to be able to discern
these causes 'hence they are$ and in such ;,CB/G#ariety to say 'hat the
beginning 'as. ;,CBBG5e is ha""y that can "erform it aright. I 'ill
ad#enture to guess as near as I can$ and ri" them all u"$ from the first to
the last$ general and "articular$ to e#ery s"ecies$ that so they may the
better be described.
General causes$ are either su"ernatural$ or natural. L9u"ernatural are from
God and his angels$ or by God!s "ermission from the de#ilL and his
ministers. That God himself is a cause for the "unishment of sin$ and
satisfaction of his justice$ many e+am"les and testimonies of holy
9cri"tures ma%e e#ident unto us$ Ps. c#ii$ ,A. L7oolish men are "lagued for
their offence$ and by reason of their 'ic%edness.L Gehazi 'as stric%en 'ith
le"rosy$ = 1eg. #. =A. Dehoram 'ith dysentery and flu+$ and great diseases
of the bo'els$ = :hron. ++i. ,@. 3a#id "lagued for numbering his "eo"le$ ,
Par. =,. 9odom and Gomorrah s'allo'ed u". And this disease is "eculiarly
s"ecified$ Psalm c++#ii. ,=. L5e brought do'n their heart through
hea#iness.L 3eut. ++#iii. =/. L5e struc% them 'ith madness$ blindness$ and
astonishment of heart.L ;,,CCGLAn e#il s"irit 'as sent by the *ord u"on
9aul$ to #e+ him.L ;,,C,G8ebuchadnezzar did eat grass li%e an o+$ and his
Lheart 'as made li%e the beasts of the field.L 5eathen stories are full of
such "unishments. *ycurgus$ because he cut do'n the #ines in the country$
'as by acchus dri#en into madness& so 'as Pentheus and his mother Aga#e
for neglecting their sacrifice. ;,,C=G:ensor 7ul#ius ran mad for untiling
Duno!s tem"le$ to co#er a ne' one of his o'n$ 'hich he had dedicated to
7ortune$ ;,,C.GLand 'as confounded to death 'ith grief and sorro' of
heart.L 4hen Jer+es 'ould ha#e s"oiled ;,,C?GA"ollo!s tem"le at 3el"hos of
those infinite riches it "ossessed$ a terrible thunder came from hea#en and
struc% four thousand men dead$ the rest ran mad. ;,,C@GA little after$ the
li%e ha""ened to rennus$ lightning$ thunder$ earth0ua%es$ u"on such a
sacrilegious occasion. If 'e may belie#e our "ontifical 'riters$ they 'ill
relate unto us many strange and "rodigious "unishments in this %ind$
inflicted by their saints. 5o' ;,,C-G:lodo#eus$ sometime %ing of 7rance$
the son of 3agobert$ lost his 'its for unco#ering the body of 9t. 3enis&
and ho' a ;,,CAGsacrilegious 7renchman$ that 'ould ha#e stolen a sil#er
image of 9t. Dohn$ at irgburge$ became frantic on a sudden$ raging$ and
tyrannising o#er his o'n flesh& of a ;,,C/G*ord of 1hadnor$ that coming
from hunting late at night$ "ut his dogs into 9t. A#an!s church$ (*lan A#an
they called it) and rising betimes ne+t morning$ as hunters use to do$
found all his dogs mad$ himself being suddenly struc%en blind. 2f Tyridates
an ;,,CBGArmenian %ing$ for #iolating some holy nuns$ that 'as "unished in
li%e sort$ 'ith loss of his 'its. ut "oets and "a"ists may go together for
fabulous tales< let them free their o'n credits& ho'soe#er they feign of
their 8emesis$ and of their saints$ or by the de#il!s means may be deluded<
'e find it true$ that _ultor a tergo 3eus_$ ;,,,CGL5e is God the a#enger$L
as 3a#id styles him< and that it is our crying sins that "ull this and many
other maladies on our o'n heads. That he can by his angels$ 'hich are his
ministers$ stri%e and heal (saith ;,,,,G3ionysius) 'hom he 'ill< that he
can "lague us by his creatures$ sun$ moon$ and stars$ 'hich he useth as his
instruments$ as a husbandman (saith >anchius) doth a hatchet& hail$ sno'$
'inds$ Fc. ;,,,=G_Et conjurati #eniunt in classica #enti_& as in Doshua!s
time$ as in Pharaoh!s reign in Egy"t< they are but as so many e+ecutioners
of his justice. 5e can ma%e the "roudest s"irits stoo"$ and cry out 'ith
Dulian the A"ostate$ _Iicisti Galilaee_& or 'ith A"ollo!s "riest in
;,,,.G:hrysostom$ _2 coelumO o terraO unde hostis hic_N 4hat an enemy is
thisN And "ray 'ith 3a#id$ ac%no'ledging his "o'er$ LI am 'ea%ened and sore
bro%en$ I roar for the grief of mine heart$ mine heart "anteth$L Fc. Psalm
+++#iii. /. L2 *ord$ rebu%e me not in thine anger$ neither chastise me in
thy 'rath$L Psalm +++#iii. ,. LMa%e me to hear joy and gladness$ that the
bones 'hich thou hast bro%en$ may rejoice$L Psalm li. /. and #erse ,=.
L1estore to me the joy of thy sal#ation$ and stablish me 'ith thy free
s"irit.L 7or these causes beli%e ;,,,?G5i""ocrates 'ould ha#e a "hysician
ta%e s"ecial notice 'hether the disease come not from a di#ine su"ernatural
cause$ or 'hether it follo' the course of nature. ut this is farther
discussed by 7ran. Ialesius$ _de sacr. "hilos. ca". /._ ;,,,@G 7ernelius$
and ;,,,-GD. :aesar :laudinus$ to 'hom I refer you$ ho' this "lace of
5i""ocrates is to be understood. Paracelsus is of o"inion$ that such
s"iritual diseases (for so he calls them) are s"iritually to be cured$ and
not other'ise. 2rdinary means in such cases 'ill not a#ail& _8on est
reluctandum cum 3eo_ ('e must not struggle 'ith God.) 4hen that
monster-taming 5ercules o#ercame all in the 2lym"ics$ Du"iter at last in an
un%no'n sha"e 'restled 'ith him< the #ictory 'as uncertain$ till at length
Du"iter descried himself$ and 5ercules yielded. 8o stri#ing 'ith su"reme
"o'ers. _8il ju#at immensos :ratero "romittere montes_$ "hysicians and
"hysic can do no good$ ;,,,AGL'e must submit oursel#es unto the mighty hand
of God$L ac%no'ledge our offences$ call to him for mercy. If he stri%e us
_una eadem0ue manus #ulnus o"em0ue feret_$ as it is 'ith them that are
'ounded 'ith the s"ear of Achilles$ he alone must hel"< other'ise our
diseases are incurable$ and 'e not to be relie#ed.
9H9E:T. II.--_A 3igression of the nature of 9"irits$ bad Angels$ or
3e#ils$ and ho' they cause Melancholy_.
5o' far the "o'er of s"irits and de#ils doth e+tend$ and 'hether they can
cause this$ or any other disease$ is a serious 0uestion$ and 'orthy to be
considered& for the better understanding of 'hich$ I 'ill ma%e a brief
digression of the nature of s"irits. And although the 0uestion be #ery
obscure$ according to ;,,,/GPostellus$ Lfull of contro#ersy and ambiguity$L
beyond the reach of human ca"acity$ _fateor e+cedere #ires intentionis
meae_$ saith ;,,,BGAustin$ I confess I am not able to understand it$
_finitum de infinito non "otest statuere_$ 'e can sooner determine 'ith
Tully$ _de nat. deorum_$ _0uid non sint$ 0uam 0uid sint_$ our subtle
schoolmen$ :ardans$ 9caligers$ "rofound Thomists$ 7racastoriana and
7erneliana _acies_$ are 'ea%$ dry$ obscure$ defecti#e in these mysteries$
and all our 0uic%est 'its$ as an o'l!s eyes at the sun!s light$ 'a+ dull$
and are not sufficient to a""rehend them< yet$ as in the rest$ I 'ill
ad#enture to say something to this "oint. In former times$ as 'e read$ Acts
++iii.$ the 9adducees denied that there 'ere any such s"irits$ de#ils$ or
angels. 9o did Galen the "hysician$ the Peri"atetics$ e#en Aristotle
himself$ as Pom"onatius stoutly maintains$ and 9caliger in some sort
grants. Though 3andinus the Desuit$ _com. in lib. =. de anima_$ stiffly
denies it< _substantiae se"aratae_ and intelligences$ are the same 'hich
:hristians call angels$ and Platonists de#ils$ for they name all the
s"irits$ _daemones_$ be they good or bad angels$ as Dulius Pollu+
_2nomasticon$ lib. ,. ca". ,._ obser#es. E"icures and atheists are of the
same mind in general$ because they ne#er sa' them. Plato$ Plotinus$
Por"hyrius$ Damblichus$ Proclus$ insisting in the ste"s of Trismegistus$
Pythagoras and 9ocrates$ ma%e no doubt of it& nor 9toics$ but that there
are such s"irits$ though much erring from the truth. :oncerning the first
beginning of them$ the ;,,=CGTalmudists say that Adam had a 'ife called
*ilis$ before he married E#e$ and of her he begat nothing but de#ils. The
Tur%s! ;,,=,GAlcoran is altogether as absurd and ridiculous in this "oint&
but the 9cri"ture informs us :hristians$ ho' *ucifer$ the chief of them$
'ith his associates$ ;,,==Gfell from hea#en for his "ride and ambition<
created of God$ "laced in hea#en$ and sometimes an angel of light$ no' cast
do'n into the lo'er aerial sublunary "arts$ or into hell$ Land deli#ered
into chains of dar%ness (= Pet. ii. ?.) to be %e"t unto damnation.L
_8ature of 3e#ils._G There is a foolish o"inion 'hich some hold$ that they
are the souls of men de"arted$ good and more noble 'ere deified$ the baser
gro#elled on the ground$ or in the lo'er "arts$ and 'ere de#ils$ the 'hich
'ith Tertullian$ Por"hyrius the "hiloso"her$ M. Tyrius$ _ser. =A_
maintains. LThese s"irits$L he ;,,=.Gsaith$ L'hich 'e call angels and
de#ils$ are nought but souls of men de"arted$ 'hich either through lo#e and
"ity of their friends yet li#ing$ hel" and assist them$ or else "ersecute
their enemies$ 'hom they hated$L as 3ido threatened to "ersecute Aeneas&
L2mnibus umbra locis adero& dabis im"robe "oenas.L
LMy angry ghost arising from the dee"$
9hall haunt thee 'a%ing$ and disturb thy slee"<
At least my shade thy "unishment shall %no'$
And 7ame shall s"read the "leasing ne's belo'.L
They are (as others su""ose) a""ointed by those higher "o'ers to %ee" men
from their nati#ity$ and to "rotect or "unish them as they see cause& and
are called _boni et mali Genii_ by the 1omans. 5eroes$ lares$ if good$
lemures or lar#ae if bad$ by the stoics$ go#ernors of countries$ men$
cities$ saith ;,,=?GA"uleius$ _3eos a""ellant 0ui e+ hominum numero juste
ac "rudenter #itae curriculo gubernato$ "ro numine$ "ostea ab hominibus
"raediti fanis et ceremoniis #ulgo admittuntur$ ut in Aegy"to 2syris_$ Fc.
_Praestites_$ :a"ella calls them$ L'hich "rotected "articular men as 'ell
as "rinces$L 9ocrates had his _3aemonium 9aturninum et ignium_$ 'hich of
all s"irits is best$ _ad sublimes cogitationes animum erigentem_$ as the
Platonists su""osed< Plotinus his$ and 'e :hristians our assisting angel$
as Andreas Iictorellus$ a co"ious 'riter of this subject$ *odo#icus de
*a-:erda$ the Desuit$ in his #oluminous tract _de Angelo :ustode_$
>anchius$ and some di#ines thin%. ut this absurd tenet of Tyreus$ Proclus
confutes at large in his boo% _de Anima et daemone_.
Psellus ;,,=@G$ a :hristian$ and sometimes tutor (saith :us"inian) to
Michael Para"inatius$ Em"eror of Greece$ a great obser#er of the nature of
de#ils$ holds they are cor"oreal ;,,=-G$ and ha#e Laerial bodies$ that they
are mortal$ li#e and die$L ('hich Martianus :a"ella li%e'ise maintains$ but
our :hristian "hiloso"hers e+"lode) Lthat they ;,,=AGare nourished and ha#e
e+crements$ they feel "ain if they be hurtL ('hich :ardan confirms$ and
9caliger justly laughs him to scorn for< _9i "ascantur aere$ cur non
"ugnant ob "uriorem aera_N Fc.) Lor stro%en&L and if their bodies be cut$
'ith admirable celerity they come together again. Austin$ _in Gen. lib.
iii. lib. arbit._$ a""ro#es as much$ _mutata casu cor"ora in deteriorem
0ualitatem aeris s"issioris_$ so doth 5ierome. _:omment. in e"ist. ad
E"hes. ca". ._$ 2rigen$ Tertullian$ *actantius$ and many ancient 7athers of
the :hurch& that in their fall their bodies 'ere changed into a more aerial
and gross substance. odine$ _lib. ?$ Theatri 8aturae_ and 3a#id :rusius$
_5ermeticae Philoso"hiae$ lib. ,. ca". ?_$ by se#eral arguments "ro#es
angels and s"irits to be cor"oreal& _0uic0uid continetur in loco cor"oreum
est< At s"iritus continetur in loco$ ergo. ;,,=/G9i s"iritus sunt 0uanti$
erunt cor"orei& At sunt 0uanti$ ergo. sunt finiti$ ergo. 0uanti_$ Fc.
odine ;,,=BGgoes farther yet$ and 'ill ha#e these$ _Animae se"aratae
genii_$ s"irits$ angels$ de#ils$ and so li%e'ise souls of men de"arted$ if
cor"oreal ('hich he most eagerly contends) to be of some sha"e$ and that
absolutely round$ li%e 9un and Moon$ because that is the most "erfect form$
_0uae nihil habet as"eritatis$ nihil angulis incisum$ nihil anfractibus
in#olutem$ nihil eminens$ sed inter cor"ora "erfecta est "erfectissimum_<
;,,.CGtherefore all s"irits are cor"oreal he concludes$ and in their "ro"er
sha"es round. That they can assume other aerial bodies$ all manner of
sha"es at their "leasures$ a""ear in 'hat li%eness they 'ill themsel#es$
that they are most s'ift in motion$ can "ass many miles in an instant$ and
so li%e'ise ;,,.,Gtransform bodies of others into 'hat sha"e they "lease$
and 'ith admirable celerity remo#e them from "lace to "lace< (as the Angel
did 5aba%%u% to 3aniel$ and as Phili" the deacon 'as carried a'ay by the
9"irit$ 'hen he had ba"tised the eunuch< so did Pythagoras and A"ollonius
remo#e themsel#es and others$ 'ith many such feats) that they can re"resent
castles in the air$ "alaces$ armies$ s"ectrums$ "rodigies$ and such strange
objects to mortal men!s eyes$ ;,,.=Gcause smells$ sa#ours$ Fc.$ decei#e all
the senses< most 'riters of this subject credibly belie#e< and that they
can foretell future e#ents$ and do many strange miracles. Duno!s image
s"a%e to :amillus$ and 7ortune!s statue to the 1oman matrons$ 'ith many
such. >anchius$ odine$ 9"ondanus$ and others$ are of o"inion that they
cause a true metamor"hosis$ as 8ebuchadnezzar 'as really translated into a
beast$ *ot!s 'ife into a "illar of salt< Hlysses! com"anions into hogs and
dogs$ by :irce!s charms< turn themsel#es and others$ as they do 'itches
into cats$ dogs$ hares$ cro's$ Fc. 9trozzius :icogna hath many e+am"les$
_lib. iii. omnif. mag. ca". ? and @_$ 'hich he there confutes$ as Austin
li%e'ise doth$ _de ci#. 3ei lib. +#iii_. That they can be seen 'hen and in
'hat sha"e$ and to 'hom they 'ill$ saith Psellus$ _Tametsi nil tale
#iderim$ nec o"tem #idere_$ though he himself ne#er sa' them nor desired
it< and use sometimes carnal co"ulation (as else'here I shall ;,,..G"ro#e
more at large) 'ith 'omen and men. Many 'ill not belie#e they can be seen$
and if any man shall say$ s'ear$ and stiffly maintain$ though he be
discreet and 'ise$ judicious and learned$ that he hath seen them$ they
account him a timorous fool$ a melancholy dizzard$ a 'ea% fello'$ a
dreamer$ a sic% or a mad man$ they contemn him$ laugh him to scorn$ and yet
Marcus of his credit told Psellus that he had often seen them. And *eo
9ua#ius$ a 7renchman$ _c. /$ in :ommentar. l. ,. Paracelsi de #ita longa_$
out of some Platonists$ 'ill ha#e the air to be as full of them as sno'
falling in the s%ies$ and that they may be seen$ and 'ithal sets do'n the
means ho' men may see them< _9i irre#erberatus oculis sole s"lendente
#ersus caelum continua#erint obtutus_$ Fc.$ ;,,.?Gand saith moreo#er he
tried it$ _"raemissorum feci e+"erimentum_$ and it 'as true$ that the
Platonists said. Paracelsus confesseth that he sa' them di#ers times$ and
conferred 'ith them$ and so doth Ale+ander ab ;,,.@GAle+andro$ Lthat he so
found it by e+"erience$ 'hen as before he doubted of it.L Many deny it$
saith *a#ater$ _de s"ectris$ "art ,. c. =_$ and _"art =. c. ,,_$ Lbecause
they ne#er sa' them themsel#es<L but as he re"orts at large all o#er his
boo%$ es"ecially _c. ,B. "art ,_$ they are often seen and heard$ and
familiarly con#erse 'ith men$ as *od. Ii#es assureth us$ innumerable
records$ histories$ and testimonies e#ince in all ages$ times$ "laces$ and
;,,.-Gall tra#ellers besides< in the 4est Indies and our northern climes$
_8ihil familiarius 0uam in agris et urbibus s"iritus #idere$ audire 0ui
#etent$ jubeant_$ Fc. 5ieronymus _#ita Pauli_$ asil _ser. ?C_$ 8ice"horus$
Eusebius$ 9ocrates$ 9ozomenus$ ;,,.AGDacobus oissardus in his tract _de
s"irituum a""aritionibus_$ Petrus *oyerus _l. de s"ectris_$ 4ierus _l. ,._
ha#e infinite #ariety of such e+am"les of a""aritions of s"irits$ for him
to read that farther doubts$ to his am"le satisfaction. 2ne alone I 'ill
briefly insert. A nobleman in Germany 'as sent ambassador to the 6ing of
9'eden (for his name$ the time$ and such circumstances$ I refer you to
oissardus$ mine ;,,./GAuthor). After he had done his business$ he sailed
to *i#onia$ on set "ur"ose to see those familiar s"irits$ 'hich are there
said to be con#ersant 'ith men$ and do their drudgery 'or%s. Amongst other
matters$ one of them told him 'here his 'ife 'as$ in 'hat room$ in 'hat
clothes$ 'hat doing$ and brought him a ring from her$ 'hich at his return$
_non sine omnium admiratione_$ he found to be true< and so belie#ed that
e#er after$ 'hich before he doubted of. :ardan$ _l. ,B. de subtil_$ relates
of his father$ 7acius :ardan$ that after the accustomed solemnities$ _An._
,?B,$ ,. August$ he conjured u" se#en de#ils$ in Gree% a""arel$ about forty
years of age$ some ruddy of com"le+ion$ and some "ale$ as he thought< he
as%ed them many 0uestions$ and they made ready ans'er$ that they 'ere
aerial de#ils$ that they li#ed and died as men did$ sa#e that they 'ere far
longer li#ed (ACC or /CC ;,,.BGyears)< they did as much e+cel men in
dignity as 'e do juments$ and 'ere as far e+celled again of those that 'ere
abo#e them< our ;,,?CGgo#ernors and %ee"ers they are moreo#er$ 'hich
;,,?,GPlato in :ritias deli#ered of old$ and subordinate to one another$
_Ht enim homo homini sic daemon daemoni dominatur_$ they rule themsel#es as
'ell as us$ and the s"irits of the meaner sort had commonly such offices$
as 'e ma%e horse-%ee"ers$ neat-herds$ and the basest of us$ o#erseers of
our cattle< and that 'e can no more a""rehend their natures and functions$
than a horse a man!s. They %ne' all things$ but might not re#eal them to
men< and ruled and domineered o#er us$ as 'e do o#er our horses< the best
%ings amongst us$ and the most generous s"irits$ 'ere not com"arable to the
basest of them. 9ometimes they did instruct men$ and communicate their
s%ill$ re'ard and cherish$ and sometimes$ again$ terrify and "unish$ to
%ee" them in a'e$ as they thought fit$ _8ihil magis cu"ientes_ (saith
*ysius$ _Phis. 9toicorum_) _0uam adorationem hominum_. ;,,?=GThe same
Author$ :ardan$ in his _5y"erchen_$ out of the doctrine of 9toics$ 'ill
ha#e some of these _genii_ (for so he calls them) to be ;,,?.Gdesirous of
men!s com"any$ #ery affable and familiar 'ith them$ as dogs are< others$
again$ to abhor as ser"ents$ and care not for them. The same beli%e
Tritemius calls _Ignios et sublunares$ 0ui nun0uam demergunt ad inferiora$
aut #i+ ullum habent in terris commercium_& ;,,??GLGenerally they far e+cel
men in 'orth$ as a man the meanest 'orm< though some of them are inferior
to those of their o'n ran% in 'orth$ as the blac%guard in a "rince!s court$
and to men again$ as some degenerate$ base$ rational creatures$ are
e+celled of brute beasts.L
That they are mortal$ besides these testimonies of :ardan$ Martianus$ Fc.$
many other di#ines and "hiloso"hers hold$ _"ost "roli+um tem"us moriuntur
omnes_< The ;,,?@GPlatonists$ and some 1abbins$ Por"hyrius and Plutarch$ as
a""ears by that relation of Thamus& ;,,?-GLThe great God Pan is dead<
A"ollo Pythius ceased< and so the rest.L 9t. 5ierome$ in the life of Paul
the 5ermit$ tells a story ho' one of them a""eared to 9t. Anthony in the
'ilderness$ and told him as much. ;,,?AGParacelsus of our late 'riters
stiffly maintains that they are mortal$ li#e and die as other creatures do.
>ozimus$ _l. =_$ farther adds$ that religion and "olicy dies and alters
'ith them. The ;,,?/GGentiles! gods$ he saith$ 'ere e+"elled by
:onstantine$ and together 'ith them. _Im"erii 1omani majestas$ et fortuna
interiit$ et "rofligata est_< The fortune and majesty of the 1oman Em"ire
decayed and #anished$ as that heathen in ;,,?BGMinutius formerly bragged$
'hen the De's 'ere o#ercome by the 1omans$ the De'!s God 'as li%e'ise
ca"ti#ated by that of 1ome< and 1absa%eh to the Israelites$ no God should
deli#er them out of the hands of the Assyrians. ut these "arado+es of
their "o'er$ cor"oreity$ mortality$ ta%ing of sha"es$ trans"osing bodies$
and carnal co"ulations$ are sufficiently confuted by >anch. _c. ,C$ l. ?._
Pererius in his comment$ and Tostatus 0uestions on the -th of Gen. Th.
A0uin.$ 9t. Austin$ 4ierus$ Th. Erastus$ 3elrio$ _tom. =$ l. =$ 0uaest.
=B_< 9ebastian Michaelis$ _c. =$ de s"iritibus_$ 3. 1einolds _*ect. ?A._
They may decei#e the eyes of men$ yet not ta%e true bodies$ or ma%e a real
metamor"hosis< but as :icogna "ro#es at large$ they are ;,,@CG_Illusoriae$
et "raestigiatrices transformationes_$ _omnif. mag. lib. ?. ca". ?_$ mere
illusions and cozenings$ li%e that tale of _Pasetis obulus_ in 9uidas$ or
that of Autolicus$ Mercury!s son$ that d'elt in Parnassus$ 'ho got so much
treasure by cozenage and stealth. 5is father Mercury$ because he could
lea#e him no 'ealth$ taught him many fine tric%s to get means$ ;,,@,Gfor he
could dri#e a'ay men!s cattle$ and if any "ursued him$ turn them into 'hat
sha"es he 'ould$ and so did mightily enrich himself$ _hoc astu ma+imam
"raedam est adsecutus_. This$ no doubt$ is as true as the rest< yet thus
much in general. Thomas$ 3urand$ and others$ grant that they ha#e
understanding far beyond men$ can "robably conjecture and ;,,@=Gforetell
many things< they can cause and cure most diseases$ decei#e our senses<
they ha#e e+cellent s%ill in all Arts and 9ciences< and that the most
illiterate de#il is _Kuo#is homine scientior_ (more %no'ing than any man)$
as ;,,@.G:icogna maintains out of others. They %no' the #irtues of herbs$
"lants$ stones$ minerals$ Fc.< of all creatures$ birds$ beasts$ the four
elements$ stars$ "lanets$ can a"tly a""ly and ma%e use of them as they see
good< "ercei#ing the causes of all meteors$ and the li%e& _3ant se
coloribus_ (as ;,,@?G Austin hath it) _accommodant se figuris$ adhaerent
sonis$ subjiciunt se odoribus$ infundunt se sa"oribus$ omnes sensus etiam
i"sam intelligentiam daemones fallunt_$ they decei#e all our senses$ e#en
our understanding itself at once. ;,,@@GThey can "roduce miraculous
alterations in the air$ and most 'onderful effects$ con0uer armies$ gi#e
#ictories$ hel"$ further$ hurt$ cross and alter human attem"ts and "rojects
(_3ei "ermissu_) as they see good themsel#es. ;,,@-G4hen :harles the Great
intended to ma%e a channel bet'i+t the 1hine and the 3anube$ loo% 'hat his
'or%men did in the day$ these s"irits flung do'n in the night$ _Ht conatu
1e+ desisteret$ "er#icere_. 9uch feats can they do. ut that 'hich odine$
_l. ?$ Theat. nat._ thin%s (follo'ing Tyrius beli%e$ and the Platonists$)
they can tell the secrets of a man!s heart$ _aut cogitationes hominum_$ is
most false< his reasons are 'ea%$ and sufficiently confuted by >anch. _lib.
?$ ca". B._ 5ierom. _lib. =$ com. in Mat. ad ca". ,@_$ Athanasius _0uaest.
=A$ ad Antiochum Princi"em_$ and others.
_2rders_.G As for those orders of good and bad de#ils$ 'hich the Platonists
hold$ is altogether erroneous$ and those Ethnics _boni et mali Genii_$ are
to be e+"loded& these heathen 'riters agree not in this "oint among
themsel#es$ as 3andinus notes$ _An sint ;,,@AGmali non con#eniunt_$ some
'ill ha#e all s"irits good or bad to us by a mista%e$ as if an 2+ or 5orse
could discourse$ he 'ould say the utcher 'as his enemy because he %illed
him$ the grazier his friend because he fed him< a hunter "reser#es and yet
%ills his game$ and is hated ne#ertheless of his game< _nec "iscatorem
"iscis amare "otest_$ Fc. ut Damblichus$ Psellus$ Plutarch$ and most
Platonists ac%no'ledge bad$ _et ab eorum maleficiis ca#endum_$ and 'e
should be'are of their 'ic%edness$ for they are enemies of man%ind$ and
this Plato learned in Egy"t$ that they 0uarrelled 'ith Du"iter$ and 'ere
dri#en by him do'n to hell. ;,,@/GThat 'hich ;,,@BGA"uleius$ Jeno"hon$ and
Plato contend of 9ocrates 3aemonium$ is most absurd& That 'hich Plotinus of
his$ that he had li%e'ise _3eum "ro 3aemonio_< and that 'hich Por"hyry
concludes of them all in general$ if they be neglected in their sacrifice
they are angry< nay more$ as :ardan in his _5i""erchen_ 'ill$ they feed on
men!s souls$ _Elementa sunt "lantis elementum$ animalibus "lantae$
hominibus animalia$ erunt et homines aliis$ non autem diis$ nimis enim
remota est eorum natura a nostra$ 0ua"ro"ter daemonibus_& and so beli%e
that 'e ha#e so many battles fought in all ages$ countries$ is to ma%e them
a feast$ and their sole delight& but to return to that I said before$ if
dis"leased they fret and chafe$ (for they feed beli%e on the souls of
beasts$ as 'e do on their bodies) and send many "lagues amongst us< but if
"leased$ then they do much good< is as #ain as the rest and confuted by
Austin$ _l. B. c. /. de :i#. 3ei_. Euseb. _l. ?. "rae"ar. E#ang. c. -._ and
others. Eet thus much I find$ that our schoolmen and other ;,,-CGdi#ines
ma%e nine %inds of bad s"irits$ as 3ionysius hath done of angels. In the
first ran% are those false gods of the gentiles$ 'hich 'ere adored
heretofore in se#eral idols$ and ga#e oracles at 3el"hos$ and else'here<
'hose "rince is eelzebub. The second ran% is of liars and e0ui#ocators$ as
A"ollo$ Pythius$ and the li%e. The third are those #essels of anger$
in#entors of all mischief< as that Theutus in Plato< Esay calls them
;,,-,G#essels of fury< their "rince is elial. The fourth are malicious
re#enging de#ils< and their "rince is Asmodaeus. The fifth %ind are
cozeners$ such as belong to magicians and 'itches< their "rince is 9atan.
The si+th are those aerial de#ils that ;,,-=Gcorru"t the air and cause
"lagues$ thunders$ fires$ Fc.< s"o%en of in the A"ocaly"se$ and Paul to the
E"hesians names them the "rinces of the air< Meresin is their "rince. The
se#enth is a destroyer$ ca"tain of the furies$ causing 'ars$ tumults$
combustions$ u"roars$ mentioned in the A"ocaly"se< and called Abaddon. The
eighth is that accusing or calumniating de#il$ 'hom the Gree%s call ;Gree%&
3iabolosG$ that dri#es men to des"air. The ninth are those tem"ters in
se#eral %inds$ and their "rince is Mammon. Psellus ma%es si+ %inds$ yet
none abo#e the Moon& 4ierus in his _Pseudo-monarchia 3aemonis_$ out of an
old boo%$ ma%es many more di#isions and subordinations$ 'ith their se#eral
names$ numbers$ offices$ Fc.$ but Gazaeus cited by ;,,-.G*i"sius 'ill ha#e
all "laces full of angels$ s"irits$ and de#ils$ abo#e and beneath the Moon$
;,,-?Gethereal and aerial$ 'hich Austin cites out of Iarro _l. A. de :i#.
3ei$ c. -._ LThe celestial de#ils abo#e$ and aerial beneath$L or$ as some
'ill$ gods abo#e$ 9emi-dei or half gods beneath$ *ares$ 5eroes$ Genii$
'hich climb higher$ if they li#ed 'ell$ as the 9toics held< but gro#el on
the ground as they 'ere baser in their li#es$ nearer to the earth& and are
Manes$ *emures$ *amiae$ Fc. ;,,-@GThey 'ill ha#e no "lace but all full of
s"irits$ de#ils$ or some other inhabitants< _Plenum :aelum$ aer$ a0ua
terra$ et omnia sub terra_$ saith ;,,--GGazaeus< though Anthony 1usca in
his boo% _de Inferno$ lib. #. ca". A._ 'ould confine them to the middle
region$ yet they 'ill ha#e them e#ery'here. L8ot so much as a hair-breadth
em"ty in hea#en$ earth$ or 'aters$ abo#e or under the earth.L The air is
not so full of flies in summer$ as it is at all times of in#isible de#ils&
this ;,,-AGParacelsus stiffly maintains$ and that they ha#e e#ery one their
se#eral chaos$ others 'ill ha#e infinite 'orlds$ and each 'orld his
"eculiar s"irits$ gods$ angels$ and de#ils to go#ern and "unish it.
L9ingula ;,,-/Gnonnulli credunt 0uo0ue sidera "osse
3ici orbes$ terram0ue a""ellant sidus o"acum$
:ui minimus di#um "raesit.L------
L9ome "ersons belie#e each star to be a 'orld$ and this earth an
o"a0ue star$ o#er 'hich the least of the gods "resides.L
;,,-BGGregorius Tholsanus ma%es se#en %inds of ethereal s"irits or angels$
according to the number of the se#en "lanets$ 9aturnine$ Do#ial$ Martial$
of 'hich :ardan discourseth _lib. =C. de subtil._ he calls them
_substantias "rimas$ 2lym"icos daemones Tritemius$ 0ui "raesunt >odiaco_$
Fc.$ and 'ill ha#e them to be good angels abo#e$ de#ils beneath the Moon$
their se#eral names and offices he there sets do'n$ and 'hich 3ionysius of
Angels$ 'ill ha#e se#eral s"irits for se#eral countries$ men$ offices$ Fc.$
'hich li#e about them$ and as so many assisting "o'ers cause their
o"erations$ 'ill ha#e in a 'ord$ innumerable$ as many of them as there be
stars in the s%ies. ;,,ACGMarcilius 7icinus seems to second this o"inion$
out of Plato$ or from himself$ I %no' not$ (still ruling their inferiors$
as they do those under them again$ all subordinate$ and the nearest to the
earth rule us$ 'hom 'e subdi#ide into good and bad angels$ call gods or
de#ils$ as they hel" or hurt us$ and so adore$ lo#e or hate) but it is most
li%ely from Plato$ for he relying 'holly on 9ocrates$ _0uem mori "otius
0uam mentiri #oluisse scribit_$ 'hom he says 'ould rather die than tell a
falsehood$ out of 9ocrates! authority alone$ made nine %inds of them& 'hich
o"inion beli%e 9ocrates too% from Pythagoras$ and he from Trismegistus$ he
from >oroastes$ first God$ second idea$ .. Intelligences$ ?. Arch-Angels$
@. Angels$ -. 3e#ils$ A. 5eroes$ /. Princi"alities$ B. Princes& of 'hich
some 'ere absolutely good$ as gods$ some bad$ some indifferent _inter deos
et homines_$ as heroes and daemons$ 'hich ruled men$ and 'ere called genii$
or as ;,,A,GProclus and Damblichus 'ill$ the middle bet'i+t God and men.
Princi"alities and "rinces$ 'hich commanded and s'ayed %ings and countries<
and had se#eral "laces in the s"heres "erha"s$ for as e#ery s"here is
higher$ so hath it more e+cellent inhabitants& 'hich beli%e is that
Galilaeus a Galileo and 6e"ler aims at in his nuncio 9yderio$ 'hen he 'ill
ha#e ;,,A=G9aturnine and Do#ial inhabitants& and 'hich Tycho rahe doth in
some sort touch or insinuate in one of his e"istles& but these things
;,,A.G>anchius justly e+"lodes$ _ca". .. lib. ?._ P. Martyr$ _in ?. 9am.
9o that according to these men the number of ethereal s"irits must needs be
infinite& for if that be true that some of our mathematicians say& if a
stone could fall from the starry hea#en$ or eighth s"here$ and should "ass
e#ery hour an hundred miles$ it 'ould be -@ years$ or more$ before it 'ould
come to ground$ by reason of the great distance of hea#en from earth$ 'hich
contains as some say ,AC millions /CC miles$ besides those other hea#ens$
'hether they be crystalline or 'atery 'hich Maginus adds$ 'hich
"erad#enture holds as much more$ ho' many such s"irits may it containN And
yet for all this ;,,A?GThomas Albertus$ and most hold that there be far
more angels than de#ils.
_9ublunary de#ils$ and their %inds._G ut be they more or less$ _Kuod su"ra
nos nihil ad nos_ ('hat is beyond our com"rehension does not concern us).
5o'soe#er as Martianus foolishly su""oseth$ _Aetherii 3aemones non curant
res humanas_$ they care not for us$ do not attend our actions$ or loo% for
us$ those ethereal s"irits ha#e other 'orlds to reign in beli%e or business
to follo'. 4e are only no' to s"ea% in brief of these sublunary s"irits or
de#ils& for the rest$ our di#ines determine that the de#il had no "o'er
o#er stars$ or hea#ens< ;,,A@G_:arminibus coelo "ossunt deducere lunam_$
F:.$ (by their charms (#erses) they can seduce the moon from the hea#ens).
Those are "oetical fictions$ and that they can ;,,A-G_sistere a0uam
flu#iis$ et #ertere sidera retro_$ Fc.$ (sto" ri#ers and turn the stars
bac%'ard in their courses) as :anadia in 5orace$ !tis all false. ;,,AAG
They are confined until the day of judgment to this sublunary 'orld$ and
can 'or% no farther than the four elements$ and as God "ermits them.
4herefore of these sublunary de#ils$ though others di#ide them other'ise
according to their se#eral "laces and offices$ Psellus ma%es si+ %inds$
fiery$ aerial$ terrestrial$ 'atery$ and subterranean de#ils$ besides those
fairies$ satyrs$ nym"hs$ Fc.
7iery s"irits or de#ils are such as commonly 'or% by blazing stars$
fire-dra%es$ or _ignes fatui_< 'hich lead men often _in flumina aut
"raeci"itia_$ saith odine$ _lib. =. Theat. 8aturae$ fol. ==,._ _Kuos
in0uit arcere si #olunt #iatores$ clara #oce 3eum a""ellare aut "ronam
facie terram contingente adorare o"ortet$ et hoc amuletum majoribus nostris
acce"tum ferre debemus_$ Fc.$ ('hom if tra#ellers 'ish to %ee" off they
must "ronounce the name of God 'ith a clear #oice$ or adore him 'ith their
faces in contact 'ith the ground$ Fc.)< li%e'ise they counterfeit suns and
moons$ stars oftentimes$ and sit on shi" masts& _In na#igiorum summitatibus
#isuntur_< and are called _dioscuri_$ as Eusebius _l. contra Philoso"hos$
c. +l#iii_. informeth us$ out of the authority of >eno"hanes< or little
clouds$ _ad motum nescio 0uem #olantes_< 'hich ne#er a""ear$ saith :ardan$
but they signify some mischief or other to come unto men$ though some again
'ill ha#e them to "retend good$ and #ictory to that side they come to'ards
in sea fights$ 9t. Elmo!s fires they commonly call them$ and they do li%ely
a""ear after a sea storm< 1adzi#ilius$ the Polonian du%e$ calls this
a""arition$ _9ancti Germani sidus_< and saith moreo#er that he sa' the same
after in a storm$ as he 'as sailing$ ,@/=$ from Ale+andria to 1hodes.
;,,A/G2ur stories are full of such a""aritions in all %inds. 9ome thin%
they %ee" their residence in that 5ecla$ a mountain in Iceland$ Aetna in
9icily$ *i"ari$ Iesu#ius$ Fc. These de#ils 'ere 'orshi""ed heretofore by
that su"erstitious Pyromanteia ;,,ABGand the li%e.
Aerial s"irits or de#ils$ are such as %ee" 0uarter most "art in the ;,,/CG
air$ cause many tem"ests$ thunder$ and lightnings$ tear oa%s$ fire
stee"les$ houses$ stri%e men and beasts$ ma%e it rain stones$ as in *i#y!s
time$ 'ool$ frogs$ Fc. :ounterfeit armies in the air$ strange noises$
s'ords$ Fc.$ as at Iienna before the coming of the Tur%s$ and many times in
1ome$ as 9cheretzius _l. de s"ect. c. ,. "art ,._ *a#ater _de s"ect. "art.
,. c. ,A._ Dulius 2bse0uens$ an old 1oman$ in his boo% of "rodigies$ _ab
urb. cond._ @C@. ;,,/,GMachia#el hath illustrated by many e+am"les$ and
Dose"hus$ in his boo% _de bello Dudaico_$ before the destruction of
Derusalem. All 'hich Guil. Postellus$ in his first boo%$ _c. A$ de orbis
concordia_$ useth as an effectual argument (as indeed it is) to "ersuade
them that 'ill not belie#e there be s"irits or de#ils. They cause
'hirl'inds on a sudden$ and tem"estuous storms< 'hich though our
meteorologists generally refer to natural causes$ yet I am of odine!s
mind$ _Theat. 8at. l. =._ they are more often caused by those aerial
de#ils$ in their se#eral 0uarters< for _Tem"estatibus se ingerunt_$ saith
;,,/=G 1ich. Argentine< as 'hen a des"erate man ma%es a'ay 'ith himself$
'hich by hanging or dro'ning they fre0uently do$ as 6ommanus obser#es$ _de
mirac. mort. "art. A$ c. A-._ _tri"udium agentes_$ dancing and rejoicing at
the death of a sinner. These can corru"t the air$ and cause "lagues$
sic%ness$ storms$ shi"'rec%s$ fires$ inundations. At Mons 3raconis in
Italy$ there is a most memorable e+am"le in ;,,/.GDo#ianus Pontanus& and
nothing so familiar (if 'e may belie#e those relations of 9a+o Grammaticus$
2laus Magnus$ 3amianus A. Goes) as for 'itches and sorcerers$ in *a"land$
*ithuania$ and all o#er 9candia$ to sell 'inds to mariners$ and cause
tem"ests$ 'hich Marcus Paulus the Ienetian relates li%e'ise of the Tartars.
These %ind of de#ils are much ;,,/?Gdelighted in sacrifices (saith
Por"hyry)$ held all the 'orld in a'e$ and had se#eral names$ idols$
sacrifices$ in 1ome$ Greece$ Egy"t$ and at this day tyrannise o#er$ and
decei#e those Ethnics and Indians$ being adored and 'orshi""ed for ;,,/@G
gods. 7or the Gentiles! gods 'ere de#ils (as ;,,/-GTrismegistus confesseth
in his Ascle"ius)$ and he himself could ma%e them come to their images by
magic s"ells& and are no' as much Lres"ected by our "a"istsL (saith ;,,/AG
Pictorius) Lunder the name of saints.L These are they 'hich :ardan thin%s
desire so much carnal co"ulation 'ith 'itches (Incubi and 9uccubi)$
transform bodies$ and are so #ery cold$ if they be touched< and that ser#e
magicians. 5is father had one of them (as he is not ashamed to relate)$
;,,//Gan aerial de#il$ bound to him for t'enty and eight years. As
Agri""a!s dog had a de#il tied to his collar< some thin% that Paracelsus
(or else Erastus belies him) had one confined to his s'ord "ummel< others
'ear them in rings$ Fc. Dannes and Dambres did many things of old by their
hel"< 9imon Magus$ :ino"s$ A"ollonius Tianeus$ Damblichus$ and Tritemius of
late$ that sho'ed Ma+imilian the em"eror his 'ife$ after she 'as dead< _Et
#errucam in collo ejus_ (saith ;,,/BGGodolman) so much as the 'art in her
nec%. 3elrio$ _lib. =._ hath di#ers e+am"les of their feats& :icogna$ _lib.
.. ca". .._ and 4ierus in his boo% _de "raestig. daemonum_. oissardus _de
magis et #eneficis_.
4ater-de#ils are those 8aiads or 'ater nym"hs 'hich ha#e been heretofore
con#ersant about 'aters and ri#ers. The 'ater (as Paracelsus thin%s) is
their chaos$ 'herein they li#e< some call them fairies$ and say that
5abundia is their 0ueen< these cause inundations$ many times shi"'rec%s$
and decei#e men di#ers 'ays$ as 9uccuba$ or other'ise$ a""earing most "art
(saith Tritemius) in 'omen!s sha"es. ;,,BCGParacelsus hath se#eral stories
of them that ha#e li#ed and been married to mortal men$ and so continued
for certain years 'ith them$ and after$ u"on some disli%e$ ha#e forsa%en
them. 9uch a one as Aegeria$ 'ith 'hom 8uma 'as so familiar$ 3iana$ :eres$
Fc. ;,,B,G2laus Magnus hath a long narration of one 5otherus$ a %ing of
9'eden$ that ha#ing lost his com"any$ as he 'as hunting one day$ met 'ith
these 'ater nym"hs or fairies$ and 'as feasted by them< and 5ector
oethius$ or Macbeth$ and an0uo$ t'o 9cottish lords$ that as they 'ere
'andering in the 'oods$ had their fortunes told them by three strange
'omen. To these$ heretofore$ they did use to sacrifice$ by that ;Gree%&
hydromanteiaG$ or di#ination by 'aters.
Terrestrial de#ils are those ;,,B=G*ares$ genii$ fauns$ satyrs$ ;,,B.G
'ood-nym"hs$ foliots$ fairies$ 1obin Goodfello's$ trulli$ Fc.$ 'hich as
they are most con#ersant 'ith men$ so they do them most harm. 9ome thin% it
'as they alone that %e"t the heathen "eo"le in a'e of old$ and had so many
idols and tem"les erected to them. 2f this range 'as 3agon amongst the
Philistines$ el amongst the abylonians$ Astartes amongst the 9idonians$
aal amongst the 9amaritans$ Isis and 2siris amongst the Egy"tians$ Fc.<
some "ut our ;,,B?Gfairies into this ran%$ 'hich ha#e been in former times
adored 'ith much su"erstition$ 'ith s'ee"ing their houses$ and setting of a
"ail of clean 'ater$ good #ictuals$ and the li%e$ and then they should not
be "inched$ but find money in their shoes$ and be fortunate in their
enter"rises. These are they that dance on heaths and greens$ as ;,,B@G
*a#ater thin%s 'ith Tritemius$ and as ;,,B-G2laus Magnus adds$ lea#e that
green circle$ 'hich 'e commonly find in "lain fields$ 'hich others hold to
"roceed from a meteor falling$ or some accidental ran%ness of the ground$
so nature s"orts herself< they are sometimes seen by old 'omen and
children. 5ierom. Pauli$ in his descri"tion of the city of ercino in
9"ain$ relates ho' they ha#e been familiarly seen near that to'n$ about
fountains and hills< _8onnun0uam_ (saith Tritemius) _in sua latibula
montium sim"liciores homines ducant$ stu"enda mirantibus ostentes miracula$
nolarum sonitus$ s"ectacula_$ Fc. ;,,BAGGiraldus :ambrensis gi#es instance
in a mon% of 4ales that 'as so deluded. ;,,B/GParacelsus rec%ons u" many
"laces in Germany$ 'here they do usually 'al% in little coats$ some t'o
feet long. A bigger %ind there is of them called 'ith us hobgoblins$ and
1obin Goodfello's$ that 'ould in those su"erstitious times grind corn for a
mess of mil%$ cut 'ood$ or do any manner of drudgery 'or%. They 'ould mend
old irons in those Aeolian isles of *i"ari$ in former ages$ and ha#e been
often seen and heard. ;,,BBGTholosanus calls them _trullos_ and Getulos$
and saith$ that in his days they 'ere common in many "laces of 7rance.
3ithmarus les%enius$ in his descri"tion of Iceland$ re"orts for a
certainty$ that almost in e#ery family they ha#e yet some such familiar
s"irits< and 7eli+ Malleolus$ in his boo% _de crudel. daemon._ affirms as
much$ that these trolli or telchines are #ery common in 8or'ay$ Land ;,=CCG
seen to do drudgery 'or%<L to dra' 'ater$ saith 4ierus$ _lib. ,. ca". ==_$
dress meat$ or any such thing. Another sort of these there are$ 'hich
fre0uent forlorn ;,=C,Ghouses$ 'hich the Italians call foliots$ most "art
inno+ious$ ;,=C=G:ardan holds< LThey 'ill ma%e strange noises in the night$
ho'l sometimes "itifully$ and then laugh again$ cause great flame and
sudden lights$ fling stones$ rattle chains$ sha#e men$ o"en doors and shut
them$ fling do'n "latters$ stools$ chests$ sometimes a""ear in the li%eness
of hares$ cro's$ blac% dogs$L Fc. of 'hich read ;,=C.GPet Thyraeus the
Desuit$ in his Tract$ _de locis infestis$ "art. ,. et ca". ?_$ 'ho 'ill
ha#e them to be de#ils or the souls of damned men that see% re#enge$ or
else souls out of "urgatory that see% ease< for such e+am"les "eruse ;,=C?G
9igismundus 9cheretzius$ _lib. de s"ectris$ "art ,. c. ,._ 'hich he saith
he too% out of *uther most "art< there be many instances. ;,=C@GPlinius
9ecundus remembers such a house at Athens$ 'hich Athenodorus the
"hiloso"her hired$ 'hich no man durst inhabit for fear of de#ils. Austin$
_de :i#. 3ei. lib. ==$ ca". ,._ relates as much of 5es"erius the Tribune!s
house$ at >ubeda$ near their city of 5i""os$ #e+ed 'ith e#il s"irits$ to
his great hindrance$ _:um afflictione animalium et ser#orum suorum_. Many
such instances are to be read in 8iderius 7ormicar$ _lib. @. ca". +ii. .._
Fc. 4hether I may call these >im and 2chim$ 'hich Isaiah$ ca". +iii. =,.
s"ea%s of$ I ma%e a doubt. 9ee more of these in the said 9cheretz. _lib. ,.
de s"ect. ca". ?._ he is full of e+am"les. These %ind of de#ils many times
a""ear to men$ and affright them out of their 'its$ sometimes 'al%ing at
;,=C-Gnoonday$ sometimes at nights$ counterfeiting dead men!s ghosts$ as
that of :aligula$ 'hich (saith 9uetonius) 'as seen to 'al% in *a#inia!s
garden$ 'here his body 'as buried$ s"irits haunted$ and the house 'here he
died$ ;,=CAG_8ulla no+ sine terrore transacta$ donec incendio consum"ta_<
e#ery night this ha""ened$ there 'as no 0uietness$ till the house 'as
burned. About 5ecla$ in Iceland$ ghosts commonly 'al%$ _animas mortuorum
simulantes_$ saith Doh. Anan$ _lib. .. de nat. daem._ 2laus. _lib. =. ca".
=._ 8atal Tallo"id. _lib. de a""arit. s"ir._ 6ornmannus _de mirac. mort.
"art. ,. ca". ??._ such sights are fre0uently seen _circa se"ulchra et
monasteria_$ saith *a#at. _lib. ,. ca". ,B._ in monasteries and about
churchyards$ _loca "aludinosa$ am"la aedificia$ solitaria$ et caede hominum
notata_$ Fc. (marshes$ great buildings$ solitary "laces$ or remar%able as
the scene of some murder.) Thyreus adds$ _ubi gra#ius "eccatum est
commissum$ im"ii$ "au"erum o""ressores et ne0uiter insignes habitant_
('here some #ery heinous crime 'as committed$ there the im"ious and
infamous generally d'ell). These s"irits often foretell men!s deaths by
se#eral signs$ as %noc%ing$ groanings$ Fc. ;,=C/Gthough 1ich. Argentine$
_c. ,/. de "raestigiis daemonum_$ 'ill ascribe these "redictions to good
angels$ out of the authority of 7icinus and others< _"rodigia in obitu
"rinci"um sae"ius contingunt_$ Fc. ("rodigies fre0uently occur at the
deaths of illustrious men)$ as in the *ateran church in ;,=CBG1ome$ the
"o"es! deaths are foretold by 9yl#ester!s tomb. 8ear 1u"es 8o#a in 7inland$
in the %ingdom of 9'eden$ there is a la%e$ in 'hich$ before the go#ernor of
the castle dies$ a s"ectrum$ in the habit of Arion 'ith his har"$ a""ears$
and ma%es e+cellent music$ li%e those bloc%s in :heshire$ 'hich (they say)
"resage death to the master of the family< or that ;,=,CGoa% in *anthadran
"ar% in :orn'all$ 'hich foresho's as much. Many families in Euro"e are so
"ut in mind of their last by such "redictions$ and many men are fore'arned
(if 'e may belie#e Paracelsus) by familiar s"irits in di#ers sha"es$ as
coc%s$ cro's$ o'ls$ 'hich often ho#er about sic% men!s chambers$ _#el 0uia
morientium foeditatem sentiunt_$ as ;,=,,Garacellus conjectures$ _et ideo
su"er tectum infirmorum crocitant_$ because they smell a corse< or for that
(as ;,=,=Gernardinus de ustis thin%eth) God "ermits the de#il to a""ear
in the form of cro's$ and such li%e creatures$ to scare such as li#e
'ic%edly here on earth. A little before Tully!s death (saith Plutarch) the
cro's made a mighty noise about him$ _tumultuose "erstre"entes_$ they
"ulled the "illo' from under his head. 1ob. Gaguinus$ _hist. 7ranc. lib.
/_$ telleth such another 'onderful story at the death of Dohannes de
Monteforti$ a 7rench lord$ _anno_ ,.?@$ _tanta cor#orum multitudo aedibus
morientis insedit$ 0uantam esse in Gallia nemo judicasset_ (a multitude of
cro's alighted on the house of the dying man$ such as no one imagined
e+isted in 7rance). 9uch "rodigies are #ery fre0uent in authors. 9ee more
of these in the said *a#ater$ Thyreus _de locis infestis$ "art .$ ca". @/._
Pictorius$ 3elrio$ :icogna$ _lib. .$ ca". B._ 8ecromancers ta%e u"on them
to raise and lay them at their "leasures& and so li%e'ise$ those 'hich
Mizaldus calls _ambulones_$ that 'al% about midnight on great heaths and
desert "laces$ 'hich (saith ;,=,.G*a#ater) Ldra' men out of the 'ay$ and
lead them all night a by'ay$ or 0uite bar them of their 'ay<L these ha#e
se#eral names in se#eral "laces< 'e commonly call them Puc%s. In the
deserts of *o"$ in Asia$ such illusions of 'al%ing s"irits are often
"ercei#ed$ as you may read in M. Paulus the Ienetian his tra#els< if one
lose his com"any by chance$ these de#ils 'ill call him by his name$ and
counterfeit #oices of his com"anions to seduce him. 5ieronym. Pauli$ in his
boo% of the hills of 9"ain$ relates of a great ;,=,?Gmount in :antabria$
'here such s"ectrums are to be seen< *a#ater and :icogna ha#e #ariety of
e+am"les of s"irits and 'al%ing de#ils in this %ind. 9ometimes they sit by
the high'ay side$ to gi#e men falls$ and ma%e their horses stumble and
start as they ride (if you 'ill belie#e the relation of that holy man
6etellus in ;,=,@G8ubrigensis)$ that had an es"ecial grace to see de#ils$
_Gratiam di#initus collatam_$ and tal% 'ith them$ _Et im"a#idus cum
s"iritibus sermonem miscere_$ 'ithout offence$ and if a man curse or s"ur
his horse for stumbling$ they do heartily rejoice at it< 'ith many such
"retty feats.
9ubterranean de#ils are as common as the rest$ and do as much harm. 2laus
Magnus$ _lib. -$ ca". ,B_$ ma%e si+ %inds of them< some bigger$ some less.
These (saith ;,=,-GMunster) are commonly seen about mines of metals$ and
are some of them no+ious< some again do no harm. The metal-men in many
"laces account it good luc%$ a sign of treasure and rich ore 'hen they see
them. Georgius Agricola$ in his boo% _de subterraneis animantibus$ ca".
.A_$ rec%ons t'o more notable %inds of them$ 'hich he calls ;,=,AG_getuli_
and _cobali_$ both Lare clothed after the manner of metal-men$ and 'ill
many times imitate their 'or%s.L Their office$ as Pictorius and Paracelsus
thin%$ is to %ee" treasure in the earth$ that it be not all at once
re#ealed< and besides$ ;,=,/G:icogna a#ers that they are the fre0uent
causes of those horrible earth0ua%es L'hich often s'allo' u"$ not only
houses$ but 'hole islands and cities<L in his third boo%$ _ca". ,,_$ he
gi#es many instances.
The last are con#ersant about the centre of the earth to torture the souls
of damned men to the day of judgment< their egress and regress some su""ose
to be about Etna$ *i"ari$ Mons 5ecla in Iceland$ Iesu#ius$ Terra del 7uego$
Fc.$ because many shrie%s and fearful cries are continually heard
thereabouts$ and familiar a""aritions of dead men$ ghosts and goblins.
_Their 2ffices$ 2"erations$ 9tudy_.G Thus the de#il reigns$ and in a
thousand se#eral sha"es$ Las a roaring lion still see%s 'hom he may
de#our$L , Pet. #.$ by sea$ land$ air$ as yet unconfined$ though ;,=,BG
some 'ill ha#e his "ro"er "lace the air< all that s"ace bet'een us and the
moon for them that transgressed least$ and hell for the 'ic%edest of them$
_5ic #elut in carcere ad finem mundi$ tunc in locum funestiorum trudendi_$
as Austin holds _de :i#it. 3ei$ c. ==$ lib. ,?$ ca". . et =._< but be 'here
he 'ill$ he rageth 'hile he may to comfort himself$ as ;,==CG *actantius
thin%s$ 'ith other men!s falls$ he labours all he can to bring them into
the same "it of "erdition 'ith him. 7or ;,==,GLmen!s miseries$ calamities$
and ruins are the de#il!s ban0ueting dishes.L y many tem"tations and
se#eral engines$ he see%s to ca"ti#ate our souls. The *ord of *ies$ saith
;,===GAustin$ Las he 'as decei#ed himself$ he see%s to decei#e others$L the
ringleader to all naughtiness$ as he did by E#e and :ain$ 9odom and
Gomorrah$ so 'ould he do by all the 'orld. 9ometimes he tem"ts by
co#etousness$ drun%enness$ "leasure$ "ride$ Fc.$ errs$ dejects$ sa#es$
%ills$ "rotects$ and rides some men$ as they do their horses. 5e studies
our o#erthro'$ and generally see%s our destruction< and although he "retend
many times human good$ and #indicate himself for a god by curing of se#eral
diseases$ _aegris sanitatem$ et caecis luminis usum restituendo_$ as Austin
declares$ _lib. ,C$ de ci#it 3ei$ ca". -_$ as A"ollo$ Aescula"ius$ Isis$ of
old ha#e done< di#ert "lagues$ assist them in 'ars$ "retend their
ha""iness$ yet _nihil his im"urius$ scelestius$ nihil humano generi
infestius_$ nothing so im"ure$ nothing so "ernicious$ as may 'ell a""ear by
their tyrannical and bloody sacrifices of men to 9aturn and Moloch$ 'hich
are still in use among those barbarous Indians$ their se#eral deceits and
cozenings to %ee" men in obedience$ their false oracles$ sacrifices$ their
su"erstitious im"ositions of fasts$ "enury$ Fc. 5eresies$ su"erstitious
obser#ations of meats$ times$ Fc.$ by 'hich they ;,==.G crucify the souls
of mortal men$ as shall be sho'ed in our Treatise of 1eligious Melancholy.
_Modico adhuc tem"ore sinitur malignari_$ as ;,==?G ernard e+"resseth it$
by God!s "ermission he rageth a 'hile$ hereafter to be confined to hell and
dar%ness$ L'hich is "re"ared for him and his angels$L Mat. ++#.
5o' far their "o'er doth e+tend it is hard to determine< 'hat the ancients
held of their effects$ force and o"erations$ I 'ill briefly sho' you& Plato
in :ritias$ and after him his follo'ers$ ga#e out that these s"irits or
de#ils$ L'ere men!s go#ernors and %ee"ers$ our lords and masters$ as 'e are
of our cattle.L ;,==@GLThey go#ern "ro#inces and %ingdoms by oracles$
auguries$L dreams$ re'ards and "unishments$ "ro"hecies$ ins"irations$
sacrifices$ and religious su"erstitions$ #aried in as many forms as there
be di#ersity of s"irits< they send 'ars$ "lagues$ "eace$ sic%ness$ health$
dearth$ "lenty$ ;,==-G_Adstantes hic jam nobis$ s"ectantes$ et
arbitrantes_$ Fc. as a""ears by those histories of Thucydides$ *i#ius$
3ionysius 5alicarnassus$ 'ith many others that are full of their 'onderful
stratagems$ and 'ere therefore by those 1oman and Gree% common'ealths
adored and 'orshi""ed for gods 'ith "rayers and sacrifices$ Fc. ;,==AGIn a
'ord$ _8ihil magis 0uaerunt 0uam metum et admirationem hominum_< ;,==/Gand
as another hath it$ _3ici non "otest$ 0uam im"otenti ardore in homines
dominium$ et 3i#inos cultus maligni s"iritus affectent_. ;,==BGTritemius in
his boo% _de se"tem secundis_$ assigns names to such angels as are
go#ernors of "articular "ro#inces$ by 'hat authority I %no' not$ and gi#es
them se#eral jurisdictions. Ascle"iades a Grecian$ 1abbi Achiba the De'$
Abraham A#enezra$ and 1abbi Azariel$ Arabians$ (as I find them cited by
;,=.CG:icogna) farther add$ that they are not our go#ernors only$ _9ed e+
eorum concordia et discordia$ boni et mali affectus "romanant_$ but as they
agree$ so do 'e and our "rinces$ or disagree< stand or fall. Duno 'as a
bitter enemy to Troy$ A"ollo a good friend$ Du"iter indifferent$ _Ae0ua
Ienus Teucris$ Pallas ini0ua fuit_< some are for us still$ some against us$
_Premente 3eo$ fert 3eus alter o"em_. 1eligion$ "olicy$ "ublic and "ri#ate
0uarrels$ 'ars are "rocured by them$ and they are ;,=.,Gdelighted "erha"s
to see men fight$ as men are 'ith coc%s$ bulls and dogs$ bears$ Fc.$
"lagues$ dearths de"end on them$ our _bene_ and _male esse_$ and almost all
our other "eculiar actions$ (for as Anthony 1usea contends$ _lib. @$ ca".
,/_$ e#ery man hath a good and a bad angel attending on him in "articular$
all his life long$ 'hich Damblichus calls _daemonem_$) "referments$ losses$
'eddings$ deaths$ re'ards and "unishments$ and as ;,=.=GProclus 'ill$ all
offices 'hatsoe#er$ _alii genetricem$ alii o"ificem "otestatem habent_$ Fc.
and se#eral names they gi#e them according to their offices$ as *ares$
Indegites$ Praestites$ Fc. 4hen the Arcades in that battle at :heronae$
'hich 'as fought against 6ing Phili" for the liberty of Greece$ had
deceitfully carried themsel#es$ long after$ in the #ery same "lace$ _3iis
Graeciae$ ultoribus_ (saith mine author) they 'ere miserably slain by
Metellus the 1oman& so li%e'ise$ in smaller matters$ they 'ill ha#e things
fall out$ as these _boni_ and _mali genii_ fa#our or disli%e us& _9aturni
non con#eniunt Do#ialibus_$ Fc. 5e that is 9aturninus shall ne#er li%ely be
"referred. ;,=..GThat base fello's are often ad#anced$ undeser#ing
Gnathoes$ and #icious "arasites$ 'hereas discreet$ 'ise$ #irtuous and
'orthy men are neglected and unre'arded< they refer to those domineering
s"irits$ or subordinate Genii< as they are inclined$ or fa#our men$ so they
thri#e$ are ruled and o#ercome< for as ;,=.?G*ibanius su""oseth in our
ordinary conflicts and contentions$ _Genius Genio cedit et obtem"erat_$ one
genius yields and is o#ercome by another. All "articular e#ents almost they
refer to these "ri#ate s"irits< and (as Paracelsus adds) they direct$
teach$ ins"ire$ and instruct men. 8e#er 'as any man e+traordinary famous in
any art$ action$ or great commander$ that had not _familiarem daemonem_ to
inform him$ as 8uma$ 9ocrates$ and many such$ as :ardan illustrates$ _ca".
,=/_$ _Arcanis "rudentiae ci#ilis_$ ;,=.@G _9"eciali si0uidem gratia$ se a
3eo donari asserunt magi$ a Geniis caelestibus instrui$ ab iis doceri_. ut
these are most erroneous "arado+es$ _ine"tae et fabulosae nugae_$ rejected
by our di#ines and :hristian churches. !Tis true they ha#e$ by God!s
"ermission$ "o'er o#er us$ and 'e find by e+"erience$ that they can
;,=.-Ghurt not our fields only$ cattle$ goods$ but our bodies and minds. At
5ammel in 9a+ony$ _An._ ,?/?. =C _Dunii_$ the de#il$ in li%eness of a "ied
"i"er$ carried a'ay ,.C children that 'ere ne#er after seen. Many times men
are ;,=.AGaffrighted out of their 'its$ carried a'ay 0uite$ as 9cheretzius
illustrates$ _lib. ,$ c. i#._$ and se#erally molested by his means$
Plotinus the Platonist$ _lib. ,?$ ad#ers. Gnos._ laughs them to scorn$ that
hold the de#il or s"irits can cause any such diseases. Many thin% he can
'or% u"on the body$ but not u"on the mind. ut e+"erience "ronounceth
other'ise$ that he can 'or% both u"on body and mind. Tertullian is of this
o"inion$ _c. ==._ ;,=./GLThat he can cause both sic%ness and health$L and
that secretly. ;,=.BGTaurellus adds Lby clancular "oisons he can infect the
bodies$ and hinder the o"erations of the bo'els$ though 'e "ercei#e it not$
closely cree"ing into them$L saith ;,=?CG*i"sius$ and so crucify our souls&
_Et noci#a melancholia furiosos efficit_. 7or being a s"iritual body$ he
struggles 'ith our s"irits$ saith 1ogers$ and suggests (according to
;,=?,G:ardan$ _#erba sine #oce$ s"ecies sine #isu_$ en#y$ lust$ anger$ Fc.)
as he sees men inclined.
The manner ho' he "erforms it$ iarmannus in his 2ration against odine$
sufficiently declares. ;,=?=GL5e begins first 'ith the "hantasy$ and mo#es
that so strongly$ that no reason is able to resist.L 8o' the "hantasy he
mo#es by mediation of humours< although many "hysicians are of o"inion$
that the de#il can alter the mind$ and "roduce this disease of himself.
_Kuibusdam medicorum #isum_$ saith ;,=?.GA#icenna$ _0uod Melancholia
contingat a daemonio_. 2f the same mind is Psellus and 1hasis the Arab.
_lib. ,. Tract. B. :ont_. ;,=??GLThat this disease "roceeds es"ecially from
the de#il$ and from him alone.L Arculanus$ _ca". -. in B. 1hasis_$ Aelianus
Montaltus$ in his _B. ca"_. 3aniel 9ennertus$ _lib. ,. "art. =. ca". ,,._
confirm as much$ that the de#il can cause this disease< by reason many
times that the "arties affected "ro"hesy$ s"ea% strange language$ but _non
sine inter#entu humoris_$ not 'ithout the humour$ as he inter"rets himself<
no more doth A#icenna$ _si contingat a daemonio$ sufficit nobis ut
con#ertat com"le+ionem ad choleram nigram$ et sit causa ejus "ro"in0ua
cholera nigra_< the immediate cause is choler adust$ 'hich ;,=?@G
Pom"onatius li%e'ise labours to ma%e good& Galgerandus of Mantua$ a famous
"hysician$ so cured a demoniacal 'oman in his time$ that s"a%e all
languages$ by "urging blac% choler$ and thereu"on beli%e this humour of
melancholy is called _balneum diaboli_$ the de#il!s bath< the de#il s"ying
his o""ortunity of such humours dri#es them many times to des"air$ fury$
rage$ Fc.$ mingling himself among these humours. This is that 'hich
Tertullian a#ers$ _:or"oribus infligunt acerbos casus$ animae0ue
re"entinos$ membra distor0uent$ occulte re"entes_$ Fc. and 'hich *emnius
goes about to "ro#e$ _Immiscent se mali Genii "ra#is humoribus$ at0ue
atrae$ bili_$ Fc. And ;,=?-GDason Pratensis$ Lthat the de#il$ being a
slender incom"rehensible s"irit$ can easily insinuate and 'ind himself into
human bodies$ and cunningly couched in our bo'els #itiate our healths$
terrify our souls 'ith fearful dreams$ and sha%e our minds 'ith furies.L
And in another "lace$ LThese unclean s"irits settled in our bodies$ and no'
mi+ed 'ith our melancholy humours$ do trium"h as it 'ere$ and s"ort
themsel#es as in another hea#en.L Thus he argues$ and that they go in and
out of our bodies$ as bees do in a hi#e$ and so "ro#o%e and tem"t us as
they "ercei#e our tem"erature inclined of itself$ and most a"t to be
deluded. ;,=?AG Agri""a and ;,=?/G*a#ater are "ersuaded$ that this humour
in#ites the de#il to it$ 'heresoe#er it is in e+tremity$ and of all other$
melancholy "ersons are most subject to diabolical tem"tations and
illusions$ and most a"t to entertain them$ and the 3e#il best able to 'or%
u"on them. ut 'hether by obsession$ or "ossession$ or other'ise$ I 'ill
not determine< !tis a difficult 0uestion. 3elrio the Desuit$ _Tom. .. lib.
-._ 9"ringer and his colleague$ _mall. malef_. Pet. Thyreus the Desuit$
_lib. de daemoniacis$ de locis infestis$ de Terrificationibus nocturnis_$
5ieronymus Mengus _7lagel. daem_. and others of that ran% of "ontifical
'riters$ it seems$ by their e+orcisms and conjurations a""ro#e of it$
ha#ing forged many stories to that "ur"ose. A nun did eat a lettuce
;,=?BG'ithout grace$ or signing it 'ith the sign of the cross$ and 'as
instantly "ossessed. 3urand. _lib. -. 1ationall. c. /-. numb. /._ relates
that he sa' a 'ench "ossessed in ononia 'ith t'o de#ils$ by eating an
unhallo'ed "omegranate$ as she did after'ards confess$ 'hen she 'as cured
by e+orcisms. And therefore our Pa"ists do sign themsel#es so often 'ith
the sign of the cross$ _8e daemon ingredi ausit_$ and e+orcise all manner
of meats$ as being unclean or accursed other'ise$ as ellarmine defends.
Many such stories I find amongst "ontifical 'riters$ to "ro#e their
assertions$ let them free their o'n credits< some fe' I 'ill recite in this
%ind out of most a""ro#ed "hysicians. :ornelius Gemma$ _lib. =. de nat.
mirac. c. ?._ relates of a young maid$ called 6atherine Gualter$ a coo"er!s
daughter$ _an._ ,@A,. that had such strange "assions and con#ulsions$ three
men could not sometimes hold her< she "urged a li#e eel$ 'hich he sa'$ a
foot and a half long$ and touched it himself< but the eel after'ards
#anished< she #omited some t'enty-four "ounds of fulsome stuff of all
colours$ t'ice a day for fourteen days< and after that she #oided great
balls of hair$ "ieces of 'ood$ "igeon!s dung$ "archment$ goose dung$ coals<
and after them t'o "ounds of "ure blood$ and then again coals and stones$
or 'hich some had inscri"tions bigger than a 'alnut$ some of them "ieces of
glass$ brass$ Fc. besides "aro+ysms of laughing$ 'ee"ing and ecstasies$ Fc.
_Et hoc (in0uit) cum horore #idi_$ this I sa' 'ith horror. They could do no
good on her by "hysic$ but left her to the clergy. Marcellus 3onatus$ _lib.
=. c. ,. de med. mirab._ hath such another story of a country fello'$ that
had four %ni#es in his belly$ _Instar serrae dentatos_$ indented li%e a
sa'$ e#ery one a s"an long$ and a 'reath of hair li%e a globe$ 'ith much
baggage of li%e sort$ 'onderful to behold& ho' it should come into his
guts$ he concludes$ _:erte non alio 0uam daemonis astutia et dolo_$ (could
assuredly only ha#e been through the artifice of the de#il). *angius$
_E"ist. med. lib. ,. E"ist. ./._ hath many relations to this effect$ and so
hath :hristo"horus a Iega& 4ierus$ 9%en%ius$ 9cribanius$ all agree that
they are done by the subtlety and illusion of the de#il. If you shall as% a
reason of this$ !tis to e+ercise our "atience< for as ;,=@CGTertullian
holds$ _Iirtus non est #irtus$ nisi com"arem habet ali0uem$ in 0uo
su"erando #im suam ostendat_ !tis to try us and our faith$ !tis for our
offences$ and for the "unishment of our sins$ by God!s "ermission they do
it$ _:arnifices #indictae justae 3ei_$ as ;,=@,GTolosanus styles them$
E+ecutioners of his 'ill< or rather as 3a#id$ Ps. A/. #er. ?B. L5e cast
u"on them the fierceness of his anger$ indignation$ 'rath$ and #e+ation$ by
sending out of e#il angels&L so did he afflict Dob$ 9aul$ the *unatics and
demoniacal "ersons 'hom :hrist cured$ Mat. i#. /. *u%e i#. ,,. *u%e +iii.
Mar% i+. Tobit. #iii. .. Fc. This$ I say$ ha""eneth for a "unishment of
sin$ for their 'ant of faith$ incredulity$ 'ea%ness$ distrust$ Fc.
9H9E:T. III.--_2f 4itches and Magicians$ ho' they cause Melancholy_.
Eou ha#e heard 'hat the de#il can do of himself$ no' you shall hear 'hat he
can "erform by his instruments$ 'ho are many times 'orse (if it be
"ossible) than he himself$ and to satisfy their re#enge and lust cause more
mischief$ _Multa enim mala non egisset daemon$ nisi "ro#ocatus a sagis_$ as
;,=@=GErastus thin%s< much harm had ne#er been done$ had he not been
"ro#o%ed by 'itches to it. 5e had not a""eared in 9amuel!s sha"e$ if the
4itch of Endor had let him alone< or re"resented those ser"ents in
Pharaoh!s "resence$ had not the magicians urged him unto it< _8ec morbos
#el hominibus$ #el brutis infligeret_ (Erastus maintains) _si sagae
0uiescerent_< men and cattle might go free$ if the 'itches 'ould let him
alone. Many deny 'itches at all$ or if there be any they can do no harm< of
this o"inion is 4ierus$ _lib. .. ca". @.. de "raestig. daem_. Austin
*erchemer a 3utch 'riter$ iarmanus$ E'ichius$ Eu'aldus$ our countryman
9cot< 'ith him in 5orace$
L9omnia$ terrores Magicos$ miracula$ sagas$
8octurnos *emures$ "ortenta0ue Thessala risu
L9ay$ can you laugh indignant at the schemes
2f magic terrors$ #isionary dreams$
Portentous 'onders$ 'itching im"s of 5ell$
The nightly goblin$ and enchanting s"ellNL
They laugh at all such stories< but on the contrary are most la'yers$
di#ines$ "hysicians$ "hiloso"hers$ Austin$ 5emingius$ 3anaeus$ :hytraeus$
>anchius$ Aretius$ Fc. 3elrio$ 9"ringer$ ;,=@.G8iderius$ _lib. @._
7ornicar. Guiatius$ artolus$ _consil. -. tom. ,. odine$ daemoniant. lib
=. ca". /._ Godelman$ 3amhoderius$ Fc. Paracelsus$ Erastus$ 9cribanius$
:amerarius$ Fc. The "arties by 'hom the de#il deals$ may be reduced to
these t'o$ such as command him in sho' at least$ as conjurors$ and
magicians$ 'hose detestable and horrid mysteries are contained in their
boo% called ;,=@?GArbatell< _daemonis enim ad#ocati "raesto sunt$ se0ue
e+orcismis et conjurationibus 0uasi cogi "atiuntur$ ut miserum magorum
genus$ in im"ietate detineant_. 2r such as are commanded$ as 'itches$ that
deal _e+ "arte im"licite_$ or _e+"licite_$ as the ;,=@@G%ing hath 'ell
defined< many subdi#isions there are$ and many se#eral s"ecies of
sorcerers$ 'itches$ enchanters$ charmers$ Fc. They ha#e been tolerated
heretofore some of them< and magic hath been "ublicly "rofessed in former
times$ in ;,=@-G9alamanca$ ;,=@AG6ra%o'$ and other "laces$ though after
censured by se#eral ;,=@/GHni#ersities$ and no' generally contradicted$
though "ractised by some still$ maintained and e+cused$ _Tan0uam res
secreta 0uae non nisi #iris magnis et "eculiari beneficio de :oelo
instructis communicatur_ (I use ;,=@BGoesartus his 'ords) and so far
a""ro#ed by some "rinces$ _Ht nihil ausi aggredi in "oliticis$ in sacris$
in consiliis$ sine eorum arbitrio_< they consult still 'ith them$ and dare
indeed do nothing 'ithout their ad#ice. 8ero and 5eliogabalus$ Ma+entius$
and Dulianus A"ostata$ 'ere ne#er so much addicted to magic of old$ as some
of our modern "rinces and "o"es themsel#es are no'adays. Erricus$ 6ing of
9'eden$ had an ;,=-CGenchanted ca"$ by #irtue of 'hich$ and some magical
murmur or 'his"ering terms$ he could command s"irits$ trouble the air$ and
ma%e the 'ind stand 'hich 'ay he 'ould$ insomuch that 'hen there 'as any
great 'ind or storm$ the common "eo"le 'ere 'ont to say$ the %ing no' had
on his conjuring ca". ut such e+am"les are infinite. That 'hich they can
do$ is as much almost as the de#il himself$ 'ho is still ready to satisfy
their desires$ to oblige them the more unto him. They can cause tem"ests$
storms$ 'hich is familiarly "ractised by 'itches in 8or'ay$ Iceland$ as I
ha#e "ro#ed. They can ma%e friends enemies$ and enemies friends by
"hilters< ;,=-,G_Tur"es amores conciliare_$ enforce lo#e$ tell any man
'here his friends are$ about 'hat em"loyed$ though in the most remote
"laces< and if they 'ill$ ;,=-=GLbring their s'eethearts to them by night$
u"on a goat!s bac% flying in the air.L 9igismund 9cheretzius$ _"art. ,.
ca". B. de s"ect._ re"orts confidently$ that he conferred 'ith sundry such$
that had been so carried many miles$ and that he heard 'itches themsel#es
confess as much< hurt and infect men and beasts$ #ines$ corn$ cattle$
"lants$ ma%e 'omen aborti#e$ not to concei#e$ ;,=-.Gbarren$ men and 'omen
una"t and unable$ married and unmarried$ fifty se#eral 'ays$ saith odine$
_lib. =. c. =._ fly in the air$ meet 'hen and 'here they 'ill$ as :icogna
"ro#es$ and *a#at. _de s"ec. "art. =. c. ,A._ Lsteal young children out of
their cradles$ _ministerio daemonum_$ and "ut deformed in their rooms$
'hich 'e call changelings$L saith ;,=-?G9cheretzius$ _"art. ,. c. -._ ma%e
men #ictorious$ fortunate$ elo0uent< and therefore in those ancient
monomachies and combats they 'ere searched of old$ ;,=-@Gthey had no
magical charms< they can ma%e ;,=--Gstic% frees$ such as shall endure a
ra"ier!s "oint$ mus%et shot$ and ne#er be 'ounded& of 'hich read more in
oissardus$ _ca". -. de Magia_$ the manner of the adjuration$ and by 'hom
!tis made$ 'here and ho' to be used _in e+"editionibus bellicis$ "raeliis$
duellis_$ Fc.$ 'ith many "eculiar instances and e+am"les< they can 'al% in
fiery furnaces$ ma%e men feel no "ain on the rac%$ _aut alias torturas
sentire_< they can stanch blood$ ;,=-AGre"resent dead men!s sha"es$ alter
and turn themsel#es and others into se#eral forms$ at their "leasures.
;,=-/GAgaberta$ a famous 'itch in *a"land$ 'ould do as much "ublicly to all
s"ectators$ _Modo Pusilla$ modo anus$ modo "rocera ut 0uercus$ modo #acca$
a#is$ coluber_$ Fc. 8o' young$ no' old$ high$ lo'$ li%e a co'$ li%e a bird$
a sna%e$ and 'hat notN 9he could re"resent to others 'hat forms they most
desired to see$ sho' them friends absent$ re#eal secrets$ _ma+ima omnium
admiratione_$ Fc. And yet for all this subtlety of theirs$ as *i"sius 'ell
obser#es$ _Physiolog. 9toicor. lib. ,. ca". ,A._ neither these magicians
nor de#ils themsel#es can ta%e a'ay gold or letters out of mine or :rassus!
chest$ _et :lientelis suis largiri_$ for they are base$ "oor$ contem"tible
fello's most "art< as ;,=-BGodine notes$ they can do nothing _in Dudicum
decreta aut "oenas$ in regum concilia #el arcana$ nihil in rem nummariam
aut thesauros_$ they cannot gi#e money to their clients$ alter judges!
decrees$ or councils of %ings$ these _minuti Genii_ cannot do it$ _altiores
Genii hoc sibi adser#arunt_$ the higher "o'ers reser#e these things to
themsel#es. 8o' and then "erad#enture there may be some more famous
magicians li%e 9imon Magus$ ;,=ACGA"ollonius Tyaneus$ Pasetes$ Damblichus$
;,=A,G2do de 9tellis$ that for a time can build castles in the air$
re"resent armies$ Fc.$ as they are ;,=A=Gsaid to ha#e done$ command 'ealth
and treasure$ feed thousands 'ith all #ariety of meats u"on a sudden$
"rotect themsel#es and their follo'ers from all "rinces! "ersecutions$ by
remo#ing from "lace to "lace in an instant$ re#eal secrets$ future e#ents$
tell 'hat is done in far countries$ ma%e them a""ear that died long since$
and do many such miracles$ to the 'orld!s terror$ admiration and o"inion of
deity to themsel#es$ yet the de#il forsa%es them at last$ they come to
'ic%ed ends$ and _raro aut nun0uam_ such im"ostors are to be found. The
#ulgar sort of them can 'or% no such feats. ut to my "ur"ose$ they can$
last of all$ cure and cause most diseases to such as they lo#e or hate$ and
this of ;,=A.Gmelancholy amongst the rest. Paracelsus$ _Tom. ?. de morbis
amentium$ Tract. ,._ in e+"ress 'ords affirms< _Multi fascinantur in
melancholiam_$ many are be'itched into melancholy$ out of his e+"erience.
The same saith 3anaeus$ _lib. .. de sortiariis_. _Iidi$ in0uit$ 0ui
Melancholicos morbos gra#issimos indu+erunt_& I ha#e seen those that ha#e
caused melancholy in the most grie#ous manner$ ;,=A?Gdried u" 'omen!s "a"s$
cured gout$ "alsy< this and a"o"le+y$ falling sic%ness$ 'hich no "hysic
could hel"$ _solu tactu_$ by touch alone. 1uland in his _. :ent. :ura B,._
gi#es an instance of one 3a#id 5elde$ a young man$ 'ho by eating ca%es
'hich a 'itch ga#e him$ _mo+ delirare coe"it_$ began to dote on a sudden$
and 'as instantly mad& 7. 5. 3. in ;,=A@G5ildesheim$ consulted about a
melancholy man$ thought his disease 'as "artly magical$ and "artly natural$
because he #omited "ieces of iron and lead$ and s"a%e such languages as he
had ne#er been taught< but such e+am"les are common in 9cribanius$ 5ercules
de 9a+onia$ and others. The means by 'hich they 'or% are usually charms$
images$ as that in 5ector oethius of 6ing 3uffe< characters stam"ed of
sundry metals$ and at such and such constellations$ %nots$ amulets$ 'ords$
"hilters$ Fc.$ 'hich generally ma%e the "arties affected$ melancholy< as
;,=A-GMona#ius discourseth at large in an e"istle of his to Acolsius$
gi#ing instance in a ohemian baron that 'as so troubled by a "hilter
ta%en. 8ot that there is any "o'er at all in those s"ells$ charms$
characters$ and barbarous 'ords< but that the de#il doth use such means to
delude them. _Ht fideles inde magos_ (saith ;,=AAG*ibanius) _in officio
retineat$ tum in consortium malefactorum #ocet._
9H9E:T. II.--_9tars a cause. 9igns from Physiognomy$ Meto"osco"y$
8atural causes are either "rimary and uni#ersal$ or secondary and more
"articular. Primary causes are the hea#ens$ "lanets$ stars$ Fc.$ by their
influence (as our astrologers hold) "roducing this and such li%e effects. I
'ill not here stand to discuss _obiter_$ 'hether stars be causes$ or signs<
or to a"ologise for judical astrology. If either 9e+tus Em"ericus$ Picus
Mirandula$ 9e+tus ab 5eminga$ Pererius$ Erastus$ :hambers$ Fc.$ ha#e so far
"re#ailed 'ith any man$ that he 'ill attribute no #irtue at all to the
hea#ens$ or to sun$ or moon$ more than he doth to their signs at an
inn%ee"er!s "ost$ or tradesman!s sho"$ or generally condemn all such
astrological a"horisms a""ro#ed by e+"erience& I refer him to ellantius$
Piro#anus$ Marascallerus$ Goclenius$ 9ir :hristo"her 5eidon$ Fc. If thou
shalt as% me 'hat I thin%$ I must ans'er$ _nam et doctis hisce erroribus
#ersatus sum_$ (for I am con#ersant 'ith these learned errors$) they do
incline$ but not com"el< no necessity at all& ;,=A/G_agunt non cogunt_& and
so gently incline$ that a 'ise man may resist them< _sa"iens dominabitur
astris_& they rule us$ but God rules them. All this (methin%s) ;,=ABGDoh.
de Indagine hath com"rised in brief$ _Kuaeris a me 0uantum in nobis
o"erantur astra_N Fc. L4ilt thou %no' ho' far the stars 'or% u"on usN I say
they do but incline$ and that so gently$ that if 'e 'ill be ruled by
reason$ they ha#e no "o'er o#er us< but if 'e follo' our o'n nature$ and be
led by sense$ they do as much in us as in brute beasts$ and 'e are no
better.L 9o that$ I ho"e$ I may justly conclude 'ith ;,=/CG:ajetan$ _:oelum
est #ehiculum di#inae #irtutis_$ Fc.$ that the hea#en is God!s instrument$
by mediation of 'hich he go#erns and dis"oseth these elementary bodies< or
a great boo%$ 'hose letters are the stars$ (as one calls it$) 'herein are
'ritten many strange things for such as can read$ ;,=/,GLor an e+cellent
har"$ made by an eminent 'or%man$ on 'hich$ he that can but "lay$ 'ill ma%e
most admirable music.L ut to the "ur"ose.
;,=/=GParacelsus is of o"inion$ Lthat a "hysician 'ithout the %no'ledge of
stars can neither understand the cause or cure of any disease$ either of
this or gout$ not so much as toothache< e+ce"t he see the "eculiar geniture
and scheme of the "arty effected.L And for this "ro"er malady$ he 'ill ha#e
the "rinci"al and "rimary cause of it "roceed from the hea#en$ ascribing
more to stars than humours$ ;,=/.GLand that the constellation alone many
times "roduceth melancholy$ all other causes set a"art.L 5e gi#es instance
in lunatic "ersons$ that are de"ri#ed of their 'its by the moon!s motion<
and in another "lace refers all to the ascendant$ and 'ill ha#e the true
and chief cause of it to be sought from the stars. 8either is it his
o"inion only$ but of many Galenists and "hiloso"hers$ though they do not so
"erem"torily maintain as much. LThis #ariety of melancholy sym"toms
"roceeds from the stars$L saith ;,=/?GMelancthon& the most generous
melancholy$ as that of Augustus$ comes from the conjunction of 9aturn and
Du"iter in *ibra& the bad$ as that of :atiline!s$ from the meeting of
9aturn and the moon in 9cor"io. Do#ianus Pontanus$ in his tenth boo%$ and
thirteenth cha"ter _de rebus coelestibus_$ discourseth to this "ur"ose at
large$ _E+ atra bile #arii generantur morbi_$ Fc.$ ;,=/@GLmany diseases
"roceed from blac% choler$ as it shall be hot or cold< and though it be
cold in its o'n nature$ yet it is a"t to be heated$ as 'ater may be made to
boil$ and burn as bad as fire< or made cold as ice& and thence "roceed such
#ariety of sym"toms$ some mad$ some solitary$ some laugh$ some rage$L Fc.
The cause of all 'hich intem"erance he 'ill ha#e chiefly and "rimarily
"roceed from the hea#ens$ ;,=/-GLfrom the "osition of Mars$ 9aturn$ and
Mercury.L 5is a"horisms be these$ ;,=/AGLMercury in any geniture$ if he
shall be found in Iirgo$ or Pisces his o""osite sign$ and that in the
horosco"e$ irradiated by those 0uartile as"ects of 9aturn or Mars$ the
child shall be mad or melancholy.L Again$ ;,=//GL5e that shall ha#e 9aturn
and Mars$ the one culminating$ the other in the fourth house$ 'hen he shall
be born$ shall be melancholy$ of 'hich he shall be cured in time$ if
Mercury behold them. ;,=/BGIf the moon be in conjunction or o""osition at
the birth time 'ith the sun$ 9aturn or Mars$ or in a 0uartile as"ect 'ith
them$L (_e malo coeli loco_$ *eo#itius adds$) Lmany diseases are signified$
es"ecially the head and brain is li%e to be misaffected 'ith "ernicious
humours$ to be melancholy$ lunatic$ or mad$L :ardan adds$ _0uarta luna
natos_$ ecli"ses$ earth0ua%es. Garcaeus and *eo#itius 'ill ha#e the chief
judgment to be ta%en from the lord of the geniture$ or 'here there is an
as"ect bet'een the moon and Mercury$ and neither behold the horosco"e$ or
9aturn and Mars shall be lord of the "resent conjunction or o""osition in
9agittarius or Pisces$ of the sun or moon$ such "ersons are commonly
e"ile"tic$ dote$ demoniacal$ melancholy& but see more of these a"horisms in
the abo#e-named Pontanus. Garcaeus$ _ca". =.. de Dud. genitur. 9choner.
lib. ,. ca". /_$ 'hich he hath gathered out of ;,=BCGPtolemy$ Albubater$
and some other Arabians$ Dunctine$ 1anzo#ius$ *indhout$ 2rigen$ Fc. ut
these men you 'ill reject "erad#enture$ as astrologers$ and therefore
"artial judges< then hear the testimony of "hysicians$ Galenists
themsel#es. ;,=B,G:arto confesseth the influence of stars to ha#e a great
hand to this "eculiar disease$ so doth Dason Pratensis$ *onicerius
_"raefat. de A"o"le+ia_$ 7icinus$ 7ernelius$ Fc. ;,=B=GP. :nemander
ac%no'ledgeth the stars an uni#ersal cause$ the "articular from "arents$
and the use of the si+ non-natural things. a"tista Port. _mag. l. ,. c.
,C$ ,=$ ,@_$ 'ill ha#e them causes to e#ery "articular _indi#idium_.
Instances and e+am"les$ to e#ince the truth of those a"horisms$ are common
amongst those astrologian treatises. :ardan$ in his thirty-se#enth
geniture$ gi#es instance in Matth. olognius. _:amerar. hor. natalit.
centur. A. genit. -. et A._ of 3aniel Gare$ and others< but see Garcaeus$
_ca". ..._ *uc. Gauricus$ _Tract. -. de Azemenis_$ Fc. The time of this
melancholy is$ 'hen the significators of any geniture are directed
according to art$ as the hor& moon$ hylech$ Fc. to the hostile beams or
terms of ;9ymbol& 9aturnG and ;9ymbol& MarsG es"ecially$ or any fi+ed star
of their nature$ or if ;9ymbol& 9aturnG by his re#olution or transitus$
shall offend any of those radical "romissors in the geniture.
2ther signs there are ta%en from "hysiognomy$ meto"osco"y$ chiromancy$
'hich because Doh. de Indagine$ and 1otman$ the landgra#e of 5esse his
mathematician$ not long since in his :hiromancy< a"tista Porta$ in his
celestial Physiognomy$ ha#e "ro#ed to hold great affinity 'ith astrology$
to satisfy the curious$ I am the more 'illing to insert.
The general notions ;,=B.G"hysiognomers gi#e$ be these< Lblac% colour
argues natural melancholy< so doth leanness$ hirsuteness$ broad #eins$ much
hair on the bro's$L saith ;,=B?GGratanarolus$ _ca". A_$ and a little head$
out of Aristotle$ high sanguine$ red colour$ sho's head melancholy< they
that stutter and are bald$ 'ill be soonest melancholy$ (as A#icenna
su""oseth$) by reason of the dryness of their brains< but he that 'ill %no'
more of the se#eral signs of humour and 'its out of "hysiognomy$ let him
consult 'ith old Adamantus and Polemus$ that comment$ or rather "ara"hrase
u"on Aristotle!s Physiognomy$ a"tista Porta!s four "leasant boo%s$ Michael
9cot _de secretis naturae_$ Dohn de Indagine$ Montaltus$ Antony >ara.
_anat. ingeniorum$ sect. ,. memb. ,.. et lib. ?._
:hiromancy hath these a"horisms to foretell melancholy$ Tasneir. _lib. @.
ca". =_$ 'ho hath com"rehended the sum of Dohn de Indagine& Tricassus$
:or#inus$ and others in his boo%$ thus hath it< ;,=B@GLThe 9aturnine line
going from the rascetta through the hand$ to 9aturn!s mount$ and there
intersected by certain little lines$ argues melancholy< so if the #ital and
natural ma%e an acute angle$ A"horism ,CC. The saturnine$ he"atic$ and
natural lines$ ma%ing a gross triangle in the hand$ argue as much<L 'hich
Goclenius$ _ca". @. :hiros._ re"eats #erbatim out of him. In general they
conclude all$ that if 9aturn!s mount be full of many small lines and
intersections$ ;,=B-GLsuch men are most "art melancholy$ miserable and full
of dis0uietness$ care and trouble$ continually #e+ed 'ith an+ious and
bitter thoughts$ al'ays sorro'ful$ fearful$ sus"icious< they delight in
husbandry$ buildings$ "ools$ marshes$ s"rings$ 'oods$ 'al%s$L Fc. Thaddaeus
5aggesius$ in his _Meto"osco"ia_$ hath certain a"horisms deri#ed from
9aturn!s lines in the forehead$ by 'hich he collects a melancholy
dis"osition< and ;,=BAGa"tista Porta ma%es obser#ations from those other
"arts of the body$ as if a s"ot be o#er the s"leen< ;,=B/GLor in the nails<
if it a""ear blac%$ it signifieth much care$ grief$ contention$ and
melancholy<L the reason he refers to the humours$ and gi#es instance in
himself$ that for se#en years s"ace he had such blac% s"ots in his nails$
and all that 'hile 'as in "er"etual la'suits$ contro#ersies for his
inheritance$ fear$ loss of honour$ banishment$ grief$ care$ Fc. and 'hen
his miseries ended$ the blac% s"ots #anished. :ardan$ in his boo% _de
libris "ro"riis_$ tells such a story of his o'n "erson$ that a little
before his son!s death$ he had a blac% s"ot$ 'hich a""eared in one of his
nails< and dilated itself as he came nearer to his end. ut I am o#er
tedious in these toys$ 'hich ho'soe#er$ in some men!s too se#ere censures$
they may be held absurd and ridiculous$ I am the bolder to insert$ as not
borro'ed from circumforanean rogues and gi"sies$ but out of the 'ritings of
'orthy "hiloso"hers and "hysicians$ yet li#ing some of them$ and religious
"rofessors in famous uni#ersities$ 'ho are able to "atronise that 'hich
they ha#e said$ and #indicate themsel#es from all ca#illers and ignorant
9H9E:T. I.--_2ld age a cause_.
9econdary "eculiar causes efficient$ so called in res"ect of the other
"recedent$ are either _congenitae$ internae$ innatae_$ as they term them$
in'ard$ innate$ inbred< or else out'ard and ad#entitious$ 'hich ha""en to
us after 'e are born& congenite or born 'ith us$ are either natural$ as old
age$ or _"raeter naturam_ (as ;,=BBG7ernelius calls it) that
distem"erature$ 'hich 'e ha#e from our "arent!s seed$ it being an
hereditary disease. The first of these$ 'hich is natural to all$ and 'hich
no man li#ing can a#oid$ is ;,.CCGold age$ 'hich being cold and dry$ and of
the same 0uality as melancholy is$ must needs cause it$ by diminution of
s"irits and substance$ and increasing of adust humours< therefore ;,.C,G
Melancthon a#ers out of Aristotle$ as an undoubted truth$ _9enes "lerun0ue
delirasse in senecta_$ that old men familiarly dote$ _ob atram bilem_$ for
blac% choler$ 'hich is then su"erabundant in them& and 1hasis$ that Arabian
"hysician$ in his _:ont. lib. ,. ca". B_$ calls it ;,.C=GLa necessary and
inse"arable accident$L to all old and decre"it "ersons. After se#enty years
(as the Psalmist saith) ;,.C.GLall is trouble and sorro'<L and common
e+"erience confirms the truth of it in 'ea% and old "ersons$ es"ecially
such as ha#e li#ed in action all their li#es$ had great em"loyment$ much
business$ much command$ and many ser#ants to o#ersee$ and lea#e off _e+
abru"to_< as ;,.C?G:harles the 7ifth did to 6ing Phili"$ resign u" all on a
sudden< they are o#ercome 'ith melancholy in an instant& or if they do
continue in such courses$ they dote at last$ (_sene+ bis "uer_$) and are
not able to manage their estates through common infirmities incident in
their age< full of ache$ sorro' and grief$ children again$ dizzards$ they
carl many times as they sit$ and tal% to themsel#es$ they are angry$
'as"ish$ dis"leased 'ith e#ery thing$ Lsus"icious of all$ 'ay'ard$
co#etous$ hardL (saith Tully$) Lself-'illed$ su"erstitious$ self-conceited$
braggers and admirers of themsel#es$L as ;,.C@Galthazar :astilio hath
truly noted of them. ;,.C-GThis natural infirmity is most eminent in old
'omen$ and such as are "oor$ solitary$ li#e in most base esteem and
beggary$ or such as are 'itches< insomuch that 4ierus$ a"tista Porta$
Hlricus Molitor$ Ed'icus$ do refer all that 'itches are said to do$ to
imagination alone$ and this humour of melancholy. And 'hereas it is
contro#erted$ 'hether they can be'itch cattle to death$ ride in the air
u"on a co'l-staff out of a chimney-to"$ transform themsel#es into cats$
dogs$ Fc.$ translate bodies from "lace to "lace$ meet in com"anies$ and
dance$ as they do$ or ha#e carnal co"ulation 'ith the de#il$ they ascribe
all to this redundant melancholy$ 'hich domineers in them$ to ;,.CAG
somniferous "otions$ and natural causes$ the de#il!s "olicy. _8on laedunt
omnino_ (saith 4ierus) _aut 0uid mirum faciunt_$ (_de *amiis$ lib. .. ca".
.-_)$ _ut "utatur$ solam #itiatam habent "hantasiam_< they do no such
'onders at all$ only their ;,.C/Gbrains are crazed. ;,.CBGLThey thin% they
are 'itches$ and can do hurt$ but do not.L ut this o"inion odine$
Erastus$ 3anaeus$ 9cribanius$ 9ebastian Michaelis$ :am"anella _de 9ensu
rerum$ lib. ?. ca". B._ ;,.,CG3andinus the Desuit$ _lib. =. de Animae
e+"lode_< ;,.,,G:icogna confutes at large. That 'itches are melancholy$
they deny not$ but not out of corru"t "hantasy alone$ so to delude
themsel#es and others$ or to "roduce such effects.
9H9E:T. II.--_Parents a cause by Pro"agation_.
That other in'ard inbred cause of Melancholy is our tem"erature$ in 'hole
or "art$ 'hich 'e recei#e from our "arents$ 'hich ;,.,=G7ernelius calls
_Praeter naturam_$ or unnatural$ it being an hereditary disease< for as he
justifies ;,.,.G_Kuale "arentum ma+ime "atris semen obtigerit$ tales
e#adunt similares s"ermaticae0ue "aries$ 0uocun0ue etiam morbo Pater 0uum
generat tenetur$ cum semine transfert$ in Prolem_< such as the tem"erature
of the father is$ such is the son!s$ and loo% 'hat disease the father had
'hen he begot him$ his son 'ill ha#e after him< ;,.,?GLand is as 'ell
inheritor of his infirmities$ as of his lands. And 'here the com"le+ion and
constitution of the father is corru"t$ there (;,.,@Gsaith 1oger acon) the
com"le+ion and constitution of the son must needs be corru"t$ and so the
corru"tion is deri#ed from the father to the son.L 8o' this doth not so
much a""ear in the com"osition of the body$ according to that of
5i""ocrates$ ;,.,-GLin habit$ "ro"ortion$ scars$ and other lineaments< but
in manners and conditions of the mind$L _Et "atrum in natos abeunt cum
semine mores._
9eleucus had an anchor on his thigh$ so had his "osterity$ as Trogus
records$ _lib. ,@._ *e"idus$ in Pliny _l. A. c. ,A_$ 'as "urblind$ so 'as
his son. That famous family of Aenobarbi 'ere %no'n of old$ and so surnamed
from their red beards< the Austrian li"$ and those Indian flat noses are
"ro"agated$ the a#arian chin$ and goggle eyes amongst the De's$ as ;,.,AG
u+torfius obser#es< their #oice$ "ace$ gesture$ loo%s$ are li%e'ise
deri#ed 'ith all the rest of their conditions and infirmities< such a
mother$ such a daughter< their #ery ;,.,/Gaffections *emnius contends Lto
follo' their seed$ and the malice and bad conditions of children are many
times 'holly to be im"uted to their "arents<L I need not therefore ma%e any
doubt of Melancholy$ but that it is an hereditary disease. ;,.,BG
Paracelsus in e+"ress 'ords affirms it$ _lib. de morb. amentium to. ?. tr.
,_< so doth ;,.=CG:rato in an E"istle of his to Mona#ius. 9o doth runo
9eidelius in his boo% _de morbo incurab._ Montaltus "ro#es$ _ca". ,,_$ out
of 5i""ocrates and Plutarch$ that such hereditary dis"ositions are
fre0uent$ _et hanc (in0uit) fieri reor ob "artici"atam melancholicam
intem"erantiam_ (s"ea%ing of a "atient) I thin% he became so by
"artici"ation of Melancholy. 3aniel 9ennertus$ _lib. ,. "art =. ca". B_$
'ill ha#e his melancholy constitution deri#ed not only from the father to
the son$ but to the 'hole family sometimes< _Kuando0ue totis familiis
hereditati#am_$ ;,.=,G7orestus$ in his medicinal obser#ations$ illustrates
this "oint$ 'ith an e+am"le of a merchant$ his "atient$ that had this
infirmity by inheritance< so doth 1odericus a 7onseca$ _tom. ,. consul.
-B_$ by an instance of a young man that 'as so affected _e+ matre
melancholica_$ had a melancholy mother$ _et #ictu melancholico_$ and bad
diet together. *udo#icus Mercatus$ a 9"anish "hysician$ in that e+cellent
Tract 'hich he hath lately 'ritten of hereditary diseases$ _tom. =. o"er.
lib. @_$ rec%ons u" le"rosy$ as those ;,.==GGalbots in Gascony$ hereditary
le"ers$ "o+$ stone$ gout$ e"ile"sy$ Fc. Amongst the rest$ this and madness
after a set time comes to many$ 'hich he calls a miraculous thing in
nature$ and stic%s for e#er to them as an incurable habit. And that 'hich
is more to be 'ondered at$ it s%i"s in some families the father$ and goes
to the son$ ;,.=.GLor ta%es e#ery other$ and sometimes e#ery third in a
lineal descent$ and doth not al'ays "roduce the same$ but some li%e$ and a
symbolizing disease.L These secondary causes hence deri#ed$ are commonly so
"o'erful$ that (as ;,.=?G4olfius holds) _sae"e mutant decreta siderum_$
they do often alter the "rimary causes$ and decrees of the hea#ens. 7or
these reasons$ beli%e$ the :hurch and common'ealth$ human and 3i#ine la's$
ha#e cons"ired to a#oid hereditary diseases$ forbidding such marriages as
are any 'hit allied< and as Mercatus ad#iseth all families to ta%e such$
_si fieri "ossit 0uae ma+ime distant natura_$ and to ma%e choice of those
that are most differing in com"le+ion from them< if they lo#e their o'n$
and res"ect the common good. And sure$ I thin%$ it hath been ordered by
God!s es"ecial "ro#idence$ that in all ages there should be (as usually
there is) once in ;,.=@G-CC years$ a transmigration of nations$ to amend
and "urify their blood$ as 'e alter seed u"on our land$ and that there
should be as it 'ere an inundation of those northern Goths and Iandals$ and
many such li%e "eo"le 'hich came out of that continent of 9candia and
9armatia (as some su""ose) and o#erran$ as a deluge$ most "art of Euro"e
and Africa$ to alter for our good$ our com"le+ions$ 'hich 'ere much defaced
'ith hereditary infirmities$ 'hich by our lust and intem"erance 'e had
contracted. A sound generation of strong and able men 'ere sent amongst us$
as those northern men usually are$ innocuous$ free from riot$ and free from
diseases< to 0ualify and ma%e us as those "oor na%ed Indians are generally
at this day< and those about razil (as a late ;,.=-G'riter obser#es)$ in
the Isle of Maragnan$ free from all hereditary diseases$ or other
contagion$ 'hereas 'ithout hel" of "hysic they li#e commonly ,=C years or
more$ as in the 2rcades and many other "laces. 9uch are the common effects
of tem"erance and intem"erance$ but I 'ill descend to "articular$ and sho'
by 'hat means$ and by 'hom es"ecially$ this infirmity is deri#ed unto us.
_7ilii e+ senibus nati$ raro sunt firmi tem"eramenti_$ old men!s children
are seldom of a good tem"erament$ as 9coltzius su""oseth$ _consult. ,AA_$
and therefore most a"t to this disease< and as ;,.=AG*e#inus *emnius
farther adds$ old men beget most "art 'ay'ard$ "ee#ish$ sad$ melancholy
sons$ and seldom merry. 5e that begets a child on a full stomach$ 'ill
either ha#e a sic% child$ or a crazed son (as ;,.=/G:ardan thin%s)$
_contradict. med. lib. ,. contradict. ,/_$ or if the "arents be sic%$ or
ha#e any great "ain of the head$ or megrim$ headache$ (5ieronymus 4olfius
;,.=BGdoth instance in a child of 9ebastian :astalio!s)< if a drun%en man
get a child$ it 'ill ne#er li%ely ha#e a good brain$ as Gellius argues$
_lib. ,=. ca". ,._ _Ebrii gignunt Ebrios_$ one drun%ard begets another$
saith ;,..CGPlutarch$ _sym". lib. ,. 0uest. @_$ 'hose sentence
;,..,G*emnius a""ro#es$ _l. ,. c. ?._ Alsarius :rutius$ _Gen. de 0ui sit
med. cent. .. fol. ,/=._ Macrobius$ _lib. ,._ A#icenna$ _lib. .. 7en. =,.
Tract ,. ca". /_$ and Aristotle himself$ _sect. =. "rob. ?_$ foolish$
drun%en$ or hair-brain 'omen$ most "art bring forth children li%e unto
themsel#es$ _morosos et languidos_$ and so li%e'ise he that lies 'ith a
menstruous 'oman. _Intem"erantia #eneris$ 0uam in nautis "raesertim
insectatur ;,..=G *emnius$ 0ui u+ores ineunt$ nulla menstrui decursus
ratione habita nec obser#ato interlunio$ "raeci"ua causa est$ no+ia$
"ernitiosa$ concubitum hunc e+itialem ideo$ et "estiferum #ocat.
;,...G1odoricus a :astro *ucitanus$ detestantur ad unum omnes medici$ tum
et 0uarta luna conce"ti$ infelices "lerum0ue et amentes$ deliri$ stolidi$
morbosi$ im"uri$ in#alidi$ tetra lue sordidi minime #itales$ omnibus bonis
cor"oris at0ue animi destituti& ad laborem nati$ si seniores$ in0uit
Eustathius$ ut 5ercules$ et alii. ;,..?GDudaei ma+ime insectantur foedum
hunc$ et immundum a"ud :hristianas :oncubitum$ ut illicitum abhorrent$ et
a"ud suos "rohibent< et 0uod :hristiani toties le"rosi$ amentes$ tot
morbili$ im"etigines$ al"hi$ "sorae$ cutis et faciei decolorationes$ tam
multi morbi e"idemici$ acerbi$ et #enenosi sint$ in hunc immundum
concubitum rejiciunt$ et crudeles in "ignora #ocant$ 0ui 0uarta$ luna
"rofluente hac mensium illu#ie concubitum hunc non "erhorrescunt. 3amna#it
olim di#ina *e+ et morte mulcta#it hujusmodi homines$ *e#. ,/$ =C$ et inde
nati$ si0ui deformes aut mutili$ "ater dila"idatus$ 0uod non contineret ab
;,..@G immunda muliere. Gregorius Magnus$ "etenti Augustino nun0uid a"ud
;,..-Gritannos hujusmodi concubitum toleraret$ se#ere "rohibuit #iris suis
tum misceri foeminas in consuetis suis menstruis_$ Fc. I s"are to English
this 'hich I ha#e said. Another cause some gi#e$ inordinate diet$ as if a
man eat garlic$ onions$ fast o#ermuch$ study too hard$ be o#er-sorro'ful$
dull$ hea#y$ dejected in mind$ "er"le+ed in his thoughts$ fearful$ Fc.$
Ltheir childrenL (saith ;,..AG:ardan _subtil. lib. ,/_) L'ill be much
subject to madness and melancholy< for if the s"irits of the brain be
fuzzled$ or misaffected by such means$ at such a time$ their children 'ill
be fuzzled in the brain& they 'ill be dull$ hea#y$ timorous$ discontented
all their li#es.L 9ome are of o"inion$ and maintain that "arado+ or
"roblem$ that 'ise men beget commonly fools< 9uidas gi#es instance in
Aristarchus the Grammarian$ _duos reli0uit 7ilios Aristarchum et
Aristachorum$ ambos stultos_< and 'hich ;,../GErasmus urgeth in his
_Moria_$ fools beget 'ise men. :ard. _subt. l. ,=_$ gi#es this cause$
_Kuoniam s"iritus sa"ientum ob studium resol#untur$ et in cerebrum feruntur
a corde_& because their natural s"irits are resol#ed by study$ and turned
into animal< dra'n from the heart$ and those other "arts to the brain.
*emnius subscribes to that of :ardan$ and assigns this reason$ _Kuod
"ersol#ant debitum languide$ et obscitanter$ unde foetus a "arentum
generositate desciscit_& they "ay their debt (as Paul calls it) to their
'i#es remissly$ by 'hich means their children are 'ea%lings$ and many times
idiots and fools.
9ome other causes are gi#en$ 'hich "ro"erly "ertain$ and do "roceed from
the mother& if she be o#er-dull$ hea#y$ angry$ "ee#ish$ discontented$ and
melancholy$ not only at the time of conce"tion$ but e#en all the 'hile she
carries the child in her 'omb (saith 7ernelius$ _"ath. l. ,$ ,,_) her son
'ill be so li%e'ise affected$ and 'orse$ as ;,..BG*emnius adds$ _l. ?. c.
A_$ if she grie#e o#ermuch$ be dis0uieted$ or by any casualty be affrighted
and terrified by some fearful object$ heard or seen$ she endangers her
child$ and s"oils the tem"erature of it< for the strange imagination of a
'oman 'or%s effectually u"on her infant$ that as a"tista Porta "ro#es$
_Physiog. caelestis l. @. c. =_$ she lea#es a mar% u"on it$ 'hich is most
es"ecially seen in such as "rodigiously long for such and such meats$ the
child 'ill lo#e those meats$ saith 7ernelius$ and be addicted to li%e
humours& ;,.?CGLif a great-bellied 'oman see a hare$ her child 'ill often
ha#e a hareli"$L as 'e call it. Garcaeus$ _de Dudiciis geniturarum$ ca".
.._$ hath a memorable e+am"le of one Thomas 8ic%ell$ born in the city of
randeburg$ ,@@,$ ;,.?,GLthat 'ent reeling and staggering all the days of
his life$ as if he 'ould fall to the ground$ because his mother being great
'ith child sa' a drun%en man reeling in the street.L 9uch another I find in
Martin 4enrichius$ _com. de ortu monstrorum$ c. ,A_$ I sa' (saith he) at
4ittenberg$ in Germany$ a citizen that loo%ed li%e a carcass< I as%ed him
the cause$ he re"lied$ ;,.?=GL5is mother$ 'hen she bore him in her 'omb$
sa' a carcass by chance$ and 'as so sore affrighted 'ith it$ that _e+ eo
foetus ei assimilatus_$ from a ghastly im"ression the child 'as li%e it.L
9o many se#eral 'ays are 'e "lagued and "unished for our father!s defaults<
insomuch that as 7ernelius truly saith$ ;,.?.GLIt is the greatest "art of
our felicity to be 'ell born$ and it 'ere ha""y for human %ind$ if only
such "arents as are sound of body and mind should be suffered to marry.L An
husbandman 'ill so' none but the best and choicest seed u"on his land$ he
'ill not rear a bull or a horse$ e+ce"t he be right sha"en in all "arts$ or
"ermit him to co#er a mare$ e+ce"t he be 'ell assured of his breed< 'e ma%e
choice of the best rams for our shee"$ rear the neatest %ine$ and %ee" the
best dogs$ _Kuanto id diligentius in "rocreandis liberis obser#andum_N And
ho' careful then should 'e be in begetting of our childrenN In former times
some ;,.??Gcountries ha#e been so chary in this behalf$ so stern$ that if a
child 'ere croo%ed or deformed in body or mind$ they made him a'ay< so did
the Indians of old by the relation of :urtius$ and many other 'ell-go#erned
common'ealths$ according to the disci"line of those times. 5eretofore in
9cotland$ saith ;,.?@G5ect. oethius$ Lif any 'ere #isited 'ith the falling
sic%ness$ madness$ gout$ le"rosy$ or any such dangerous disease$ 'hich 'as
li%ely to be "ro"agated from the father to the son$ he 'as instantly
gelded< a 'oman %e"t from all com"any of men< and if by chance ha#ing some
such disease$ she 'ere found to be 'ith child$ she 'ith her brood 'ere
buried ali#e&L and this 'as done for the common good$ lest the 'hole nation
should be injured or corru"ted. A se#ere doom you 'ill say$ and not to be
used amongst :hristians$ yet more to be loo%ed into than it is. 7or no' by
our too much facility in this %ind$ in gi#ing 'ay for all to marry that
'ill$ too much liberty and indulgence in tolerating all sorts$ there is a
#ast confusion of hereditary diseases$ no family secure$ no man almost free
from some grie#ous infirmity or other$ 'hen no choice is had$ but still the
eldest must marry$ as so many stallions of the race< or if rich$ be they
fools or dizzards$ lame or maimed$ unable$ intem"erate$ dissolute$ e+haust
through riot$ as he said$ ;,.?-G_jura haereditario sa"ere jubentur_< they
must be 'ise and able by inheritance& it comes to "ass that our generation
is corru"t$ 'e ha#e many 'ea% "ersons$ both in body and mind$ many feral
diseases raging amongst us$ crazed families$ _"arentes$ "erem"tores_< our
fathers bad$ and 'e are li%e to be 'orse.
9H9E:T. I.--_ad 3iet a cause. 9ubstance. Kuality of Meats_.
According to my "ro"osed method$ ha#ing o"ened hitherto these secondary
causes$ 'hich are inbred 'ith us$ I must no' "roceed to the out'ard and
ad#entitious$ 'hich ha""en unto us after 'e are born. And those are either
e#ident$ remote$ or in'ard$ antecedent$ and the nearest& continent causes
some call them. These out'ard$ remote$ "recedent causes are subdi#ided
again into necessary and not necessary. 8ecessary (because 'e cannot a#oid
them$ but they 'ill alter us$ as they are used$ or abused) are those si+
non-natural things$ so much s"o%en of amongst "hysicians$ 'hich are
"rinci"al causes of this disease. 7or almost in e#ery consultation$ 'hereas
they shall come to s"ea% of the causes$ the fault is found$ and this most
"art objected to the "atient< _Pecca#it circa res se+ non naturales_& he
hath still offended in one of those si+. Montanus$ _consil. ==_$ consulted
about a melancholy De'$ gi#es that sentence$ so did 7risemelica in the same
"lace< and in his =?? counsel$ censuring a melancholy soldier$ assigns that
reason of his malady$ ;,.?AGLhe offended in all those si+ non-natural
things$ 'hich 'ere the out'ard causes$ from 'hich came those in'ard
obstructions<L and so in the rest.
These si+ non-natural things are diet$ retention and e#acuation$ 'hich are
more material than the other because they ma%e ne' matter$ or else are
con#ersant in %ee"ing or e+"elling of it. The other four are air$ e+ercise$
slee"ing$ 'a%ing$ and "erturbations of the mind$ 'hich only alter the
matter. The first of these is diet$ 'hich consists in meat and drin%$ and
causeth melancholy$ as it offends in substance$ or accidents$ that is$
0uantity$ 0uality$ or the li%e. And 'ell it may be called a material cause$
since that$ as ;,.?/G7ernelius holds$ Lit hath such a "o'er in begetting of
diseases$ and yields the matter and sustenance of them< for neither air$
nor "erturbations$ nor any of those other e#ident causes ta%e "lace$ or
'or% this effect$ e+ce"t the constitution of body$ and "re"aration of
humours$ do concur. That a man may say$ this diet is the mother of
diseases$ let the father be 'hat he 'ill$ and from this alone$ melancholy
and fre0uent other maladies arise.L Many "hysicians$ I confess$ ha#e
'ritten co"ious #olumes of this one subject$ of the nature and 0ualities of
all manner of meats< as namely$ Galen$ Isaac the De'$ 5alyabbas$ A#icenna$
Mesue$ also four Arabians$ Gordonius$ Iillano#anus$ 4ec%er$ Dohannes
ruerinus$ _sitologia de Esculentis et Poculentis_$ Michael 9a#anarola$
_Tract =. c. /_$ Anthony 7umanellus$ _lib. de regimine senum_$ :urio in his
comment on 9chola 9alerna$ Godefridus 9tec%ius _arte med._$ Marcilius
:ognatus$ 7icinus$ 1anzo#ius$ 7onseca$ *essius$ Magninus$ _regim.
sanitatis_$ 7rietagius$ 5ugo 7ride#allius$ Fc.$ besides many other in
;,.?BGEnglish$ and almost e#ery "eculiar "hysician$ discourseth at large of
all "eculiar meats in his cha"ter of melancholy& yet because these boo%s
are not at hand to e#ery man$ I 'ill briefly touch 'hat %ind of meats
engender this humour$ through their se#eral s"ecies$ and 'hich are to be
a#oided. 5o' they alter and change the matter$ s"irits first$ and after
humours$ by 'hich 'e are "reser#ed$ and the constitution of our body$
7ernelius and others 'ill sho' you. I hasten to the thing itself& and first
of such diet as offends in substance.
_eef._G eef$ a strong and hearty meat (cold in the first degree$ dry in
the second$ saith _Gal. l. .. c. ,. de alim. fac._) is condemned by him and
all succeeding Authors$ to breed gross melancholy blood& good for such as
are sound$ and of a strong constitution$ for labouring men if ordered
aright$ corned$ young$ of an o+ (for all gelded meats in e#ery s"ecies are
held best)$ or if old$ ;,.@CGsuch as ha#e been tired out 'ith labour$ are
"referred. Aubanus and 9abellicus commend Portugal beef to be the most
sa#oury$ best and easiest of digestion< 'e commend ours& but all is
rejected$ and unfit for such as lead a resty life$ any 'ays inclined to
melancholy$ or dry of com"le+ion& _Tales_ (Galen thin%s) _de facile
melancholicis aegritudinibus ca"iuntur_.
_Por%._G Por%$ of all meats$ is most nutriti#e in his o'n nature$ ;,.@,G
but altogether unfit for such as li#e at ease$ are any 'ays unsound of body
or mind& too moist$ full of humours$ and therefore _no+ia delicatis_$ saith
9a#anarola$ _e+ earum usu ut dubitetur an febris 0uartana generetur_&
naught for 0ueasy stomachs$ insomuch that fre0uent use of it may breed a
0uartan ague.
_Goat._G 9a#anarola discommends goat!s flesh$ and so doth ;,.@=Gruerinus$
_l. ,.. c. ,B_$ calling it a filthy beast$ and rammish& and therefore
su""oseth it 'ill breed ran% and filthy substance< yet %id$ such as are
young and tender$ Isaac acce"ts$ ruerinus and Galen$ _l. ,. c. ,. de
alimentorum facultatibus_.
_5art._G 5art and red deer ;,.@.Ghath an e#il name& it yields gross
nutriment& a strong and great grained meat$ ne+t unto a horse. 4hich
although some countries eat$ as Tartars$ and they of :hina< yet ;,.@?G
Galen condemns. Eoung foals are as commonly eaten in 9"ain as red deer$ and
to furnish their na#ies$ about Malaga es"ecially$ often used< but such
meats as% long ba%ing$ or seething$ to 0ualify them$ and yet all 'ill not
Ienison$ 7allo' 3eer.G All #enison is melancholy$ and begets bad blood< a
"leasant meat& in great esteem 'ith us (for 'e ha#e more "ar%s in England
than there are in all Euro"e besides) in our solemn feasts. !Tis some'hat
better hunted than other'ise$ and 'ell "re"ared by coo%ery< but generally
bad$ and seldom to be used.
_5are._G 5are$ a blac% meat$ melancholy$ and hard of digestion$ it breeds
incubus$ often eaten$ and causeth fearful dreams$ so doth all #enison$ and
is condemned by a jury of "hysicians. Mizaldus and some others say$ that
hare is a merry meat$ and that it 'ill ma%e one fair$ as Martial!s e"igram
testifies to Gellia< but this is _"er accidens_$ because of the good s"ort
it ma%es$ merry com"any and good discourse that is commonly at the eating
of it$ and not other'ise to be understood.
_:onies._G ;,.@@G:onies are of the nature of hares. Magninus com"ares them
to beef$ "ig$ and goat$ _1eg. sanit. "art. .. c. ,A_< yet young rabbits by
all men are a""ro#ed to be good.
Generally$ all such meats as are hard of digestion breed melancholy.
Areteus$ _lib. A. ca". @_$ rec%ons u" heads and feet$ ;,.@-Gbo'els$ brains$
entrails$ marro'$ fat$ blood$ s%ins$ and those in'ard "arts$ as heart$
lungs$ li#er$ s"leen$ Fc. They are rejected by Isaac$ _lib. =. "art. ._$
Magninus$ _"art. .. ca". ,A_$ ruerinus$ _lib. ,=_$ 9a#anarola$ _1ub. .=.
Tract. =._
_Mil%._G Mil%$ and all that comes of mil%$ as butter and cheese$ curds$
Fc.$ increase melancholy ('hey only e+ce"ted$ 'hich is most 'holesome)&
;,.@AGsome e+ce"t asses! mil%. The rest$ to such as are sound$ is nutriti#e
and good$ es"ecially for young children$ but because soon turned to
corru"tion$ ;,.@/Gnot good for those that ha#e unclean stomachs$ are
subject to headache$ or ha#e green 'ounds$ stone$ Fc. 2f all cheeses$ I
ta%e that %ind 'hich 'e call anbury cheese to be the best$ _e+ #etustis
"essimus_$ the older$ stronger$ and harder$ the 'orst$ as *angius
discourseth in his E"istle to Melancthon$ cited by Mizaldus$ Isaac$ _". @.
Gal. .. de cibis boni succi_. Fc.
_7o'l._G Amongst fo'l$ ;,.@BG"eacoc%s and "igeons$ all fenny fo'l are
forbidden$ as duc%s$ geese$ s'ans$ herons$ cranes$ coots$ dida""ers$
'ater-hens$ 'ith all those teals$ curs$ sheldra%es$ and "ec%led fo'ls$ that
come hither in 'inter out of 9candia$ Musco#y$ Greenland$ 7riesland$ 'hich
half the year are co#ered all o#er 'ith sno'$ and frozen u". Though these
be fair in feathers$ "leasant in taste$ and ha#e a good outside$ li%e
hy"ocrites$ 'hite in "lumes$ and soft$ their flesh is hard$ blac%$
un'holesome$ dangerous$ melancholy meat< _Gra#ant et "utrefaciant
stomachum_$ saith Isaac$ _"art. @. de #ol._$ their young ones are more
tolerable$ but young "igeons he 0uite disa""ro#es.
_7ishes._G 1hasis and ;,.-CGMagninus discommend all fish$ and say$ they
breed #iscosities$ slimy nutriment$ little and humorous nourishment.
9a#anarola adds$ cold$ moist& and "hlegmatic$ Isaac< and therefore
un'holesome for all cold and melancholy com"le+ions& others ma%e a
difference$ rejecting only amongst fresh'ater fish$ eel$ tench$ lam"rey$
cra'fish ('hich right a""ro#es$ _ca". -_)$ and such as are bred in muddy
and standing 'aters$ and ha#e a taste of mud$ as 7ranciscus onsuetus
"oetically defines$ _*ib. de a0uatilibus_.
L8am "isces omnes$ 0ui stagna$ lacus0ue fre0uentant$
9em"er "lus succi deterioris habent.L
LAll fish$ that standing "ools$ and la%es fre0uent$
3o e#er yield bad juice and nourishment.L
*am"reys$ Paulus Do#ius$ _c. .?. de "iscibus flu#ial._$ highly magnifies$
and saith$ 8one s"ea% against them$ but _ine"ti et scru"ulosi_$ some
scru"ulous "ersons< but ;,.-,Geels$ _c. .._$ Lhe abhorreth in all "laces$
at all times$ all "hysicians detest them$ es"ecially about the solstice.L
Gomesius$ _lib. ,. c. ==$ de sale_$ doth immoderately e+tol sea-fish$ 'hich
others as much #ilify$ and abo#e the rest$ dried$ soused$ indurate fish$ as
ling$ fumados$ red-herrings$ s"rats$ stoc%-fish$ haberdine$ "oor-Dohn$ all
shellfish. ;,.-=GTim. right e+ce"ts lobster and crab. Messarius commends
salmon$ 'hich ruerinus contradicts$ _lib. ==. c. ,A._ Magninus rejects
conger$ sturgeon$ turbot$ mac%erel$ s%ate.
:ar" is a fish of 'hich I %no' not 'hat to determine. 7ranciscus onsuetus
accounts it a muddy fish. 5i""olitus 9al#ianus$ in his oo% _de Piscium
natura et "rae"aratione_$ 'hich 'as "rinted at 1ome in folio$ ,@@?$ 'ith
most elegant "ictures$ esteems car" no better than a slimy 'atery meat.
Paulus Do#ius on the other side$ disallo'ing tench$ a""ro#es of it< so doth
3ubra#ius in his oo%s of 7ish"onds. 7reitagius ;,.-.Ge+tols it for an
e+cellent 'holesome meat$ and "uts it amongst the fishes of the best ran%<
and so do most of our country gentlemen$ that store their "onds almost 'ith
no other fish. ut this contro#ersy is easily decided$ in my judgment$ by
ruerinus$ _l. ==. c. ,.._ The difference riseth from the site and nature
of "ools$ ;,.-?Gsometimes muddy$ sometimes s'eet< they are in taste as the
"lace is from 'hence they be ta%en. In li%e manner almost 'e may conclude
of other fresh fish. ut see more in 1ondoletius$ ellonius$ 2ribasius$
_lib. A. ca". ==_$ Isaac$ _l. ,_$ es"ecially 5i""olitus 9al#ianus$ 'ho is
_instar omnium solus_$ Fc. 5o'soe#er they may be 'holesome and a""ro#ed$
much use of them is not good< P. 7orestus$ in his medicinal obser#ations$
;,.-@Grelates$ that :arthusian friars$ 'hose li#ing is most "art fish$ are
more subject to melancholy than any other order$ and that he found by
e+"erience$ being sometimes their "hysician ordinary at 3elft$ in 5olland.
5e e+em"lifies it 'ith an instance of one uscodnese$ a :arthusian of a
ruddy colour$ and 'ell li%ing$ that by solitary li#ing$ and fish-eating$
became so misaffected.
_5erbs._G Amongst herbs to be eaten I find gourds$ cucumbers$ cole'orts$
melons$ disallo'ed$ but es"ecially cabbage. It causeth troublesome dreams$
and sends u" blac% #a"ours to the brain. Galen$ _loc. affect. l. .. c. -_$
of all herbs condemns cabbage< and Isaac$ _lib. =. c. ,._ _Animae
gra#itatem facit_$ it brings hea#iness to the soul. 9ome are of o"inion
that all ra' herbs and salads breed melancholy blood$ e+ce"t bugloss and
lettuce. :rato$ _consil. =,. lib. =_$ s"ea%s against all herbs and 'orts$
e+ce"t borage$ bugloss$ fennel$ "arsley$ dill$ balm$ succory. Magninus$
_regim. sanitatis$ "art. .. ca". .,._ _2mnes herbae sim"liciter malae$ #ia
cibi_< all herbs are sim"ly e#il to feed on (as he thin%s). 9o did that
scoffing coo% in ;,.--GPlautus hold&
L8on ego coenam condio ut alii co0ui solent$
Kui mihi condita "rata in "atinis "roferunt$
o#es 0ui con#i#as faciunt$ herbas0ue aggerunt.L
L*i%e other coo%s I do not su""er dress$
That "ut 'hole meado's into a "latter$
And ma%e no better of their guests than bee#es$
4ith herbs and grass to feed them fatter.L
2ur Italians and 9"aniards do ma%e a 'hole dinner of herbs and salads
('hich our said Plautus calls _coenas terrestras_$ 5orace$ _coenas sine
sanguine_)$ by 'hich means$ as he follo's it$
;,.-AG L5ic homines tam bre#em #itam colunt------
Kui herbas hujusmodi in al#um suum congerunt$
7ormidolosum dictu$ non esu modo$
Kuas herbas "ecudes non edunt$ homines edunt.L
LTheir li#es$ that eat such herbs$ must needs be short$
And !tis a fearful thing for to re"ort$
That men should feed on such a %ind of meat$
4hich #ery juments 'ould refuse to eat.L
;,.-/GThey are 'indy$ and not fit therefore to be eaten of all men ra'$
though 0ualified 'ith oil$ but in broths$ or other'ise. 9ee more of these
in e#ery ;,.-BGhusbandman$ and herbalist.
_1oots._G 1oots$ _Etsi 0uorundam gentium o"es sint_$ saith ruerinus$ the
'ealth of some countries$ and sole food$ are 'indy and bad$ or troublesome
to the head& as onions$ garlic$ scallions$ turni"s$ carrots$ radishes$
"arsni"s& :rato$ _lib. =. consil. ,,_$ disallo's all roots$ though ;,.ACG
some a""ro#e of "arsni"s and "otatoes. ;,.A,GMagninus is of :rato!s
o"inion$ ;,.A=GLThey trouble the mind$ sending gross fumes to the brain$
ma%e men mad$L es"ecially garlic$ onions$ if a man liberally feed on them a
year together. Guianerius$ _tract. ,@. ca". =_$ com"lains of all manner of
roots$ and so doth ruerinus$ e#en "arsni"s themsel#es$ 'hich are the best$
_*ib. B. ca". ,?._
_7ruits._G _Pastinacarum usus succos gignit im"robos_. :rato$ _consil. =,.
lib. ,_$ utterly forbids all manner of fruits$ as "ears$ a""les$ "lums$
cherries$ stra'berries$ nuts$ medlars$ ser#es$ Fc. _9anguinem inficiunt_$
saith Iillano#anus$ they infect the blood$ and "utrefy it$ Magninus holds$
and must not therefore be ta%en _#ia cibi$ aut 0uantitate magna_$ not to
ma%e a meal of$ or in any great 0uantity. ;,.A.G:ardan ma%es that a cause
of their continual sic%ness at 7essa in Africa$ Lbecause they li#e so much
on fruits$ eating them thrice a day.L *aurentius a""ro#es of many fruits$
in his Tract of Melancholy$ 'hich others disallo'$ and amongst the rest
a""les$ 'hich some li%e'ise commend$ s'eetings$ "earmains$ "i""ins$ as good
against melancholy< but to him that is any 'ay inclined to$ or touched 'ith
this malady$ ;,.A?G8icholas Piso in his Practics$ forbids all fruits$ as
'indy$ or to be s"aringly eaten at least$ and not ra'. Amongst other
fruits$ ;,.A@Gruerinus$ out of Galen$ e+ce"ts gra"es and figs$ but I find
them li%e'ise rejected.
_Pulse._G All "ulse are naught$ beans$ "eas$ #etches$ Fc.$ they fill the
brain (saith Isaac) 'ith gross fumes$ breed blac% thic% blood$ and cause
troublesome dreams. And therefore$ that 'hich Pythagoras said to his
scholars of old$ may be for e#er a""lied to melancholy men$ _A fabis
abstinete_$ eat no "eas$ nor beans< yet to such as 'ill needs eat them$ I
'ould gi#e this counsel$ to "re"are them according to those rules that
Arnoldus Iillano#anus$ and 7rietagius "rescribe$ for eating$ and dressing.
fruits$ herbs$ roots$ "ulse$ Fc.
_9"ices._G 9"ices cause hot and head melancholy$ and are for that cause
forbidden by our "hysicians to such men as are inclined to this malady$ as
"e""er$ ginger$ cinnamon$ clo#es$ mace$ dates$ Fc. honey and sugar. ;,.A-G
9ome e+ce"t honey< to those that are cold$ it may be tolerable$ but ;,.AAG
_3ulcia se in bilem #ertunt_$ (s'eets turn into bile$) they are
obstructi#e. :rato therefore forbids all s"ice$ in a consultation of his$
for a melancholy schoolmaster$ _2mnia aromatica et 0uic0uid sanguinem
adurit_& so doth 7ernelius$ _consil. ?@._ Guianerius$ _tract ,@. ca". =._
Mercurialis$ _cons. ,/B._ To these I may add all shar" and sour things$
luscious and o#er-s'eet$ or fat$ as oil$ #inegar$ #erjuice$ mustard$ salt<
as s'eet things are obstructi#e$ so these are corrosi#e. Gomesius$ in his
boo%s$ _de sale$ l. ,. c. =,_$ highly commends salt< so doth :odronchus in
his tract$ _de sale Absynthii_$ *emn. _l. .. c. B. de occult$ nat. mir._
yet common e+"erience finds salt$ and salt-meats$ to be great "rocurers of
this disease. And for that cause beli%e those Egy"tian "riests abstained
from salt$ e#en so much$ as in their bread$ _ut sine "erturbatione anima
esset_$ saith mine author$ that their souls might be free from
_read._G read that is made of baser grain$ as "eas$ beans$ oats$ rye$ or
;,.A/Go#er-hard ba%ed$ crusty$ and blac%$ is often s"o%en against$ as
causing melancholy juice and 'ind. Doh. Mayor$ in the first boo% of his
5istory of 9cotland$ contends much for the 'holesomeness of oaten bread& it
'as objected to him then li#ing at Paris in 7rance$ that his countrymen fed
on oats$ and base grain$ as a disgrace< but he doth ingenuously confess$
9cotland$ 4ales$ and a third "art of England$ did most "art use that %ind
of bread$ that it 'as as 'holesome as any grain$ and yielded as good
nourishment. And yet 4ec%er out of Galen calls it horsemeat$ and fitter
for juments than men to feed on. ut read Galen himself$ _*ib. ,. 3e cibis
boni et mali succi_$ more largely discoursing of corn and bread.
_4ine._G All blac% 'ines$ o#er-hot$ com"ound$ strong thic% drin%s$ as
Muscadine$ Malmsey$ Alicant$ 1umney$ ro'nbastard$ Metheglen$ and the li%e$
of 'hich they ha#e thirty se#eral %inds in Musco#y$ all such made drin%s
are hurtful in this case$ to such as are hot$ or of a sanguine choleric
com"le+ion$ young$ or inclined to head-melancholy. 7or many times the
drin%ing of 'ine alone causeth it. Arculanus$ _c. ,-. in B. 1hasis_$ "uts
in ;,.ABG'ine for a great cause$ es"ecially if it be immoderately used.
Guianerius$ _tract. ,@. c. =_$ tells a story of t'o 3utchmen$ to 'hom he
ga#e entertainment in his house$ Lthat ;,./CGin one month!s s"ace 'ere both
melancholy by drin%ing of 'ine$ one did nought but sing$ the other sigh.L
Galen$ _l. de causis morb. c. .._ Matthiolus on 3ioscorides$ and abo#e all
other Andreas achius$ _l. .. ,/$ ,B$ =C_$ ha#e rec%oned u"on those
incon#eniences that come by 'ine& yet not'ithstanding all this$ to such as
are cold$ or sluggish melancholy$ a cu" of 'ine is good "hysic$ and so doth
Mercurialis grant$ _consil. =@_$ in that case$ if the tem"erature be cold$
as to most melancholy men it is$ 'ine is much commended$ if it be
moderately used.
_:ider$ Perry._G :ider and "erry are both cold and 'indy drin%s$ and for
that cause to be neglected$ and so are all those hot s"iced strong drin%s.
eer.G eer$ if it be o#er-ne' or o#er-stale$ o#er-strong$ or not sodden$
smell of the cas%$ shar"$ or sour$ is most un'holesome$ frets$ and galls$
Fc. 5enricus Ayrerus$ in a ;,./,Gconsultation of his$ for one that laboured
of hy"ochondriacal melancholy$ discommends beer. 9o doth ;,./=G :rato in
that e+cellent counsel of his$ _*ib. =. consil. =,_$ as too 'indy$ because
of the ho". ut he means beli%e that thic% blac% ohemian beer used in some
other "arts of ;,./.GGermany.
------Lnil s"issius illa
3um bibitur$ nil clarius est dum mingitur$ unde
:onstat$ 0uod multas faeces in cor"ore lin0uat.L
L8othing comes in so thic%$
8othing goes out so thin$
It must needs follo' then
The dregs are left 'ithin.L
As that ;,./?Gold "oet scoffed$ calling it _9tygiae monstrum conforme
"aludi_$ a monstrous drin%$ li%e the ri#er 9ty+. ut let them say as they
list$ to such as are accustomed unto it$ L!tis a most 'holesomeL (so ;,./@G
Polydore Iirgil calleth it) Land a "leasant drin%$L it is more subtle and
better$ for the ho" that rarefies it$ hath an es"ecial #irtue against
melancholy$ as our herbalists confess$ 7uchsius a""ro#es$ _*ib. =. sec. =.
instit. ca". ,,_$ and many others.
4atersG 9tanding 'aters$ thic% and ill-coloured$ such as come forth of
"ools$ and moats$ 'here hem" hath been stee"ed$ or slimy fishes li#e$ are
most un'holesome$ "utrefied$ and full of mites$ cree"ers$ slimy$ muddy$
unclean$ corru"t$ im"ure$ by reason of the sun!s heat$ and still-standing<
they cause foul distem"eratures in the body and mind of man$ are unfit to
ma%e drin% of$ to dress meat 'ith$ or to be ;,./-Gused about men in'ardly
or out'ardly. They are good for many domestic uses$ to 'ash horses$ 'ater
cattle$ Fc.$ or in time of necessity$ but not other'ise. 9ome are of
o"inion$ that such fat standing 'aters ma%e the best beer$ and that
seething doth defecate it$ as ;,./AG:ardan holds$ _*ib. ,.. subtil._ LIt
mends the substance$ and sa#our of it$L but it is a "arado+. 9uch beer may
be stronger$ but not so 'holesome as the other$ as ;,.//GDobertus truly
justifieth out of Galen$ _Parado+$ dec. ,. Parado+ @_$ that the seething of
such im"ure 'aters doth not "urge or "urify them$ Pliny$ _lib. .,. c. ._$
is of the same tenet$ and P. :rescentius$ _agricult. lib. ,. et lib. ?. c.
,,. et c. ?@._ Pam"hilius 5erilachus$ _l. ?. de not. a0uarum_$ such 'aters
are naught$ not to be used$ and by the testimony of ;,./BGGalen$ Lbreed
agues$ dro"sies$ "leurisies$ s"lenetic and melancholy "assions$ hurt the
eyes$ cause a bad tem"erature$ and ill dis"osition of the 'hole body$ 'ith
bad colour.L This Dobertus stiffly maintains$ _Parado+$ lib. ,. "art. @_$
that it causeth blear eyes$ bad colour$ and many loathsome diseases to such
as use it& this 'hich they say$ stands 'ith good reason< for as geogra"hers
relate$ the 'ater of Astracan breeds 'orms in such as drin% it. ;,.BCG
A+ius$ or as no' called Ierduri$ the fairest ri#er in Macedonia$ ma%es all
cattle blac% that taste of it. Aleacman no' Peleca$ another stream in
Thessaly$ turns cattle most "art 'hite$ _si "olui ducas_$ *. Aubanus
1ohemus refers that ;,.B,Gstruma or "o%e of the a#arians and 9tyrians to
the nature of their 'aters$ as ;,.B=GMunster doth that of Ialesians in the
Al"s$ and ;,.B.Godine su""oseth the stuttering of some families in
A0uitania$ about *abden$ to "roceed from the same cause$ Land that the
filth is deri#ed from the 'ater to their bodies.L 9o that they that use
filthy$ standing$ ill-coloured$ thic%$ muddy 'ater$ must needs ha#e muddy$
ill-coloured$ im"ure$ and infirm bodies. And because the body 'or%s u"on
the mind$ they shall ha#e grosser understandings$ dull$ foggy$ melancholy
s"irits$ and be really subject to all manner of infirmities.
To these no+ious sim"les$ 'e may reduce an infinite number of com"ound$
artificial$ made dishes$ of 'hich our coo%s afford us a great #ariety$ as
tailors do fashions in our a""arel. 9uch are ;,.B?G"uddings stuffed 'ith
blood$ or other'ise com"osed< ba%ed$ meats$ soused indurate meats$ fried
and broiled buttered meats< condite$ "o'dered$ and o#er-dried$ ;,.B@Gall
ca%es$ simnels$ buns$ crac%nels made 'ith butter$ s"ice$ Fc.$ fritters$
"anca%es$ "ies$ sausages$ and those se#eral sauces$ shar"$ or o#er-s'eet$
of 'hich _scientia "o"inae_$ as 9eneca calls it$ hath ser#ed those ;,.B-G
A"ician tric%s$ and "erfumed dishes$ 'hich Adrian the si+th Po"e so much
admired in the accounts of his "redecessor *eo 3ecimus< and 'hich
"rodigious riot and "rodigality ha#e in#ented in this age. These do
generally engender gross humours$ fill the stomach 'ith crudities$ and all
those in'ard "arts 'ith obstructions. Montanus$ _consil. ==_$ gi#es
instance$ in a melancholy De'$ that by eating such tart sauces$ made
dishes$ and salt meats$ 'ith 'hich he 'as o#ermuch delighted$ became
melancholy$ and 'as e#il affected. 9uch e+am"les are familiar and common.
9H9E:T. II.--_Kuantity of 3iet a :ause._
There is not so much harm "roceeding from the substance itself of meat$ and
0uality of it$ in ill-dressing and "re"aring$ as there is from the
0uantity$ disorder of time and "lace$ unseasonable use of it$ ;,.BAG
intem"erance$ o#ermuch$ or o#erlittle ta%ing of it. A true saying it is$
_Plures cra"ula 0uam gladius_. This gluttony %ills more than the s'ord$
this _omni#orantia et homicida gula_$ this all-de#ouring and murdering gut.
And that of ;,.B/GPliny is truer$ L9im"le diet is the best< hea"ing u" of
se#eral meats is "ernicious$ and sauces 'orse< many dishes bring many
diseases.L ;,.BBGA#icen cries out$ LThat nothing is 'orse than to feed on
many dishes$ or to "rotract the time of meats longer than ordinary< from
thence "roceed our infirmities$ and !tis the fountain of all diseases$
'hich arise out of the re"ugnancy of gross humours.L Thence$ saith ;,?CCG
7ernelius$ come crudities$ 'ind$ o""ilations$ cacochymia$ "lethora$
cache+ia$ bradio"e"sia$ ;,?C,G_5inc subitae$ mortes$ at0ue intestata
senectus_$ sudden death$ Fc.$ and 'hat not.
As a lam" is cho%ed 'ith a multitude of oil$ or a little fire 'ith o#ermuch
'ood 0uite e+tinguished$ so is the natural heat 'ith immoderate eating$
strangled in the body. _Pernitiosa sentina est abdomen insaturabile_& one
saith$ An insatiable "aunch is a "ernicious sin%$ and the fountain of all
diseases$ both of body and mind. ;,?C=GMercurialis 'ill ha#e it a "eculiar
cause of this "ri#ate disease< 9olenander$ _consil. @. sect. ._$
illustrates this of Mercurialis$ 'ith an e+am"le of one so melancholy$ _ab
intem"esti#is commessationibus_$ unseasonable feasting. ;,?C.G:rato
confirms as much$ in that often cited counsel$ _=,. lib. =_$ "utting
su"erfluous eating for a main cause. ut 'hat need I see% farther for
"roofsN 5ear ;,?C?G5i""ocrates himself$ _lib. =. a"hor. ,C_$ LIm"ure bodies
the more they are nourished$ the more they are hurt$ for the nourishment is
"utrefied 'ith #icious humours.L
And yet for all this harm$ 'hich a""arently follo's surfeiting and
drun%enness$ see ho' 'e lu+uriate and rage in this %ind< read 'hat Dohannes
9tuc%ius hath 'ritten lately of this subject$ in his great #olume _3e
Anti0uorum :on#i#iis_$ and of our "resent age< _Kuam ;,?C@G"ortentosae
coenae_$ "rodigious su""ers$ ;,?C-G_Kui dum in#itant ad coenam efferunt ad
se"ulchrum_$ 'hat 7agos$ E"icures$ A"etios$ 5eliogables$ our times affordN
*ucullus! ghost 'al%s still$ and e#ery man desires to su" in A"ollo<
Aeso"!s costly dish is ordinarily ser#ed u". ;,?CAG_Magis illa ju#ant$ 0uae
"luris emuntur_. The dearest cates are best$ and !tis an ordinary thing to
besto' t'enty or thirty "ounds on a dish$ some thousand cro'ns u"on a
dinner& ;,?C/GMully-5amet$ %ing of 7ez and Morocco$ s"ent three "ounds on
the sauce of a ca"on& it is nothing in our times$ 'e scorn all that is
chea". L4e loathe the #ery ;,?CBGlightL (some of us$ as 9eneca notes)
Lbecause it comes free$ and 'e are offended 'ith the sun!s heat$ and those
cool blasts$ because 'e buy them not.L This air 'e breathe is so common$ 'e
care not for it< nothing "leaseth but 'hat is dear. And if 'e be
;,?,CG'itty in anything$ it is _ad gulam_& If 'e study at all$ it is
_erudito lu+u_$ to "lease the "alate$ and to satisfy the gut. LA coo% of
old 'as a base %na#eL (as ;,?,,G*i#y com"lains)$ Lbut no' a great man in
re0uest< coo%ery is become an art$ a noble science& coo%s are gentlemen&L
_Ienter 3eus_& They 'ear Ltheir brains in their bellies$ and their guts in
their heads$L as ;,?,=GAgri""a ta+ed some "arasites of his time$ rushing on
their o'n destruction$ as if a man should run u"on the "oint of a s'ord$
_us0ue dum rum"antur comedunt_$ LThey eat till they burst&L ;,?,.GAll day$
all night$ let the "hysician say 'hat he 'ill$ imminent danger$ and feral
diseases are no' ready to seize u"on them$ that 'ill eat till they #omit$
_Edunt ut #omant$ #omut ut edant_$ saith 9eneca< 'hich 3ion relates of
Iitellius$ _9olo transitu ciborum nutriri judicatus_& 5is meat did "ass
through and a'ay$ or till they burst again. ;,?,?G_9trage animantium
#entrem onerant_$ and ra%e o#er all the 'orld$ as so many ;,?,@Gsla#es$
belly-gods$ and land-ser"ents$ _Et totus orbis #entri nimis angustus_$ the
'hole 'orld cannot satisfy their a""etite. ;,?,-GL9ea$ land$ ri#ers$ la%es$
Fc.$ may not gi#e content to their raging guts.L To ma%e u" the mess$ 'hat
immoderate drin%ing in e#ery "laceN _9enem "otum "ota trahebat anus_$ ho'
they floc% to the ta#ern& as if they 'ere _fruges consumere nati_$ born to
no other end but to eat and drin%$ li%e 2ffellius ibulus$ that famous
1oman "arasite$ _Kui dum #i+it$ aut bibit aut min+it_< as so many cas%s to
hold 'ine$ yea 'orse than a cas%$ that mars 'ine$ and itself is not marred
by it$ yet these are bra#e men$ 9ilenus Ebrius 'as no bra#er. _Et 0uae
fuerunt #itia$ mores sunt_& !tis no' the fashion of our times$ an honour&
_8unc #ero res ista eo rediit_ (as :hrysost. _serm. .C. in #. E"hes._
comments) _Ht effeminatae ridendae0ue igna#iae loco habeatur$ nolle
inebriari_< !tis no' come to that "ass that he is no gentleman$ a #ery
mil%-so"$ a clo'n$ of no bringing u"$ that 'ill not drin%< fit for no
com"any< he is your only gallant that "lays it off finest$ no dis"aragement
no' to stagger in the streets$ reel$ ra#e$ Fc.$ but much to his fame and
reno'n< as in li%e case E"idicus told Thes"rio his fello'-ser#ant$ in the
;,?,AGPoet. _Aedi"ol facinus im"robum_$ one urged$ the other re"lied$ _At
jam alii fecere idem$ erit illi illa res honori_$ !tis no' no fault$ there
be so many bra#e e+am"les to bear one out< !tis a credit to ha#e a strong
brain$ and carry his li0uor 'ell< the sole contention 'ho can drin% most$
and fo+ his fello' the soonest. !Tis the _summum bonum_ of our tradesmen$
their felicity$ life$ and soul$ _Tanta dulcedine affectant_$ saith Pliny$
_lib. ,?. ca". ,=._ _Ht magna "ars non aliud #itae "raemium intelligat_$
their chief comfort$ to be merry together in an alehouse or ta#ern$ as our
modern Musco#ites do in their mead-inns$ and Tur%s in their coffeehouses$
'hich much resemble our ta#erns< they 'ill labour hard all day long to be
drun% at night$ and s"end _totius anni labores_$ as 9t. Ambrose adds$ in a
ti""ling feast< con#ert day into night$ as 9eneca ta+es some in his times$
_Per#ertunt officia anoctis et lucis_< 'hen 'e rise$ they commonly go to
bed$ li%e our anti"odes$
L8os0ue ubi "rimus e0uis oriens affla#it anhelis$
Illis sera rubens ascendit lumina #es"er.L
9o did Petronius in Tacitus$ 5eliogabalus in *am"ridius.
;,?,/G ------L8octes #igilibat ad i"sum
Mane$ diem totum stertebatNL------
------L5e dran% the night a'ay
Till rising da'n$ then snored out all the day.L
9nymdiris the 9ybarite ne#er sa' the sun rise or set so much as once in
t'enty years. Ierres$ against 'hom Tully so much in#eighs$ in 'inter he
ne#er 'as _e+tra tectum #i+ e+tra lectum_$ ne#er almost out of bed$ ;,?,BG
still 'enching and drin%ing< so did he s"end his time$ and so do myriads in
our days. They ha#e _gymnasia bibonum_$ schools and rendez#ous< these
centaurs and *a"ithae toss "ots and bo'ls as so many balls< in#ent ne'
tric%s$ as sausages$ ancho#ies$ tobacco$ ca#iar$ "ic%led oysters$ herrings$
fumados$ Fc.& innumerable salt meats to increase their a""etite$ and study
ho' to hurt themsel#es by ta%ing antidotes ;,?=CGLto carry their drin% the
better< ;,?=,Gand 'hen nought else ser#es$ they 'ill go forth$ or be
con#eyed out$ to em"ty their gorge$ that they may return to drin% afresh.L
They ma%e la's$ _insanas leges$ contra bibendi fallacias_$ and ;,?==Gbrag
of it 'hen they ha#e done$ cro'ning that man that is soonest gone$ as their
drun%en "redecessors ha#e done$ --;,?=.G_0uid ego #ideo_N Ps. _:um corona
Pseudolum ebrium tuum_--. And 'hen they are dead$ 'ill ha#e a can of 'ine
'ith ;,?=?GMaron!s old 'oman to be engra#en on their tombs. 9o they trium"h
in #illainy$ and justify their 'ic%edness< 'ith 1abelais$ that 7rench
*ucian$ drun%enness is better for the body than "hysic$ because there be
more old drun%ards than old "hysicians. Many such frothy arguments they
ha#e$ ;,?=@Gin#iting and encouraging others to do as they do$ and lo#e them
dearly for it (no glue li%e to that of good fello'shi"). 9o did Alcibiades
in Greece< 8ero$ onosus$ 5eliogabalus in 1ome$ or Alegabalus rather$ as he
'as styled of old (as ;,?=-GIgnatius "ro#es out of some old coins). 9o do
many great men still$ as ;,?=AG5eresbachius obser#es. 4hen a "rince drin%s
till his eyes stare$ li%e itias in the Poet$
;,?=/G ------(Lille im"iger hausit
9"umantem #ino "ateram.L)
------La thirsty soul<
5e too% challenge and embrac!d the bo'l<
4ith "leasure s'ill!d the gold$ nor ceased to dra'
Till he the bottom of the brimmer sa'.L
and comes off clearly$ sound trum"ets$ fife and drums$ the s"ectators 'ill
a""laud him$ Lthe ;,?=BGbisho" himself (if he belie them not) 'ith his
cha"lain 'ill stand by and do as much$L _2 dignum "rinci"e haustum_$ !t'as
done li%e a "rince. L2ur 3utchmen in#ite all comers 'ith a "ail and a
dish$L _Ielut infundibula integras obbas e+hauriunt$ et in monstrosis
"oculis$ i"si monstrosi monstrosius e"otant_$ Lma%ing barrels of their
bellies.L _Incredibile dictu_$ as ;,?.CGone of their o'n countrymen
com"lains& ;,?.,G_Kuantum li0uoris immodestissima gens ca"iat_$ Fc. L5o'
they lo#e a man that 'ill be drun%$ cro'n him and honour him for it$L hate
him that 'ill not "ledge him$ stab him$ %ill him& a most intolerable
offence$ and not to be forgi#en. ;,?.=GL5e is a mortal enemy that 'ill not
drin% 'ith him$L as Munster relates of the 9a+ons. 9o in Poland$ he is the
best ser#itor$ and the honestest fello'$ saith Ale+ander Gaguinus$ ;,?..G
Lthat drin%eth most healths to the honour of his master$ he shall be
re'arded as a good ser#ant$ and held the bra#est fello' that carries his
li0uor best$L 'hen a bre'er!s horse 'ill bear much more than any sturdy
drin%er$ yet for his noble e+"loits in this %ind$ he shall be accounted a
most #aliant man$ for ;,?.?G_Tam inter e"ulas fortis #ir esse "otest ac in
bello_$ as much #alour is to be found in feasting as in fighting$ and some
of our city ca"tains$ and car"et %nights 'ill ma%e this good$ and "ro#e it.
Thus they many times 'ilfully "er#ert the good tem"erature of their bodies$
stifle their 'its$ strangle nature$ and degenerate into beasts.
9ome again are in the other e+treme$ and dra' this mischief on their heads
by too ceremonious and strict diet$ being o#er-"recise$ coc%ney-li%e$ and
curious in their obser#ation of meats$ times$ as that _Medicina statica_
"rescribes$ just so many ounces at dinner$ 'hich *essius enjoins$ so much
at su""er$ not a little more$ nor a little less$ of such meat$ and at such
hours$ a diet-drin% in the morning$ coc%-broth$ :hina-broth$ at dinner$
"lum-broth$ a chic%en$ a rabbit$ rib of a rac% of mutton$ 'ing of a ca"on$
the merry-thought of a hen$ Fc.< to sounder bodies this is too nice and
most absurd. 2thers offend in o#ermuch fasting& "ining adays$ saith ;,?.@G
Guianerius$ and 'a%ing anights$ as many Moors and Tur%s in these our times
do. LAnchorites$ mon%s$ and the rest of that su"erstitious ran% (as the
same Guianerius 'itnesseth$ that he hath often seen to ha#e ha""ened in his
time) through immoderate fasting$ ha#e been fre0uently mad.L 2f such men
beli%e 5i""ocrates s"ea%s$ _l. A"hor. @_$ 'hen as he saith$ ;,?.-GLthey
more offend in too s"aring diet$ and are 'orse damnified$ than they that
feed liberally$ and are ready to surfeit.L
9H9E:T. III.--_:ustom of 3iet$ 3elight$ A""etite$ 8ecessity$ ho' they
cause or hinder_.
8o rule is so general$ 'hich admits not some e+ce"tion< to this$ therefore$
'hich hath been hitherto said$ (for I shall other'ise "ut most men out of
commons$) and those incon#eniences 'hich "roceed from the substance of
meats$ an intem"erate or unseasonable use of them$ custom some'hat detracts
and 0ualifies$ according to that of 5i""ocrates$ _= A"horis. @C._ ;,?.AG
L9uch things as 'e ha#e been long accustomed to$ though they be e#il in
their o'n nature$ yet they are less offensi#e.L 2ther'ise it might 'ell be
objected that it 'ere a mere ;,?./Gtyranny to li#e after those strict rules
of "hysic< for custom ;,?.BGdoth alter nature itself$ and to such as are
used to them it ma%es bad meats 'holesome$ and unseasonable times to cause
no disorder. :ider and "erry are 'indy drin%s$ so are all fruits 'indy in
themsel#es$ cold most "art$ yet in some shires of ;,??CGEngland$ 8ormandy
in 7rance$ Gui"uscoa in 9"ain$ !tis their common drin%$ and they are no
'hit offended 'ith it. In 9"ain$ Italy$ and Africa$ they li#e most on
roots$ ra' herbs$ camel!s ;,??,Gmil%$ and it agrees 'ell 'ith them& 'hich
to a stranger 'ill cause much grie#ance. In 4ales$ _lacticiniis #escuntur_$
as 5um"hrey *l'yd confesseth$ a :ambro-riton himself$ in his elegant
e"istle to Abraham 2rtelius$ they li#e most on 'hite meats& in 5olland on
fish$ roots$ ;,??=Gbutter< and so at this day in Greece$ as ;,??.Gellonius
obser#es$ they had much rather feed on fish than flesh. 4ith us$ _Ma+ima
"ars #ictus in carne consistit_$ 'e feed on flesh most "art$ saith
;,???GPolydore Iirgil$ as all northern countries do< and it 'ould be #ery
offensi#e to us to li#e after their diet$ or they to li#e after ours. 4e
drin% beer$ they 'ine< they use oil$ 'e butter< 'e in the north are
;,??@Ggreat eaters< they most s"aring in those hotter countries< and yet
they and 'e follo'ing our o'n customs are 'ell "leased. An Ethio"ian of old
seeing an Euro"ean eat bread$ 'ondered$ _0uomodo stercoribus #escentes
#i#erimus_$ ho' 'e could eat such %ind of meats& so much differed his
countrymen from ours in diet$ that as mine ;,??-Gauthor infers$ _si 0uis
illorum #ictum a"ud nos aemulari #ellet_< if any man should so feed 'ith
us$ it 'ould be all one to nourish$ as :icuta$ Aconitum$ or 5ellebore
itself. At this day in :hina the common "eo"le li#e in a manner altogether
on roots and herbs$ and to the 'ealthiest$ horse$ ass$ mule$ dogs$
cat-flesh$ is as delightsome as the rest$ so ;,??AGMat. 1iccius the Desuit
relates$ 'ho li#ed many years amongst them. The Tartars eat ra' meat$ and
most commonly ;,??/Ghorse-flesh$ drin% mil% and blood$ as the nomades of
old. _Et lac concretum cum sanguine "otat e0uino_. They scoff at our
Euro"eans for eating bread$ 'hich they call to"s of 'eeds$ and horse meat$
not fit for men< and yet 9caliger accounts them a sound and 'itty nation$
li#ing a hundred years< e#en in the ci#ilest country of them they do thus$
as enedict the Desuit obser#ed in his tra#els$ from the great Mogul!s
:ourt by land to Pe%in$ 'hich 1iccius contends to be the same 'ith :ambulu
in :ataia. In 9candia their bread is usually dried fish$ and so li%e'ise in
the 9hetland Isles< and their other fare$ as in Iceland$ saith
;,??BG3ithmarus les%enius$ butter$ cheese$ and fish< their drin% 'ater$
their lodging on the ground. In America in many "laces their bread is
roots$ their meat "almettos$ "inas$ "otatoes$ Fc.$ and such fruits. There
be of them too that familiarly drin% ;,?@CGsalt sea'ater all their li#es$
eat ;,?@,Gra' meat$ grass$ and that 'ith delight. 4ith some$ fish$
ser"ents$ s"iders& and in di#ers "laces they ;,?@=Geat man!s flesh$ ra' and
roasted$ e#en the Em"eror ;,?@.GMontezuma himself. In some coasts$ again$
;,?@?Gone tree yields them cocoanuts$ meat and drin%$ fire$ fuel$ a""arel<
'ith his lea#es$ oil$ #inegar$ co#er for houses$ Fc.$ and yet these men
going na%ed$ feeding coarse$ li#e commonly a hundred years$ are seldom or
ne#er sic%< all 'hich diet our "hysicians forbid. In 4est"halia they feed
most "art on fat meats and 'orts$ %nuc%le dee"$ and call it ;,?@@G_cerebrum
Io#is_& in the *o' :ountries 'ith roots$ in Italy frogs and snails are
used. The Tur%s$ saith usbe0uius$ delight most in fried meats. In Musco#y$
garlic and onions are ordinary meat and sauce$ 'hich 'ould be "ernicious to
such as are unaccustomed to them$ delightsome to others< and all is
;,?@-Gbecause they ha#e been brought u" unto it. 5usbandmen$ and such as
labour$ can eat fat bacon$ salt gross meat$ hard cheese$ Fc.$ (_2 dura
messorum illa_)$ coarse bread at all times$ go to bed and labour u"on a
full stomach$ 'hich to some idle "ersons 'ould be "resent death$ and is
against the rules of "hysic$ so that custom is all in all. 2ur tra#ellers
find this by common e+"erience 'hen they come in far countries$ and use
their diet$ they are suddenly offended$ ;,?@AGas our 5ollanders and
Englishmen 'hen they touch u"on the coasts of Africa$ those Indian ca"es
and islands$ are commonly molested 'ith calentures$ flu+es$ and much
distem"ered by reason of their fruits. ;,?@/G_Peregrina$ etsi sua#ia solent
#escentibus "erturbationes insignes adferre_$ strange meats$ though
"leasant$ cause notable alterations and distem"ers. 2n the other side$ use
or custom mitigates or ma%es all good again. Mithridates by often use$
'hich Pliny 'onders at$ 'as able to drin% "oison< and a maid$ as :urtius
records$ sent to Ale+ander from 6ing Porus$ 'as brought u" 'ith "oison from
her infancy. The Tur%s$ saith ellonius$ lib. .. c. ,@$ eat o"ium
familiarly$ a dram at once$ 'hich 'e dare not ta%e in grains. ;,?@BGGarcias
ab 5orto 'rites of one 'hom he sa' at Goa in the East Indies$ that too% ten
drams of o"ium in three days< and yet _consulto lo0uebatur_$ s"a%e
understandingly$ so much can custom do. ;,?-CG Theo"hrastus s"ea%s of a
she"herd that could eat hellebore in substance. And therefore :ardan
concludes out of Galen$ _:onsuetudinem utcun0ue ferendam$ nisi #alde
malam_. :ustom is ho'soe#er to be %e"t$ e+ce"t it be e+tremely bad& he
ad#iseth all men to %ee" their old customs$ and that by the authority of
;,?-,G5i""ocrates himself$ _3andum ali0uid tem"ori$ aetati regioni$
consuetudini_$ and therefore to ;,?-=Gcontinue as they began$ be it diet$
bath$ e+ercise$ Fc.$ or 'hatsoe#er else.
Another e+ce"tion is delight$ or a""etite$ to such and such meats& though
they be hard of digestion$ melancholy< yet as 7uchsius e+ce"ts$ _ca". -.
lib. =. Instit. sect. =_$ ;,?-.GLThe stomach doth readily digest$ and
'illingly entertain such meats 'e lo#e most$ and are "leasing to us$ abhors
on the other side such as 'e distaste.L 4hich 5i""ocrates confirms$
_A"horis. =. ./._ 9ome cannot endure cheese$ out of a secret anti"athy< or
to see a roasted duc%$ 'hich to others is a ;,?-?Gdelightsome meat.
The last e+ce"tion is necessity$ "o#erty$ 'ant$ hunger$ 'hich dri#es men
many times to do that 'hich other'ise they are loath$ cannot endure$ and
than%fully to acce"t of it& as be#erage in shi"s$ and in sieges of great
cities$ to feed on dogs$ cats$ rats$ and men themsel#es. Three outla's in
;,?-@G5ector oethius$ being dri#en to their shifts$ did eat ra' flesh$ and
flesh of such fo'l as they could catch$ in one of the 5ebrides for some fe'
months. These things do mitigate or disannul that 'hich hath been said of
melancholy meats$ and ma%e it more tolerable< but to such as are 'ealthy$
li#e "lenteously$ at ease$ may ta%e their choice$ and refrain if they 'ill$
these #iands are to be forborne$ if they be inclined to$ or sus"ect
melancholy$ as they tender their healths& 2ther'ise if they be intem"erate$
or disordered in their diet$ at their "eril be it. _Kui monet amat$ A#e et
L5e 'ho ad#ises is your friend
7are'ell$ and to your health attend.L
9H9E:T. II.--_1etention and E#acuation a cause$ and ho'_.
2f retention and e#acuation$ there be di#ers %inds$ 'hich are either
concomitant$ assisting$ or sole causes many times of melancholy. ;,?--G
Galen reduceth defect and abundance to this head< others ;,?-AGLAll that is
se"arated$ or remains.L
_:osti#eness_.G In the first ran% of these$ I may 'ell rec%on u"
costi#eness$ and %ee"ing in of our ordinary e+crements$ 'hich as it often
causeth other diseases$ so this of melancholy in "articular. ;,?-/G:elsus$
lib. ,. ca". .$ saith$ LIt "roduceth inflammation of the head$ dullness$
cloudiness$ headache$L Fc. Pros"er :alenus$ _lib. de atra bile_$ 'ill ha#e
it distem"er not the organ only$ ;,?-BGLbut the mind itself by troubling of
it&L and sometimes it is a sole cause of madness$ as you may read in the
first boo% of ;,?ACG9%en%ius!s Medicinal 2bser#ations. A young merchant
going to 8ordeling fair in Germany$ for ten days! s"ace ne#er 'ent to
stool< at his return he 'as ;,?A,Ggrie#ously melancholy$ thin%ing that he
'as robbed$ and 'ould not be "ersuaded but that all his money 'as gone< his
friends thought he had some "hiltrum gi#en him$ but :nelius$ a "hysician$
being sent for$ found his ;,?A=Gcosti#eness alone to be the cause$ and
thereu"on ga#e him a clyster$ by 'hich he 'as s"eedily reco#ered.
Trinca#ellius$ _consult. .@. lib. ,_$ saith as much of a melancholy la'yer$
to 'hom he administered "hysic$ and 1odericus a 7onseca$ _consult. /@. tom.
=_$ ;,?A.Gof a "atient of his$ that for eight days 'as bound$ and therefore
melancholy affected. 2ther retentions and e#acuations there are$ not sim"ly
necessary$ but at some times< as 7ernelius accounts them$ _Path. lib. ,.
ca". ,@_$ as su""ression of haemorrhoids$ monthly issues in 'omen$ bleeding
at nose$ immoderate or no use at all of Ienus& or any other ordinary
;,?A?G3etention of haemorrhoids$ or monthly issues$ Iillano#anus _re#iar.
lib. ,. ca". ,/._ Arculanus$ _ca". ,-. in B. 1hasis_$ Iittorius 7a#entinus$
_"ract. mag. tract. =. ca". ,@._ ruel$ Fc. "ut for ordinary causes.
7uchsius$ _l. =. sect. @. c. .C_$ goes farther$ and saith$ ;,?A@GLThat many
men unseasonably cured of the haemorrhoids ha#e been corru"ted 'ith
melancholy$ see%ing to a#oid 9cylla$ they fall into :harybdis.L Galen$ _l.
de hum. commen. .. ad te+t. =-_$ illustrates this by an e+am"le of *ucius
Martius$ 'hom he cured of madness$ contracted by this means& And ;,?A-G
9%en%ius hath t'o other instances of t'o melancholy and mad 'omen$ so
caused from the su""ression of their months. The same may be said of
bleeding at the nose$ if it be suddenly sto""ed$ and ha#e been formerly
used$ as ;,?AAGIillano#anus urgeth& And ;,?A/G7uchsius$ _lib. =. sect. @.
ca". .._$ stiffly maintains$ LThat 'ithout great danger$ such an issue may
not be stayed.L
Ienus omitted "roduceth li%e effects. Mathiolus$ _e"ist. @. l. "enult._$
;,?ABGLa#oucheth of his %no'ledge$ that some through bashfulness abstained
from #enery$ and thereu"on became #ery hea#y and dull< and some others that
'ere #ery timorous$ melancholy$ and beyond all measure sad.L 2ribasius$
_med. collect. l. -. c. .A_$ s"ea%s of some$ ;,?/CGLThat if they do not use
carnal co"ulation$ are continually troubled 'ith hea#iness and headache<
and some in the same case by intermission of it.L 8ot use of it hurts many$
Arculanus$ _c. -. in B. 1hasis$ et Magninus$ "art. .. ca". @_$ thin%$
because it ;,?/,GLsends u" "oisoned #a"ours to the brain and heart.L And so
doth Galen himself hold$ LThat if this natural seed be o#er-long %e"t (in
some "arties) it turns to "oison.L 5ieronymus Mercurialis$ in his cha"ter
of melancholy$ cites it for an es"ecial cause of this malady$
;,?/=G"ria"ismus$ satyriasis$ Fc. 5aliabbas$ _@. Theor. c. .-_$ rec%ons u"
this and many other diseases. Iillano#anus _re#iar. l. ,. c. ,/_$ saith$
L5e %ne' ;,?/.Gmany mon%s and 'ido's grie#ously troubled 'ith melancholy$
and that from this sole cause.L ;,?/?G*udo#icus Mercatus$ _l. =. de
mulierum affect. ca". ?_$ and 1odericus a :astro$ _de morbis mulier. l. =.
c. ._$ treat largely of this subject$ and 'ill ha#e it "roduce a "eculiar
%ind of melancholy in stale maids$ nuns$ and 'ido's$ _2b su""ressionem
mensium et #enerem omissam$ timidae$ moestae an+iae$ #erecundae$
sus"icioscae$ languentes$ consilii ino"es$ cum summa #itae et rerum
meliorum des"eratione_$ Fc.$ they are melancholy in the highest degree$ and
all for 'ant of husbands. Aelianus Montaltus$ _ca". .A. de melanchol._$
confirms as much out of Galen< so doth 4ierus$ :hristo"horus a Iega _de
art. med. lib. .. c. ,?_$ relates many such e+am"les of men and 'omen$ that
he had seen so melancholy. 7eli+ Plater in the first boo% of his
2bser#ations$ ;,?/@GLtells a story of an ancient gentleman in Alsatia$ that
married a young 'ife$ and 'as not able to "ay his debts in that %ind for a
long time together$ by reason of his se#eral infirmities& but she$ because
of this inhibition of Ienus$ fell into a horrible fury$ and desired e#ery
one that came to see her$ by 'ords$ loo%s$ and gestures$ to ha#e to do 'ith
her$L Fc. ;,?/-Gernardus Paternus$ a "hysician$ saith$ L5e %ne' a good
honest godly "riest$ that because he 'ould neither 'illingly marry$ nor
ma%e use of the ste's$ fell into grie#ous melancholy fits.L 5ildesheim$
_s"icel. =_$ hath such another e+am"le of an Italian melancholy "riest$ in
a consultation had _Anno_ ,@/C. Dason Pratensis gi#es instance in a married
man$ that from his 'ife!s death abstaining$ ;,?/AGLafter marriage$ became
e+ceedingly melancholy$L 1odericus a 7onseca in a young man so misaffected$
_Tom. =. consult. /@._ To these you may add$ if you "lease$ that conceited
tale of a De'$ so #isited in li%e sort$ and so cured$ out of Poggius
Intem"erate Ienus is all but as bad in the other e+treme. Galen$ _l. -. de
mortis "o"ular. sect. @. te+t. =-_$ rec%ons u" melancholy amongst those
diseases 'hich are ;,?//GLe+as"erated by #enery&L so doth A#icenna$ _=$ .$
c. ,,._ 2ribasius$ _loc. citat._ 7icinus$ _lib. =. de sanitate tuenda_.
Marsilius :ognatus$ Montaltus$ _ca". =A._ Guianerius$ _Tract. .. ca". =._
Magninus$ _ca". @. "art. .._ ;,?/BGgi#es the reason$ because ;,?BCGLit
infrigidates and dries u" the body$ consumes the s"irits< and 'ould
therefore ha#e all such as are cold and dry to ta%e heed of and to a#oid it
as a mortal enemy.L Dacchinus _in B 1hasis$ ca". ,@_$ ascribes the same
cause$ and instanceth in a "atient of his$ that married a young 'ife in a
hot summer$ ;,?B,GLand so dried himself 'ith chamber-'or%$ that he became
in short s"ace from melancholy$ mad&L he cured him by moistening remedies.
The li%e e+am"le I find in *aelius a 7onte Eugubinus$ _consult. ,=B_$ of a
gentleman of Ienice$ that u"on the same occasion 'as first melancholy$
after'ards mad. 1ead in him the story at large.
Any other e#acuation sto""ed 'ill cause it$ as 'ell as these abo#e named$
be it bile$ ;,?B=Gulcer$ issue$ Fc. 5ercules de 9a+onia$ _lib. ,. c. ,-_$
and Gordonius$ #erify this out of their e+"erience. They sa' one 'ounded in
the head 'ho as long as the sore 'as o"en$ _*ucida habuit mentis
inter#alla_$ 'as 'ell< but 'hen it 'as sto""ed$ _1ediit melancholia_$ his
melancholy fit seized on him again.
Artificial e#acuations are much li%e in effect$ as hot houses$ baths$
bloodletting$ "urging$ unseasonably and immoderately used. ;,?B.Gaths dry
too much$ if used in e+cess$ be they natural or artificial$ and offend
e+treme hot$ or cold< ;,?B?Gone dries$ the other refrigerates o#ermuch.
Montanus$ _consil. ,.A_$ saith$ they o#erheat the li#er. Doh. 9truthius$
_9tigmat. artis. l. ?. c. B_$ contends$ ;,?B@GLthat if one stay longer than
ordinary at the bath$ go in too oft$ or at unseasonable times$ he "utrefies
the humours in his body.L To this "ur"ose 'rites Magninus$ _l. .. c. @._
Guianerius$ _Tract. ,@. c. =,_$ utterly disallo's all hot baths in
melancholy adust. ;,?B-GLI sa'L (saith he) La man that laboured of the
gout$ 'ho to be freed of this malady came to the bath$ and 'as instantly
cured of his disease$ but got another 'orse$ and that 'as madness.L ut
this judgment #aries as the humour doth$ in hot or cold& baths may be good
for one melancholy man$ bad for another< that 'hich 'ill cure it in this
"arty$ may cause it in a second.
_Phlebotomy_.G Phlebotomy$ many times neglected$ may do much harm to the
body$ 'hen there is a manifest redundance of bad humours$ and melancholy
blood< and 'hen these humours heat and boil$ if this be not used in time$
the "arties affected$ so inflamed$ are in great danger to be mad< but if it
be unad#isedly$ im"ortunely$ immoderately used$ it doth as much harm by
refrigerating the body$ dulling the s"irits$ and consuming them& as Doh.
;,?BAG:urio in his ,Cth cha"ter 'ell re"rehends$ such %ind of letting blood
doth more hurt than good& ;,?B/GLThe humours rage much more than they did
before$ and is so far from a#oiding melancholy$ that it increaseth it$ and
'ea%eneth the sight.L ;,?BBGPros"er :alenus obser#es as much of all
"hlebotomy$ e+ce"t they %ee" a #ery good diet after it< yea$ and as
;,@CCG*eonartis Dacchinus s"ea%s out of his o'n e+"erience$ ;,@C,GLThe
blood is much blac%er to many men after their letting of blood than it 'as
at first.L 7or this cause beli%e 9alust. 9al#inianus$ _l. =. c. ,_$ 'ill
admit or hear of no bloodletting at all in this disease$ e+ce"t it be
manifest it "roceed from blood& he 'as (it a""ears) by his o'n 'ords in
that "lace$ master of an hos"ital of mad men$ ;,@C=GLand found by long
e+"erience$ that this %ind of e#acuation$ either in head$ arm$ or any other
"art$ did more harm than good.L To this o"inion of his$ ;,@C.G7eli+ Plater
is 0uite o""osite$ Lthough some 'in% at$ disallo' and 0uite contradict all
"hlebotomy in melancholy$ yet by long e+"erience I ha#e found innumerable
so sa#ed$ after they had been t'enty$ nay$ si+ty times let blood$ and to
li#e ha""ily after it. It 'as an ordinary thing of old$ in Galen!s time$ to
ta%e at once from such men si+ "ounds of blood$ 'hich no' 'e dare scarce
ta%e in ounces& _sed #iderint medici_<L great boo%s are 'ritten of this
Purging u"'ard and do'n'ard$ in abundance of bad humours omitted$ may be
for the 'orst< so li%e'ise as in the "recedent$ if o#ermuch$ too fre0uent
or #iolent$ it ;,@C?G'ea%eneth their strength$ saith 7uchsius$ _l. =.
sect.$ = c. ,A_$ or if they be strong or able to endure "hysic$ yet it
brings them to an ill habit$ they ma%e their bodies no better than
a"othecaries! sho"s$ this and such li%e infirmities must needs follo'.
9H9E:T. I.--_ad Air$ a cause of Melancholy_.
Air is a cause of great moment$ in "roducing this$ or any other disease$
being that it is still ta%en into our bodies by res"iration$ and our more
inner "arts. ;,@C@GLIf it be im"ure and foggy$ it dejects the s"irits$ and
causeth diseases by infection of the heart$L as Paulus hath it$ _lib. ,. c.
?B._ A#icenna$ _lib. ,. Gal. de san. tuenda_. Mercurialis$ Montaltus$ Fc.
;,@C-G7ernelius saith$ LA thic% air thic%eneth the blood and humours.L
;,@CAG*emnius rec%ons u" t'o main things most "rofitable$ and most
"ernicious to our bodies< air and diet& and this "eculiar disease$ nothing
sooner causeth ;,@C/G(Dobertus holds) Lthan the air 'herein 'e breathe and
li#e.L ;,@CBG9uch as is the air$ such be our s"irits< and as our s"irits$
such are our humours. It offends commonly if it be too ;,@,CGhot and dry$
thic%$ fuliginous$ cloudy$ blustering$ or a tem"estuous air. odine in his
fifth oo%$ _3e re"ub. ca". ,$ @_$ of his Method of 5istory$ "ro#es that
hot countries are most troubled 'ith melancholy$ and that there are
therefore in 9"ain$ Africa$ and Asia Minor$ great numbers of mad men$
insomuch that they are com"elled in all cities of note$ to build "eculiar
hos"itals for them. *eo ;,@,,GAfer$ _lib. .. de 7essa urbe_$ 2rtelius and
>uinger$ confirm as much& they are ordinarily so choleric in their
s"eeches$ that scarce t'o 'ords "ass 'ithout railing or chiding in common
tal%$ and often 0uarrelling in their streets. ;,@,=GGordonius 'ill ha#e
e#ery man ta%e notice of it& L8ote thisL (saith he) Lthat in hot countries
it is far more familiar than in cold.L Although this 'e ha#e no' said be
not continually so$ for as ;,@,.GAcosta truly saith$ under the E0uator
itself$ is a most tem"erate habitation$ 'holesome air$ a "aradise of
"leasure& the lea#es e#er green$ cooling sho'ers. ut it holds in such as
are intem"erately hot$ as ;,@,?GDohannes a Meggen found in :y"rus$ others
in Malta$ Au"ulia$ and the ;,@,@G5oly *and$ 'here at some seasons of the
year is nothing but dust$ their ri#ers dried u"$ the air scorching hot$ and
earth inflamed< insomuch that many "ilgrims going barefoot for de#otion
sa%e$ from Do""a to Derusalem u"on the hot sands$ often run mad$ or else
0uite o#er'helmed 'ith sand$ _"rofundis arenis_$ as in many "arts of
Africa$ Arabia 3eserta$ actriana$ no' :harassan$ 'hen the 'est 'ind blo's
;,@,-G_In#oluti arenis transeuntes necantur_. ;,@,AG5ercules de 9a+onia$ a
"rofessor in Ienice$ gi#es this cause 'hy so many Ienetian 'omen are
melancholy$ _Kuod diu sub sole degant_$ they tarry too long in the sun.
Montanus$ _consil. =,_$ amongst other causes assigns this< 4hy that De' his
"atient 'as mad$ _Kuod tam multum e+"osuit se calori et frigori_& he
e+"osed himself so much to heat and cold$ and for that reason in Ienice$
there is little stirring in those bric% "a#ed streets in summer about noon$
they are most "art then aslee"& as they are li%e'ise in the great Mogol!s
countries$ and all o#er the East Indies. At Aden in Arabia$ as ;,@,/G
*odo#icus Iertomannus relates in his tra#els$ they %ee" their mar%ets in
the night$ to a#oid e+tremity of heat< and in 2rmus$ li%e cattle in a
"asture$ "eo"le of all sorts lie u" to the chin in 'ater all day long. At
raga in Portugal< urgos in :astile< Messina in 9icily$ all o#er 9"ain and
Italy$ their streets are most "art narro'$ to a#oid the sunbeams. The Tur%s
'ear great turbans _ad fugandos solis radios_$ to refract the sunbeams< and
much incon#enience that hot air of antam in Da#a yields to our men$ that
sojourn there for traffic< 'here it is so hot$ ;,@,BGLthat they that are
sic% of the "o+$ lie commonly bleaching in the sun$ to dry u" their sores.L
9uch a com"laint I read of those isles of :a"e Ierde$ fourteen degrees from
the E0uator$ they do _male audire_& ;,@=CG2ne calls them the unhealthiest
clime of the 'orld$ for flu+es$ fe#ers$ frenzies$ calentures$ 'hich
commonly seize on seafaring men that touch at them$ and all by reason of a
hot distem"erature of the air. The hardiest men are offended 'ith this
heat$ and stiffest clo'ns cannot resist it$ as :onstantine affirms$
_Agricult. l. =. c. ?@._ They that are naturally born in such air$ may not
;,@=,Gendure it$ as 8iger records of some "art of Meso"otamia$ no' called
3iarbecha& _Kuibusdam in locis sae#ienti aestui adeo subjecta est$ ut
"lera0ue animalia fer#ore solis et coeli e+tinguantur_$ !tis so hot there
in some "laces$ that men of the country and cattle are %illed 'ith it< and
;,@==GAdricomius of Arabia 7eli+$ by reason of myrrh$ fran%incense$ and hot
s"ices there gro'ing$ the air is so obno+ious to their brains$ that the
#ery inhabitants at some times cannot abide it$ much less 'ea%lings and
strangers. ;,@=.GAmatus *usitanus$ _cent. ,. curat. ?@_$ re"orts of a young
maid$ that 'as one Iincent a currier!s daughter$ some thirteen years of
age$ that 'ould 'ash her hair in the heat of the day (in Duly) and so let
it dry in the sun$ ;,@=?GLto ma%e it yello'$ but by that means tarrying too
long in the heat$ she inflamed her head$ and made herself mad.L
:old air in the other e+treme is almost as bad as hot$ and so doth
Montaltus esteem of it$ _c. ,,_$ if it be dry 'ithal. In those northern
countries$ the "eo"le are therefore generally dull$ hea#y$ and many
'itches$ 'hich (as I ha#e before 0uoted) 9a+o Grammaticus$ 2laus$ a"tista
Porta ascribe to melancholy. ut these cold climes are more subject to
natural melancholy (not this artificial) 'hich is cold and dry& for 'hich
cause ;,@=@GMercurius ritannicus beli%e "uts melancholy men to inhabit
just under the Pole. The 'orst of the three is a ;,@=-Gthic%$ cloudy$
misty$ foggy air$ or such as come from fens$ moorish grounds$ la%es$
muc%-hills$ draughts$ sin%s$ 'here any carcasses$ or carrion lies$ or from
'hence any stin%ing fulsome smell comes& Galen$ A#icenna$ Mercurialis$ ne'
and old "hysicians$ hold that such air is un'holesome$ and engenders
melancholy$ "lagues$ and 'hat notN ;,@=AGAle+andretta$ an ha#en-to'n in the
Mediterranean 9ea$ 9aint Dohn de Hlloa$ an ha#en in 8o#a-5is"ania$ are much
condemned for a bad air$ so are 3urazzo in Albania$ *ithuania$ 3itmarsh$
Pom"tinae Paludes in Italy$ the territories about Pisa$ 7errara$ Fc. 1omney
Marsh 'ith us< the 5undreds in Esse+$ the fens in *incolnshire. :ardan$ _de
rerum #arietate$ l. ,A$ c. B-_$ finds fault 'ith the sight of those rich$
and most "o"ulous cities in the *o' :ountries$ as ruges$ Ghent$ Amsterdam$
*eiden$ Htrecht$ Fc. the air is bad< and so at 9toc%holm in 9'eden< 1egium
in Italy$ 9alisbury 'ith us$ 5ull and *ynn& they may be commodious for
na#igation$ this ne' %ind of fortification$ and many other good necessary
uses< but are they so 'holesomeN 2ld 1ome hath descended from the hills to
the #alley$ !tis the site of most of our ne' cities$ and held best to build
in "lains$ to ta%e the o""ortunity of ri#ers. *eander Albertus "leads hard
for the air and site of Ienice$ though the blac% moorish lands a""ear at
e#ery lo' 'ater& the sea$ fire$ and smo%e (as he thin%s) 0ualify the air<
and ;,@=/Gsome su""ose$ that a thic% foggy air hel"s the memory$ as in them
of Pisa in Italy< and our :amden$ out of Plato$ commends the site of
:ambridge$ because it is so near the fens. ut let the site of such "laces
be as it may$ ho' can they be e+cused that ha#e a delicious seat$ a
"leasant air$ and all that nature can afford$ and yet through their o'n
nastiness$ and sluttishness$ immund and sordid manner of life$ suffer their
air to "utrefy$ and themsel#es to be choc%ed u"N Many cities in Tur%ey do
_male audire_ in this %ind& :onstantino"le itself$ 'here commonly carrion
lies in the street. 9ome find the same fault in 9"ain$ e#en in Madrid$ the
%ing!s seat$ a most e+cellent air$ a "leasant site< but the inhabitants are
slo#ens$ and the streets uncleanly %e"t.
A troublesome tem"estuous air is as bad as im"ure$ rough and foul 'eather$
im"etuous 'inds$ cloudy dar% days$ as it is commonly 'ith us$ _:oelum #isu
foedum_$ ;,@=BGPolydore calls it a filthy s%y$ _et in 0uo facile generantur
nubes_< as Tully!s brother Kuintus 'rote to him in 1ome$ being then
0uaestor in ritain. LIn a thic% and cloudy airL (saith *emnius) Lmen are
tetric$ sad$ and "ee#ish& And if the 'estern 'inds blo'$ and that there be
a calm$ or a fair sunshine day$ there is a %ind of alacrity in men!s minds<
it cheers u" men and beasts& but if it be a turbulent$ rough$ cloudy$
stormy 'eather$ men are sad$ lum"ish$ and much dejected$ angry$ 'as"ish$
dull$ and melancholy.L This 'as ;,@.CGIirgil!s e+"eriment of old$
LIerum ubi tem"estas$ et coeli mobilis humor
Muta#ere #ices$ et Du"iter humidus Austro$
Iertuntur s"ecies animorum$ et "ectore motus
:onci"iunt aliosL------
Lut 'hen the face of 5ea#en changed is
To tem"ests$ rain$ from season fair&
2ur minds are altered$ and in our breasts
7orth'ith some ne' conceits a""ear.L
And 'ho is not 'eather-'ise against such and such conjunctions of "lanets$
mo#ed in foul 'eather$ dull and hea#y in such tem"estuous seasonsN ;,@.,G
_Gelidum contristat A0uarius annum_& the time re0uires$ and the autumn
breeds it< 'inter is li%e unto it$ ugly$ foul$ s0ualid$ the air 'or%s on
all men$ more or less$ but es"ecially on such as are melancholy$ or
inclined to it$ as *emnius holds$ ;,@.=GLThey are most mo#ed 'ith it$ and
those 'hich are already mad$ ra#e do'nright$ either in$ or against a
tem"est. esides$ the de#il many times ta%es his o""ortunity of such
storms$ and 'hen the humours by the air be stirred$ he goes in 'ith them$
e+agitates our s"irits$ and #e+eth our souls< as the sea 'a#es$ so are the
s"irits and humours in our bodies tossed 'ith tem"estuous 'inds and
storms.L To such as are melancholy therefore$ Montanus$ _consil. =?_$ 'ill
ha#e tem"estuous and rough air to be a#oided$ and _consil. =A_$ all night
air$ and 'ould not ha#e them to 'al% abroad$ but in a "leasant day.
*emnius$ _l. .. c. ._$ discommends the south and eastern 'inds$ commends
the north. Montanus$ _consil. .,._ ;,@..GL4ill not any 'indo's to be o"ened
in the night.L _:onsil. ==B. et consil. =.C_$ he discommends es"ecially the
south 'ind$ and nocturnal air& 9o doth ;,@.?GPlutarch. The night and
dar%ness ma%es men sad$ the li%e do all subterranean #aults$ dar% houses in
ca#es and roc%s$ desert "laces cause melancholy in an instant$ es"ecially
such as ha#e not been used to it$ or other'ise accustomed. 1ead more of air
in 5i""ocrates$ _Aetius$ l. .. a c. ,A,. ad ,A@._ 2ribasius$ _a c. ,. ad
=,._ A#icen. _l. ,. can. 7en. =. doc. =. 7en. ,. c. ,=._ to the ,=$ Fc.
9H9E:T. II.--_Immoderate E+ercise a cause$ and ho'. 9olitariness$
8othing so good but it may be abused& nothing better than e+ercise (if
o""ortunely used) for the "reser#ation of the body& nothing so bad if it be
unseasonable. #iolent$ or o#ermuch. 7ernelius out of Galen$ _Path. lib. ,.
c. ,-_$ saith$ ;,@.@GLThat much e+ercise and 'eariness consumes the s"irits
and substance$ refrigerates the body< and such humours 'hich 8ature 'ould
ha#e other'ise concocted and e+"elled$ it stirs u" and ma%es them rage&
'hich being so enraged$ di#ersely affect and trouble the body and mind.L 9o
doth it$ if it be unseasonably used$ u"on a full stomach$ or 'hen the body
is full of crudities$ 'hich 7uchsius so much in#eighs against$ _lib. =.
instit. sec. =. c. ?_$ gi#ing that for a cause$ 'hy schoolboys in Germany
are so often scabbed$ because they use e+ercise "resently after meats.
;,@.-Gayerus "uts in a ca#eat against such e+ercise$ because Lit
;,@.AGcorru"ts the meat in the stomach$ and carries the same juice ra'$ and
as yet undigested$ into the #einsL (saith *emnius)$ L'hich there "utrefies
and confounds the animal s"irits.L :rato$ _consil. =,. l. =_$
;,@./G"rotests against all such e+ercise after meat$ as being the greatest
enemy to concoction that may be$ and cause of corru"tion of humours$ 'hich
"roduce this$ and many other diseases. 8ot 'ithout good reason then doth
9alust. 9al#ianus$ _l. =. c. ,_$ and *eonartus Dacchinus$ _in B. 1hasis_$
Mercurialis$ Arcubanus$ and many other$ set do'n ;,@.BGimmoderate e+ercise
as a most forcible cause of melancholy.
2""osite to e+ercise is idleness (the badge of gentry) or 'ant of e+ercise$
the bane of body and mind$ the nurse of naughtiness$ ste"mother of
disci"line$ the chief author of all mischief$ one of the se#en deadly sins$
and a sole cause of this and many other maladies$ the de#il!s cushion$ as
;,@?CGGualter calls it$ his "illo' and chief re"osal. L7or the mind can
ne#er rest$ but still meditates on one thing or other$ e+ce"t it be
occu"ied about some honest business$ of his o'n accord it rusheth into
melancholy.L ;,@?,GLAs too much and #iolent e+ercise offends on the one
side$ so doth an idle life on the otherL (saith :rato)$ Lit fills the body
full of "hlegm$ gross humours$ and all manner of obstructions$ rheums$
catarrhs$L Fc. 1hasis$ _cont. lib. ,. tract. B_$ accounts of it as the
greatest cause of melancholy. ;,@?=GLI ha#e often seenL (saith he) Lthat
idleness begets this humour more than anything else.L Montaltus$ _c. ,_$
seconds him out of his e+"erience$ ;,@?.GLThey that are idle are far more
subject to melancholy than such as are con#ersant or em"loyed about any
office or business.L ;,@??GPlutarch rec%ons u" idleness for a sole cause of
the sic%ness of the soul& LThere are theyL (saith he) Ltroubled in mind$
that ha#e no other cause but this.L 5omer$ _Iliad. ,_$ brings in Achilles
eating of his o'n heart in his idleness$ because he might not fight.
Mercurialis$ _consil. /-_$ for a melancholy young man urgeth$ ;,@?@Git as a
chief cause< 'hy 'as he melancholyN because idle. 8othing begets it sooner$
increaseth and continueth it oftener than idleness. ;,@?-GA disease
familiar to all idle "ersons$ an inse"arable com"anion to such as li#e at
ease$ _Pingui otio desidiose agentes_$ a life out of action$ and ha#e no
calling or ordinary em"loyment to busy themsel#es about$ that ha#e small
occasions< and though they ha#e$ such is their laziness$ dullness$ they
'ill not com"ose themsel#es to do aught< they cannot abide 'or%$ though it
be necessary< easy as to dress themsel#es$ 'rite a letter$ or the li%e< yet
as he that is benumbed 'ith cold sits still sha%ing$ that might relie#e
himself 'ith a little e+ercise or stirring$ do they com"lain$ but 'ill not
use the facile and ready means to do themsel#es good< and so are still
tormented 'ith melancholy. Es"ecially if they ha#e been formerly brought u"
to business$ or to %ee" much com"any$ and u"on a sudden come to lead a
sedentary life< it crucifies their souls$ and seizeth on them in an
instant< for 'hilst they are any 'ays em"loyed$ in action$ discourse$ about
any business$ s"ort or recreation$ or in com"any to their li%ing$ they are
#ery 'ell< but if alone or idle$ tormented instantly again< one day!s
solitariness$ one hour!s sometimes$ doth them more harm$ than a 'ee%!s
"hysic$ labour$ and com"any can do good. Melancholy seizeth on them
forth'ith being alone$ and is such a torture$ that as 'ise 9eneca 'ell
saith$ _Malo mihi male 0uam molliter esse_$ I had rather be sic% than idle.
This idleness is either of body or mind. That of body is nothing but a %ind
of benumbing laziness$ intermitting e+ercise$ 'hich$ if 'e may belie#e
;,@?AG7ernelius$ Lcauseth crudities$ obstructions$ e+cremental humours$
0uencheth the natural heat$ dulls the s"irits$ and ma%es them una"t to do
any thing 'hatsoe#er.L
;,@?/G L8eglectis urenda fili+ innascitur agris.L
------Lfor$ a neglected field
9hall for the fire its thorns and thistles yield.L
As fern gro's in untilled grounds$ and all manner of 'eeds$ so do gross
humours in an idle body$ _Igna#um corrum"unt otia cor"us_. A horse in a
stable that ne#er tra#els$ a ha'% in a me' that seldom flies$ are both
subject to diseases< 'hich left unto themsel#es$ are most free from any
such encumbrances. An idle dog 'ill be mangy$ and ho' shall an idle "erson
thin% to esca"eN Idleness of the mind is much 'orse than this of the body<
'it 'ithout em"loyment is a disease ;,@?BG_Aerugo animi$ rubigo ingenii_&
the rust of the soul$ ;,@@CGa "lague$ a hell itself$ _Ma+imum animi
nocumentum_$ Galen$ calls it. ;,@@,GLAs in a standing "ool$ 'orms and
filthy cree"ers increase$ (_et #itium ca"iunt ni mo#eantur a0uae_$ the
'ater itself "utrefies$ and air li%e'ise$ if it be not continually stirred
by the 'ind) so do e#il and corru"t thoughts in an idle "erson$L the soul
is contaminated. In a common'ealth$ 'here is no "ublic enemy$ there is
li%ely ci#il 'ars$ and they rage u"on themsel#es& this body of ours$ 'hen
it is idle$ and %no's not ho' to besto' itself$ macerates and #e+eth itself
'ith cares$ griefs$ false fears$ discontents$ and sus"icions< it tortures
and "reys u"on his o'n bo'els$ and is ne#er at rest. Thus much I dare
boldly say< he or she that is idle$ be they of 'hat condition they 'ill$
ne#er so rich$ so 'ell allied$ fortunate$ ha""y$ let them ha#e all things
in abundance and felicity that heart can 'ish and desire$ all contentment$
so long as he or she or they are idle$ they shall ne#er be "leased$ ne#er
'ell in body and mind$ but 'eary still$ sic%ly still$ #e+ed still$ loathing
still$ 'ee"ing$ sighing$ grie#ing$ sus"ecting$ offended 'ith the 'orld$
'ith e#ery object$ 'ishing themsel#es gone or dead$ or else earned a'ay
'ith some foolish "hantasy or other. And this is the true cause that so
many great men$ ladies$ and gentle'omen$ labour of this disease in country
and city< for idleness is an a""endi+ to nobility< they count it a disgrace
to 'or%$ and s"end all their days in s"orts$ recreations$ and "astimes$ and
'ill therefore ta%e no "ains< be of no #ocation& they feed liberally$ fare
'ell$ 'ant e+ercise$ action$ em"loyment$ (for to 'or%$ I say$ they may not
abide$) and :om"any to their desires$ and thence their bodies become full
of gross humours$ 'ind$ crudities< their minds dis0uieted$ dull$ hea#y$ Fc.
care$ jealousy$ fear of some diseases$ sullen fits$ 'ee"ing fits seize too
;,@@=Gfamiliarly on them. 7or 'hat 'ill not fear and "hantasy 'or% in an
idle bodyN 'hat distem"ers 'ill they not causeN 'hen the children of ;,@@.G
Israel murmured against Pharaoh in Egy"t$ he commanded his officers to
double their tas%$ and let them get stra' themsel#es$ and yet ma%e their
full number of bric%s< for the sole cause 'hy they mutiny$ and are e#il at
ease$ is$ Lthey are idle.L 4hen you shall hear and see so many discontented
"ersons in all "laces 'here you come$ so many se#eral grie#ances$
unnecessary com"laints$ fears$ sus"icions$ ;,@@?Gthe best means to redress
it is to set them a'or%$ so to busy their minds< for the truth is$ they are
idle. 4ell they may build castles in the air for a time$ and sooth u"
themsel#es 'ith fantastical and "leasant humours$ but in the end they 'ill
"ro#e as bitter as gall$ they shall be still I say discontent$ sus"icious$
;,@@@Gfearful$ jealous$ sad$ fretting and #e+ing of themsel#es< so long as
they be idle$ it is im"ossible to "lease them$ _2tio 0ui nescit uti$ "lus
habet negotii 0uam 0ui negotium in negotio_$ as that ;,@@-GAgellius could
obser#e& 5e that %no's not ho' to s"end his time$ hath more business$ care$
grief$ anguish of mind$ than he that is most busy in the midst of all his
business. _2tiosus animus nescit 0uid #olet_& An idle "erson (as he follo's
it) %no's not 'hen he is 'ell$ 'hat he 'ould ha#e$ or 'hither he 'ould go$
_Kuum illuc #entum est$ illinc lubet_$ he is tired out 'ith e#erything$
dis"leased 'ith all$ 'eary of his life& _8ec bene domi$ nec militiae_$
neither at home nor abroad$ _errat$ et "raeter #itam #i#itur_$ he 'anders
and li#es besides himself. In a 'ord$ 4hat the mischie#ous effects of
laziness and idleness are$ I do not find any 'here more accurately
e+"ressed$ than in these #erses of Philolaches in the ;,@@AG:omical Poet$
'hich for their elegancy I 'ill in "art insert.
L8o#arum aedium esse arbitror similem ego hominem$
Kuando hic natus est& Ei rei argumenta dicam.
Aedes 0uando sunt ad amussim e+"olitae$
Kuis0ue laudat fabrum$ at0ue e+em"lum e+"etit$ Fc.
At ubi illo migrat ne0uam homo indiligens0ue$ Fc.
Tem"estas #enit$ confringit tegulas$ imbrices0ue$
Putrifacit aer o"eram fabri$ Fc.
3icam ut homines similes esse aedium arbitremini$
7abri "arentes fundamentum substruunt liberorum$
E+"oliunt$ docent literas$ nec "arcunt sum"tui$
Ego autem sub fabrorum "otestate frugi fui$
Post0uam autem migra#i in ingenium meum$
Perdidi o"eram fabrorum illico o""ido$
Ienit igna#ia$ ea mihi tem"estas fuit$
Ad#entu0ue suo grandinem et imbrem attulit$
Illa mihi #irtutem deturba#it$L Fc.
A young man is li%e a fair ne' house$ the car"enter lea#es it 'ell built$
in good re"air$ of solid stuff< but a bad tenant lets it rain in$ and for
'ant of re"aration$ fall to decay$ Fc. 2ur "arents$ tutors$ friends$ s"are
no cost to bring us u" in our youth$ in all manner of #irtuous education<
but 'hen 'e are left to oursel#es$ idleness as a tem"est dri#es all
#irtuous motions out of our minds$ et _nihili sumus_$ on a sudden$ by sloth
and such bad 'ays$ 'e come to nought.
:ousin german to idleness$ and a concomitant cause$ 'hich goes hand in hand
'ith it$ is ;,@@/G_nimia solitudo_$ too much solitariness$ by the testimony
of all "hysicians$ cause and sym"tom both< but as it is here "ut for a
cause$ it is either coact$ enforced$ or else #oluntary. Enforced
solitariness is commonly seen in students$ mon%s$ friars$ anchorites$ that
by their order and course of life must abandon all com"any$ society of
other men$ and beta%e themsel#es to a "ri#ate cell& _2tio su"erstitioso
seclusi_$ as ale and 5os"inian 'ell term it$ such as are the :arthusians
of our time$ that eat no flesh (by their order)$ %ee" "er"etual silence$
ne#er go abroad. 9uch as li#e in "rison$ or some desert "lace$ and cannot
ha#e com"any$ as many of our country gentlemen do in solitary houses$ they
must either be alone 'ithout com"anions$ or li#e beyond their means$ and
entertain all comers as so many hosts$ or else con#erse 'ith their ser#ants
and hinds$ such as are une0ual$ inferior to them$ and of a contrary
dis"osition& or else as some do$ to a#oid solitariness$ s"end their time
'ith le'd fello's in ta#erns$ and in alehouses$ and thence addict
themsel#es to some unla'ful dis"orts$ or dissolute courses. 3i#ers again
are cast u"on this roc% of solitariness for 'ant of means$ or out of a
strong a""rehension of some infirmity$ disgrace$ or through bashfulness$
rudeness$ sim"licity$ they cannot a""ly themsel#es to others! com"any.
_8ullum solum infelici gratius solitudine$ ubi nullus sit 0ui miseriam
e+"robret_< this enforced solitariness ta%es "lace$ and "roduceth his
effect soonest in such as ha#e s"ent their time jo#ially$ "erad#enture in
all honest recreations$ in good com"any$ in some great family or "o"ulous
city$ and are u"on a sudden confined to a desert country cottage far off$
restrained of their liberty$ and barred from their ordinary associates<
solitariness is #ery ir%some to such$ most tedious$ and a sudden cause of
great incon#enience.
Ioluntary solitariness is that 'hich is familiar 'ith melancholy$ and
gently brings on li%e a 9iren$ a shoeing-horn$ or some s"hin+ to this
irre#ocable gulf$ ;,@@BGa "rimary cause$ Piso calls it< most "leasant it is
at first$ to such as are melancholy gi#en$ to lie in bed 'hole days$ and
%ee" their chambers$ to 'al% alone in some solitary gro#e$ bet'i+t 'ood and
'ater$ by a broo% side$ to meditate u"on some delightsome and "leasant
subject$ 'hich shall affect them most< _amabilis insania$ et mentis
gratissimus error_& a most incom"arable delight it is so to melancholise$
and build castles in the air$ to go smiling to themsel#es$ acting an
infinite #ariety of "arts$ 'hich they su""ose and strongly imagine they
re"resent$ or that they see acted or done& _landae 0uidem ab initio_$
saith *emnius$ to concei#e and meditate of such "leasant things$ sometimes$
;,@-CGL"resent$ "ast$ or to come$L as 1hasis s"ea%s. 9o delightsome these
toys are at first$ they could s"end 'hole days and nights 'ithout slee"$
e#en 'hole years alone in such contem"lations$ and fantastical meditations$
'hich are li%e unto dreams$ and they 'ill hardly be dra'n from them$ or
'illingly interru"t$ so "leasant their #ain conceits are$ that they hinder
their ordinary tas%s and necessary business$ they cannot address themsel#es
to them$ or almost to any study or em"loyment$ these fantastical and
be'itching thoughts so co#ertly$ so feelingly$ so urgently$ so continually
set u"on$ cree" in$ insinuate$ "ossess$ o#ercome$ distract$ and detain
them$ they cannot$ I say$ go about their more necessary business$ sta#e off
or e+tricate themsel#es$ but are e#er musing$ melancholising$ and carried
along$ as he (they say) that is led round about a heath 'ith a Puc% in the
night$ they run earnestly on in this labyrinth of an+ious and solicitous
melancholy meditations$ and cannot 'ell or 'illingly refrain$ or easily
lea#e off$ 'inding and un'inding themsel#es$ as so many cloc%s$ and still
"leasing their humours$ until at last the scene is turned u"on a sudden$ by
some bad object$ and they being no' habituated to such #ain meditations and
solitary "laces$ can endure no com"any$ can ruminate of nothing but harsh
and distasteful subjects. 7ear$ sorro'$ sus"icion$ _subrusticus "udor_$
discontent$ cares$ and 'eariness of life sur"rise them in a moment$ and
they can thin% of nothing else$ continually sus"ecting$ no sooner are their
eyes o"en$ but this infernal "lague of melancholy seizeth on them$ and
terrifies their souls$ re"resenting some dismal object to their minds$
'hich no' by no means$ no labour$ no "ersuasions they can a#oid$ _haeret
lateri lethalis arundo_$ (the arro' of death still remains in the side)$
they may not be rid of it$ ;,@-,Gthey cannot resist. I may not deny but
that there is some "rofitable meditation$ contem"lation$ and %ind of
solitariness to be embraced$ 'hich the fathers so highly commended$ ;,@-=G
5ierom$ :hrysostom$ :y"rian$ Austin$ in 'hole tracts$ 'hich Petrarch$
Erasmus$ 9tella$ and others$ so much magnify in their boo%s< a "aradise$ a
hea#en on earth$ if it be used aright$ good for the body$ and better for
the soul& as many of those old mon%s used it$ to di#ine contem"lations$ as
9imulus$ a courtier in Adrian!s time$ 3iocletian the em"eror$ retired
themsel#es$ Fc.$ in that sense$ _Iatia solus scit #i#ere_$ Iatia li#es
alone$ 'hich the 1omans 'ere 'ont to say$ 'hen they commended a country
life. 2r to the bettering of their %no'ledge$ as 3emocritus$ :leanthes$ and
those e+cellent "hiloso"hers ha#e e#er done$ to se0uester themsel#es from
the tumultuous 'orld$ or as in Pliny!s #illa *aurentana$ Tully!s Tusculan$
Do#ius! study$ that they might better _#acare studiis et 3eo_$ ser#e God$
and follo' their studies. Methin%s$ therefore$ our too zealous inno#ators
'ere not so 'ell ad#ised in that general sub#ersion of abbeys and religious
houses$ "romiscuously to fling do'n all< they might ha#e ta%en a'ay those
gross abuses cre"t in amongst them$ rectified such incon#eniences$ and not
so far to ha#e ra#ed and raged against those fair buildings$ and
e#erlasting monuments of our forefathers! de#otion$ consecrated to "ious
uses< some monasteries and collegiate cells might ha#e been 'ell s"ared$
and their re#enues other'ise em"loyed$ here and there one$ in good to'ns or
cities at least$ for men and 'omen of all sorts and conditions to li#e in$
to se0uester themsel#es from the cares and tumults of the 'orld$ that 'ere
not desirous$ or fit to marry< or other'ise 'illing to be troubled 'ith
common affairs$ and %no' not 'ell 'here to besto' themsel#es$ to li#e a"art
in$ for more con#eniency$ good education$ better com"any sa%e$ to follo'
their studies (I say)$ to the "erfection of arts and sciences$ common good$
and as some truly de#oted mon%s of old had done$ freely and truly to ser#e
God. 7or these men are neither solitary$ nor idle$ as the "oet made ans'er
to the husbandman in Aeso"$ that objected idleness to him< he 'as ne#er so
idle as in his com"any< or that 9ci"io Africanus in ;,@-.GTully$ _8un0uam
minus solus$ 0uam cum solus< nun0uam minus otiosus$ 0uam 0uum esset
otiosus_< ne#er less solitary$ than 'hen he 'as alone$ ne#er more busy$
than 'hen he seemed to be most idle. It is re"orted by Plato in his
dialogue _de Amore_$ in that "rodigious commendation of 9ocrates$ ho' a
dee" meditation coming into 9ocrates! mind by chance$ he stood still
musing$ _eodem #estigio cogitabundus_$ from morning to noon$ and 'hen as
then he had not yet finished his meditation$ _"erstabat cogitans_$ he so
continued till the e#ening$ the soldiers (for he then follo'ed the cam")
obser#ed him 'ith admiration$ and on set "ur"ose 'atched all night$ but he
"erse#ered immo#able _ad e+hortim solis_$ till the sun rose in the morning$
and then saluting the sun$ 'ent his 'ays. In 'hat humour constant 9ocrates
did thus$ I %no' not$ or ho' he might be affected$ but this 'ould be
"ernicious to another man< 'hat intricate business might so really "ossess
him$ I cannot easily guess< but this is _otiosum otium_$ it is far
other'ise 'ith these men$ according to 9eneca$ _2mnia nobis mala solitudo
"ersuadet_< this solitude undoeth us$ _"ugnat cum #ita sociali_< !tis a
destructi#e solitariness. These men are de#ils alone$ as the saying is$
_5omo solus aut 3eus$ aut 3aemon_& a man alone$ is either a saint or a
de#il$ _mens ejus aut languescit$ aut tumescit_< and ;,@-?G_Iae soli_ in
this sense$ 'oe be to him that is so alone. These 'retches do fre0uently
degenerate from men$ and of sociable creatures become beasts$ monsters$
inhumane$ ugly to behold$ _Misanthro"i_< they do e#en loathe themsel#es$
and hate the com"any of men$ as so many Timons$ 8ebuchadnezzars$ by too
much indulging to these "leasing humours$ and through their o'n default. 9o
that 'hich Mercurialis$ _consil. ,,_$ sometimes e+"ostulated 'ith his
melancholy "atient$ may be justly a""lied to e#ery solitary and idle "erson
in "articular. ;,@-@G_8atura de te #idetur con0ueri "osse_$ Fc. L8ature may
justly com"lain of thee$ that 'hereas she ga#e thee a good 'holesome
tem"erature$ a sound body$ and God hath gi#en thee so di#ine and e+cellent
a soul$ so many good "arts$ and "rofitable gifts$ thou hast not only
contemned and rejected$ but hast corru"ted them$ "olluted them$ o#erthro'n
their tem"erature$ and "er#erted those gifts 'ith riot$ idleness$
solitariness$ and many other 'ays$ thou art a traitor to God and nature$ an
enemy to thyself and to the 'orld.L _Perditio tua e+ te_< thou hast lost
thyself 'ilfully$ cast a'ay thyself$ Lthou thyself art the efficient cause
of thine o'n misery$ by not resisting such #ain cogitations$ but gi#ing 'ay
unto them.L
9H9E:T. III.--_9lee"ing and 4a%ing$ :auses_.
4hat I ha#e formerly said of e+ercise$ I may no' re"eat of slee". 8othing
better than moderate slee"$ nothing 'orse than it$ if it be in e+tremes$ or
unseasonably used. It is a recei#ed o"inion$ that a melancholy man cannot
slee" o#ermuch< _9omnus su"ra modum "rodest_$ as an only antidote$ and
nothing offends them more$ or causeth this malady sooner$ than 'a%ing$ yet
in some cases slee" may do more harm than good$ in that "hlegmatic$
s'inish$ cold$ and sluggish melancholy 'hich Melancthon s"ea%s of$ that
thin%s of 'aters$ sighing most "art$ Fc. ;,@--GIt dulls the s"irits$ if
o#ermuch$ and senses< fills the head full of gross humours< causeth
distillations$ rheums$ great store of e+crements in the brain$ and all the
other "arts$ as ;,@-AG7uchsius s"ea%s of them$ that slee" li%e so many
dormice. 2r if it be used in the daytime$ u"on a full stomach$ the body
ill-com"osed to rest$ or after hard meats$ it increaseth fearful dreams$
incubus$ night 'al%ing$ crying out$ and much un0uietness< such slee"
"re"ares the body$ as ;,@-/Gone obser#es$ Lto many "erilous diseases.L ut$
as I ha#e said$ 'a%ing o#ermuch$ is both a sym"tom$ and an ordinary cause.
LIt causeth dryness of the brain$ frenzy$ dotage$ and ma%es the body dry$
lean$ hard$ and ugly to behold$L as ;,@-BG*emnius hath it. LThe tem"erature
of the brain is corru"ted by it$ the humours adust$ the eyes made to sin%
into the head$ choler increased$ and the 'hole body inflamed&L and$ as may
be added out of Galen$ _.. de sanitate tuendo_$ A#icenna _.. ,._ ;,@ACGLIt
o#erthro's the natural heat$ it causeth crudities$ hurts$ concoction$L and
'hat notN 8ot 'ithout good cause therefore :rato$ _consil. =,. lib. =_<
5ildesheim$ _s"icel. =. de delir. et Mania_$ Dacchinus$ Arculanus on
1hasis$ Guianerius and Mercurialis$ rec%on u" this o#ermuch 'a%ing as a
"rinci"al cause.
9H9E:T. I.--_Passions and Perturbations of the Mind$ ho' they cause
As that gymnoso"hist in ;,@A,GPlutarch made ans'er to Ale+ander (demanding
'hich s"a%e best)$ E#ery one of his fello's did s"ea% better than the
other& so may I say of these causes< to him that shall re0uire 'hich is the
greatest$ e#ery one is more grie#ous than other$ and this of "assion the
greatest of all. A most fre0uent and ordinary cause of melancholy$ ;,@A=G
_fulmen "erturbationum_ (Picolomineus calls it) this thunder and lightning
of "erturbation$ 'hich causeth such #iolent and s"eedy alterations in this
our microcosm$ and many times sub#erts the good estate and tem"erature of
it. 7or as the body 'or%s u"on the mind by his bad humours$ troubling the
s"irits$ sending gross fumes into the brain$ and so _"er conse0uens_
disturbing the soul$ and all the faculties of it$
;,@A.G ------L:or"us onustum$
5esternis #itiis animum 0uo0ue "raegra#at una$L
'ith fear$ sorro'$ Fc.$ 'hich are ordinary sym"toms of this disease& so on
the other side$ the mind most effectually 'or%s u"on the body$ "roducing by
his "assions and "erturbations miraculous alterations$ as melancholy$
des"air$ cruel diseases$ and sometimes death itself. Insomuch that it is
most true 'hich Plato saith in his :harmides$ _omnia cor"oris mala ab anima
"rocedere_< all the ;,@A?Gmischiefs of the body "roceed from the soul& and
3emocritus in ;,@A@GPlutarch urgeth$ _3amnatam iri animam a cor"ore_$ if
the body should in this behalf bring an action against the soul$ surely the
soul 'ould be cast and con#icted$ that by her su"ine negligence had caused
such incon#eniences$ ha#ing authority o#er the body$ and using it for an
instrument$ as a smith doth his hammer (saith ;,@A-G:y"rian)$ im"uting all
those #ices and maladies to the mind. E#en so doth ;,@AAGPhilostratus$ _non
coin0uinatur cor"us$ nisi consensuanimae_< the body is not corru"ted$ but
by the soul. *odo#icus Ii#es 'ill ha#e such turbulent commotions "roceed
from ignorance and indiscretion. ;,@A/GAll "hiloso"hers im"ute the miseries
of the body to the soul$ that should ha#e go#erned it better$ by command of
reason$ and hath not done it. The 9toics are altogether of o"inion (as
;,@ABG*i"sius and ;,@/CGPicolomineus record)$ that a 'ise man should be
;Gree%& a"athaesG$ 'ithout all manner of "assions and "erturbations
'hatsoe#er$ as ;,@/,G9eneca re"orts of :ato$ the ;,@/=G Gree%s of 9ocrates$
and ;,@/.GIo. Aubanus of a nation in Africa$ so free from "assion$ or
rather so stu"id$ that if they be 'ounded 'ith a s'ord$ they 'ill only loo%
bac%. ;,@/?G*actantius$ _= instit._$ 'ill e+clude Lfear from a 'ise man&L
others e+ce"t all$ some the greatest "assions. ut let them dis"ute ho'
they 'ill$ set do'n in Thesi$ gi#e "rece"ts to the contrary< 'e find that
of ;,@/@G*emnius true by common e+"erience< L8o mortal man is free from
these "erturbations& or if he be so$ sure he is either a god$ or a bloc%.L
They are born and bred 'ith us$ 'e ha#e them from our "arents by
inheritance. _A "arentibus habemus malum hunc assem_$ saith ;,@/-GPelezius$
_8ascitur una nobiscum$ alitur0ue_$ !tis "ro"agated from Adam$ :ain 'as
melancholy$ ;,@/AGas Austin hath it$ and 'ho is notN Good disci"line$
education$ "hiloso"hy$ di#inity (I cannot deny)$ may mitigate and restrain
these "assions in some fe' men at some times$ but most "art they domineer$
and are so #iolent$ ;,@//Gthat as a torrent (_torrens #elut aggere ru"to_)
bears do'n all before$ and o#erflo's his ban%s$ _sternit agros$ sternit
sata_$ (lays 'aste the fields$ "rostrates the cro"s$) they o#er'helm
reason$ judgment$ and "er#ert the tem"erature of the body< _7ertur ;,@/BG
e0uis auriga$ nec audit currus habenas_. 8o' such a man (saith
;,@BCGAustin) Lthat is so led$ in a 'ise man!s eye$ is no better than he
that stands u"on his head.L It is doubted by some$ _Gra#ioresne morbi a
"erturbationibus$ an ab humoribus_$ 'hether humours or "erturbations cause
the more grie#ous maladies. ut 'e find that of our 9a#iour$ Mat. ++#i. ?,$
most true$ LThe s"irit is 'illing$ the flesh is 'ea%$L 'e cannot resist<
and this of ;,@B,GPhilo Dudeus$ LPerturbations often offend the body$ and
are most fre0uent causes of melancholy$ turning it out of the hinges of his
health.L Ii#es com"ares them to ;,@B=GL4inds u"on the sea$ some only mo#e
as those great gales$ but others turbulent 0uite o#erturn the shi".L Those
'hich are light$ easy$ and more seldom$ to our thin%ing$ do us little harm$
and are therefore contemned of us& yet if they be reiterated$ ;,@B.GLas the
rainL (saith Austin) Ldoth a stone$ so do these "erturbations "enetrate the
mind&L ;,@B?Gand (as one obser#es) L"roduce a habit of melancholy at the
last$L 'hich ha#ing gotten the mastery in our souls$ may 'ell be called
5o' these "assions "roduce this effect$ ;,@B@GAgri""a hath handled at
large$ _2ccult. Philos. l. ,,. c. -.._ :ardan$ _l. ,?. subtil._ *emnius$
_l. ,. c. ,=$ de occult. nat. mir. et lib. ,. ca". ,-._ 9uarez$ _Met.
dis"ut. ,/. sect. ,. art. =@._ T. right$ _ca". ,=._ of his Melancholy
Treatise. 4right the Desuit$ in his oo% of the Passions of the Mind$ Fc.
Thus in brief$ to our imagination cometh by the out'ard sense or memory$
some object to be %no'n (residing in the foremost "art of the brain)$ 'hich
he misconcei#ing or am"lifying "resently communicates to the heart$ the
seat of all affections. The "ure s"irits forth'ith floc% from the brain to
the heart$ by certain secret channels$ and signify 'hat good or bad object
'as "resented< ;,@B-G'hich immediately bends itself to "rosecute$ or a#oid
it< and 'ithal$ dra'eth 'ith it other humours to hel" it& so in "leasure$
concur great store of "urer s"irits< in sadness$ much melancholy blood< in
ire$ choler. If the imagination be #ery a""rehensi#e$ intent$ and #iolent$
it sends great store of s"irits to$ or from the heart$ and ma%es a dee"er
im"ression$ and greater tumult$ as the humours in the body be li%e'ise
"re"ared$ and the tem"erature itself ill or 'ell dis"osed$ the "assions are
longer and stronger< so that the first ste" and fountain of all our
grie#ances in this %ind$ is ;,@BAG_laesa imaginatio_$ 'hich misinforming
the heart$ causeth all these distem"eratures$ alteration and confusion of
s"irits and humours. y means of 'hich$ so disturbed$ concoction is
hindered$ and the "rinci"al "arts are much debilitated< as ;,@B/G3r.
8a#arra 'ell declared$ being consulted by Montanus about a melancholy De'.
The s"irits so confounded$ the nourishment must needs be abated$ bad
humours increased$ crudities and thic% s"irits engendered 'ith melancholy
blood. The other "arts cannot "erform their functions$ ha#ing the s"irits
dra'n from them by #ehement "assion$ but fail in sense and motion< so 'e
loo% u"on a thing$ and see it not< hear$ and obser#e not< 'hich other'ise
'ould much affect us$ had 'e been free. I may therefore conclude 'ith
;,@BBGArnoldus$ _Ma+ima #is est "hantasiae$ et huic uni fere$ non autem
cor"oris intem"eriei$ omnis melancholiae causa est ascribenda_& LGreat is
the force of imagination$ and much more ought the cause of melancholy to be
ascribed to this alone$ than to the distem"erature of the body.L 2f 'hich
imagination$ because it hath so great a stro%e in "roducing this malady$
and is so "o'erful of itself$ it 'ill not be im"ro"er to my discourse$ to
ma%e a brief digression$ and s"ea% of the force of it$ and ho' it causeth
this alteration. 4hich manner of digression$ ho'soe#er some disli%e$ as
fri#olous and im"ertinent$ yet I am of ;,-CCGeroaldus!s o"inion$ L9uch
digressions do mightily delight and refresh a 'eary reader$ they are li%e
sauce to a bad stomach$ and I do therefore most 'illingly use them.L
9H9E:T. II.--_2f the 7orce of Imagination_.
4hat imagination is$ I ha#e sufficiently declared in my digression of the
anatomy of the soul. I 'ill only no' "oint at the 'onderful effects and
"o'er of it< 'hich$ as it is eminent in all$ so most es"ecially it rageth
in melancholy "ersons$ in %ee"ing the s"ecies of objects so long$
mista%ing$ am"lifying them by continual and ;,-C,Gstrong meditation$ until
at length it "roduceth in some "arties real effects$ causeth this$ and many
other maladies. And although this "hantasy of ours be a subordinate faculty
to reason$ and should be ruled by it$ yet in many men$ through in'ard or
out'ard distem"eratures$ defect of organs$ 'hich are una"t$ or other'ise
contaminated$ it is li%e'ise una"t$ or hindered$ and hurt. This 'e see
#erified in slee"ers$ 'hich by reason of humours and concourse of #a"ours
troubling the "hantasy$ imagine many times absurd and "rodigious things$
and in such as are troubled 'ith incubus$ or 'itch-ridden (as 'e call it)$
if they lie on their bac%s$ they su""ose an old 'oman rides$ and sits so
hard u"on them$ that they are almost stifled for 'ant of breath< 'hen there
is nothing offends$ but a concourse of bad humours$ 'hich trouble the
"hantasy. This is li%e'ise e#ident in such as 'al% in the night in their
slee"$ and do strange feats& ;,-C=Gthese #a"ours mo#e the "hantasy$ the
"hantasy the a""etite$ 'hich mo#ing the animal s"irits causeth the body to
'al% u" and do'n as if they 'ere a'a%e. 7racast. _l. .. de intellect_$
refers all ecstasies to this force of imagination$ such as lie 'hole days
together in a trance& as that "riest 'hom ;,-C.G:elsus s"ea%s of$ that
could se"arate himself from his senses 'hen he list$ and lie li%e a dead
man$ #oid of life and sense. :ardan brags of himself$ that he could do as
much$ and that 'hen he list. Many times such men 'hen they come to
themsel#es$ tell strange things of hea#en and hell$ 'hat #isions they ha#e
seen< as that 9t. 2'en$ in Matthe' Paris$ that 'ent into 9t. Patric%!s
"urgatory$ and the mon% of E#esham in the same author. Those common
a""aritions in ede and Gregory$ 9aint ridget!s re#elations$ 4ier. _l. ..
de lamiis$ c. ,,._ :aesar Ianninus$ in his 3ialogues$ Fc. reduceth (as I
ha#e formerly said)$ 'ith all those tales of 'itches! "rogresses$ dancing$
riding$ transformations$ o"erations$ Fc. to the force of ;,-C?G
imagination$ and the ;,-C@Gde#il!s illusions. The li%e effects almost are
to be seen in such as are a'a%e& ho' many chimeras$ antics$ golden
mountains and castles in the air do they build unto themsel#esN I a""eal to
"ainters$ mechanicians$ mathematicians. 9ome ascribe all #ices to a false
and corru"t imagination$ anger$ re#enge$ lust$ ambition$ co#etousness$
'hich "refers falsehood before that 'hich is right and good$ deluding the
soul 'ith false sho's and su""ositions. ;,-C-Gernardus Penottus 'ill ha#e
heresy and su"erstition to "roceed from this fountain< as he falsely
imagineth$ so he belie#eth< and as he concei#eth of it$ so it must be$ and
it shall be$ _contra gentes_$ he 'ill ha#e it so. ut most es"ecially in
"assions and affections$ it sho's strange and e#ident effects& 'hat 'ill
not a fearful man concei#e in the dar%N 4hat strange forms of bugbears$
de#ils$ 'itches$ goblinsN *a#ater im"utes the greatest cause of s"ectrums$
and the li%e a""aritions$ to fear$ 'hich abo#e all other "assions begets
the strongest imagination (saith ;,-CAG4ierus)$ and so li%e'ise lo#e$
sorro'$ joy$ Fc. 9ome die suddenly$ as she that sa' her son come from the
battle at :annae$ Fc. Dacob the "atriarch$ by force of imagination$ made
s"ec%led lambs$ laying s"ec%led rods before his shee". Persina$ that
Ethio"ian 0ueen in 5eliodorus$ by seeing the "icture of Persius and
Andromeda$ instead of a blac%amoor$ 'as brought to bed of a fair 'hite
child. In imitation of 'hom beli%e$ a hard-fa#oured fello' in Greece$
because he and his 'ife 'ere both deformed$ to get a good brood of
children$ _Elegantissimas imagines in thalamo colloca#it_$ Fc. hung the
fairest "ictures he could buy for money in his chamber$ LThat his 'ife by
fre0uent sight of them$ might concei#e and bear such children.L And if 'e
may belie#e ale$ one of Po"e 8icholas the Third!s concubines by seeing of
;,-C/Ga bear 'as brought to bed of a monster. LIf a 'omanL (saith ;,-CBG
*emnius)$ Lat the time of her conce"tion thin% of another man "resent or
absent$ the child 'ill be li%e him.L Great-bellied 'omen$ 'hen they long$
yield us "rodigious e+am"les in this %ind$ as moles$ 'arts$ scars$
hareli"s$ monsters$ es"ecially caused in their children by force of a
de"ra#ed "hantasy in them& _I"sam s"eciem 0uam animo effigiat$ faetui
inducit_& 9he im"rints that stam" u"on her child 'hich she ;,-,CGconcei#es
unto herself. And therefore *odo#icus Ii#es$ _lib. =. de :hrist$ faem._$
gi#es a s"ecial caution to great-bellied 'omen$ ;,-,,GLthat they do not
admit such absurd conceits and cogitations$ but by all means a#oid those
horrible objects$ heard or seen$ or filthy s"ectacles.L 9ome 'ill laugh$
'ee"$ sigh$ groan$ blush$ tremble$ s'eat$ at such things as are suggested
unto them by their imagination. A#icenna s"ea%s of one that could cast
himself into a "alsy 'hen he list< and some can imitate the tunes of birds
and beasts that they can hardly be discerned& 3agebertus! and 9aint
7rancis! scars and 'ounds$ li%e those of :hrist!s (if at the least any such
'ere)$ ;,-,=GAgri""a su""oseth to ha#e ha""ened by force of imagination&
that some are turned to 'ol#es$ from men to 'omen$ and 'omen again to men
('hich is constantly belie#ed) to the same imagination< or from men to
asses$ dogs$ or any other sha"es. ;,-,.G4ierus ascribes all those famous
transformations to imagination< that in hydro"hobia they seem to see the
"icture of a dog$ still in their 'ater$ ;,-,?Gthat melancholy men and sic%
men concei#e so many fantastical #isions$ a""aritions to themsel#es$ and
ha#e such absurd a""aritions$ as that they are %ings$ lords$ coc%s$ bears$
a"es$ o'ls< that they are hea#y$ light$ trans"arent$ great and little$
senseless and dead (as shall be sho'ed more at large$ in our ;,-,@G
sections of sym"toms)$ can be im"uted to nought else$ but to a corru"t$
false$ and #iolent imagination. It 'or%s not in sic% and melancholy men
only$ but e#en most forcibly sometimes in such as are sound& it ma%es them
suddenly sic%$ and ;,-,-Galters their tem"erature in an instant. And
sometimes a strong conceit or a""rehension$ as ;,-,AGIalesius "ro#es$ 'ill
ta%e a'ay diseases& in both %inds it 'ill "roduce real effects. Men$ if
they see but another man tremble$ giddy or sic% of some fearful disease$
their a""rehension and fear is so strong in this %ind$ that they 'ill ha#e
the same disease. 2r if by some soothsayer$ 'iseman$ fortune-teller$ or
"hysician$ they be told they shall ha#e such a disease$ they 'ill so
seriously a""rehend it$ that they 'ill instantly labour of it. A thing
familiar in :hina (saith 1iccius the Desuit)$ ;,-,/GLIf it be told them
they shall be sic% on such a day$ 'hen that day comes they 'ill surely be
sic%$ and 'ill be so terribly afflicted$ that sometimes they die u"on it.L
3r. :otta in his disco#ery of ignorant "ractitioners of "hysic$ _ca". /_$
hath t'o strange stories to this "ur"ose$ 'hat fancy is able to do. The one
of a "arson!s 'ife in 8ortham"tonshire$ _An._ ,-CA$ that coming to a
"hysician$ and told by him that she 'as troubled 'ith the sciatica$ as he
conjectured (a disease she 'as free from)$ the same night after her return$
u"on his 'ords$ fell into a grie#ous fit of a sciatica& and such another
e+am"le he hath of another good 'ife$ that 'as so troubled 'ith the cram"$
after the same manner she came by it$ because her "hysician did but name
it. 9ometimes death itself is caused by force of "hantasy. I ha#e heard of
one that coming by chance in com"any of him that 'as thought to be sic% of
the "lague ('hich 'as not so) fell do'n suddenly dead. Another 'as sic% of
the "lague 'ith conceit. 2ne seeing his fello' let blood falls do'n in a
s'oon. Another (saith ;,-,BG:ardan out of Aristotle)$ fell do'n dead ('hich
is familiar to 'omen at any ghastly sight)$ seeing but a man hanged. A De'
in 7rance (saith ;,-=CG*odo#icus Ii#es)$ came by chance o#er a dangerous
"assage or "lan%$ that lay o#er a broo% in the dar%$ 'ithout harm$ the ne+t
day "ercei#ing 'hat danger he 'as in$ fell do'n dead. Many 'ill not belie#e
such stories to be true$ but laugh commonly$ and deride 'hen they hear of
them< but let these men consider 'ith themsel#es$ as ;,-=,GPeter yarus
illustrates it$ If they 'ere set to 'al% u"on a "lan% on high$ they 'ould
be giddy$ u"on 'hich they dare securely 'al% u"on the ground. Many (saith
Agri""a)$ ;,-==GLstrong-hearted men other'ise$ tremble at such sights$
dazzle$ and are sic%$ if they loo% but do'n from a high "lace$ and 'hat
mo#es them but conceitNL As some are so molested by "hantasy< so some
again$ by fancy alone$ and a good conceit$ are as easily reco#ered. 4e see
commonly the toothache$ gout$ falling-sic%ness$ biting of a mad dog$ and
many such maladies cured by s"ells$ 'ords$ characters$ and charms$ and many
green 'ounds by that no' so much used _Hnguentum Armarium_$ magnetically
cured$ 'hich :rollius and Goclenius in a boo% of late hath defended$
*iba#ius in a just tract as stiffly contradicts$ and most men contro#ert.
All the 'orld %no's there is no #irtue in such charms or cures$ but a
strong conceit and o"inion alone$ as ;,-=.GPom"onatius holds$ L'hich
forceth a motion of the humours$ s"irits$ and blood$ 'hich ta%es a'ay the
cause of the malady from the "arts affected.L The li%e 'e may say of our
magical effects$ su"erstitious cures$ and such as are done by mounteban%s
and 'izards. LAs by 'ic%ed incredulity many men are hurtL (so saith
;,-=?G4ierus of charms$ s"ells$ Fc.)$ L'e find in our e+"erience$ by the
same means many are relie#ed.L An em"iric oftentimes$ and a silly
chirurgeon$ doth more strange cures than a rational "hysician. 8ymannus
gi#es a reason$ because the "atient "uts his confidence in him$ ;,-=@G
'hich A#icenna L"refers before art$ "rece"ts$ and all remedies 'hatsoe#er.L
!Tis o"inion alone (saith ;,-=-G:ardan)$ that ma%es or mars "hysicians$ and
he doth the best cures$ according to 5i""ocrates$ in 'hom most trust. 9o
di#ersely doth this "hantasy of ours affect$ turn$ and 'ind$ so im"eriously
command our bodies$ 'hich as another ;,-=AGLProteus$ or a chameleon$ can
ta%e all sha"es< and is of such force (as 7icinus adds)$ that it can 'or%
u"on others$ as 'ell as oursel#es.L 5o' can other'ise blear eyes in one man
cause the li%e affection in anotherN 4hy doth one man!s ya'ning ;,-=/Gma%e
another ya'nN 2ne man!s "issing "ro#o%e a second many times to do the li%eN
4hy doth scra"ing of trenchers offend a third$ or hac%ing of filesN 4hy
doth a carcass bleed 'hen the murderer is brought before it$ some 'ee%s
after the murder hath been doneN 4hy do 'itches and old 'omen fascinate and
be'itch children& but as 4ierus$ Paracelsus$ :ardan$ Mizaldus$ Ialleriola$
:aesar Ianninus$ :am"anella$ and many "hiloso"hers thin%$ the forcible
imagination of the one "arty mo#es and alters the s"irits of the other. 8ay
more$ they can cause and cure not only diseases$ maladies$ and se#eral
infirmities$ by this means$ as A#icenna$ _de anim. l. ?. sect. ?_$
su""oseth in "arties remote$ but mo#e bodies from their "laces$ cause
thunder$ lightning$ tem"ests$ 'hich o"inion Al%indus$ Paracelsus$ and some
others$ a""ro#e of. 9o that I may certainly conclude this strong conceit or
imagination is _astrum hominis_$ and the rudder of this our shi"$ 'hich
reason should steer$ but$ o#erborne by "hantasy$ cannot manage$ and so
suffers itself$ and this 'hole #essel of ours to be o#erruled$ and often
o#erturned. 1ead more of this in 4ierus$ _l. .. de *amiis$ c. /$ B$ ,C._
7ranciscus Ialesius$ _med. contro#. l. @. cont. -._ Marcellus 3onatus$ _l.
=. c. ,. de hist. med. mirabil_. *e#inus *emnius$ _de occult. nat. mir. l.
,. c. ,=._ :ardan$ _l. ,/. de rerum #ar_. :orn. Agri""a$ _de occult.
"lilos. ca". -?$ -@._ :amerarius$ _, cent. ca". @?. horarum subcis_.
8ymannus$ _morat. de Imag_. *aurentius$ and him that is _instar omnium_$
7ienus$ a famous "hysician of Ant'er"$ that 'rote three boo%s _de #iribus
imaginationis_. I ha#e thus far digressed$ because this imagination is the
medium deferens of "assions$ by 'hose means they 'or% and "roduce many
times "rodigious effects& and as the "hantasy is more or less intended or
remitted$ and their humours dis"osed$ so do "erturbations mo#e$ more or
less$ and ta%e dee"er im"ression.
9H9E:T. III.--_3i#ision of Perturbations_.
Perturbations and "assions$ 'hich trouble the "hantasy$ though they d'ell
bet'een the confines of sense and reason$ yet they rather follo' sense than
reason$ because they are dro'ned in cor"oreal organs of sense. They are
commonly ;,-=BGreduced into t'o inclinations$ irascible and concu"iscible.
The Thomists subdi#ide them into ele#en$ si+ in the co#eting$ and fi#e in
the in#ading. Aristotle reduceth all to "leasure and "ain$ Plato to lo#e
and hatred$ ;,-.CGIi#es to good and bad. If good$ it is "resent$ and then
'e absolutely joy and lo#e< or to come$ and then 'e desire and ho"e for it.
If e#il$ 'e absolute hate it< if "resent$ it is by sorro'< if to come fear.
These four "assions ;,-.,Gernard com"ares Lto the 'heels of a chariot$ by
'hich 'e are carried in this 'orld.L All other "assions are subordinate
unto these four$ or si+$ as some 'ill& lo#e$ joy$ desire$ hatred$ sorro'$
fear< the rest$ as anger$ en#y$ emulation$ "ride$ jealousy$ an+iety$ mercy$
shame$ discontent$ des"air$ ambition$ a#arice$ Fc.$ are reducible unto the
first< and if they be immoderate$ they ;,-.=Gconsume the s"irits$ and
melancholy is es"ecially caused by them. 9ome fe' discreet men there are$
that can go#ern themsel#es$ and curb in these inordinate affections$ by
religion$ "hiloso"hy$ and such di#ine "rece"ts$ of mee%ness$ "atience$ and
the li%e< but most "art for 'ant of go#ernment$ out of indiscretion$
ignorance$ they suffer themsel#es 'holly to be led by sense$ and are so far
from re"ressing rebellious inclinations$ that they gi#e all encouragement
unto them$ lea#ing the reins$ and using all "ro#ocations to further them&
bad by nature$ 'orse by art$ disci"line$ ;,-..Gcustom$ education$ and a
"er#erse 'ill of their o'n$ they follo' on$ 'heresoe#er their unbridled
affections 'ill trans"ort them$ and do more out of custom$ self-'ill$ than
out of reason. _:ontuma+ #oluntas_$ as Melancthon calls it$ _malum facit_&
this stubborn 'ill of ours "er#erts judgment$ 'hich sees and %no's 'hat
should and ought to be done$ and yet 'ill not do it. _Manci"ia gulae_$
sla#es to their se#eral lusts and a""etite$ they "reci"itate and "lunge
;,-.?Gthemsel#es into a labyrinth of cares$ blinded 'ith lust$ blinded 'ith
ambition< ;,-.@GLThey see% that at God!s hands 'hich they may gi#e unto
themsel#es$ if they could but refrain from those cares and "erturbations$
'here'ith they continually macerate their minds.L ut gi#ing 'ay to these
#iolent "assions of fear$ grief$ shame$ re#enge$ hatred$ malice$ Fc.$ they
are torn in "ieces$ as Actaeon 'as 'ith his dogs$ and ;,-.-Gcrucify their
o'n souls.
9H9E:T. II.--_9orro' a :ause of Melancholy_.
_9orro'. Insanus dolor_.G In this catalogue of "assions$ 'hich so much
torment the soul of man$ and cause this malady$ (for I 'ill briefly s"ea%
of them all$ and in their order$) the first "lace in this irascible
a""etite$ may justly be challenged by sorro'. An inse"arable com"anion$
;,-.AGLThe mother and daughter of melancholy$ her e"itome$ sym"tom$ and
chief cause&L as 5i""ocrates hath it$ they beget one another$ and tread in
a ring$ for sorro' is both cause and sym"tom of this disease. 5o' it is a
sym"tom shall be sho'n in its "lace. That it is a cause all the 'orld
ac%no'ledgeth$ _3olor nonnullis insaniae causa fuit$ et aliorum morborum
insanabilium_$ saith Plutarch to A"ollonius< a cause of madness$ a cause of
many other diseases$ a sole cause of this mischief$ ;,-./G*emnius calls it.
9o doth 1hasis$ _cont. l. ,. tract. B._ Guianerius$ _Tract. ,@. c. @_$ And
if it ta%e root once$ it ends in des"air$ as ;,-.BG7eli+ Plater obser#es$
and as in ;,-?CG:ebes! table$ may 'ell be cou"led 'ith it.
;,-?,G:hrysostom$ in his se#enteenth e"istle to 2lym"ia$ describes it to be
La cruel torture of the soul$ a most ine+"licable grief$ "oisoned 'orm$
consuming body and soul$ and gna'ing the #ery heart$ a "er"etual
e+ecutioner$ continual night$ "rofound dar%ness$ a 'hirl'ind$ a tem"est$ an
ague not a""earing$ heating 'orse than any fire$ and a battle that hath no
end. It crucifies 'orse than any tyrant< no torture$ no stra""ado$ no
bodily "unishment is li%e unto it.L !Tis the eagle 'ithout 0uestion 'hich
the "oets feigned to gna' ;,-?=GPrometheus! heart$ and Lno hea#iness is
li%e unto the hea#iness of the heart$L Eccles. ++#. ,@$ ,-. ;,-?.GLE#ery
"erturbation is a misery$ but grief a cruel torment$L a domineering
"assion& as in old 1ome$ 'hen the 3ictator 'as created$ all inferior
magistracies ceased< 'hen grief a""ears$ all other "assions #anish. LIt
dries u" the bones$L saith 9olomon$ ca". ,A. Pro#.$ ma%es them hollo'-eyed$
"ale$ and lean$ furro'-faced$ to ha#e dead loo%s$ 'rin%led bro's$
shri#elled chee%s$ dry bodies$ and 0uite "er#erts their tem"erature that
are misaffected 'ith it. As Eleonara$ that e+iled mournful duchess (in our
;,-??GEnglish 2#id)$ laments to her noble husband 5um"hrey$ 3u%e of
L9a'est thou those eyes in 'hose s'eet cheerful loo%
3u%e 5um"hrey once such joy and "leasure too%$
9orro' hath so des"oil!d me of all grace$
Thou couldst not say this 'as my Elnor!s face.
*i%e a foul Gorgon$L Fc.
;,-?@GLIt hinders concoction$ refrigerates the heart$ ta%es a'ay stomach$
colour$ and slee"$ thic%ens the blood$L (;,-?-G7ernelius$ _l. ,. c. ,/. de
morb. causis_$) Lcontaminates the s"irits.L (;,-?AGPiso.) 2#erthro's the
natural heat$ "er#erts the good estate of body and mind$ and ma%es them
'eary of their li#es$ cry out$ ho'l and roar for #ery anguish of their
souls. 3a#id confessed as much$ Psalm +++#iii. /$ LI ha#e roared for the
#ery dis0uietness of my heart.L And Psalm c+i+. ?$ "art ? #. LMy soul
melteth a'ay for #ery hea#iness$L #. ./. LI am li%e a bottle in the smo%e.L
Antiochus com"lained that he could not slee"$ and that his heart fainted
for grief$ ;,-?/G:hrist himself$ _#ir dolorum_$ out of an a""rehension of
grief$ did s'eat blood$ Mar% +i#. L5is soul 'as hea#y to the death$ and no
sorro' 'as li%e unto his.L :rato$ _consil. =?. l. =_$ gi#es instance in one
that 'as so melancholy by reason of ;,-?BGgrief< and Montanus$ _consil.
.C_$ in a noble matron$ ;,-@CGLthat had no other cause of this mischief.L
I. 9. 3. in 5ildesheim$ fully cured a "atient of his that 'as much troubled
'ith melancholy$ and for many years$ ;,-@,GLbut after'ards$ by a little
occasion of sorro'$ he fell into his former fits$ and 'as tormented as
before.L E+am"les are common$ ho' it causeth melancholy$ ;,-@=Gdes"eration$
and sometimes death itself< for (Eccles. +++#iii. ,@$) L2f hea#iness comes
death< 'orldly sorro' causeth death.L = :or. #ii. ,C$ Psalm +++i. ,C$ LMy
life is 'asted 'ith hea#iness$ and my years 'ith mourning.L 4hy 'as 5ecuba
said to be turned to a dogN 8iobe into a stoneN but that for grief she 'as
senseless and stu"id. 9e#erus the Em"eror ;,-@.G died for grief< and ho'
;,-@?Gmany myriads besidesN _Tanta illi est feritas$ tanta est insania
luctus_. ;,-@@GMelancthon gi#es a reason of it$ ;,-@-GLthe gathering of
much melancholy blood about the heart$ 'hich collection e+tinguisheth the
good s"irits$ or at least dulleth them$ sorro' stri%es the heart$ ma%es it
tremble and "ine a'ay$ 'ith great "ain< and the blac% blood dra'n from the
s"leen$ and diffused under the ribs$ on the left side$ ma%es those "erilous
hy"ochondriacal con#ulsions$ 'hich ha""en to them that are troubled 'ith
9H9E:T. I.--_7ear$ a :ause_.
:ousin german to sorro'$ is fear$ or rather a sister$ _fidus Achates_$ and
continual com"anion$ an assistant and a "rinci"al agent in "rocuring of
this mischief< a cause and sym"tom as the other. In a 'ord$ as ;,-@AG
Iirgil of the 5ar"ies$ I may justly say of them both$
LTristius haud illis monstrum$ nec sae#ior ulla
Pestis et ira 3eum stygiis sese e+tulit undis.L
LA sadder monster$ or more cruel "lague so fell$
2r #engeance of the gods$ ne!er came from 9ty+ or 5ell.L
This foul fiend of fear 'as 'orshi""ed heretofore as a god by the
*acedaemonians$ and most of those other torturing ;,-@/Gaffections$ and so
'as sorro' amongst the rest$ under the name of Angerona 3ea$ they stood in
such a'e of them$ as Austin$ _de :i#itat. 3ei$ lib. ?. ca". /_$ noteth out
of Iarro$ fear 'as commonly ;,-@BGadored and "ainted in their tem"les 'ith
a lion!s head< and as Macrobius records$ _l. ,C. 9aturnalium_< ;,--CGLIn
the calends of Danuary$ Angerona had her holy day$ to 'hom in the tem"le of
Iolu"ia$ or goddess of "leasure$ their augurs and bisho"s did yearly
sacrifice< that$ being "ro"itious to them$ she might e+"el all cares$
anguish$ and #e+ation of the mind for that year follo'ing.L Many lamentable
effects this fear causeth in men$ as to be red$ "ale$ tremble$ s'eat$
;,--,Git ma%es sudden cold and heat to come o#er all the body$ "al"itation
of the heart$ synco"e$ Fc. It amazeth many men that are to s"ea%$ or sho'
themsel#es in "ublic assemblies$ or before some great "ersonages$ as Tully
confessed of himself$ that he trembled still at the beginning of his
s"eech< and 3emosthenes$ that great orator of Greece$ before Phili""us. It
confounds #oice and memory$ as *ucian 'ittily brings in Du"iter Tragoedus$
so much afraid of his auditory$ 'hen he 'as to ma%e a s"eech to the rest of
the Gods$ that he could not utter a ready 'ord$ but 'as com"elled to use
Mercury!s hel" in "rom"ting. Many men are so amazed and astonished 'ith
fear$ they %no' not 'here they are$ 'hat they say$ ;,--=G'hat they do$ and
that 'hich is 'orst$ it tortures them many days before 'ith continual
affrights and sus"icion. It hinders most honourable attem"ts$ and ma%es
their hearts ache$ sad and hea#y. They that li#e in fear are ne#er free$
;,--.Gresolute$ secure$ ne#er merry$ but in continual "ain& that$ as Ii#es
truly said$ _8ulla est miseria major 0uam metus_$ no greater misery$ no
rac%$ nor torture li%e unto it$ e#er sus"icious$ an+ious$ solicitous$ they
are childishly droo"ing 'ithout reason$ 'ithout judgment$ ;,--?GLes"ecially
if some terrible object be offered$L as Plutarch hath it. It causeth
oftentimes sudden madness$ and almost all manner of diseases$ as I ha#e
sufficiently illustrated in my ;,--@G digression of the force of
imagination$ and shall do more at large in my section of ;,---Gterrors.
7ear ma%es our imagination concei#e 'hat it list$ in#ites the de#il to come
to us$ as ;,--AGAgri""a and :ardan a#ouch$ and tyranniseth o#er our
"hantasy more than all other affections$ es"ecially in the dar%. 4e see
this #erified in most men$ as ;,--/G*a#ater saith$ _Kuae metuunt$ fingunt_<
'hat they fear they concei#e$ and feign unto themsel#es< they thin% they
see goblins$ hags$ de#ils$ and many times become melancholy thereby.
:ardan$ _subtil. lib. ,/_$ hath an e+am"le of such an one$ so caused to be
melancholy (by sight of a bugbear) all his life after. Augustus :aesar
durst not sit in the dar%$ _nisi ali0uo assidente_$ saith ;,--BG9uetonius$
_8un0uam tenebris e+igila#it_. And !tis strange 'hat 'omen and children
'ill concei#e unto themsel#es$ if they go o#er a churchyard in the night$
lie$ or be alone in a dar% room$ ho' they s'eat and tremble on a sudden.
Many men are troubled 'ith future e#ents$ fore%no'ledge of their fortunes$
destinies$ as 9e#erus the Em"eror$ Adrian and 3omitian$ _Kuod sciret
ultimum #itae diem_$ saith 9uetonius$ _#alde solicitus_$ much tortured in
mind because he fore%ne' his end< 'ith many such$ of 'hich I shall s"ea%
more o""ortunely in another "lace.;,-ACG An+iety$ mercy$ "ity$ indignation$
Fc.$ and such fearful branches deri#ed from these t'o stems of fear and
sorro'$ I #oluntarily omit< read more of them in ;,-A,G:arolus Pascalius$
;,-A=G3andinus$ Fc.
9H9E:T. II.--_9hame and 3isgrace$ :auses_.
9hame and disgrace cause most #iolent "assions and bitter "angs. _2b
"udorem et dedecus "ublicum$ ob errorum commissum sae"e mo#entur generosi
animi_ (7eli+ Plater$ _lib. .. de alienat mentis_.) Generous minds are
often mo#ed 'ith shame$ to des"air for some "ublic disgrace. And he$ saith
Philo$ _lib. =. de "ro#id. dei_$ ;,-A.GLthat subjects himself to fear$
grief$ ambition$ shame$ is not ha""y$ but altogether miserable$ tortured
'ith continual labour$ care$ and misery.L It is as forcible a batterer as
any of the rest& ;,-A?GLMany men neglect the tumults of the 'orld$ and care
not for glory$ and yet they are afraid of infamy$ re"ulse$ disgrace$L
(_Tul. offic. l. ,_$) Lthey can se#erely contemn "leasure$ bear grief
indifferently$ but they are 0uite ;,-A@Gbattered and bro%en$ 'ith re"roach
and oblo0uy&L (_si0uidem #ita et fama "ari "assu ambulant_) and are so
dejected many times for some "ublic injury$ disgrace$ as a bo+ on the ear
by their inferior$ to be o#ercome of their ad#ersary$ foiled in the field$
to be out in a s"eech$ some foul fact committed or disclosed$ Fc. that they
dare not come abroad all their li#es after$ but melancholise in corners$
and %ee" in holes. The most generous s"irits are most subject to it<
_9"iritus altos frangit et generosos_& 5ieronymus. Aristotle$ because he
could not understand the motion of Euri"us$ for grief and shame dro'ned
himself& :aelius 1odigimus _anti0uar. lec. lib. =B. ca". /._ _5omerus
"udore consum"tus_$ 'as s'allo'ed u" 'ith this "assion of shame ;,-A-G
Lbecause he could not unfold the fisherman!s riddle.L 9o"hocles %illed
himself$ ;,-AAGLfor that a tragedy of his 'as hissed off the stage&L
_Ialer. ma+. lib. B. ca". ,=._ *ucretia stabbed herself$ and so did
;,-A/G:leo"atra$ L'hen she sa' that she 'as reser#ed for a trium"h$ to
a#oid the infamy.L Antonius the 1oman$ ;,-ABGLafter he 'as o#ercome of his
enemy$ for three days! s"ace sat solitary in the fore-"art of the shi"$
abstaining from all com"any$ e#en of :leo"atra herself$ and after'ards for
#ery shame butchered himself$L Plutarch$ _#ita ejus_. A"ollonius 1hodius
;,-/CGL'ilfully banished himself$ forsa%ing his country$ and all his dear
friends$ because he 'as out in reciting his "oems$L Plinius$ _lib. A. ca".
=.._ Aja+ ran mad$ because his arms 'ere adjudged to Hlysses. In :hina !tis
an ordinary thing for such as are e+cluded in those famous trials of
theirs$ or should ta%e degrees$ for shame and grief to lose their 'its$
;,-/,GMat 1iccius _e+"edit. ad 9inas$ l. .. c. B._ 5ostratus the friar too%
that boo% 'hich 1euclin had 'rit against him$ under the name of _E"ist.
obscurorum #irorum_$ so to heart$ that for shame and grief he made a'ay
'ith himself$ ;,-/=G_Do#ius in elogiis_. A gra#e and learned minister$ and
an ordinary "reacher at Alcmar in 5olland$ 'as (one day as he 'al%ed in the
fields for his recreation) suddenly ta%en 'ith a la+ or looseness$ and
thereu"on com"elled to retire to the ne+t ditch< but being ;,-/.Gsur"rised
at una'ares$ by some gentle'omen of his "arish 'andering that 'ay$ 'as so
abashed$ that he did ne#er after sho' his head in "ublic$ or come into the
"ul"it$ but "ined a'ay 'ith melancholy& (Pet. 7orestus _med. obser#at. lib.
,C. obser#at. ,=._) 9o shame amongst other "assions can "lay his "rize.
I %no' there be many base$ im"udent$ brazenfaced rogues$ that 'ill ;,-/?G
_8ulla "allescere cul"a_$ be mo#ed 'ith nothing$ ta%e no infamy or disgrace
to heart$ laugh at all< let them be "ro#ed "erjured$ stigmatised$ con#ict
rogues$ thie#es$ traitors$ lose their ears$ be 'hi""ed$ branded$ carted$
"ointed at$ hissed$ re#iled$ and derided 'ith ;,-/@Gallio the a'd in
Plautus$ they rejoice at it$ _:antores "robos_< Lbabe and omba+$L 'hat
care theyN 4e ha#e too many such in our times$
------LE+clamat Melicerta "erisse
------7rontem de rebus.L;,-/-G
Eet a modest man$ one that hath grace$ a generous s"irit$ tender of his
re"utation$ 'ill be dee"ly 'ounded$ and so grie#ously affected 'ith it$
that he had rather gi#e myriads of cro'ns$ lose his life$ than suffer the
least defamation of honour$ or blot in his good name. And if so be that he
cannot a#oid it$ as a nightingale$ _Kue cantando #icta moritur_$ (saith
;,-/AGMizaldus$) dies for shame if another bird sing better$ he languisheth
and "ineth a'ay in the anguish of his s"irit.
9H9E:T. III.--_En#y$ Malice$ 5atred$ :auses_.
En#y and malice are t'o lin%s of this chain$ and both$ as Guianerius$
_Tract. ,@. ca". =_$ "ro#es out of Galen$ _. A"horism$ com. ==_$ ;,-//G
Lcause this malady by themsel#es$ es"ecially if their bodies be other'ise
dis"osed to melancholy.L !Tis Ialescus de Taranta$ and 7eli+ Platerus!
obser#ation$ ;,-/BGLEn#y so gna's many men!s hearts$ that they become
altogether melancholy.L And therefore beli%e 9olomon$ Pro#. +i#. ,.$ calls
it$ Lthe rotting of the bones$L :y"rian$ _#ulnus occultum_<
;,-BCG ------L9iculi non in#enere tyranni
Majus tormentumL------
The 9icilian tyrants ne#er in#ented the li%e torment. It crucifies their
souls$ 'ithers their bodies$ ma%es them hollo'-eyed$ ;,-B,G"ale$ lean$ and
ghastly to behold$ :y"rian$ _ser. =. de zelo et li#ore_. ;,-B=GLAs a moth
gna's a garment$ so$L saith :hrysostom$ Ldoth en#y consume a man<L to be a
li#ing anatomy& a Ls%eleton$ to be a lean and ;,-B.G"ale carcass$ 0uic%ened
'ith a ;,-B?GfiendL$ 5all _in :haract._ for so often as an en#ious 'retch
sees another man "ros"er$ to be enriched$ to thri#e$ and be fortunate in
the 'orld$ to get honours$ offices$ or the li%e$ he re"ines and grie#es.
;,-B@G ------Lintabescit0ue #idendo
9uccessus hominum--su""licium0ue suum est.L
5e tortures himself if his e0ual$ friend$ neighbour$ be "referred$
commended$ do 'ell< if he understand of it$ it galls him afresh< and no
greater "ain can come to him than to hear of another man!s 'ell-doing< !tis
a dagger at his heart e#ery such object. 5e loo%s at him as they that fell
do'n in *ucian!s roc% of honour$ 'ith an en#ious eye$ and 'ill damage
himself$ to do another a mischief& _At0ue cadet subito$ dum su"er hoste
cadat_. As he did in Aeso"$ lose one eye 'illingly$ that his fello' might
lose both$ or that rich man in ;,-B-GKuintilian that "oisoned the flo'ers
in his garden$ because his neighbour!s bees should get no more honey from
them. 5is 'hole life is sorro'$ and e#ery 'ord he s"ea%s a satire& nothing
fats him but other men!s ruins. 7or to s"ea% in a 'ord$ en#y is nought else
but _Tristitia de bonis alienis_$ sorro' for other men!s good$ be it
"resent$ "ast$ or to come& _et gaudium de ad#ersis_$ and ;,-BAGjoy at their
harms$ o""osite to mercy$ ;,-B/G'hich grie#es at other men!s mischances$
and misaffects the body in another %ind< so 3amascen defines it$ _lib. =.
de orthod. fid._ Thomas$ _=. =. 0uaest. .-. art. ,._ Aristotle$ _l. =.
1het. c. ?. et ,C._ Plato _Philebo_. Tully$ _.. Tusc_. Greg. 8ic. _l. de
#irt. animae$ c. ,=._ asil$ _de In#idia_. Pindarus _2d. ,. ser. @_$ and 'e
find it true. !Tis a common disease$ and almost natural to us$ as
;,-BBGTacitus holds$ to en#y another man!s "ros"erity. And !tis in most men
an incurable disease. ;,ACCGLI ha#e read$L saith Marcus Aurelius$ LGree%$
5ebre'$ :haldee authors< I ha#e consulted 'ith many 'ise men for a remedy
for en#y$ I could find none$ but to renounce all ha""iness$ and to be a
'retch$ and miserable for e#er.L !Tis the beginning of hell in this life$
and a "assion not to be e+cused. ;,AC,GLE#ery other sin hath some "leasure
anne+ed to it$ or 'ill admit of an e+cuse< en#y alone 'ants both. 2ther
sins last but for a'hile< the gut may be satisfied$ anger remits$ hatred
hath an end$ en#y ne#er ceaseth.L :ardan$ _lib. =. de sa"._ 3i#ine and
humane e+am"les are #ery familiar< you may run and read them$ as that of
9aul and 3a#id$ :ain and Abel$ _angebat illum non "ro"rium "eccatum$ sed
fratris "ros"eritas_$ saith Theodoret$ it 'as his brother!s good fortune
galled him. 1achel en#ied her sister$ being barren$ Gen. +++. Dose"h!s
brethren him$ Gen. +++#ii. 3a#id had a touch of this #ice$ as he
confesseth$ ;,AC=GPsal. .A. ;,AC.GDeremy and ;,AC?G5aba%%u%$ they re"ined
at others! good$ but in the end they corrected themsel#es$ Psal. A@$ Lfret
not thyself$L Fc. 3omitian s"ited Agricola for his 'orth$ ;,AC@GLthat a
"ri#ate man should be so much glorified.L ;,AC-G:ecinna 'as en#ied of his
fello'-citizens$ because he 'as more richly adorned. ut of all others$
;,ACAG'omen are most 'ea%$ _ob "ulchritudinem in#idae sunt foeminae
(Musaeus) aut amat$ aut odit$ nihil est tertium (Granatensis.)_ They lo#e
or hate$ no medium amongst them. _Im"lacabiles "lerum0ue laesae mulieres_$
Agri""ina li%e$ ;,AC/GLA 'oman$ if she see her neighbour more neat or
elegant$ richer in tires$ je'els$ or a""arel$ is enraged$ and li%e a
lioness sets u"on her husband$ rails at her$ scoffs at her$ and cannot
abide her<L so the 1oman ladies in Tacitus did at 9olonina$ :ecinna!s 'ife$
;,ACBGLbecause she had a better horse$ and better furniture$ as if she had
hurt them 'ith it< they 'ere much offended.L In li%e sort our gentle'omen
do at their usual meetings$ one re"ines or scoffs at another!s bra#ery and
ha""iness. Myrsine$ an Attic 'ench$ 'as murdered of her fello's$ ;,A,CG
Lbecause she did e+cel the rest in beauty$L :onstantine$ _Agricult. l. ,,.
c. A._ E#ery #illage 'ill yield such e+am"les.
9H9E:T. IIII.--_Emulation$ 5atred$ 7action$ 3esire of 1e#enge$ :auses_.
2ut of this root of en#y ;,A,,Gs"ring those feral branches of faction$
hatred$ li#or$ emulation$ 'hich cause the li%e grie#ances$ and are$ _serrae
animae_$ the sa's of the soul$ ;,A,=G_consternationis "leni affectus_$
affections full of des"erate amazement< or as :y"rian describes emulation$
it is ;,A,.GLa moth of the soul$ a consum"tion$ to ma%e another man!s
ha""iness his misery$ to torture$ crucify$ and e+ecute himself$ to eat his
o'n heart. Meat and drin% can do such men no good$ they do al'ays grie#e$
sigh$ and groan$ day and night 'ithout intermission$ their breast is torn
asunder&L and a little after$ ;,A,?GL4homsoe#er he is 'hom thou dost
emulate and en#y$ he may a#oid thee$ but thou canst neither a#oid him nor
thyself< 'heresoe#er thou art he is 'ith thee$ thine enemy is e#er in thy
breast$ thy destruction is 'ithin thee$ thou art a ca"ti#e$ bound hand and
foot$ as long as thou art malicious and en#ious$ and canst not be
comforted. It 'as the de#il!s o#erthro'<L and 'hensoe#er thou art
thoroughly affected 'ith this "assion$ it 'ill be thine. Eet no
"erturbation so fre0uent$ no "assion so common.
;,A,@G L;Gree%& %ai %erameus %eramei %oteei %ai te%toni te%ton$
%ai "tochos "tochoi "hthoneei %ai aoidos aoido.GL
LA "otter emulates a "otter&
2ne smith en#ies another&
A beggar emulates a beggar<
A singing man his brother.L
E#ery society$ cor"oration$ and "ri#ate family is full of it$ it ta%es hold
almost of all sorts of men$ from the "rince to the "loughman$ e#en amongst
gossi"s it is to be seen$ scarce three in a com"any but there is siding$
faction$ emulation$ bet'een t'o of them$ some _simultas_$ jar$ "ri#ate
grudge$ heart-burning in the midst of them. 9carce t'o gentlemen d'ell
together in the country$ (if they be not near %in or lin%ed in marriage)
but there is emulation bet'i+t them and their ser#ants$ some 0uarrel or
some grudge bet'i+t their 'i#es or children$ friends and follo'ers$ some
contention about 'ealth$ gentry$ "recedency$ Fc.$ by means of 'hich$ li%e
the frog in ;,A,-GAeso"$ Lthat 'ould s'ell till she 'as as big as an o+$
burst herself at last<L they 'ill stretch beyond their fortunes$ callings$
and stri#e so long that they consume their substance in la'suits$ or
other'ise in hos"itality$ feasting$ fine clothes$ to get a fe' bombast
titles$ for _ambitiosa "au"ertate laboramus omnes_$ to outbra#e one
another$ they 'ill tire their bodies$ macerate their souls$ and through
contentions or mutual in#itations beggar themsel#es. 9carce t'o great
scholars in an age$ but 'ith bitter in#ecti#es they fall foul one on the
other$ and their adherents< 9cotists$ Thomists$ 1eals$ 8ominals$ Plato and
Aristotle$ Galenists and Paracelsians$ Fc.$ it holds in all "rofessions.
5onest ;,A,AGemulation in studies$ in all callings is not to be disli%ed$
!tis _ingeniorum cos_$ as one calls it$ the 'hetstone of 'it$ the nurse of
'it and #alour$ and those noble 1omans out of this s"irit did bra#e
e+"loits. There is a modest ambition$ as Themistocles 'as roused u" 'ith
the glory of Miltiades< Achilles! tro"hies mo#ed Ale+ander$
;,A,/G LAmbire sem"er stulta confidentia est$
Ambire nun0uam deses arrogantia est.L
!Tis a sluggish humour not to emulate or to sue at all$ to 'ithdra'
himself$ neglect$ refrain from such "laces$ honours$ offices$ through
sloth$ niggardliness$ fear$ bashfulness$ or other'ise$ to 'hich by his
birth$ "lace$ fortunes$ education$ he is called$ a"t$ fit$ and 'ell able to
undergo< but 'hen it is immoderate$ it is a "lague and a miserable "ain.
4hat a deal of money did 5enry IIII. and 7rancis I. %ing of 7rance$ s"end
at that ;,A,BGfamous inter#ie'N and ho' many #ain courtiers$ see%ing each
to outbra#e other$ s"ent themsel#es$ their li#elihood and fortunes$ and
died beggarsN ;,A=CGAdrian the Em"eror 'as so galled 'ith it$ that he
%illed all his e0uals< so did 8ero. This "assion made ;,A=,G3ionysius the
tyrant banish Plato and Philo+enus the "oet$ because they did e+cel and
ecli"se his glory$ as he thought< the 1omans e+ile :oriolanus$ confine
:amillus$ murder 9ci"io< the Gree%s by ostracism to e+"el Aristides$
8icias$ Alcibiades$ im"rison Theseus$ ma%e a'ay Phocion$ Fc. 4hen 1ichard
I. and Phili" of 7rance 'ere fello' soldiers together$ at the siege of Acon
in the 5oly *and$ and 1ichard had a""ro#ed himself to be the more #aliant
man$ insomuch that all men!s eyes 'ere u"on him$ it so galled Phili"$
_7rancum urebat 1egis #ictoria_$ saith mine ;,A==Gauthor$ _tam aegre
ferebat 1ichardi gloriam$ ut car"ere dicta$ calumniari facta_< that he
ca#illed at all his "roceedings$ and fell at length to o"en defiance< he
could contain no longer$ but hasting home$ in#aded his territories$ and
"rofessed o"en 'ar. L5atred stirs u" contention$L Pro#. +. ,=$ and they
brea% out at last into immortal enmity$ into #irulency$ and more than
Iatinian hate and rage< ;,A=.Gthey "ersecute each other$ their friends$
follo'ers$ and all their "osterity$ 'ith bitter taunts$ hostile 'ars$
scurrile in#ecti#es$ libels$ calumnies$ fire$ s'ord$ and the li%e$ and 'ill
not be reconciled. 4itness that Guel"h and Ghibelline faction in Italy<
that of the Adurni and 7regosi in Genoa< that of :neius Pa"irius$ and
Kuintus 7abius in 1ome< :aesar and Pom"ey< 2rleans and urgundy in 7rance<
Eor% and *ancaster in England& yea$ this "assion so rageth ;,A=?Gmany
times$ that it sub#erts not men only$ and families$ but e#en "o"ulous
cities. ;,A=@G:arthage and :orinth can 'itness as much$ nay$ flourishing
%ingdoms are brought into a 'ilderness by it. This hatred$ malice$ faction$
and desire of re#enge$ in#ented first all those rac%s and 'heels$
stra""adoes$ brazen bulls$ feral engines$ "risons$ in0uisitions$ se#ere
la's to macerate and torment one another. 5o' ha""y might 'e be$ and end
our time 'ith blessed days and s'eet content$ if 'e could contain
oursel#es$ and$ as 'e ought to do$ "ut u" injuries$ learn humility$
mee%ness$ "atience$ forget and forgi#e$ as in ;,A=-GGod!s 'ord 'e are
enjoined$ com"ose such final contro#ersies amongst oursel#es$ moderate our
"assions in this %ind$ Land thin% better of others$L as ;,A=AGPaul 'ould
ha#e us$ Lthan of oursel#es& be of li%e affection one to'ards another$ and
not a#enge oursel#es$ but ha#e "eace 'ith all men.L ut being that 'e are
so "ee#ish and "er#erse$ insolent and "roud$ so factious and seditious$ so
malicious and en#ious< 'e do _in#icem angariare_$ maul and #e+ one another$
torture$ dis0uiet$ and "reci"itate oursel#es into that gulf of 'oes and
cares$ aggra#ate our misery and melancholy$ hea" u"on us hell and eternal
9H9E:T. IJ.--_Anger$ a :ause_.
Anger$ a "erturbation$ 'hich carries the s"irits out'ards$ "re"aring the
body to melancholy$ and madness itself& _Ira furor bre#is est_$ Langer is
tem"orary madness<L and as ;,A=/GPicolomineus accounts it$ one of the three
most #iolent "assions. ;,A=BGAreteus sets it do'n for an es"ecial cause (so
doth 9eneca$ _e". ,/. l. ,_$) of this malady. ;,A.CGMagninus gi#es the
reason$ _E+ fre0uenti ira su"ra modum calefiunt_< it o#erheats their
bodies$ and if it be too fre0uent$ it brea%s out into manifest madness$
saith 9t. Ambrose. !Tis a %no'n saying$ _7uror fit Iaesa sae"ius
"alienlia_$ the most "atient s"irit that is$ if he be often "ro#o%ed$ 'ill
be incensed to madness< it 'ill ma%e a de#il of a saint& and therefore
asil (beli%e) in his 5omily _de Ira_$ calls it _tenebras rationis$ morbum
animae$ et daemonem "essimum_< the dar%ening of our understanding$ and a
bad angel. ;,A.,G*ucian$ _in Abdicato$ tom. ,_$ 'ill ha#e this "assion to
'or% this effect$ es"ecially in old men and 'omen. LAnger and calumnyL
(saith he) Ltrouble them at first$ and after a 'hile brea% out into
madness& many things cause fury in 'omen$ es"ecially if they lo#e or hate
o#ermuch$ or en#y$ be much grie#ed or angry< these things by little and
little lead them on to this malady.L 7rom a dis"osition they "roceed to an
habit$ for there is no difference bet'een a mad man$ and an angry man$ in
the time of his fit< anger$ as *actantius describes it$ _*. de Ira 3ei$ ad
3onatum$ c. @_$ is ;,A.=G_sae#a animi tem"estas_$ Fc.$ a cruel tem"est of
the mind< Lma%ing his eye s"ar%le fire$ and stare$ teeth gnash in his head$
his tongue stutter$ his face "ale$ or red$ and 'hat more filthy imitation
can be of a mad manNL
;,A..G L2ra tument ira$ fer#escunt sanguine #enae$
*umina Gorgonio sae#ius angue micant.L
They are #oid of reason$ ine+orable$ blind$ li%e beasts and monsters for
the time$ say and do they %no' not 'hat$ curse$ s'ear$ rail$ fight$ and
'hat notN 5o' can a mad man do moreN as he said in the comedy$ ;,A.?G
_Iracundia non sum a"ud me_$ I am not mine o'n man. If these fits be
immoderate$ continue long$ or be fre0uent$ 'ithout doubt they "ro#o%e
madness. Montanus$ _consil. =,_$ had a melancholy De' to his "atient$ he
ascribes this for a "rinci"al cause& _Irascebatur le#ibus de causis_$ he
'as easily mo#ed to anger. Aja+ had no other beginning of his madness< and
:harles the 9i+th$ that lunatic 7rench %ing$ fell into this misery$ out of
the e+tremity of his "assion$ desire of re#enge and malice$ ;,A.@Gincensed
against the du%e of ritain$ he could neither eat$ drin%$ nor slee" for
some days together$ and in the end$ about the calends of Duly$ ,.B=$ he
became mad u"on his horsebac%$ dra'ing his s'ord$ stri%ing such as came
near him "romiscuously$ and so continued all the days of his life$ Aemil.$
_lib. ,C._ Gal. _hist._ Aegesi""us _de e+id. urbis 5ieros$ l. ,. c. .A_$
hath such a story of 5erod$ that out of an angry fit$ became mad$
;,A.-Glea"ing out of his bed$ he %illed Dossi""us$ and "layed many such
bedlam "ran%s$ the 'hole court could not rule him for a long time after&
sometimes he 'as sorry and re"ented$ much grie#ed for that he had done$
_Post0uam deferbuit ira_$ by and by outrageous again. In hot choleric
bodies$ nothing so soon causeth madness$ as this "assion of anger$ besides
many other diseases$ as Pelesius obser#es$ _ca". =,. l. ,. de hum. affect.
causis_< _9anguinem imminuit$ fel auget_& and as ;,A.AGIalesius
contro#erts$ _Med. contro#.$ lib. @. contro. /_$ many times %ills them
0uite out. If this 'ere the 'orst of this "assion$ it 'ere more tolerable$
;,A./GLbut it ruins and sub#erts 'hole to'ns$ ;,A.BGcities$ families$ and
%ingdoms<L _8ulla "estis humano generi "luris stetit_$ saith 9eneca$ _de
Ira$ lib. ,._ 8o "lague hath done man%ind so much harm. *oo% into our
histories$ and you shall almost meet 'ith no other subject$ but 'hat a
com"any ;,A?CGof harebrains ha#e done in their rage. 4e may do 'ell
therefore to "ut this in our "rocession amongst the rest< L7rom all
blindness of heart$ from "ride$ #ainglory$ and hy"ocrisy$ from en#y$ hatred
and malice$ anger$ and all such "estiferous "erturbations$ good *ord
deli#er us.L
9H9E:T. J.--_3iscontents$ :ares$ Miseries$ Fc. :auses_.
3iscontents$ cares$ crosses$ miseries$ or 'hatsoe#er it is$ that shall
cause any molestation of s"irits$ grief$ anguish$ and "er"le+ity$ may 'ell
be reduced to this head$ ("re"osterously "laced here in some men!s
judgments they may seem$) yet in that Aristotle in his ;,A?,G1hetoric
defines these cares$ as he doth en#y$ emulation$ Fc. still by grief$ I
thin% I may 'ell ran% them in this irascible ro'< being that they are as
the rest$ both causes and sym"toms of this disease$ "roducing the li%e
incon#eniences$ and are most "art accom"anied 'ith anguish and "ain. The
common etymology 'ill e#ince it$ _:ura 0uasi cor uro$ 3ementes curae$
insomnes curae$ damnosae curae$ tristes$ mordaces$ carnifices_$ Fc. biting$
eating$ gna'ing$ cruel$ bitter$ sic%$ sad$ un0uiet$ "ale$ tetric$
miserable$ intolerable cares$ as the "oets ;,A?=Gcall them$ 'orldly cares$
and are as many in number as the sea sands. ;,A?.GGalen$ 7ernelius$ 7eli+
Plater$ Ialescus de Taranta$ Fc.$ rec%on afflictions$ miseries$ e#en all
these contentions$ and #e+ations of the mind$ as "rinci"al causes$ in that
they ta%e a'ay slee"$ hinder concoction$ dry u" the body$ and consume the
substance of it. They are not so many in number$ but their causes be as
di#ers$ and not one of a thousand free from them$ or that can #indicate
himself$ 'hom that _Ate dea_$
;,A??G LPer hominum ca"ita molliter ambulans$
Plantas "edum teneras habens&L
L2#er men!s heads 'al%ing aloft$
4ith tender feet treading so soft$L
5omer!s Goddess Ate hath not in#ol#ed into this discontented ;,A?@Gran%$ or
"lagued 'ith some misery or other. 5yginus$ _fab. ==C_$ to this "ur"ose
hath a "leasant tale. 3ame :ura by chance 'ent o#er a broo%$ and ta%ing u"
some of the dirty slime$ made an image of it< Du"iter eftsoons coming by$
"ut life to it$ but :ura and Du"iter could not agree 'hat name to gi#e him$
or 'ho should o'n him< the matter 'as referred to 9aturn as judge< he ga#e
this arbitrement& his name shall be _5omo ab humo$ :ura eum "ossideat
0uamdiu #i#at_$ :are shall ha#e him 'hilst he li#es$ Du"iter his soul$ and
Tellus his body 'hen he dies. ut to lea#e tales. A general cause$ a
continuate cause$ an inse"arable accident$ to all men$ is discontent$ care$
misery< 'ere there no other "articular affliction ('hich 'ho is free fromN)
to molest a man in this life$ the #ery cogitation of that common misery
'ere enough to macerate$ and ma%e him 'eary of his life< to thin% that he
can ne#er be secure$ but still in danger$ sorro'$ grief$ and "ersecution.
7or to begin at the hour of his birth$ as ;,A?-GPliny doth elegantly
describe it$ Lhe is born na%ed$ and falls ;,A?AGa 'hining at the #ery
first& he is s'addled$ and bound u" li%e a "risoner$ cannot hel" himself$
and so he continues to his life!s end.L _:ujus0ue ferae "abulum_$ saith
;,A?/G9eneca$ im"atient of heat and cold$ im"atient of labour$ im"atient of
idleness$ e+"osed to fortune!s contumelies. To a na%ed mariner *ucretius
com"ares him$ cast on shore by shi"'rec%$ cold and comfortless in an
un%no'n land& ;,A?BGno estate$ age$ se+$ can secure himself from this
common misery. LA man that is born of a 'oman is of short continuance$ and
full of trouble$L Dob +i#. ,$ ==. LAnd 'hile his flesh is u"on him he shall
be sorro'ful$ and 'hile his soul is in him it shall mourn. All his days are
sorro' and his tra#els griefs& his heart also ta%eth not rest in the
night.L Eccles. ii. =.$ and ii. ,,. LAll that is in it is sorro' and
#e+ation of s"irit. ;,A@CGIngress$ "rogress$ regress$ egress$ much ali%e&
blindness seizeth on us in the beginning$ labour in the middle$ grief in
the end$ error in all. 4hat day ariseth to us 'ithout some grief$ care$ or
anguishN 2r 'hat so secure and "leasing a morning ha#e 'e seen$ that hath
not been o#ercast before the e#eningNL 2ne is miserable$ another
ridiculous$ a third odious. 2ne com"lains of this grie#ance$ another of
that. _Ali0uando ner#i$ ali0uando "edes #e+ant_$ (9eneca) _nunc
distillatio$ nunc e"atis morbus< nunc deest$ nunc su"erest sanguis_& no'
the head aches$ then the feet$ no' the lungs$ then the li#er$ Fc. _5uic
sensus e+uberat$ sed est "udori degener sanguis_$ Fc. 5e is rich$ but base
born< he is noble$ but "oor< a third hath means$ but he 'ants health
"erad#enture$ or 'it to manage his estate< children #e+ one$ 'ife a second$
Fc. _8emo facile cum conditione sua concordat_$ no man is "leased 'ith his
fortune$ a "ound of sorro' is familiarly mi+ed 'ith a dram of content$
little or no joy$ little comfort$ but ;,A@,Ge#ery'here danger$ contention$
an+iety$ in all "laces& go 'here thou 'ilt$ and thou shalt find
discontents$ cares$ 'oes$ com"laints$ sic%ness$ diseases$ encumbrances$
e+clamations& LIf thou loo% into the mar%et$ thereL (saith ;,A@=G
:hrysostom) Lis bra'ling and contention< if to the court$ there %na#ery and
flattery$ Fc.< if to a "ri#ate man!s house$ there!s car% and care$
hea#iness$L Fc. As he said of old$
;,A@.G L8il homine in terra s"irat miserum magis almaNL
8o creature so miserable as man$ so generally molested$ ;,A@?GLin miseries
of body$ in miseries of mind$ miseries of heart$ in miseries aslee"$ in
miseries a'a%e$ in miseries 'heresoe#er he turns$L as ernard found$
_8un0uid tentatio est #ita humana su"er terram_N A mere tem"tation is our
life$ (Austin$ _confess. lib. ,C. ca". =/_$) _catena "er"etuorum malorum$
et 0uis "otest molestias et difficultates "ati_N 4ho can endure the
miseries of itN ;,A@@GLIn "ros"erity 'e are insolent and intolerable$
dejected in ad#ersity$ in all fortunes foolish and miserable.L ;,A@-GLIn
ad#ersity I 'ish for "ros"erity$ and in "ros"erity I am afraid of
ad#ersity. 4hat mediocrity may be foundN 4here is no tem"tationN 4hat
condition of life is freeNL ;,A@AGL4isdom hath labour anne+ed to it$ glory$
en#y< riches and cares$ children and encumbrances$ "leasure and diseases$
rest and beggary$ go together& as if a man 'ere therefore bornL (as the
Platonists hold) Lto be "unished in this life for some "recedent sins.L 2r
that$ as ;,A@/GPliny com"lains$ L8ature may be rather accounted a
ste"mother$ than a mother unto us$ all things considered& no creature!s
life so brittle$ so full of fear$ so mad$ so furious< only man is "lagued
'ith en#y$ discontent$ griefs$ co#etousness$ ambition$ su"erstition.L 2ur
'hole life is an Irish sea$ 'herein there is nought to be e+"ected but
tem"estuous storms and troublesome 'a#es$ and those infinite$
;,A@BG LTantum malorum "elagus as"icio$
Ht non sit inde enatandi co"ia$L
no halcyonian times$ 'herein a man can hold himself secure$ or agree 'ith
his "resent estate< but as oethius infers$ ;,A-CGLthere is something in
e#ery one of us 'hich before trial 'e see%$ and ha#ing tried abhor& ;,A-,G
'e earnestly 'ish$ and eagerly co#et$ and are eftsoons 'eary of it.L Thus
bet'een ho"e and fear$ sus"icions$ angers$ ;,A-=G_Inter s"em0ue metum0ue$
timores inter et iras_$ bet'i+t falling in$ falling out$ Fc.$ 'e bangle
a'ay our best days$ befool out our times$ 'e lead a contentious$
discontent$ tumultuous$ melancholy$ miserable life< insomuch$ that if 'e
could foretell 'hat 'as to come$ and it "ut to our choice$ 'e should rather
refuse than acce"t of this "ainful life. In a 'ord$ the 'orld itself is a
maze$ a labyrinth of errors$ a desert$ a 'ilderness$ a den of thie#es$
cheaters$ Fc.$ full of filthy "uddles$ horrid roc%s$ "reci"itiums$ an ocean
of ad#ersity$ an hea#y yo%e$ 'herein infirmities and calamities o#erta%e$
and follo' one another$ as the sea 'a#es< and if 'e sca"e 9cylla$ 'e fall
foul on :harybdis$ and so in "er"etual fear$ labour$ anguish$ 'e run from
one "lague$ one mischief$ one burden to another$ _duram ser#ientes
ser#itutem_$ and you may as soon se"arate 'eight from lead$ heat from fire$
moistness from 'ater$ brightness from the sun$ as misery$ discontent$ care$
calamity$ danger$ from a man. 2ur to'ns and cities are but so many
d'ellings of human misery. LIn 'hich grief and sorro'L (;,A-.Gas he right
'ell obser#es out of 9olon) Linnumerable troubles$ labours of mortal men$
and all manner of #ices$ are included$ as in so many "ens.L 2ur #illages
are li%e molehills$ and men as so many emmets$ busy$ busy still$ going to
and fro$ in and out$ and crossing one another!s "rojects$ as the lines of
se#eral sea-cards cut each other in a globe or ma". L8o' light and merry$L
but (;,A-?Gas one follo's it) Lby-and-by sorro'ful and hea#y< no' ho"ing$
then distrusting< no' "atient$ tomorro' crying out< no' "ale$ then red<
running$ sitting$ s'eating$ trembling$ halting$L Fc. 9ome fe' amongst the
rest$ or "erha"s one of a thousand$ may be Pullus Do#is$ in the 'orld!s
esteem$ _Gallinae filius albae_$ an ha""y and fortunate man$ _ad in#idiam
feli+_$ because rich$ fair$ 'ell allied$ in honour and office< yet
"erad#enture as% himself$ and he 'ill say$ that of all others ;,A-@Ghe is
most miserable and unha""y. A fair shoe$ _5ic soccus no#us$ elegans_$ as he
;,A--Gsaid$ _sed nescis ubi urat_$ but thou %no'est not 'here it "incheth.
It is not another man!s o"inion can ma%e me ha""y& but as ;,A-AG9eneca 'ell
hath it$ L5e is a miserable 'retch that doth not account himself ha""y$
though he be so#ereign lord of a 'orld& he is not ha""y$ if he thin%
himself not to be so< for 'hat a#aileth it 'hat thine estate is$ or seem to
others$ if thou thyself disli%e itNL A common humour it is of all men to
thin% 'ell of other men!s fortunes$ and disli%e their o'n& ;,A-/G_:ui
"lacet alterius$ sua nimirum est odio sors_< but ;,A-BG_0ui fit Mecoenas_$
Fc.$ ho' comes it to "ass$ 'hat!s the cause of itN Many men are of such a
"er#erse nature$ they are 'ell "leased 'ith nothing$ (saith ;,AACG
Theodoret$) Lneither 'ith riches nor "o#erty$ they com"lain 'hen they are
'ell and 'hen they are sic%$ grumble at all fortunes$ "ros"erity and
ad#ersity< they are troubled in a chea" year$ in a barren$ "lenty or not
"lenty$ nothing "leaseth them$ 'ar nor "eace$ 'ith children$ nor 'ithout.L
This for the most "art is the humour of us all$ to be discontent$
miserable$ and most unha""y$ as 'e thin% at least< and sho' me him that is
not so$ or that e#er 'as other'ise. Kuintus Metellus his felicity is
infinitely admired amongst the 1omans$ insomuch that as ;,AA,GPaterculus
mentioneth of him$ you can scarce find of any nation$ order$ age$ se+$ one
for ha""iness to be com"ared unto him& he had$ in a 'ord$ _ona animi$
cor"oris et fortunae_$ goods of mind$ body$ and fortune$ so had P.
Mutianus$ ;,AA=G:rassus. *am"saca$ that *acedaemonian lady$ 'as such
another in ;,AA.GPliny!s conceit$ a %ing!s 'ife$ a %ing!s mother$ a %ing!s
daughter& and all the 'orld esteemed as much of Polycrates of 9amos. The
Gree%s brag of their 9ocrates$ Phocion$ Aristides< the Pso"hidians in
"articular of their Aglaus$ _2mni #ita feli+$ ab omni "ericulo immunis_
('hich by the 'ay Pausanias held im"ossible<) the 1omans of their ;,AA?G
:ato$ :urius$ 7abricius$ for their com"osed fortunes$ and retired estates$
go#ernment of "assions$ and contem"t of the 'orld& yet none of all these
'ere ha""y$ or free from discontent$ neither Metellus$ :rassus$ nor
Polycrates$ for he died a #iolent death$ and so did :ato< and ho' much e#il
doth *actantius and Theodoret s"ea% of 9ocrates$ a 'ea% man$ and so of the
rest. There is no content in this life$ but as ;,AA@Ghe said$ LAll is
#anity and #e+ation of s"irit<L lame and im"erfect. 5adst thou 9am"son!s
hair$ Milo!s strength$ 9canderbeg!s arm$ 9olomon!s 'isdom$ Absalom!s
beauty$ :roesus! 'ealth$ _Pasetis obulum_$ :aesar!s #alour$ Ale+ander!s
s"irit$ Tully!s or 3emosthenes! elo0uence$ Gyges! ring$ Perseus! Pegasus$
and Gorgon!s head$ 8estor!s years to come$ all this 'ould not ma%e thee
absolute< gi#e thee content$ and true ha""iness in this life$ or so
continue it. E#en in the midst of all our mirth$ jollity$ and laughter$ is
sorro' and grief$ or if there be true ha""iness amongst us$ !tis but for a
;,AA-G L3esinat in "iscem mulier formosa su"erne&L
LA handsome 'oman 'ith a fish!s tail$L
a fair morning turns to a lo'ering afternoon. rutus and :assius$ once
reno'ned$ both eminently ha""y$ yet you shall scarce find t'o (saith
Paterculus) _0uos fortuna maturius destiturit_$ 'hom fortune sooner
forsoo%. 5annibal$ a con0ueror all his life$ met 'ith his match$ and 'as
subdued at last$ _2ccurrit forti$ 0ui mage fortis erit._ 2ne is brought in
trium"h$ as :aesar into 1ome$ Alcibiades into Athens$ _coronis aureis
donatus_$ cro'ned$ honoured$ admired< by-and-by his statues demolished$ he
hissed out$ massacred$ Fc. ;,AAAGMagnus Gonsal#a$ that famous 9"aniard$ 'as
of the "rince and "eo"le at first honoured$ a""ro#ed< forth'ith confined
and banished. _Admirandas actiones< gra#es "lerun0ue se0uuntur in#idiae$ et
acres calumniae_& !tis Polybius his obser#ation$ grie#ous enmities$ and
bitter calumnies$ commonly follo' reno'ned actions. 2ne is born rich$ dies
a beggar< sound today$ sic% tomorro'< no' in most flourishing estate$
fortunate and ha""y$ by-and-by de"ri#ed of his goods by foreign enemies$
robbed by thie#es$ s"oiled$ ca"ti#ated$ im"o#erished$ as they of
;,AA/GL1abbah "ut under iron sa's$ and under iron harro's$ and under a+es
of iron$ and cast into the tile %iln$L
;,AABG LKuid me felicem toties jactastis amici$
Kui cecidit$ stabili non erat ille gradu.L
5e that erst marched li%e Jer+es 'ith innumerable armies$ as rich as
:roesus$ no' shifts for himself in a "oor coc%-boat$ is bound in iron
chains$ 'ith ajazet the Tur%$ and a footstool 'ith Aurelian$ for a
tyrannising con0ueror to tram"le on. 9o many casualties there are$ that as
9eneca said of a city consumed 'ith fire$ _Hna dies interest inter ma+imum
ci#itatem et nullam_$ one day bet'i+t a great city and none& so many
grie#ances from out'ard accidents$ and from oursel#es$ our o'n
indiscretion$ inordinate a""etite$ one day bet'i+t a man and no man. And
'hich is 'orse$ as if discontents and miseries 'ould not come fast enough
u"on us& _homo homini daemon_$ 'e maul$ "ersecute$ and study ho' to sting$
gall$ and #e+ one another 'ith mutual hatred$ abuses$ injuries< "reying
u"on and de#ouring as so many$ ;,A/CGra#enous birds< and as jugglers$
"anders$ ba'ds$ cozening one another< or raging as ;,A/,G'ol#es$ tigers$
and de#ils$ 'e ta%e a delight to torment one another< men are e#il$ 'ic%ed$
malicious$ treacherous$ and ;,A/=Gnaught$ not lo#ing one another$ or lo#ing
themsel#es$ not hos"itable$ charitable$ nor sociable as they ought to be$
but counterfeit$ dissemblers$ ambide+ters$ all for their o'n ends$
hard-hearted$ merciless$ "itiless$ and to benefit themsel#es$ they care not
'hat mischief they "rocure to others. ;,A/.GPra+inoe and Gorgo in the "oet$
'hen they had got in to see those costly sights$ they then cried _bene
est_$ and 'ould thrust out all the rest& 'hen they are rich themsel#es$ in
honour$ "referred$ full$ and ha#e e#en that they 'ould$ they debar others
of those "leasures 'hich youth re0uires$ and they formerly ha#e enjoyed. 5e
sits at table in a soft chair at ease$ but he doth remember in the mean
time that a tired 'aiter stands behind him$ Lan hungry fello' ministers to
him full$ he is athirst that gi#es him drin%L (saith ;,A/?GE"ictetus) Land
is silent 'hilst he s"ea%s his "leasure& "ensi#e$ sad$ 'hen he laughs.L
_Pleno se "roluit auro_& he feasts$ re#els$ and "rofusely s"ends$ hath
#ariety of robes$ s'eet music$ ease$ and all the "leasure the 'orld can
afford$ 'hilst many an hunger-star#ed "oor creature "ines in the street$
'ants clothes to co#er him$ labours hard all day long$ runs$ rides for a
trifle$ fights "erad#enture from sun to sun$ sic% and ill$ 'eary$ full of
"ain and grief$ is in great distress and sorro' of heart. 5e loathes and
scorns his inferior$ hates or emulates his e0ual$ en#ies his su"erior$
insults o#er all such as are under him$ as if he 'ere of another s"ecies$ a
demigod$ not subject to any fall$ or human infirmities. Generally they lo#e
not$ are not belo#ed again& they tire out others! bodies 'ith continual
labour$ they themsel#es li#ing at ease$ caring for none else$ _sibi nati_<
and are so far many times from "utting to their hel"ing hand$ that they
see% all means to de"ress$ e#en most 'orthy and 'ell deser#ing$ better than
themsel#es$ those 'hom they are by the la's of nature bound to relie#e and
hel"$ as much as in them lies$ they 'ill let them cater'aul$ star#e$ beg$
and hang$ before they 'ill any 'ays (though it be in their "o'er) assist or
ease& ;,A/@Gso unnatural are they for the most "art$ so unregardful< so
hard-hearted$ so churlish$ "roud$ insolent$ so dogged$ of so bad a
dis"osition. And being so brutish$ so de#ilishly bent one to'ards another$
ho' is it "ossible but that 'e should be discontent of all sides$ full of
cares$ 'oes$ and miseriesN
If this be not a sufficient "roof of their discontent and misery$ e+amine
e#ery condition and calling a"art. 6ings$ "rinces$ monarchs$ and
magistrates seem to be most ha""y$ but loo% into their estate$ you shall
;,A/-Gfind them to be most encumbered 'ith cares$ in "er"etual fear$ agony$
sus"icion$ jealousy& that$ as ;,A/AGhe said of a cro'n$ if they %ne' but
the discontents that accom"any it$ they 'ould not stoo" to ta%e it u".
_Kuem mihi regent dabis_ (saith :hrysostom) _non curis "lenum_N 4hat %ing
canst thou sho' me$ not full of caresN ;,A//GL*oo% not on his cro'n$ but
consider his afflictions< attend not his number of ser#ants$ but multitude
of crosses.L _8ihil aliud "otestas culminis$ 0uam tem"estas mentis_$ as
Gregory seconds him< so#ereignty is a tem"est of the soul& 9ylla li%e they
ha#e bra#e titles$ but terrible fits& _s"lendorem titulo$ cruciatum animo_&
'hich made ;,A/BG3emosthenes #o'$ _si #el ad tribunal$ #el ad interitum
duceretur_& if to be a judge$ or to be condemned$ 'ere "ut to his choice$
he 'ould be condemned. 1ich men are in the same "redicament< 'hat their
"ains are$ _stulti nesciunt$ i"si sentiunt_& they feel$ fools "ercei#e not$
as I shall "ro#e else'here$ and their 'ealth is brittle$ li%e children!s
rattles& they come and go$ there is no certainty in them& those 'hom they
ele#ate$ they do as suddenly de"ress$ and lea#e in a #ale of misery. The
middle sort of men are as so many asses to bear burdens< or if they be
free$ and li#e at ease$ they s"end themsel#es$ and consume their bodies and
fortunes 'ith lu+ury and riot$ contention$ emulation$ Fc. The "oor I
reser#e for another ;,ABCG"lace and their discontents.
7or "articular "rofessions$ I hold as of the rest$ there!s no content or
security in any< on 'hat course 'ill you "itch$ ho' resol#eN to be a
di#ine$ !tis contem"tible in the 'orld!s esteem< to be a la'yer$ !tis to be
a 'rangler< to be a "hysician$ ;,AB,G_"udet lotii_$ !tis loathed< a
"hiloso"her$ a madman< an alchemist$ a beggar< a "oet$ _esurit_$ an hungry
jac%< a musician$ a "layer< a schoolmaster$ a drudge< an husbandman$ an
emmet< a merchant$ his gains are uncertain< a mechanician$ base< a
chirurgeon$ fulsome< a tradesman$ a ;,AB=Gliar< a tailor$ a thief< a
ser#ing-man$ a sla#e< a soldier$ a butcher< a smith$ or a metalman$ the
"ot!s ne#er from his nose< a courtier a "arasite$ as he could find no tree
in the 'ood to hang himself< I can sho' no state of life to gi#e content.
The li%e you may say of all ages< children li#e in a "er"etual sla#ery$
still under that tyrannical go#ernment of masters< young men$ and of ri"er
years$ subject to labour$ and a thousand cares of the 'orld$ to treachery$
falsehood$ and cozenage$
;,AB.G ------LIncedit "er ignes$
9u""ositos cineri doloso$L
------Lyou incautious tread
2n fires$ 'ith faithless ashes o#erhead.L
;,AB?Gold are full of aches in their bones$ cram"s and con#ulsions$
_silicernia_$ dull of hearing$ 'ea% sighted$ hoary$ 'rin%led$ harsh$ so
much altered as that they cannot %no' their o'n face in a glass$ a burthen
to themsel#es and others$ after AC years$ Lall is sorro'L (as 3a#id hath
it)$ they do not li#e but linger. If they be sound$ they fear diseases< if
sic%$ 'eary of their li#es& _8on est #i#ere$ sed #alere #ita._ 2ne
com"lains of 'ant$ a second of ser#itude$ ;,AB@Ganother of a secret or
incurable disease< of some deformity of body$ of some loss$ danger$ death
of friends$ shi"'rec%$ "ersecution$ im"risonment$ disgrace$ re"ulse$ ;,AB-G
contumely$ calumny$ abuse$ injury$ contem"t$ ingratitude$ un%indness$
scoffs$ flouts$ unfortunate marriage$ single life$ too many children$ no
children$ false ser#ants$ unha""y children$ barrenness$ banishment$
o""ression$ frustrate ho"es and ill-success$ Fc.
;,ABAG LTalia de genere hoc adeo sunt multa$ lo0uacem ut
3elassare #alent 7abium.L------
Lut$ e#ery #arious instance to re"eat$
4ould tire e#en 7abius of incessant "rate.L
Tal%ing 7abius 'ill be tired before he can tell half of them< they are the
subject of 'hole #olumes$ and shall (some of them) be more o""ortunely
dilated else'here. In the meantime thus much I may say of them$ that
generally they crucify the soul of man$ ;,AB/Gattenuate our bodies$ dry
them$ 'ither them$ shri#el them u" li%e old a""les$ ma%e them as so many
anatomies (;,ABBG_ossa at0ue "ellis est totus$ ita curis macet_) they cause
_tem"us foedum et s0ualidum_$ cumbersome days$ _ingrata0ue tem"ora_$ slo'$
dull$ and hea#y times& ma%e us ho'l$ roar$ and tear our hairs$ as sorro'
did in ;,/CCG:ebes! table$ and groan for the #ery anguish of our souls. 2ur
hearts fail us as 3a#id!s did$ Psal. +l. ,=$ Lfor innumerable troubles that
com"assed him<L and 'e are ready to confess 'ith 5eze%iah$ Isaiah l#iii.
,A$ Lbehold$ for felicity I had bitter grief<L to 'ee" 'ith 5eraclitus$ to
curse the day of our birth 'ith Deremy$ ++. ,?$ and our stars 'ith Dob& to
hold that a+iom of 9ilenus$ ;,/C,GLbetter ne#er to ha#e been born$ and the
best ne+t of all$ to die 0uic%ly&L or if 'e must li#e$ to abandon the
'orld$ as Timon did< cree" into ca#es and holes$ as our anchorites< cast
all into the sea$ as :rates Thebanus< or as Theombrotus Ambrociato!s ?CC
auditors$ "reci"itate oursel#es to be rid of these miseries.
9H9E:T. JI.--_:oncu"iscible A""etite$ as 3esires$ Ambition$ :auses_.
These concu"iscible and irascible a""etites are as the t'o t'ists of a
ro"e$ mutually mi+ed one 'ith the other$ and both t'ining about the heart&
both good$ as Austin$ holds$ _l. ,?. c. B. de ci#. 3ei_$ ;,/C=GLif they be
moderate< both "ernicious if they be e+orbitant.L This concu"iscible
a""etite$ ho'soe#er it may seem to carry 'ith it a sho' of "leasure and
delight$ and our concu"iscences most "art affect us 'ith content and a
"leasing object$ yet if they be in e+tremes$ they rac% and 'ring us on the
other side. A true saying it is$ L3esire hath no rest<L is infinite in
itself$ endless< and as ;,/C.Gone calls it$ a "er"etual rac%$ ;,/C?Gor
horse-mill$ according to Austin$ still going round as in a ring. They are
not so continual$ as di#ers$ _felicius atomos denumerare "ossem_$ saith
;,/C@Gernard$ _0uam motus cordis< nunc haec$ nunc illa cogito_$ you may as
'ell rec%on u" the motes in the sun as them. ;,/C-GLIt e+tends itself to
e#erything$L as Guianerius 'ill ha#e it$ Lthat is su"erfluously sought
after&L! or to any ;,/CAGfer#ent desire$ as 7ernelius inter"rets it< be it
in 'hat %ind soe#er$ it tortures if immoderate$ and is (according to ;,/C/G
Plater and others) an es"ecial cause of melancholy. _Multuosis
concu"iscentiis dilaniantur cogitationes meae_$ ;,/CBGAustin confessed$
that he 'as torn a "ieces 'ith his manifold desires& and so doth ;,/,CG
ernard com"lain$ Lthat he could not rest for them a minute of an hour&
this I 'ould ha#e$ and that$ and then I desire to be such and such.L !Tis a
hard matter therefore to confine them$ being they are so #arious and many$
im"ossible to a""rehend all. I 'ill only insist u"on some fe' of the chief$
and most no+ious in their %ind$ as that e+orbitant a""etite and desire of
honour$ 'hich 'e commonly call ambition< lo#e of money$ 'hich is
co#etousness$ and that greedy desire of gain& self-lo#e$ "ride$ and
inordinate desire of #ainglory or a""lause$ lo#e of study in e+cess< lo#e
of 'omen ('hich 'ill re0uire a just #olume of itself)$ of the other I 'ill
briefly s"ea%$ and in their order.
Ambition$ a "roud co#etousness$ or a dry thirst of honour$ a great torture
of the mind$ com"osed of en#y$ "ride$ and co#etousness$ a gallant madness$
one ;,/,,Gdefines it a "leasant "oison$ Ambrose$ La can%er of the soul$ an
hidden "lague&L ;,/,=Gernard$ La secret "oison$ the father of li#or$ and
mother of hy"ocrisy$ the moth of holiness$ and cause of madness$ crucifying
and dis0uieting all that it ta%es hold of.L ;,/,.G9eneca calls it$ _rem
solicitam$ timidam$ #anam$ #entosam_$ a 'indy thing$ a #ain$ solicitous$
and fearful thing. 7or commonly they that$ li%e 9isy"hus$ roll this
restless stone of ambition$ are in a "er"etual agony$ still ;,/,?G
"er"le+ed$ _sem"er taciti$ trites0ue recedunt_ (*ucretius)$ doubtful$
timorous$ sus"icious$ loath to offend in 'ord or deed$ still cogging and
colloguing$ embracing$ ca""ing$ cringing$ a""lauding$ flattering$ fleering$
#isiting$ 'aiting at men!s doors$ 'ith all affability$ counterfeit honesty
and humility. ;,/,@GIf that 'ill not ser#e$ if once this humour (as
;,/,-G:y"rian describes it) "ossess his thirsty soul$ _ambitionis salsugo
ubi bibulam animam "ossidet_$ by hoo% and by croo% he 'ill obtain it$ Land
from his hole he 'ill climb to all honours and offices$ if it be "ossible
for him to get u"$ flattering one$ bribing another$ he 'ill lea#e no means
unessay!d to 'in all.L ;,/,AGIt is a 'onder to see ho' sla#ishly these %ind
of men subject themsel#es$ 'hen they are about a suit$ to e#ery inferior
"erson< 'hat "ains they 'ill ta%e$ run$ ride$ cast$ "lot$ countermine$
"rotest and s'ear$ #o'$ "romise$ 'hat labours undergo$ early u"$ do'n late<
ho' obse0uious and affable they are$ ho' "o"ular and courteous$ ho' they
grin and fleer u"on e#ery man they meet< 'ith 'hat feasting and in#iting$
ho' they s"end themsel#es and their fortunes$ in see%ing that many times$
'hich they had much better be 'ithout< as ;,/,/G:yneas the orator told
Pyrrhus& 'ith 'hat 'a%ing nights$ "ainful hours$ an+ious thoughts$ and
bitterness of mind$ _inter s"em0ue metum0ue_$ distracted and tired$ they
consume the interim of their time. There can be no greater "lague for the
"resent. If they do obtain their suit$ 'hich 'ith such cost and solicitude
they ha#e sought$ they are not so freed$ their an+iety is ane' to begin$
for they are ne#er satisfied$ _nihil aliud nisi im"erium s"irant_$ their
thoughts$ actions$ endea#ours are all for so#ereignty and honour$ li%e
;,/,BG*ues 9forza that huffing 3u%e of Milan$ La man of singular 'isdom$
but "rofound ambition$ born to his o'n$ and to the destruction of Italy$L
though it be to their o'n ruin$ and friends! undoing$ they 'ill contend$
they may not cease$ but as a dog in a 'heel$ a bird in a cage$ or a
s0uirrel in a chain$ so ;,/=CGudaeus com"ares them< ;,/=,Gthey climb and
climb still$ 'ith much labour$ but ne#er ma%e an end$ ne#er at the to". A
%night 'ould be a baronet$ and then a lord$ and then a #iscount$ and then
an earl$ Fc.< a doctor$ a dean$ and then a bisho"< from tribune to "raetor<
from bailiff to major< first this office$ and then that< as Pyrrhus in
;,/==GPlutarch$ they 'ill first ha#e Greece$ then Africa$ and then Asia$
and s'ell 'ith Aeso"!s frog so long$ till in the end they burst$ or come
do'n 'ith 9ejanus$ _ad Gemonias scalas_$ and brea% their o'n nec%s< or as
E#angelus the "i"er in *ucian$ that ble' his "i"e so long$ till he fell
do'n dead. If he chance to miss$ and ha#e a can#ass$ he is in a hell on the
other side< so dejected$ that he is ready to hang himself$ turn heretic$
Tur%$ or traitor in an instant. Enraged against his enemies$ he rails$
s'ears$ fights$ slanders$ detracts$ en#ies$ murders& and for his o'n "art$
_si a""etitum e+"lere non "otest$ furore corri"itur_< if he cannot satisfy
his desire (as ;,/=.Godine 'rites) he runs mad. 9o that both 'ays$ hit or
miss$ he is distracted so long as his ambition lasts$ he can loo% for no
other but an+iety and care$ discontent and grief in the meantime$
;,/=?Gmadness itself$ or #iolent death in the end. The e#ent of this is
common to be seen in "o"ulous cities$ or in "rinces! courts$ for a
courtier!s life (as udaeus describes it) Lis a ;,/=@Ggallimaufry of
ambition$ lust$ fraud$ im"osture$ dissimulation$ detraction$ en#y$ "ride<
;,/=-Gthe court$ a common con#enticle of flatterers$ time-ser#ers$
"oliticians$L Fc.< or as ;,/=AG Anthony Perez 'ill$ Lthe suburbs of hell
itself.L If you 'ill see such discontented "ersons$ there you shall li%ely
find them. ;,/=/GAnd 'hich he obser#ed of the mar%ets of old 1ome$
LKui "erjurum con#enire #ult hominem$ mitto in :omitium<
Kui mendacem et gloriosum$ a"ud :luasinae sacrum<
3ites$ damnosos maritos$ sub basilica 0uaerito$L Fc.
Perjured %na#es$ %nights of the "ost$ liars$ crac%ers$ bad husbands$ Fc.
%ee" their se#eral stations< they do still$ and al'ays did in e#ery
9H9E:T. JII.--;Gree%& "hilarguriaG$ _:o#etousness$ a :ause_.
Plutarch$ in his ;,/=BGboo% 'hether the diseases of the body be more
grie#ous than those of the soul$ is of o"inion$ Lif you 'ill e+amine all
the causes of our miseries in this life$ you shall find them most "art to
ha#e had their beginning from stubborn anger$ that furious desire of
contention$ or some unjust or immoderate affection$ as co#etousness$L Fc.
7rom 'hence Lare 'ars and contentions amongst youNL ;,/.CG9t. Dames as%s& I
'ill add usury$ fraud$ ra"ine$ simony$ o""ression$ lying$ s'earing$ bearing
false 'itness$ Fc. are they not from this fountain of co#etousness$ that
greediness in getting$ tenacity in %ee"ing$ sordidity in s"ending< that
they are so 'ic%ed$ ;,/.,GLunjust against God$ their neighbour$
themsel#es<L all comes hence. LThe desire of money is the root of all e#il$
and they that lust after it$ "ierce themsel#es through 'ith many sorro's$L
, Tim. #i. ,C. 5i""ocrates therefore in his E"istle to :rate#a$ an
herbalist$ gi#es him this good counsel$ that if it 'ere "ossible$ ;,/.=G
Lamongst other herbs$ he should cut u" that 'eed of co#etousness by the
roots$ that there be no remainder left$ and then %no' this for a certainty$
that together 'ith their bodies$ thou mayst 0uic%ly cure all the diseases
of their minds.L 7or it is indeed the "attern$ image$ e"itome of all
melancholy$ the fountain of many miseries$ much discontented care and 'oe<
this Linordinate$ or immoderate desire of gain$ to get or %ee" money$L as
;,/..Gona#enture defines it& or$ as Austin describes it$ a madness of the
soul$ Gregory a torture< :hrysostom$ an insatiable drun%enness< :y"rian$
blindness$ _s"eciosum su""licium_$ a "lague sub#erting %ingdoms$ families$
an ;,/.?Gincurable disease< udaeus$ an ill habit$ ;,/.@GLyielding to no
remedies&L neither Aescula"ius nor Plutus can cure them& a continual
"lague$ saith 9olomon$ and #e+ation of s"irit$ another hell. I %no' there
be some of o"inion$ that co#etous men are ha""y$ and 'orldly$ 'ise$ that
there is more "leasure in getting of 'ealth than in s"ending$ and no
delight in the 'orld li%e unto it. !T'as ;,/.-Gias! "roblem of old$ L4ith
'hat art thou not 'earyN 'ith getting money. 4hat is most delectableN to
gain.L 4hat is it$ tro' you$ that ma%es a "oor man labour all his lifetime$
carry such great burdens$ fare so hardly$ macerate himself$ and endure so
much misery$ undergo such base offices 'ith so great "atience$ to rise u"
early$ and lie do'n late$ if there 'ere not an e+traordinary delight in
getting and %ee"ing of moneyN 4hat ma%es a merchant that hath no need$
_satis su"er0ue domi_$ to range all o#er the 'orld$ through all those
intem"erate ;,/.AG>ones of heat and cold< #oluntarily to #enture his life$
and be content 'ith such miserable famine$ nasty usage$ in a stin%ing shi"<
if there 'ere not a "leasure and ho"e to get money$ 'hich doth season the
rest$ and mitigate his indefatigable "ainsN 4hat ma%es them go into the
bo'els of the earth$ an hundred fathom dee"$ endangering their dearest
li#es$ enduring dam"s and filthy smells$ 'hen they ha#e enough already$ if
they could be content$ and no such cause to labour$ but an e+traordinary
delight they ta%e in riches. This may seem "lausible at first sho'$ a
"o"ular and strong argument< but let him that so thin%s$ consider better of
it$ and he shall soon "ercei#e$ that it is far other'ise than he su""oseth<
it may be ha"ly "leasing at the first$ as most "art all melancholy is. 7or
such men li%ely ha#e some _lucida inter#alla_$ "leasant sym"toms
intermi+ed< but you must note that of ;,/./G:hrysostom$ L!Tis one thing to
be rich$ another to be co#etous&L generally they are all fools$ dizzards$
madmen$ ;,/.BGmiserable 'retches$ li#ing besides themsel#es$ _sine arte
fruendi_$ in "er"etual sla#ery$ fear$ sus"icion$ sorro'$ and discontent$
_"lus aloes 0uam mellis habent_< and are indeed$ Lrather "ossessed by their
money$ than "ossessors&L as ;,/?CG:y"rian hath it$ _manci"ati "ecuniis_<
bound "rentice to their goods$ as ;,/?,GPliny< or as :hrysostom$ _ser#i
di#itiarum_$ sla#es and drudges to their substance< and 'e may conclude of
them all$ as ;,/?=GIalerius doth of Ptolomaeus %ing of :y"rus$ L5e 'as in
title a %ing of that island$ but in his mind$ a miserable drudge of money&L
;,/?.G ------L"otiore metallis
libertate carensL------
'anting his liberty$ 'hich is better than gold. 3amasi""us the 9toic$ in
5orace$ "ro#es that all mortal men dote by fits$ some one 'ay$ some
another$ but that co#etous men ;,/??Gare madder than the rest< and he that
shall truly loo% into their estates$ and e+amine their sym"toms$ shall find
no better of them$ but that they are all ;,/?@Gfools$ as 8abal 'as$ _1e et
nomine_ (,. 1eg. ,@.) 7or 'hat greater folly can there be$ or ;,/?-G
madness$ than to macerate himself 'hen he need notN and 'hen$ as :y"rian
notes$ ;,/?AGLhe may be freed from his burden$ and eased of his "ains$ 'ill
go on still$ his 'ealth increasing$ 'hen he hath enough$ to get more$ to
li#e besides himself$L to star#e his genius$ %ee" bac% from his 'ife
;,/?/Gand children$ neither letting them nor other friends use or enjoy
that 'hich is theirs by right$ and 'hich they much need "erha"s< li%e a
hog$ or dog in the manger$ he doth only %ee" it$ because it shall do nobody
else good$ hurting himself and others& and for a little momentary "elf$
damn his o'n soulN They are commonly sad and tetric by nature$ as Achab!s
s"irit 'as because he could not get 8aboth!s #ineyard$ (,. 1eg. ==.) and if
he lay out his money at any time$ though it be to necessary uses$ to his
o'n children!s good$ he bra'ls and scolds$ his heart is hea#y$ much
dis0uieted he is$ and loath to "art from it& _Miser abstinet et timet uti_$
5or. 5e is of a 'earish$ dry$ "ale constitution$ and cannot slee" for cares
and 'orldly business< his riches$ saith 9olomon$ 'ill not let him slee"$
and unnecessary business 'hich he hea"eth on himself< or if he do slee"$
!tis a #ery un0uiet$ interru"t$ un"leasing slee"& 'ith his bags in his
------Lcongestis undi0ue sacc
indormit inhians$L------
And though he be at a ban0uet$ or at some merry feast$ Lhe sighs for grief
of heartL (as ;,/?BG:y"rian hath it) Land cannot slee" though it be u"on a
do'n bed< his 'earish body ta%es no rest$L ;,/@CGLtroubled in his
abundance$ and sorro'ful in "lenty$ unha""y for the "resent$ and more
unha""y in the life to come.L asil. 5e is a "er"etual drudge$
;,/@,Grestless in his thoughts$ and ne#er satisfied$ a sla#e$ a 'retch$ a
dust-'orm$ _sem"er 0uod idolo suo immolet$ sedulus obser#at_ :y"r. _"rolog.
ad sermon_ still see%ing 'hat sacrifice he may offer to his golden god$
_"er fas et nefas_$ he cares not ho'$ his trouble is endless$
;,/@=G_crescunt di#itiae$ tamen curtae nescio 0uid sem"er abest rei_& his
'ealth increaseth$ and the more he hath$ the more ;,/@.Ghe 'ants& li%e
Pharaoh!s lean %ine$ 'hich de#oured the fat$ and 'ere not satisfied.
;,/@?GAustin therefore defines co#etousness$ _0uarumlibet rerum inhonestam
et insatiabilem cu"iditatem_ a dishonest and insatiable desire of gain< and
in one of his e"istles com"ares it to hell< ;,/@@GL'hich de#ours all$ and
yet ne#er hath enough$ a bottomless "it$L an endless misery< _in 0uem
sco"ulum a#aritiae cada#erosi senes ut"lurimum im"ingunt_$ and that 'hich
is their greatest corrosi#e$ they are in continual sus"icion$ fear$ and
distrust$ 5e thin%s his o'n 'ife and children are so many thie#es$ and go
about to cozen him$ his ser#ants are all false&
L1em suam "eriisse$ se0ue eradicarier$
Et di#um at0ue hominum clamat continuo fidem$
3e suo tigillo si 0ua e+it foras.L
LIf his doors cree%$ then out he cries anon$
5is goods are gone$ and he is 0uite undone.L
_Timidus Plutus_$ an old "ro#erb$ As fearful as Plutus& so doth
Aristo"hanes and *ucian bring him in fearful still$ "ale$ an+ious$
sus"icious$ and trusting no man$ ;,/@-GLThey are afraid of tem"ests for
their corn< they are afraid of their friends lest they should as% something
of them$ beg or borro'< they are afraid of their enemies lest they hurt
them$ thie#es lest they rob them< they are afraid of 'ar and afraid of
"eace$ afraid of rich and afraid of "oor< afraid of all.L *ast of all$ they
are afraid of 'ant$ that they shall die beggars$ 'hich ma%es them lay u"
still$ and dare not use that they ha#e& 'hat if a dear year come$ or
dearth$ or some lossN and 'ere it not that they are both to ;,/@AGlay out
money on a ro"e$ they 'ould be hanged forth'ith$ and sometimes die to sa#e
charges$ and ma%e a'ay themsel#es$ if their corn and cattle miscarry<
though they ha#e abundance left$ as ;,/@/GAgellius notes. ;,/@BGIalerius
ma%es mention of one that in a famine sold a mouse for =CC "ence$ and
famished himself& such are their cares$ ;,/-CGgriefs and "er"etual fears.
These sym"toms are elegantly e+"ressed by Theo"hrastus in his character of
a co#etous man< ;,/-,GLlying in bed$ he as%ed his 'ife 'hether she shut the
trun%s and chests fast$ the ca"-case be sealed$ and 'hether the hall door
be bolted< and though she say all is 'ell$ he riseth out of his bed in his
shirt$ barefoot and barelegged$ to see 'hether it be so$ 'ith a dar%
lantern searching e#ery corner$ scarce slee"ing a 'in% all night.L *ucian
in that "leasant and 'itty dialogue called Gallus$ brings in Mycillus the
cobbler dis"uting 'ith his coc%$ sometimes Pythagoras< 'here after much
s"eech "ro and con$ to "ro#e the ha""iness of a mean estate$ and
discontents of a rich man$ Pythagoras! coc% in the end$ to illustrate by
e+am"les that 'hich he had said$ brings him to Gny"hon the usurer!s house
at midnight$ and after that to Encrates< 'hom$ they found both a'a%e$
casting u" their accounts$ and telling of their money$ ;,/-=Glean$ dry$
"ale and an+ious$ still sus"ecting lest somebody should ma%e a hole through
the 'all$ and so get in< or if a rat or mouse did but stir$ starting u"on a
sudden$ and running to the door to see 'hether all 'ere fast. Plautus$ in
his Aulularia$ ma%es old Euclio ;,/-.Gcommanding 9ta"hyla his 'ife to shut
the doors fast$ and the fire to be "ut out$ lest anybody should ma%e that
an errand to come to his house& 'hen he 'ashed his hands$ ;,/-?Ghe 'as
loath to fling a'ay the foul 'ater$ com"laining that he 'as undone$ because
the smo%e got out of his roof. And as he 'ent from home$ seeing a cro'
scratch u"on the muc%-hill$ returned in all haste$ ta%ing it for _malum
omen_$ an ill sign$ his money 'as digged u"< 'ith many such. 5e that 'ill
but obser#e their actions$ shall find these and many such "assages not
feigned for s"ort$ but really "erformed$ #erified indeed by such co#etous
and miserable 'retches$ and that it is$
;,/-@G ------Lmanifesta "hrenesis
Ht locu"les moriaris egenti #i#ere fato.L
A mere madness$ to li#e li%e a 'retch$ and die rich.
9H9E:T. JIII.--_*o#e of Gaming$ Fc. and "leasures immoderate< :auses_.
It is a 'onder to see$ ho' many "oor$ distressed$ miserable 'retches$ one
shall meet almost in e#ery "ath and street$ begging for an alms$ that ha#e
been 'ell descended$ and sometimes in flourishing estate$ no' ragged$
tattered$ and ready to be star#ed$ lingering out a "ainful life$ in
discontent and grief of body and mind$ and all through immoderate lust$
gaming$ "leasure and riot. !Tis the common end of all sensual e"icures and
brutish "rodigals$ that are stu"efied and carried a'ay headlong 'ith their
se#eral "leasures and lusts. :ebes in his table$ 9t. Ambrose in his second
boo% of Abel and :ain$ and amongst the rest *ucian in his tract _de Mercede
conductis_$ hath e+cellent 'ell deci"hered such men!s "roceedings in his
"icture of 2"ulentia$ 'hom he feigns to d'ell on the to" of a high mount$
much sought after by many suitors< at their first coming they are generally
entertained by "leasure and dalliance$ and ha#e all the content that
"ossibly may be gi#en$ so long as their money lasts& but 'hen their means
fail$ they are contem"tibly thrust out at a bac% door$ headlong$ and there
left to shame$ re"roach$ des"air. And he at first that had so many
attendants$ "arasites$ and follo'ers$ young and lusty$ richly arrayed$ and
all the dainty fare that might be had$ 'ith all %ind of 'elcome and good
res"ect$ is no' u"on a sudden stri""ed of all$ ;,/--G"ale$ na%ed$ old$
diseased and forsa%en$ cursing his stars$ and ready to strangle himself<
ha#ing no other com"any but re"entance$ sorro'$ grief$ derision$ beggary$
and contem"t$ 'hich are his daily attendants to his life!s end. As the
;,/-AG"rodigal son had e+0uisite music$ merry com"any$ dainty fare at
first< but a sorro'ful rec%oning in the end< so ha#e all such #ain delights
and their follo'ers. ;,/-/G_Tristes #olu"tatum e+itus$ et 0uis0uis
#olu"tatum suarum reminisci #olet$ intelliget_$ as bitter as gall and
'orm'ood is their last< grief of mind$ madness itself. The ordinary roc%s
u"on 'hich such men do im"inge and "reci"itate themsel#es$ are cards$ dice$
ha'%s$ and hounds$ _Insanum #enandi studium_$ one calls it$ _insanae
substructiones_& their mad structures$ dis"orts$ "lays$ Fc.$ 'hen they are
unseasonably used$ im"rudently handled$ and beyond their fortunes. 9ome men
are consumed by mad fantastical buildings$ by ma%ing galleries$ cloisters$
terraces$ 'al%s$ orchards$ gardens$ "ools$ rillets$ bo'ers$ and such li%e
"laces of "leasure< _Inutiles domos_$ ;,/-BGJeno"hon calls them$ 'hich
ho'soe#er they be delightsome things in themsel#es$ and acce"table to all
beholders$ an ornament$ and benefiting some great men& yet un"rofitable to
others$ and the sole o#erthro' of their estates. 7orestus in his
obser#ations hath an e+am"le of such a one that became melancholy u"on the
li%e occasion$ ha#ing consumed his substance in an un"rofitable building$
'hich 'ould after'ard yield him no ad#antage. 2thers$ I say$ are ;,/ACG
o#erthro'n by those mad s"orts of ha'%ing and hunting< honest recreations$
and fit for some great men$ but not for e#ery base inferior "erson< 'hilst
they 'ill maintain their falconers$ dogs$ and hunting nags$ their 'ealth$
saith ;,/A,G9almutze$ Lruns a'ay 'ith hounds$ and their fortunes fly a'ay
'ith ha'%s.L They "ersecute beasts so long$ till in the end they themsel#es
degenerate into beasts$ as ;,/A=GAgri""a ta+eth them$ ;,/A.GActaeon li%e$
for as he 'as eaten to death by his o'n dogs$ so do they de#our themsel#es
and their "atrimonies$ in such idle and unnecessary dis"orts$ neglecting in
the mean time their more necessary business$ and to follo' their #ocations.
2#er-mad too sometimes are our great men in delighting$ and doting too much
on it. ;,/A?GL4hen they dri#e "oor husbandmen from their tillage$L as
;,/A@G9arisburiensis objects$ _Polycrat. l. ,. c. ?_$ Lfling do'n country
farms$ and 'hole to'ns$ to ma%e "ar%s$ and forests$ star#ing men to feed
beasts$ and ;,/A-G"unishing in the mean time such a man that shall molest
their game$ more se#erely than him that is other'ise a common hac%er$ or a
notorious thief.L ut great men are some 'ays to be e+cused$ the meaner
sort ha#e no e#asion 'hy they should not be counted mad. Poggius the
7lorentine tells a merry story to this "ur"ose$ condemning the folly and
im"ertinent business of such %ind of "ersons. A "hysician of Milan$ saith
he$ that cured mad men$ had a "it of 'ater in his house$ in 'hich he %e"t
his "atients$ some u" to the %nees$ some to the girdle$ some to the chin$
_"ro modo insaniae_$ as they 'ere more or less affected. 2ne of them by
chance$ that 'as 'ell reco#ered$ stood in the door$ and seeing a gallant
ride by 'ith a ha'% on his fist$ 'ell mounted$ 'ith his s"aniels after him$
'ould needs %no' to 'hat use all this "re"aration ser#ed< he made ans'er to
%ill certain fo'ls< the "atient demanded again$ 'hat his fo'l might be
'orth 'hich he %illed in a year< he re"lied @ or ,C cro'ns< and 'hen he
urged him farther 'hat his dogs$ horse$ and ha'%s stood him in$ he told him
?CC cro'ns< 'ith that the "atient bad be gone$ as he lo#ed his life and
'elfare$ for if our master come and find thee here$ he 'ill "ut thee in the
"it amongst mad men u" to the chin& ta+ing the madness and folly of such
#ain men that s"end themsel#es in those idle s"orts$ neglecting their
business and necessary affairs. *eo 3ecimus$ that hunting "o"e$ is much
discommended by ;,/AAGDo#ius in his life$ for his immoderate desire of
ha'%ing and hunting$ in so much that (as he saith) he 'ould sometimes li#e
about 2stia 'ee%s and months together$ lea#e suitors ;,/A/Gunres"ected$
bulls and "ardons unsigned$ to his o'n "rejudice$ and many "ri#ate men!s
loss. ;,/ABGLAnd if he had been by chance crossed in his s"ort$ or his game
not so good$ he 'as so im"atient$ that he 'ould re#ile and miscall many
times men of great 'orth 'ith most bitter taunts$ loo% so sour$ be so angry
and 'as"ish$ so grie#ed and molested$ that it is incredible to relate it.L
ut if he had good s"ort$ and been 'ell "leased$ on the other side$
_incredibili munificentia_$ 'ith uns"ea%able bounty and munificence he
'ould re'ard all his fello' hunters$ and deny nothing to any suitor 'hen he
'as in that mood. To say truth$ !tis the common humour of all gamesters$ as
Galataeus obser#es$ if they 'in$ no men li#ing are so jo#ial and merry$ but
;,//CGif they lose$ though it be but a trifle$ t'o or three games at
tables$ or a dealing at cards for t'o "ence a game$ they are so choleric
and testy that no man may s"ea% 'ith them$ and brea% many times into
#iolent "assions$ oaths$ im"recations$ and unbeseeming s"eeches$ little
differing from mad men for the time. Generally of all gamesters and gaming$
if it be e+cessi#e$ thus much 'e may conclude$ that 'hether they 'in or
lose for the "resent$ their 'innings are not _Munera fortunae$ sed
insidiae_ as that 'ise 9eneca determines$ not fortune!s gifts$ but baits$
the common catastro"he is ;,//,Gbeggary$ ;,//=G_Ht "estis #itam$ sic adimit
alea "ecuniam_$ as the "lague ta%es a'ay life$ doth gaming goods$ for
;,//.G _omnes nudi$ ino"es et egeni_<
;,//?G LAlea 9cylla #ora+$ s"ecies certissima furti$
8on contenta bonis animum 0uo0ue "erfida mergit$
7oeda$ fura+$ infamis$ iners$ furiosa$ ruina.L
7or a little "leasure they ta%e$ and some small gains and gettings no' and
then$ their 'i#es and children are ringed in the meantime$ and they
themsel#es 'ith loss of body and soul rue it in the end. I 'ill say nothing
of those "rodigious "rodigals$ _"erdendae "ecuniae$ genitos_$ as he ;,//@G
ta+ed Anthony$ _Kui "atrimonium sine ulla fori calumnia amittunt_$ saith
;,//-G:y"rian$ and ;,//AGmad sybaritical s"endthrifts$ _Kui0ue una comedunt
"atrimonia coena_< that eat u" all at a brea%fast$ at a su""er$ or amongst
ba'ds$ "arasites$ and "layers$ consume themsel#es in an instant$ as if they
had flung it into ;,///GTiber$ 'ith great 'ages$ #ain and idle e+"enses$
Fc.$ not themsel#es only$ but e#en all their friends$ as a man des"erately
s'imming dro'ns him that comes to hel" him$ by suretyshi" and borro'ing
they 'ill 'illingly undo all their associates and allies. ;,//BG _Irati
"ecuniis_$ as he saith$ angry 'ith their money& ;,/BCGL'hat 'ith a 'anton
eye$ a li0uorish tongue$ and a gamesome hand$L 'hen they ha#e indiscreetly
im"o#erished themsel#es$ mortgaged their 'its$ together 'ith their lands$
and entombed their ancestors! fair "ossessions in their bo'els$ they may
lead the rest of their days in "rison$ as many times they do< they re"ent
at leisure< and 'hen all is gone begin to be thrifty& but _9era est in
fundo "arsimonia_$ !tis then too late to loo% about< their ;,/B,Gend is
misery$ sorro'$ shame$ and discontent. And 'ell they deser#e to be infamous
and discontent. ;,/B=G_:atamidiari in Am"hitheatro_$ as by Adrian the
em"eror!s edict they 'ere of old$ _decoctores bonorum suorum_$ so he calls
them$ "rodigal fools$ to be "ublicly shamed$ and hissed out of all
societies$ rather than to be "itied or relie#ed. ;,/B.GThe Tuscans and
oetians brought their ban%ru"ts into the mar%et"lace in a bier 'ith an
em"ty "urse carried before them$ all the boys follo'ing$ 'here they sat all
day _circumstante "lebe_$ to be infamous and ridiculous. At ;,/B?GPadua in
Italy they ha#e a stone called the stone of tur"itude$ near the
senate-house$ 'here s"endthrifts$ and such as disclaim non-"ayment of
debts$ do sit 'ith their hinder "arts bare$ that by that note of disgrace
others may be terrified from all such #ain e+"ense$ or borro'ing more than
they can tell ho' to "ay. The ;,/B@Gci#ilians of old set guardians o#er
such brain-sic% "rodigals$ as they did o#er madmen$ to moderate their
e+"enses$ that they should not so loosely consume their fortunes$ to the
utter undoing of their families.
I may not here omit those t'o main "lagues$ and common dotages of human
%ind$ 'ine and 'omen$ 'hich ha#e infatuated and besotted myriads of "eo"le<
they go commonly together.
;,/B-G LKui #ino indulget$ 0uem0ue aloa deco0uit$ ille
In #enerem "utretL------
To 'hom is sorro'$ saith 9olomon$ Pro. ++iii. .B$ to 'hom is 'oe$ but to
such a one as lo#es drin%N it causeth torture$ (_#ino tortus et ira_) and
bitterness of mind$ 9irac. .,. =,. _Iinum furoris_$ Deremy calls it$ _,@.
ca"._ 'ine of madness$ as 'ell he may$ for _insanire facit sanos_$ it ma%es
sound men sic% and sad$ and 'ise men ;,/BAGmad$ to say and do they %no' not
'hat. _Accidit hodie terribilis casus_ (saith ;,/B/G9. Austin) hear a
miserable accident< :yrillus! son this day in his drin%$ _Matrem
"raegnantem ne0uiter o""ressit$ sororem #iolare #oluit$ "atrem occidit
fere$ et duas alias sorores ad mortem #ulnera#it_$ 'ould ha#e #iolated his
sister$ %illed his father$ Fc. A true saying it 'as of him$ _Iino dari
laetitiam et dolorem_$ drin% causeth mirth$ and drin% causeth sorro'$ drin%
causeth L"o#erty and 'ant$L (Pro#. ++i.) shame and disgrace. _Multi
ignobiles e#asere ob #ini "otum$ et_ (Austin) _amissis honoribus "rofugi
aberrarunt_& many men ha#e made shi"'rec% of their fortunes$ and go li%e
rogues and beggars$ ha#ing turned all their substance into _aurum
"otabile_$ that other'ise might ha#e li#ed in good 'orshi" and ha""y
estate$ and for a fe' hours! "leasure$ for their 5ilary term!s but short$
or ;,/BBGfree madness$ as 9eneca calls it$ "urchase unto themsel#es eternal
tediousness and trouble.
That other madness is on 'omen$ _A"ostatare facit cor_$ saith the 'ise man$
;,BCCG_At0ue homini cerebrum minuit_. Pleasant at first she is$ li%e
3ioscorides 1hododa"hne$ that fair "lant to the eye$ but "oison to the
taste$ the rest as bitter as 'orm'ood in the end (Pro#. #. ?.) and shar" as
a t'o-edged s'ord$ (#ii. =A.) L5er house is the 'ay to hell$ and goes do'n
to the chambers of death.L 4hat more sorro'ful can be saidN they are
miserable in this life$ mad$ beasts$ led li%e ;,BC,GLo+en to the
slaughter&L and that 'hich is 'orse$ 'horemasters and drun%ards shall be
judged$ _amittunt gratiam_$ saith Austin$ _"erdunt gloriam$ incurrunt
damnationem aeternam_. They lose grace and glory<
;,BC=G ------Lbre#is illa #olu"tas
Abrogat aeternum caeli decusL------
they gain hell and eternal damnation.
9H9E:T. JII.--_Philautia$ or 9elf-lo#e$ Iainglory$ Praise$ 5onour$
Immoderate A""lause$ Pride$ o#ermuch Doy$ Fc.$ :auses_.
9elf-lo#e$ "ride$ and #ainglory$ ;,BC.G_caecus amor sui_$ 'hich :hrysostom
calls one of the de#il!s three great nets< ;,BC?GLernard$ an arro' 'hich
"ierceth the soul through$ and slays it< a sly$ insensible enemy$ not
"ercei#ed$L are main causes. 4here neither anger$ lust$ co#etousness$ fear$
sorro'$ Fc.$ nor any other "erturbation can lay hold< this 'ill slyly and
insensibly "er#ert us$ _Kuem non gula #icit$ Philautia$ su"era#it_$ (saith
:y"rian) 'hom surfeiting could not o#erta%e$ self-lo#e hath o#ercome.
;,BC@GL5e hath scorned all money$ bribes$ gifts$ u"right other'ise and
sincere$ hath inserted himself to no fond imagination$ and sustained all
those tyrannical concu"iscences of the body$ hath lost all his honour$
ca"ti#ated by #ainglory.L :hrysostom$ _su". Io._ _Tu sola animum mentem0ue
"eruris$ gloria_. A great assault and cause of our "resent malady$ although
'e do most "art neglect$ ta%e no notice of it$ yet this is a #iolent
batterer of our souls$ causeth melancholy and dotage. This "leasing humour<
this soft and 'his"ering "o"ular air$ _Amabilis insania_< this delectable
frenzy$ most irrefragable "assion$ _Mentis gratissimus error_$ this
acce"table disease$ 'hich so s'eetly sets u"on us$ ra#isheth our senses$
lulls our souls aslee"$ "uffs u" our hearts as so many bladders$ and that
'ithout all feeling$ ;,BC-Ginsomuch as Lthose that are misaffected 'ith it$
ne#er so much as once "ercei#e it$ or thin% of any cure.L 4e commonly lo#e
him best in this ;,BCAGmalady$ that doth us most harm$ and are #ery 'illing
to be hurt< _adulationibus nostris libentur facemus_ (saith ;,BC/G Derome)
'e lo#e him$ 'e lo#e him for it& ;,BCBG_2 onciari sua#e$ sua#e fuit a te
tali haec tribui_< !T'as s'eet to hear it. And as ;,B,CGPliny doth
ingenuously confess to his dear friend Augurinus$ Lall thy 'ritings are
most acce"table$ but those es"ecially that s"ea% of us.L Again$ a little
after to Ma+imus$ ;,B,,GLI cannot e+"ress ho' "leasing it is to me to hear
myself commended.L Though 'e smile to oursel#es$ at least ironically$ 'hen
"arasites bedaub us 'ith false encomiums$ as many "rinces cannot choose but
do$ _Kuum tale 0uid nihil intra se re"ererint_$ 'hen they %no' they come as
far short$ as a mouse to an ele"hant$ of any such #irtues< yet it doth us
good. Though 'e seem many times to be angry$ ;,B,=G Land blush at our o'n
"raises$ yet our souls in'ardly rejoice$ it "uffs us u"<L !tis _falla+
sua#itas$ blandus daemon_$ Lma%es us s'ell beyond our bounds$ and forget
oursel#es.L 5er t'o daughters are lightness of mind$ immoderate joy and
"ride$ not e+cluding those other concomitant #ices$ 'hich ;,B,.GIodocus
*orichius rec%ons u"< bragging$ hy"ocrisy$ "ee#ishness$ and curiosity.
8o' the common cause of this mischief$ ariseth from oursel#es or others$
;,B,?G'e are acti#e and "assi#e. It "roceeds in'ardly from oursel#es$ as 'e
are acti#e causes$ from an o#er'eening conceit 'e ha#e of our good "arts$
o'n 'orth$ ('hich indeed is no 'orth) our bounty$ fa#our$ grace$ #alour$
strength$ 'ealth$ "atience$ mee%ness$ hos"itality$ beauty$ tem"erance$
gentry$ %no'ledge$ 'it$ science$ art$ learning$ our ;,B,@G e+cellent gifts
and fortunes$ for 'hich$ 8arcissus-li%e$ 'e admire$ flatter$ and a""laud
oursel#es$ and thin% all the 'orld esteems so of us< and as deformed 'omen
easily belie#e those that tell them they be fair$ 'e are too credulous of
our o'n good "arts and "raises$ too 'ell "ersuaded of oursel#es. 4e brag
and #enditate our ;,B,-Go'n 'or%s$ and scorn all others in res"ect of us<
_Inflati scientia_$ (saith Paul) our 'isdom$ ;,B,AGour learning$ all our
geese are s'ans$ and 'e as basely esteem and #ilify other men!s$ as 'e do
o#er-highly "rize and #alue our o'n. 4e 'ill not suffer them to be _in
secundis_$ no$ not _in tertiis_< 'hat$ _Mecum confertur Hlysses_N they are
_Mures$ Muscae$ culices "rae se_$ nits and flies com"ared to his ine+orable
and su"ercilious$ eminent and arrogant 'orshi"& though indeed they be far
before him. 2nly 'ise$ only rich$ only fortunate$ #alorous$ and fair$
"uffed u" 'ith this tym"any of self-conceit< ;,B,/Gas that "roud Pharisee$
they are not (as they su""ose) Lli%e other men$L of a "urer and more
"recious metal& ;,B,BG_9oli rei gerendi sunt efficaces_$ 'hich that 'ise
Periander held of such& ;,B=CG_meditantur omne 0ui "rius negotium_$ Fc.
_8o#i 0uendam_ (saith ;,B=,GErasmus) I %ne' one so arrogant that he thought
himself inferior to no man li#ing$ li%e ;,B==G:allisthenes the "hiloso"her$
that neither held Ale+ander!s acts$ or any other subject 'orthy of his "en$
such 'as his insolency< or 9eleucus %ing of 9yria$ 'ho thought none fit to
contend 'ith him but the 1omans. ;,B=.G_Eos solos dignos ratus 0uibuscum de
im"erio certaret_. That 'hich Tully 'rit to Atticus long since$ is still in
force. ;,B=?GLThere 'as ne#er yet true "oet nor orator$ that thought any
other better than himself.L And such for the most "art are your "rinces$
"otentates$ great "hiloso"hers$ historiogra"hers$ authors of sects or
heresies$ and all our great scholars$ as ;,B=@G5ierom defines< La natural
"hiloso"her is a glorious creature$ and a #ery sla#e of rumour$ fame$ and
"o"ular o"inion$L and though they 'rite _de contem"tu gloriae_$ yet as he
obser#es$ they 'ill "ut their names to their boo%s. _Iobis et famae$ me
sem"er dedi_$ saith Trebellius Pollio$ I ha#e 'holly consecrated myself to
you and fame. L!Tis all my desire$ night and day$ !tis all my study to
raise my name.L Proud ;,B=-GPliny seconds him< _Kuam0uam 2_O Fc. and that
#ainglorious ;,B=AGorator is not ashamed to confess in an E"istle of his to
Marcus *ecceius$ _Ardeo incredibili cu"ididate_$ Fc. LI burn 'ith an
incredible desire to ha#e my ;,B=/Gname registered in thy boo%.L 2ut of
this fountain "roceed all those crac%s and brags$--;,B=BG_s"eramus carmina
fingi Posse linenda cedro$ et leni ser#anda cu"resso_--;,B.CG_8on usitata
nec tenui ferar "enna.--nec in terra morabor longius. 8il "ar#um aut humili
modo$ nil mortale lo0uor. 3icar 0ua #iolens obstre"it Ausidus.--E+egi
monumentum aere "erennius. Iam0ue o"us e+egi$ 0uod nec Do#is ira$ nec
ignis$ Fc. cum #enit ille dies$ Fc. "arte tamen meliore mei su"er alta
"erennis astra ferar$ nomen0ue erit indelebile nostrum_. (This of 2#id I
ha#e "ara"hrased in English.)
LAnd 'hen I am dead and gone$
My cor"se laid under a stone
My fame shall yet sur#i#e$
And I shall be ali#e$
In these my 'or%s for e#er$
My glory shall "erse#er$L Fc.
And that of Ennius$
L8emo me lachrymis decoret$ ne0ue funera fletu
7a+it$ curN #olito docta "er ora #irum.L
L*et none shed tears o#er me$ or adorn my bier 'ith sorro'--because I am
eternally in the mouths of men.L 4ith many such "roud strains$ and foolish
flashes too common 'ith 'riters. 8ot so much as 3emocharis on the ;,B.,G
To"ics$ but he 'ill be immortal. _Ty"otius de fama_$ shall be famous$ and
'ell he deser#es$ because he 'rit of fame< and e#ery tri#ial "oet must be
reno'ned$--_Plausu0ue "etit clarescere #ulgi_. L5e see%s the a""lause of
the "ublic.L This "uffing humour it is$ that hath "roduced so many great
tomes$ built such famous monuments$ strong castles$ and Mausolean tombs$ to
ha#e their acts eternised$--_3igito monstrari$ et dicier hic est_< Lto be
"ointed at 'ith the finger$ and to ha#e it said !there he goes$!L to see
their names inscribed$ as Phryne on the 'alls of Thebes$ _Phryne fecit_<
this causeth so many bloody battles$--_Et noctes cogit #igilare serenas_<
Land induces us to 'atch during calm nights.L *ong journeys$ _Magnum iter
intendo$ sed dat mihi gloria #ires_$ LI contem"late a monstrous journey$
but the lo#e of glory strengthens me for it$L gaining honour$ a little
a""lause$ "ride$ self-lo#e$ #ainglory. This is it 'hich ma%es them ta%e
such "ains$ and brea% out into those ridiculous strains$ this high conceit
of themsel#es$ to ;,B.=Gscorn all others< _ridiculo fastu et intolerando
contem"tu_< as ;,B..GPalaemon the grammarian contemned Iarro$ _secum et
natas et morituras literas jactans_$ and brings them to that height of
insolency$ that they cannot endure to be contradicted$ ;,B.?GLor hear of
anything but their o'n commendation$L 'hich 5ierom notes of such %ind of
men. And as ;,B.@GAustin 'ell seconds him$ L!tis their sole study day and
night to be commended and a""lauded.L 4hen as indeed$ in all 'ise men!s
judgments$ _0uibus cor sa"it_$ they are ;,B.-Gmad$ em"ty #essels$ funges$
beside themsel#es$ derided$ _et ut :amelus in "ro#erbio 0uaerens cornua$
etiam 0uas habebat aures amisit_$ ;,B.AGtheir 'or%s are toys$ as an almanac
out of date$ ;,B./G_authoris "ereunt garrulitate sui_$ they see% fame and
immortality$ but rea" dishonour and infamy$ they are a common oblo0uy$
_insensati_$ and come far short of that 'hich they su""ose or e+"ect.
;,B.BG_2 "uer ut sis #italis metuo_$
------L5o' much I dread
Thy days are short$ some lord shall stri%e thee dead.L
2f so many myriads of "oets$ rhetoricians$ "hiloso"hers$ so"histers$ as
;,B?CGEusebius 'ell obser#es$ 'hich ha#e 'ritten in former ages$ scarce one
of a thousand!s 'or%s remains$ _nomina et libri simul cum cor"oribus
interierunt_$ their boo%s and bodies are "erished together. It is not as
they #ainly thin%$ they shall surely be admired and immortal$ as one told
Phili" of Macedon insultingly$ after a #ictory$ that his shado' 'as no
longer than before$ 'e may say to them$
L8os demiramur$ sed non cum deside #ulgo$
9ed #elut 5ar"yas$ Gorgonas$ et 7urias.L
L4e mar#el too$ not as the #ulgar 'e$
ut as 'e Gorgons$ 5ar"ies$ or 7uries see.L
2r if 'e do a""laud$ honour and admire$ _0uota "ars_$ ho' small a "art$ in
res"ect of the 'hole 'orld$ ne#er so much as hears our names$ ho' fe' ta%e
notice of us$ ho' slender a tract$ as scant as Alcibiades! land in a ma"O
And yet e#ery man must and 'ill be immortal$ as he ho"es$ and e+tend his
fame to our anti"odes$ 'hen as half$ no not a 0uarter of his o'n "ro#ince
or city$ neither %no's nor hears of him--but say they did$ 'hat!s a city to
a %ingdom$ a %ingdom to Euro"e$ Euro"e to the 'orld$ the 'orld itself that
must ha#e an end$ if com"ared to the least #isible star in the firmament$
eighteen times bigger than itN and then if those stars be infinite$ and
e#ery star there be a sun$ as some 'ill$ and as this sun of ours hath his
"lanets about him$ all inhabited$ 'hat "ro"ortion bear 'e to them$ and
'here!s our gloryN _2rbem terrarum #ictor 1omanus habebat_$ as he crac%ed
in Petronius$ all the 'orld 'as under Augustus& and so in :onstantine!s
time$ Eusebius brags he go#erned all the 'orld$ _uni#ersum mundum "raeclare
admodum administra#it$--et omnes orbis gentes Im"eratori subjecti_& so of
Ale+ander it is gi#en out$ the four monarchies$ Fc. 'hen as neither Gree%s
nor 1omans e#er had the fifteenth "art of the no' %no'n 'orld$ nor half of
that 'hich 'as then described. 4hat braggadocios are they and 'e thenN
_0uam bre#is hic de nobis sermo_$ as ;,B?,Ghe said$ ;,B?=G_"udebit aucti
nominis_$ ho' short a time$ ho' little a 'hile doth this fame of ours
continueN E#ery "ri#ate "ro#ince$ e#ery small territory and city$ 'hen 'e
ha#e all done$ 'ill yield as generous s"irits$ as bra#e e+am"les in all
res"ects$ as famous as oursel#es$ :ad'allader in 4ales$ 1ollo in 8ormandy$
1obin 5ood and *ittle Dohn$ are as much reno'ned in 9her'ood$ as :aesar in
1ome$ Ale+ander in Greece$ or his 5e"hestion$ ;,B?.G _2mnis aetas omnis0ue
"o"ulus in e+em"lum et admirationem #eniet_$ e#ery to'n$ city$ boo%$ is
full of bra#e soldiers$ senators$ scholars< and though ;,B??Gracyclas 'as
a 'orthy ca"tain$ a good man$ and as they thought$ not to be matched in
*acedaemon$ yet as his mother truly said$ _"lures habet 9"arta racyda
meliores_$ 9"arta had many better men than e#er he 'as< and ho'soe#er thou
admirest thyself$ thy friend$ many an obscure fello' the 'orld ne#er too%
notice of$ had he been in "lace or action$ 'ould ha#e done much better than
he or he$ or thou thyself.
Another %ind of mad men there is o""osite to these$ that are insensibly
mad$ and %no' not of it$ such as contemn all "raise and glory$ thin%
themsel#es most free$ 'hen as indeed they are most mad& _calcant sed alio
fastu_& a com"any of cynics$ such as are mon%s$ hermits$ anchorites$ that
contemn the 'orld$ contemn themsel#es$ contemn all titles$ honours$
offices& and yet in that contem"t are more "roud than any man li#ing
'hatsoe#er. They are "roud in humility$ "roud in that they are not "roud$
_sae"e homo de #anae gloriae contem"tu$ #anius gloriatur_$ as Austin hath
it$ _confess. lib. ,C$ ca". ./_$ li%e 3iogenes$ _intus gloriantur_$ they
brag in'ardly$ and feed themsel#es fat 'ith a self-conceit of sanctity$
'hich is no better than hy"ocrisy. They go in shee"!s russet$ many great
men that might maintain themsel#es in cloth of gold$ and seem to be
dejected$ humble by their out'ard carriage$ 'hen as in'ardly they are
s'ollen full of "ride$ arrogancy$ and self-conceit. And therefore 9eneca
ad#iseth his friend *ucilius$ ;,B?@GLin his attire and gesture$ out'ard
actions$ es"ecially to a#oid all such things as are more notable in
themsel#es& as a rugged attire$ hirsute head$ horrid beard$ contem"t of
money$ coarse lodging$ and 'hatsoe#er leads to fame that o""osite 'ay.L
All this madness yet "roceeds from oursel#es$ the main engine 'hich batters
us is from others$ 'e are merely "assi#e in this business& from a com"any
of "arasites and flatterers$ that 'ith immoderate "raise$ and bombast
e"ithets$ glossing titles$ false eulogiums$ so bedaub and a""laud$ gild
o#er many a silly and undeser#ing man$ that they cla" him 0uite out of his
'its. _1es im"rimis #iolenta est_$ as 5ierom notes$ this common a""lause is
a most #iolent thing$ _laudum "lacenta_$ a drum$ fife$ and trum"et cannot
so animate< that fattens men$ erects and dejects them in an instant. ;,B?-G
_Palma negata macrum$ donata reducit o"imum_. It ma%es them fat and lean$
as frost doth conies. ;,B?AGLAnd 'ho is that mortal man that can so contain
himself$ that if he be immoderately commended and a""lauded$ 'ill not be
mo#edNL *et him be 'hat he 'ill$ those "arasites 'ill o#erturn him& if he
be a %ing$ he is one of the nine 'orthies$ more than a man$ a god
forth'ith$--;,B?/G_edictum 3omini 3ei0ue nostri_& and they 'ill sacrifice
unto him$
;,B?BG ------Ldi#inos si tu "atiaris honores$
Hltro i"si dabimus meritas0ue sacrabimus aras.L
If he be a soldier$ then Themistocles$ E"aminondas$ 5ector$ Achilles$ _duo
fulmina belli$ trium#iri terrarum_$ Fc.$ and the #alour of both 9ci"ios is
too little for him$ he is _in#ictissimus$ serenissimus$ multis tro"haeus
ornatissimus$ naturae$ dominus_$ although he be _le"us galeatus_$ indeed a
#ery co'ard$ a mil%-so"$ ;,B@CGand as he said of Jer+es$ _"ostremus in
"ugna$ "rimus in fuga_$ and such a one as ne#er durst loo% his enemy in the
face. If he be a big man$ then is he a 9amson$ another 5ercules< if he
"ronounce a s"eech$ another Tully or 3emosthenes< as of 5erod in the Acts$
Lthe #oice of God and not of man&L if he can ma%e a #erse$ 5omer$ Iirgil$
Fc.$ And then my silly 'ea% "atient ta%es all these eulogiums to himself<
if he be a scholar so commended for his much reading$ e+cellent style$
method$ Fc.$ he 'ill e#iscerate himself li%e a s"ider$ study to death$
_*audatas ostendit a#is Dunonia "ennas_$ "eacoc%-li%e he 'ill dis"lay all
his feathers. If he be a soldier$ and so a""lauded$ his #alour e+tolled$
though it be _im"ar congressus_$ as that of Troilus and Achilles$ _Infeli+
"uer_$ he 'ill combat 'ith a giant$ run first u"on a breach$ as another
;,B@,GPhili""us$ he 'ill ride into the thic%est of his enemies. :ommend his
house%ee"ing$ and he 'ill beggar himself< commend his tem"erance$ he 'ill
star#e himself.
------Llaudata0ue #irtus
:rescit$ et immensum gloria calcar habet.L;,B@=G
he is mad$ mad$ mad$ no 'oe 'ith him&--_im"atiens consortis erit_$ he 'ill
o#er the ;,B@.GAl"s to be tal%ed of$ or to maintain his credit. :ommend an
ambitious man$ some "roud "rince or "otentate$ _si "lus ae0uo laudetur_
(saith ;,B@?GErasmus) _cristas erigit$ e+uit hominem$ 3eum se "utat_$ he
sets u" his crest$ and 'ill be no longer a man but a God.
;,B@@G ------Lnihil est 0uod credere de se
8on audet 0uum laudatur diis ae0ua "otestas.L;,B@-G
5o' did this 'or% 'ith Ale+ander$ that 'ould needs be Du"iter!s son$ and go
li%e 5ercules in a lion!s s%inN 3omitian a god$ ;,B@AG(_3ominus 3eus noster
sic fieri jubet_$) li%e the ;,B@/GPersian %ings$ 'hose image 'as adored by
all that came into the city of abylon. :ommodus the em"eror 'as so gulled
by his flattering "arasites$ that he must be called 5ercules.
;,B@BGAntonius the 1oman 'ould be cro'ned 'ith i#y$ carried in a chariot$
and adored for acchus. :otys$ %ing of Thrace$ 'as married to ;,B-CG
Miner#a$ and sent three se#eral messengers one after another$ to see if she
'ere come to his bedchamber. 9uch a one 'as ;,B-,GDu"iter Menecrates$
Ma+iminus$ Do#ianus$ 3ioclesianus 5erculeus$ 9a"or the Persian %ing$
brother of the sun and moon$ and our modern Tur%s$ that 'ill be gods on
earth$ %ings of %ings$ God!s shado'$ commanders of all that may be
commanded$ our %ings of :hina and Tartary in this "resent age. 9uch a one
'as Jer+es$ that 'ould 'hi" the sea$ fetter 8e"tune$ _stulta jactantia_$
and send a challenge to Mount Athos< and such are many sottish "rinces$
brought into a fool!s "aradise by their "arasites$ !tis a common humour$
incident to all men$ 'hen they are in great "laces$ or come to the solstice
of honour$ ha#e done$ or deser#ed 'ell$ to a""laud and flatter themsel#es.
_9tultitiam suam "rodunt_$ Fc.$ (saith ;,B-=GPlaterus) your #ery tradesmen
if they be e+cellent$ 'ill crac% and brag$ and sho' their folly in e+cess.
They ha#e good "arts$ and they %no' it$ you need not tell them of it< out
of a conceit of their 'orth$ they go smiling to themsel#es$ a "er"etual
meditation of their tro"hies and "laudits$ they run at last 0uite mad$ and
lose their 'its. ;,B-.GPetrarch$ _lib. , de contem"tu mundi_$ confessed as
much of himself$ and :ardan$ in his fifth boo% of 'isdom$ gi#es an instance
in a smith of Milan$ a fello'-citizen of his$ ;,B-?Gone Galeus de 1ubeis$
that being commended for refining of an instrument of Archimedes$ for joy
ran mad. Plutarch in the life of Arta+er+es$ hath such a li%e story of one
:hamus$ a soldier$ that 'ounded %ing :yrus in battle$ and Lgre' thereu"on
so ;,B-@Garrogant$ that in a short s"ace after he lost his 'its.L 9o many
men$ if any ne' honour$ office$ "referment$ booty$ treasure$ "ossession$ or
"atrimony$ _e+ ins"erato_ fall unto them for immoderate joy$ and continual
meditation of it$ cannot slee" ;,B--Gor tell 'hat they say or do$ they are
so ra#ished on a sudden< and 'ith #ain conceits trans"orted$ there is no
rule 'ith them. E"aminondas$ therefore$ the ne+t day after his *euctrian
#ictory$ ;,B-AGLcame abroad all s0ualid and submiss$L and ga#e no other
reason to his friends of so doing$ than that he "ercei#ed himself the day
before$ by reason of his good fortune$ to be too insolent$ o#ermuch joyed.
That 'ise and #irtuous lady$ ;,B-/GKueen 6atherine$ 3o'ager of England$ in
"ri#ate tal%$ u"on li%e occasion$ said$ that ;,B-BGLshe 'ould not 'illingly
endure the e+tremity of either fortune< but if it 'ere so$ that of
necessity she must undergo the one$ she 'ould be in ad#ersity$ because
comfort 'as ne#er 'anting in it$ but still counsel and go#ernment 'ere
defecti#e in the other&L they could not moderate themsel#es.
9H9E:T. JI.--_*o#e of *earning$ or o#ermuch study. 4ith a 3igression of
the misery of 9cholars$ and 'hy the Muses are Melancholy_.
*eonartus 7uchsius _Instit. lib. iii. sect. ,. ca". ,._ 7eli+ Plater$ _lib.
iii. de mentis alienat_. 5erc. de 9a+onia$ _Tract. "ost. de melanch. ca".
._$ s"ea% of a ;,BACG"eculiar fury$ 'hich comes by o#ermuch study.
7ernelius$ _lib. ,$ ca". ,/_$ ;,BA,G"uts study$ contem"lation$ and
continual meditation$ as an es"ecial cause of madness& and in his _/-
consul._ cites the same 'ords. Do. Arculanus$ _in lib. B$ 1hasis ad
Alnansorem$ ca". ,-_$ amongst other causes rec%ons u" _studium #ehemens_&
so doth *e#inus *emnius$ _lib. de occul. nat. mirac. lib. ,$ ca". ,-._
;,BA=GLMany menL (saith he) Lcome to this malady by continual ;,BA.Gstudy$
and night-'a%ing$ and of all other men$ scholars are most subject to it&L
and such 1hasis adds$ ;,BA?GLthat ha#e commonly the finest 'its.L _:ont.
lib. ,$ tract. B_$ Marsilius 7icinus$ _de sanit. tuenda$ lib. ,. ca". A_$
"uts melancholy amongst one of those fi#e "rinci"al "lagues of students$
!tis a common Maul unto them all$ and almost in some measure an inse"arable
com"anion. Iarro beli%e for that cause calls _Tristes Philoso"hos et
se#eros_$ se#ere$ sad$ dry$ tetric$ are common e"ithets to scholars& and
;,BA@GPatritius therefore$ in the institution of "rinces$ 'ould not ha#e
them to be great students. 7or (as Machia#el holds) study 'ea%ens their
bodies$ dulls the s"irits$ abates their strength and courage< and good
scholars are ne#er good soldiers$ 'hich a certain Goth 'ell "ercei#ed$ for
'hen his countrymen came into Greece$ and 'ould ha#e burned all their
boo%s$ he cried out against it$ by no means they should do it$ ;,BA-G
Llea#e them that "lague$ 'hich in time 'ill consume all their #igour$ and
martial s"irits.L The ;,BAAGTur%s abdicated :ornutus the ne+t heir from the
em"ire$ because he 'as so much gi#en to his boo%& and !tis the common tenet
of the 'orld$ that learning dulls and diminisheth the s"irits$ and so _"er
conse0uens_ "roduceth melancholy.
T'o main reasons may be gi#en of it$ 'hy students should be more subject to
this malady than others. The one is$ they li#e a sedentary$ solitary life$
_sibi et musis_$ free from bodily e+ercise$ and those ordinary dis"orts
'hich other men use& and many times if discontent and idleness concur 'ith
it$ 'hich is too fre0uent$ they are "reci"itated into this gulf on a
sudden& but the common cause is o#ermuch study< too much learning (as
;,BA/G7estus told Paul) hath made thee mad< !tis that other e+treme 'hich
effects it. 9o did Trinca#elius$ _lib. ,$ consil. ,= and ,._$ find by his
e+"erience$ in t'o of his "atients$ a young baron$ and another that
contracted this malady by too #ehement study. 9o 7orestus$ _obser#at. l.
,C$ obser#. ,._$ in a young di#ine in *ou#ain$ that 'as mad$ and said
;,BABGLhe had a ible in his head&L Marsilius 7icinus _de sanit. tuend.
lib. ,$ ca". ,$ .$ ?_$ and _lib. =$ ca". ,-_$ gi#es many reasons$ ;,B/CG
L'hy students dote more often than others.L The first is their negligence<
;,B/,GLother men loo% to their tools$ a "ainter 'ill 'ash his "encils$ a
smith 'ill loo% to his hammer$ an#il$ forge< a husbandman 'ill mend his
"lough-irons$ and grind his hatchet if it be dull< a falconer or huntsman
'ill ha#e an es"ecial care of his ha'%s$ hounds$ horses$ dogs$ Fc.< a
musician 'ill string and unstring his lute$ Fc.< only scholars neglect that
instrument$ their brain and s"irits (I mean) 'hich they daily use$ and by
'hich they range o#erall the 'orld$ 'hich by much study is consumed.L
_Iide_ (saith *ucian) _ne funiculum nimis intendendo ali0uando abrum"as_&
L9ee thou t'ist not the ro"e so hard$ till at length it ;,B/=Gbrea%.L
7acinus in his fourth cha". gi#es some other reasons< 9aturn and Mercury$
the "atrons of learning$ they are both dry "lanets& and 2riganus assigns
the same cause$ 'hy Mercurialists are so "oor$ and most "art beggars< for
that their "resident Mercury had no better fortune himself. The destinies
of old "ut "o#erty u"on him as a "unishment< since 'hen$ "oetry and beggary
are Gemelli$ t'in-born brats$ inse"arable com"anions<
;,B/.G LAnd to this day is e#ery scholar "oor<
Gross gold from them runs headlong to the boor&L
Mercury can hel" them to %no'ledge$ but not to money. The second is
contem"lation$ ;,B/?GL'hich dries the brain and e+tinguisheth natural heat<
for 'hilst the s"irits are intent to meditation abo#e in the head$ the
stomach and li#er are left destitute$ and thence come blac% blood and
crudities by defect of concoction$ and for 'ant of e+ercise the su"erfluous
#a"ours cannot e+hale$L Fc. The same reasons are re"eated by Gomesius$
_lib. ?$ ca". ,$ de sale_ ;,B/@G8ymannus _orat. de Imag._ Do. Ioschius$
_lib. =$ ca". @$ de "este_& and something more they add$ that hard students
are commonly troubled 'ith gouts$ catarrhs$ rheums$ cache+ia$ bradio"e"sia$
bad eyes$ stone and colic$ ;,B/-Gcrudities$ o""ilations$ #ertigo$ 'inds$
consum"tions$ and all such diseases as come by o#ermuch sitting< they are
most "art lean$ dry$ ill-coloured$ s"end their fortunes$ lose their 'its$
and many times their li#es$ and all through immoderate "ains$ and
e+traordinary studies. If you 'ill not belie#e the truth of this$ loo% u"on
great Tostatus and Thomas A0uinas!s 'or%s$ and tell me 'hether those men
too% "ainsN "eruse Austin$ 5ierom$ Fc.$ and many thousands besides.
LKui cu"it o"tatam cursu contingere metam$
Multa tulit$ fecit0ue "uer$ suda#it et alsit.L
L5e that desires this 'ished goal to gain$
Must s'eat and freeze before he can attain$L
and labour hard for it. 9o did 9eneca$ by his o'n confession$ _e". /._
;,B/AGL8ot a day that I s"end idle$ "art of the night I %ee" mine eyes
o"en$ tired 'ith 'a%ing$ and no' slumbering to their continual tas%.L 5ear
Tully _"ro Archia Poeta_& L'hilst others loitered$ and too% their
"leasures$ he 'as continually at his boo%$L so they do that 'ill be
scholars$ and that to the hazard (I say) of their healths$ fortunes$ 'its$
and li#es. 5o' much did Aristotle and Ptolemy s"endN _unius regni "recium_
they say$ more than a %ing!s ransom< ho' many cro'ns "er annum$ to "erfect
arts$ the one about his 5istory of :reatures$ the other on his AlmagestN
5o' much time did Thebet enchorat em"loy$ to find out the motion of the
eighth s"hereN forty years and more$ some 'rite& ho' many "oor scholars
ha#e lost their 'its$ or become dizzards$ neglecting all 'orldly affairs
and their o'n health$ 'ealth$ _esse_ and _bene esse_$ to gain %no'ledge for
'hich$ after all their "ains$ in this 'orld!s esteem they are accounted
ridiculous and silly fools$ idiots$ asses$ and (as oft they are) rejected$
contemned$ derided$ doting$ and mad. *oo% for e+am"les in 5ildesheim
_s"icel. =$ de mania et delirio_& read Trinca#ellius$ _l. .. consil. .-$ et
c. ,A._ Montanus$ _consil. =..._ ;,B//GGarceus _de Dudic. genit. ca". ..._
Mercurialis$ _consil. /-$ ca". =@._ Pros"er ;,B/BG:alenius in his oo% _de
atra bile_< Go to edlam and as%. 2r if they %ee" their 'its$ yet they are
esteemed scrubs and fools by reason of their carriage& Lafter se#en years!
------Lstatua$ taciturnius e+it$
Plerum0ue et risum "o"uli 0uatit.L------
L5e becomes more silent than a statue$ and generally e+cites "eo"le!s
laughter.L ecause they cannot ride a horse$ 'hich e#ery clo'n can do<
salute and court a gentle'oman$ car#e at table$ cringe and ma%e conges$
'hich e#ery common s'asher can do$ ;,BBCG_hos "o"ulus ridet_$ Fc.$ they are
laughed to scorn$ and accounted silly fools by our gallants. Eea$ many
times$ such is their misery$ they deser#e it& ;,BB,Ga mere scholar$ a mere
;,BB=G L2bsti"o ca"ite$ et figentes lumine terram$
Murmura cum secum$ et rabiosa silentia rodunt$
At0ue e+"errecto trutinantur #erba labello$
Aegroti #eteris meditantes somnia$ gigni
3e nihilo nihilum< in nihilum nil "osse re#erti.L
;,BB.G ------L'ho do lean a'ry
Their heads$ "iercing the earth 'ith a fi+t eye<
4hen$ by themsel#es$ they gna' their murmuring$
And furious silence$ as !t'ere balancing
Each 'ord u"on their out-stretched li"$ and 'hen
They meditate the dreams of old sic% men$
As$ !2ut of nothing$ nothing can be brought<
And that 'hich is$ can ne!er be turn!d to nought.!L
Thus they go commonly meditating unto themsel#es$ thus they sit$ such is
their action and gesture. 7ulgosus$ _l. /$ c. A_$ ma%es mention ho' Th.
A0uinas su""ing 'ith %ing *e'is of 7rance$ u"on a sudden %noc%ed his fist
u"on the table$ and cried$ _conclusum est contra Manichaeos_$ his 'its 'ere
a 'ool-gathering$ as they say$ and his head busied about other matters$
'hen he "ercei#ed his error$ he 'as much ;,BB?Gabashed. 9uch a story there
is of Archimedes in Iitru#ius$ that ha#ing found out the means to %no' ho'
much gold 'as mingled 'ith the sil#er in %ing 5ieron!s cro'n$ ran na%ed
forth of the bath and cried ;Gree%& heurae%aG$ I ha#e found& ;,BB@GLand 'as
commonly so intent to his studies$ that he ne#er "ercei#ed 'hat 'as done
about him& 'hen the city 'as ta%en$ and the soldiers no' ready to rifle his
house$ he too% no notice of it.L 9t. ernard rode all day long by the
*emnian la%e$ and as%ed at last 'here he 'as$ Marullus$ _lib. =$ ca". ?._
It 'as 3emocritus!s carriage alone that made the Abderites su""ose him to
ha#e been mad$ and send for 5i""ocrates to cure him& if he had been in any
solemn com"any$ he 'ould u"on all occasions fall a laughing. Theo"hrastus
saith as much of 5eraclitus$ for that he continually 'e"t$ and *aertius of
Menedemus *am"sacus$ because he ran li%e a madman$ ;,BB-Gsaying$ Lhe came
from hell as a s"y$ to tell the de#ils 'hat mortal men did.L Eour greatest
students are commonly no better$ silly$ soft fello's in their out'ard
beha#iour$ absurd$ ridiculous to others$ and no 'hit e+"erienced in 'orldly
business< they can measure the hea#ens$ range o#er the 'orld$ teach others
'isdom$ and yet in bargains and contracts they are circum#ented by e#ery
base tradesman. Are not these men foolsN and ho' should they be other'ise$
Lbut as so many sots in schools$ 'henL (as ;,BBAGhe 'ell obser#ed) Lthey
neither hear nor see such things as are commonly "ractised abroadNL ho'
should they get e+"erience$ by 'hat meansN ;,BB/GLI %ne' in my time many
scholars$L saith Aeneas 9yl#ius (in an e"istle of his to Gas"er 9citic%$
chancellor to the em"eror)$ Le+cellent 'ell learned$ but so rude$ so silly$
that they had no common ci#ility$ nor %ne' ho' to manage their domestic or
"ublic affairs.L LPaglarensis 'as amazed$ and said his farmer had surely
cozened him$ 'hen he heard him tell that his so' had ele#en "igs$ and his
ass had but one foal.L To say the best of this "rofession$ I can gi#e no
other testimony of them in general$ than that of Pliny of Isaeus< ;,BBBGL5e
is yet a scholar$ than 'hich %ind of men there is nothing so sim"le$ so
sincere$ none better$ they are most "art harmless$ honest$ u"right$
innocent$ "lain-dealing men.L
8o' because they are commonly subject to such hazards and incon#eniences as
dotage$ madness$ sim"licity$ Fc. Do. Ioschius 'ould ha#e good scholars to
be highly re'arded$ and had in some e+traordinary res"ect abo#e other men$
Lto ha#e greater ;=CCCG"ri#ileges than the rest$ that ad#enture themsel#es
and abbre#iate their li#es for the "ublic good.L ut our "atrons of
learning are so far no'adays from res"ecting the muses$ and gi#ing that
honour to scholars$ or re'ard 'hich they deser#e$ and are allo'ed by those
indulgent "ri#ileges of many noble "rinces$ that after all their "ains
ta%en in the uni#ersities$ cost and charge$ e+"enses$ ir%some hours$
laborious tas%s$ 'earisome days$ dangers$ hazards$ (barred interim from all
"leasures 'hich other men ha#e$ me'ed u" li%e ha'%s all their li#es) if
they chance to 'ade through them$ they shall in the end be rejected$
contemned$ and 'hich is their greatest misery$ dri#en to their shifts$
e+"osed to 'ant$ "o#erty$ and beggary. Their familiar attendants are$
;=CC,G LPallentes morbi$ luctus$ curae0ue labor0ue
Et metus$ et malesuada fames$ et tur"is egestas$
Terribiles #isu formaeL------
LGrief$ labour$ care$ "ale sic%ness$ miseries$
7ear$ filthy "o#erty$ hunger that cries$
Terrible monsters to be seen 'ith eyes.L
If there 'ere nothing else to trouble them$ the conceit of this alone 'ere
enough to ma%e them all melancholy. Most other trades and "rofessions$
after some se#en years! a""renticeshi"$ are enabled by their craft to li#e
of themsel#es. A merchant ad#entures his goods at sea$ and though his
hazard be great$ yet if one shi" return of four$ he li%ely ma%es a sa#ing
#oyage. An husbandman!s gains are almost certain< _0uibus i"se Du"iter
nocere non "otest_ ('hom Do#e himself can!t harm) (!tis ;=CC=G:ato!s
hy"erbole$ a great husband himself)< only scholars methin%s are most
uncertain$ unres"ected$ subject to all casualties$ and hazards. 7or first$
not one of a many "ro#es to be a scholar$ all are not ca"able and docile$
;=CC.G_e+ omniligno non fit Mercurius_& 'e can ma%e majors and officers
e#ery year$ but not scholars& %ings can in#est %nights and barons$ as
9igismund the em"eror confessed< uni#ersities can gi#e degrees< and _Tu
0uod es$ e "o"ulo 0uilibet esse "otest_< but he nor they$ nor all the
'orld$ can gi#e learning$ ma%e "hiloso"hers$ artists$ orators$ "oets< 'e
can soon say$ as 9eneca 'ell notes$ _2 #irum bonum$ o di#item_$ "oint at a
rich man$ a good$ a ha""y man$ a "ros"erous man$ _sum"tuose #estitum$
:alamistratum$ bene olentem$ magno tem"oris im"endio constat haec laudatio$
o #irum literarum_$ but !tis not so easily "erformed to find out a learned
man. *earning is not so 0uic%ly got$ though they may be 'illing to ta%e
"ains$ to that end sufficiently informed$ and liberally maintained by their
"atrons and "arents$ yet fe' can com"ass it. 2r if they be docile$ yet all
men!s 'ills are not ans'erable to their 'its$ they can a""rehend$ but 'ill
not ta%e "ains< they are either seduced by bad com"anions$ _#el in "uellam
im"ingunt$ #el in "oculum_ (they fall in 'ith 'omen or 'ine) and so s"end
their time to their friends! grief and their o'n undoings. 2r "ut case they
be studious$ industrious$ of ri"e 'its$ and "erha"s good ca"acities$ then
ho' many diseases of body and mind must they encounterN 8o labour in the
'orld li%e unto study. It may be$ their tem"erature 'ill not endure it$ but
stri#ing to be e+cellent to %no' all$ they lose health$ 'ealth$ 'it$ life
and all. *et him yet ha""ily esca"e all these hazards$ _aereis intestinis_
'ith a body of brass$ and is no' consummate and ri"e$ he hath "rofited in
his studies$ and "roceeded 'ith all a""lause& after many e+"enses$ he is
fit for "referment$ 'here shall he ha#e itN he is as far to see% it as he
'as (after t'enty years! standing) at the first day of his coming to the
Hni#ersity. 7or 'hat course shall he ta%e$ being no' ca"able and readyN The
most "arable and easy$ and about 'hich many are em"loyed$ is to teach a
school$ turn lecturer or curate$ and for that he shall ha#e falconer!s
'ages$ ten "ound "er annum$ and his diet$ or some small sti"end$ so long as
he can "lease his "atron or the "arish< if they a""ro#e him not (for
usually they do but a year or t'o) as inconstant$ as ;=CC?Gthey that cried
L5osannaL one day$ and L:rucify himL the other< ser#ing-man-li%e$ he must
go loo% a ne' master< if they do$ 'hat is his re'ardN
;=CC@G L5oc 0uo0ue te manet ut "ueros elementa docentem
2ccu"et e+tremis in #icis alba senectus.L
LAt last thy sno'-'hite age in suburb schools$
9hall toil in teaching boys their grammar rules.L
*i%e an ass$ he 'ears out his time for "ro#ender$ and can sho' a stum" rod$
_togam tritam et laceram_ saith ;=CC-G5aedus$ an old torn go'n$ an ensign
of his infelicity$ he hath his labour for his "ain$ a modicum to %ee" him
till he be decre"it$ and that is all. _Grammaticus non est feli+_$ Fc. If
he be a trencher cha"lain in a gentleman!s house$ as it befell ;=CCAG
Eu"hormio$ after some se#en years! ser#ice$ he may "erchance ha#e a li#ing
to the hal#es$ or some small rectory 'ith the mother of the maids at
length$ a "oor %ins'oman$ or a crac%ed chambermaid$ to ha#e and to hold
during the time of his life. ut if he offend his good "atron$ or dis"lease
his lady mistress in the mean time$
;=CC/G L3ucetur Planta #elut ictus ab 5ercule :acus$
Ponetur0ue foras$ si 0uid tenta#erit un0uam
as 5ercules did by :acus$ he shall be dragged forth of doors by the heels$
a'ay 'ith him. If he bend his forces to some other studies$ 'ith an intent
to be _a secretis_ to some nobleman$ or in such a "lace 'ith an ambassador$
he shall find that these "ersons rise li%e a""rentices one under another$
and in so many tradesmen!s sho"s$ 'hen the master is dead$ the foreman of
the sho" commonly ste"s in his "lace. 8o' for "oets$ rhetoricians$
historians$ "hiloso"hers$ ;=CCBGmathematicians$ so"histers$ Fc.< they are
li%e grassho""ers$ sing they must in summer$ and "ine in the 'inter$ for
there is no "referment for them. E#en so they 'ere at first$ if you 'ill
belie#e that "leasant tale of 9ocrates$ 'hich he told fair Phaedrus under a
"lane-tree$ at the ban%s of the ri#er Iseus< about noon 'hen it 'as hot$
and the grassho""ers made a noise$ he too% that s'eet occasion to tell him
a tale$ ho' grassho""ers 'ere once scholars$ musicians$ "oets$ Fc.$ before
the Muses 'ere born$ and li#ed 'ithout meat and drin%$ and for that cause
'ere turned by Du"iter into grassho""ers. And may be turned again$ _In
Tythoni :icadas$ aut *yciorum ranas_$ for any re'ard I see they are li%e to
ha#e& or else in the mean time$ I 'ould they could li#e$ as they did$
'ithout any #iaticum$ li%e so many ;=C,CGmanucodiatae$ those Indian birds
of "aradise$ as 'e commonly call them$ those I mean that li#e 'ith the air
and de' of hea#en$ and need no other food< for being as they are$ their
;=C,,GLrhetoric only ser#es them to curse their bad fortunes$L and many of
them for 'ant of means are dri#en to hard shifts< from grassho""ers they
turn humble-bees and 'as"s$ "lain "arasites$ and ma%e the muses$ mules$ to
satisfy their hunger-star#ed "aunches$ and get a meal!s meat. To say truth$
!tis the common fortune of most scholars$ to be ser#ile and "oor$ to
com"lain "itifully$ and lay o"en their 'ants to their res"ectless "atrons$
as ;=C,=G:ardan doth$ as ;=C,.GJilander and many others& and 'hich is too
common in those dedicatory e"istles$ for ho"e of gain$ to lie$ flatter$ and
'ith hy"erbolical eulogiums and commendations$ to magnify and e+tol an
illiterate un'orthy idiot$ for his e+cellent #irtues$ 'hom they should
rather$ as ;=C,?GMachia#el obser#es$ #ilify$ and rail at do'nright for his
most notorious #illainies and #ices. 9o they "rostitute themsel#es as
fiddlers$ or mercenary tradesmen$ to ser#e great men!s turns for a small
re'ard. They are li%e ;=C,@GIndians$ they ha#e store of gold$ but %no' not
the 'orth of it& for I am of 9ynesius!s o"inion$ ;=C,-GL6ing 5ieron got
more by 9imonides! ac0uaintance$ than 9imonides did by his<L they ha#e
their best education$ good institution$ sole 0ualification from us$ and
'hen they ha#e done 'ell$ their honour and immortality from us& 'e are the
li#ing tombs$ registers$ and as so many trum"eters of their fames& 'hat 'as
Achilles 'ithout 5omerN Ale+ander 'ithout Arian and :urtiusN 'ho had %no'n
the :aesars$ but for 9uetonius and 3ionN
;=C,AG LIi+erunt fortes ante Agamemnona
Multi& sed omnes illachrymabiles
Hrgentur$ ignoti0ue longa
8octe$ carent 0uia #ate sacro.L
Lefore great Agamemnon reign!d$
1eign!d %ings as great as he$ and bra#e$
4hose huge ambition!s no' contain!d
In the small com"ass of a gra#e&L
LIn endless night$ they slee"$ un'e"t$ un%no'n$
8o bard they had to ma%e all time their o'n.L
they are more beholden to scholars$ than scholars to them< but they
under#alue themsel#es$ and so by those great men are %e"t do'n. *et them
ha#e that encyclo"aedian$ all the learning in the 'orld< they must %ee" it
to themsel#es$ ;=C,/GLli#e in base esteem$ and star#e$ e+ce"t they 'ill
submit$L as udaeus 'ell hath it$ Lso many good "arts$ so many ensigns of
arts$ #irtues$ be sla#ishly obno+ious to some illiterate "otentate$ and
li#e under his insolent 'orshi"$ or honour$ li%e "arasites$L _Kui tan0uam
mures alienum "anem comedunt_. 7or to say truth$ _artes hae$ non sunt
*ucrati#ae_$ as Guido onat that great astrologer could foresee$ they be
not gainful arts these$ _sed esurientes et famelicae_$ but "oor and hungry.
;=C,BG L3at Galenus o"es$ dat Dustinianus honores$
9ed genus et s"ecies cogitur ire "edes&L
LThe rich "hysician$ honour!d la'yers ride$
4hilst the "oor scholar foots it by their side.L
Po#erty is the muses! "atrimony$ and as that "oetical di#inity teacheth us$
'hen Du"iter!s daughters 'ere each of them married to the gods$ the muses
alone 'ere left solitary$ 5elicon forsa%en of all suitors$ and I belie#e it
'as$ because they had no "ortion.
L:allio"e longum caelebs cur #i+it in ae#umN
8em"e nihil dotis$ 0uod numeraret$ erat.L
L4hy did :allio"e li#e so long a maidN
ecause she had no do'ry to be "aid.L
E#er since all their follo'ers are "oor$ forsa%en and left unto themsel#es.
Insomuch$ that as ;=C=CGPetronius argues$ you shall li%ely %no' them by
their clothes. LThere came$L saith he$ Lby chance into my com"any$ a fello'
not #ery s"ruce to loo% on$ that I could "ercei#e by that note alone he 'as
a scholar$ 'hom commonly rich men hate& I as%ed him 'hat he 'as$ he
ans'ered$ a "oet& I demanded again 'hy he 'as so ragged$ he told me this
%ind of learning ne#er made any man rich.L
;=C=,G LKui Pelago credit$ magno se faenore tollit$
Kui "ugnas et rostra "etit$ "raecingitur auro&
Iilis adulator "icto jacet ebrius ostro$
9ola "ruinosis horret facundia "annis.L
LA merchant!s gain is great$ that goes to sea<
A soldier embossed all in gold<
A flatterer lies fo+!d in bra#e array<
A scholar only ragged to behold.L
All 'hich our ordinary students$ right 'ell "ercei#ing in the uni#ersities$
ho' un"rofitable these "oetical$ mathematical$ and "hiloso"hical studies
are$ ho' little res"ected$ ho' fe' "atrons< a""ly themsel#es in all haste
to those three commodious "rofessions of la'$ "hysic$ and di#inity$ sharing
themsel#es bet'een them$ ;=C==Grejecting these arts in the mean time$
history$ "hiloso"hy$ "hilology$ or lightly "assing them o#er$ as "leasant
toys fitting only table-tal%$ and to furnish them 'ith discourse. They are
not so beho#eful& he that can tell his money hath arithmetic enough& he is
a true geometrician$ can measure out a good fortune to himself< a "erfect
astrologer$ that can cast the rise and fall of others$ and mar% their
errant motions to his o'n use. The best o"tics are$ to reflect the beams of
some great man!s fa#our and grace to shine u"on him. 5e is a good engineer
that alone can ma%e an instrument to get "referment. This 'as the common
tenet and "ractice of Poland$ as :romerus obser#ed not long since$ in the
first boo% of his history< their uni#ersities 'ere generally base$ not a
"hiloso"her$ a mathematician$ an anti0uary$ Fc.$ to be found of any note
amongst them$ because they had no set re'ard or sti"end$ but e#ery man
betoo% himself to di#inity$ _hoc solum in #otis habens$ o"imum
sacerdotium_$ a good "arsonage 'as their aim. This 'as the "ractice of some
of our near neighbours$ as ;=C=.G*i"sius in#eighs$ Lthey thrust their
children to the study of la' and di#inity$ before they be informed aright$
or ca"able of such studies.L _9cilicet omnibus artibus antistat s"es lucri$
et formosior est cumulus auri$ 0uam 0uic0uid Graeci *atini0ue delirantes
scri"serunt. E+ hoc numero deinde #eniunt ad gubernacula rei"ub. intersunt
et "raesunt consiliis regum$ o "ater$ o "atria_N so he com"lained$ and so
may others. 7or e#en so 'e find$ to ser#e a great man$ to get an office in
some bisho"!s court (to "ractise in some good to'n) or com"ass a benefice$
is the mar% 'e shoot at$ as being so ad#antageous$ the high'ay to
Although many times$ for aught I can see$ these men fail as often as the
rest in their "rojects$ and are as usually frustrate of their ho"es. 7or
let him be a doctor of the la'$ an e+cellent ci#ilian of good 'orth$ 'here
shall he "ractise and e+"atiateN Their fields are so scant$ the ci#il la'
'ith us so contracted 'ith "rohibitions$ so fe' causes$ by reason of those
all-de#ouring munici"al la's$ _0uibus nihil illiteratius_$ saith ;=C=?G
Erasmus$ an illiterate and a barbarous study$ (for though they be ne#er so
'ell learned in it$ I can hardly #ouchsafe them the name of scholars$
e+ce"t they be other'ise 0ualified) and so fe' courts are left to that
"rofession$ such slender offices$ and those commonly to be com"assed at
such dear rates$ that I %no' not ho' an ingenious man should thri#e amongst
them. 8o' for "hysicians$ there are in e#ery #illage so many mounteban%s$
em"irics$ 0uac%sal#ers$ Paracelsians$ as they call themsel#es$ _:aucifici
et sanicidae_ so ;=C=@G:lenard terms them$ 'izards$ alchemists$ "oor
#icars$ cast a"othecaries$ "hysicians! men$ barbers$ and good 'i#es$
"rofessing great s%ill$ that I ma%e great doubt ho' they shall be
maintained$ or 'ho shall be their "atients. esides$ there are so many of
both sorts$ and some of them such har"ies$ so co#etous$ so clamorous$ so
im"udent< and as ;=C=-Ghe said$ litigious idiots$
LKuibus lo0uacis affatim arrogantiae est
Pentiae "arum aut nihil$
8ec ulla mica literarii salis$
:rumenimulga natio&
*o0uuteleia turba$ litium stro"hae$
Maligna litigantium cohors$ togati #ultures$L
L*a#ernae alumni$ Agyrtae$L Fc.
L4hich ha#e no s%ill but "rating arrogance$
8o learning$ such a "urse-mil%ing nation&
Go'n!d #ultures$ thie#es$ and a litigious rout
2f cozeners$ that haunt this occu"ation$L
that they cannot 'ell tell ho' to li#e one by another$ but as he jested in
the :omedy of :loc%s$ they 'ere so many$ ;=C=AG_major "ars "o"uli arida
re"tant fame_$ they are almost star#ed a great "art of them$ and ready to
de#our their fello's$ ;=C=/G_Et no+ia callidilate se corri"ere_$ such a
multitude of "ettifoggers and em"irics$ such im"ostors$ that an honest man
%no's not in 'hat sort to com"ose and beha#e himself in their society$ to
carry himself 'ith credit in so #ile a rout$ _scientiae nomen$ tot
sum"tibus "artum et #igiliis$ "rofiteri dis"udeat$ "ost0uam_$ Fc.
*ast of all to come to our di#ines$ the most noble "rofession and 'orthy of
double honour$ but of all others the most distressed and miserable. If you
'ill not belie#e me$ hear a brief of it$ as it 'as not many years since
"ublicly "reached at Paul!s cross$ ;=C=BGby a gra#e minister then$ and no'
a re#erend bisho" of this land& L4e that are bred u" in learning$ and
destinated by our "arents to this end$ 'e suffer our childhood in the
grammar-school$ 'hich Austin calls _magnam tyrannidem$ et gra#e malum_$ and
com"ares it to the torments of martyrdom< 'hen 'e come to the uni#ersity$
if 'e li#e of the college allo'ance$ as Phalaris objected to the *eontines$
;Gree%& "an ton endeis "laen limou %ai "hobouG$ needy of all things but
hunger and fear$ or if 'e be maintained but "artly by our "arents! cost$ do
e+"end in unnecessary maintenance$ boo%s and degrees$ before 'e come to any
"erfection$ fi#e hundred "ounds$ or a thousand mar%s. If by this "rice of
the e+"ense of time$ our bodies and s"irits$ our substance and "atrimonies$
'e cannot "urchase those small re'ards$ 'hich are ours by la'$ and the
right of inheritance$ a "oor "arsonage$ or a #icarage of @C_l._ "er annum$
but 'e must "ay to the "atron for the lease of a life (a s"ent and out-'orn
life) either in annual "ension$ or abo#e the rate of a co"yhold$ and that
'ith the hazard and loss of our souls$ by simony and "erjury$ and the
forfeiture of all our s"iritual "referments$ in _esse_ and _"osse_$ both
"resent and to come. 4hat father after a 'hile 'ill be so im"ro#ident to
bring u" his son to his great charge$ to this necessary beggaryN 4hat
:hristian 'ill be so irreligious$ to bring u" his son in that course of
life$ 'hich by all "robability and necessity$ _cogit ad tur"ia_$ enforcing
to sin$ 'ill entangle him in simony and "erjury$ 'hen as the "oet said$
_In#itatus ad haec ali0uis de "onte negabit_& a beggar!s brat ta%en from
the bridge 'here he sits a begging$ if he %ne' the incon#enience$ had cause
to refuse it.L This being thus$ ha#e not 'e fished fair all this 'hile$
that are initiate di#ines$ to find no better fruits of our labours$ ;=C.CG
_hoc est cur "alles$ cur 0uis non "randeat hoc est_N do 'e macerate
oursel#es for thisN Is it for this 'e rise so early all the year longN
;=C.,GL*ea"ingL (as he saith) Lout of our beds$ 'hen 'e hear the bell ring$
as if 'e had heard a thundercla".L If this be all the res"ect$ re'ard and
honour 'e shall ha#e$ ;=C.=G_frange le#es calamos$ et scinde Thalia
libellos_& let us gi#e o#er our boo%s$ and beta%e oursel#es to some other
course of life< to 'hat end should 'e studyN ;=C..G_Kuid me litterulas
stulti docuere "arentes_$ 'hat did our "arents mean to ma%e us scholars$ to
be as far to see% of "referment after t'enty years! study$ as 'e 'ere at
first& 'hy do 'e ta%e such "ainsN _Kuid tantum insanis ju#at im"allescere
chartis_N If there be no more ho"e of re'ard$ no better encouragement$ I
say again$ _7range le#es calamos$ et scinde Thalia libellos_< let!s turn
soldiers$ sell our boo%s$ and buy s'ords$ guns$ and "i%es$ or sto" bottles
'ith them$ turn our "hiloso"her!s go'ns$ as :leanthes once did$ into
millers! coats$ lea#e all and rather beta%e oursel#es to any other course
of life$ than to continue longer in this misery. ;=C.?G_Praestat
dentiscal"ia radere$ 0uam literariis monumentis magnatum fa#orem
Eea$ but methin%s I hear some man e+ce"t at these 'ords$ that though this
be true 'hich I ha#e said of the estate of scholars$ and es"ecially of
di#ines$ that it is miserable and distressed at this time$ that the church
suffers shi"'rec% of her goods$ and that they ha#e just cause to com"lain<
there is a fault$ but 'hence "roceeds itN If the cause 'ere justly
e+amined$ it 'ould be retorted u"on oursel#es$ if 'e 'ere cited at that
tribunal of truth$ 'e should be found guilty$ and not able to e+cuse it
That there is a fault among us$ I confess$ and 'ere there not a buyer$
there 'ould not be a seller< but to him that 'ill consider better of it$ it
'ill more than manifestly a""ear$ that the fountain of these miseries
"roceeds from these gri"ing "atrons. In accusing them$ I do not altogether
e+cuse us< both are faulty$ they and 'e& yet in my judgment$ theirs is the
greater fault$ more a""arent causes and much to be condemned. 7or my "art$
if it be not 'ith me as I 'ould$ or as it should$ I do ascribe the cause$
as ;=C.@G:ardan did in the li%e case< _meo infortunio "otius 0uam illorum
sceleri_$ to ;=C.-Gmine o'n infelicity rather than their naughtiness&
although I ha#e been baffled in my time by some of them$ and ha#e as just
cause to com"lain as another& or rather indeed to mine o'n negligence< for
I 'as e#er li%e that Ale+ander in ;=C.AGPlutarch$ :rassus his tutor in
"hiloso"hy$ 'ho$ though he li#ed many years familiarly 'ith rich :rassus$
'as e#en as "oor 'hen from$ ('hich many 'ondered at) as 'hen he came first
to him< he ne#er as%ed$ the other ne#er ga#e him anything< 'hen he
tra#elled 'ith :rassus he borro'ed a hat of him$ at his return restored it
again. I ha#e had some such noble friends! ac0uaintance and scholars$ but
most "art (common courtesies and ordinary res"ects e+ce"ted) they and I
"arted as 'e met$ they ga#e me as much as I re0uested$ and that 'as--And as
Ale+ander ab Ale+andro _Genial. dier. l. -. c. ,-._ made ans'er to
5ieronymus Massainus$ that 'ondered$ _0uum "lures igna#os et ignobiles ad
dignitates et sacerdotia "romotos 0uotidie #ideret_$ 'hen other men rose$
still he 'as in the same state$ _eodem tenore et fortuna cui mercedem
laborum studiorum0ue deberi "utaret_$ 'hom he thought to deser#e as 'ell as
the rest. 5e made ans'er$ that he 'as content 'ith his "resent estate$ 'as
not ambitious$ and although _objurgabundus suam segnitiem accusaret$ cum
obscurae sortis homines ad sacerdotia et "ontificatus e#ectos_$ Fc.$ he
chid him for his bac%'ardness$ yet he 'as still the same& and for my "art
(though I be not 'orthy "erha"s to carry Ale+ander!s boo%s) yet by some
o#er'eening and 'ell-'ishing friends$ the li%e s"eeches ha#e been used to
me< but I re"lied still 'ith Ale+ander$ that I had enough$ and more
"erad#enture than I deser#ed< and 'ith *ibanius 9o"hista$ that rather chose
('hen honours and offices by the em"eror 'ere offered unto him) to be
_talis 9o"hista$ 0uam tails Magistratus_. I had as lief be still 3emocritus
junior$ and _"ri#us "ri#atus$ si mihi jam daretur o"tio$ 0uam talis
fortasse 3octor$ talis 3ominus.--9ed 0uorsum haec_N 7or the rest !tis on
both sides _facinus detestandum_$ to buy and sell li#ings$ to detain from
the church$ that 'hich God!s and men!s la's ha#e besto'ed on it< but in
them most$ and that from the co#etousness and ignorance of such as are
interested in this business< I name co#etousness in the first "lace$ as the
root of all these mischiefs$ 'hich$ Achan-li%e$ com"els them to commit
sacrilege$ and to ma%e simoniacal com"acts$ (and 'hat not) to their o'n
ends$ ;=C./Gthat %indles God!s 'rath$ brings a "lague$ #engeance$ and a
hea#y #isitation u"on themsel#es and others. 9ome out of that insatiable
desire of filthy lucre$ to be enriched$ care not ho' they come by it _"er
fas et nefas_$ hoo% or croo%$ so they ha#e it. And others 'hen they ha#e
'ith riot and "rodigality embezzled their estates$ to reco#er themsel#es$
ma%e a "rey of the church$ robbing it$ as ;=C.BGDulian the a"ostate did$
s"oil "arsons of their re#enues (in %ee"ing half bac%$ ;=C?CGas a great man
amongst us obser#es&) Land that maintenance on 'hich they should li#e&L by
means 'hereof$ barbarism is increased$ and a great decay of :hristian
"rofessors& for 'ho 'ill a""ly himself to these di#ine studies$ his son$ or
friend$ 'hen after great "ains ta%en$ they shall ha#e nothing 'hereu"on to
li#eN ut 'ith 'hat e#ent do they these thingsN
;=C?,G L2"es0ue totis #iribus #enamini
At inde messis accidit miserrima.L
They toil and moil$ but 'hat rea" theyN They are commonly unfortunate
families that use it$ accursed in their "rogeny$ and$ as common e+"erience
e#inceth$ accursed themsel#es in all their "roceedings. L4ith 'hat faceL
(as ;=C?=Ghe 0uotes out of Aust.) Lcan they e+"ect a blessing or
inheritance from :hrist in hea#en$ that defraud :hrist of his inheritance
here on earthNL I 'ould all our simoniacal "atrons$ and such as detain
tithes$ 'ould read those judicious tracts of 9ir 5enry 9"elman$ and 9ir
Dames 9em"ill$ %nights< those late elaborate and learned treatises of 3r.
Tilslye$ and Mr. Montague$ 'hich they ha#e 'ritten of that subject. ut
though they should read$ it 'ould be to small "ur"ose$ _clames licet et
mare coelo :onfundas_< thunder$ lighten$ "reach hell and damnation$ tell
them !tis a sin$ they 'ill not belie#e it< denounce and terrify$ they ha#e
;=C?.Gcauterised consciences$ they do not attend$ as the enchanted adder$
they sto" their ears. :all them base$ irreligious$ "rofane$ barbarous$
"agans$ atheists$ e"icures$ (as some of them surely are) 'ith the ba'd in
Plautus$ _Euge$ o"time_$ they cry and a""laud themsel#es 'ith that miser$
;=C??G_simul ac nummos contem"lor in arca_& say 'hat you 'ill$ _0uocun0ue
modo rem_& as a dog bar%s at the moon$ to no "ur"ose are your sayings& Ta%e
your hea#en$ let them ha#e money. A base$ "rofane$ e"icurean$ hy"ocritical
rout& for my "art$ let them "retend 'hat zeal they 'ill$ counterfeit
religion$ blear the 'orld!s eyes$ bombast themsel#es$ and stuff out their
greatness 'ith church s"oils$ shine li%e so many "eacoc%s< so cold is my
charity$ so defecti#e in this behalf$ that I shall ne#er thin% better of
them$ than that they are rotten at core$ their bones are full of e"icurean
hy"ocrisy$ and atheistical marro'$ they are 'orse than heathens. 7or as
3ionysius 5alicarnassaeus obser#es$ _Anti0. 1om. lib. A._ ;=C?@G_Primum
locum_$ Fc. LGree%s and arbarians obser#e all religious rites$ and dare
not brea% them for fear of offending their gods<L but our simoniacal
contractors$ our senseless Achans$ our stu"efied "atrons$ fear neither God
nor de#il$ they ha#e e#asions for it$ it is no sin$ or not due _jure
di#ino_$ or if a sin$ no great sin$ Fc. And though they be daily "unished
for it$ and they do manifestly "ercei#e$ that as he said$ frost and fraud
come to foul ends< yet as ;=C?-G:hrysostom follo's it _8ulla e+ "oena sit
correctio$ et 0uasi ad#ersis malitia hominum "ro#ocetur$ crescit 0uotidie
0uod "uniatur_& they are rather 'orse than better$--_iram at0ue animos a
crimine sumunt_$ and the more they are corrected$ the more they offend& but
let them ta%e their course$ ;=C?AG_1ode ca"er #ites_$ go on still as they
begin$ !tis no sin$ let them rejoice secure$ God!s #engeance 'ill o#erta%e
them in the end$ and these ill-gotten goods$ as an eagle!s feathers$ ;=C?/G
'ill consume the rest of their substance< it is ;=C?BG_aurum Tholosanum_$
and 'ill "roduce no better effects. ;=C@CGL*et them lay it u" safe$ and
ma%e their con#eyances ne#er so close$ loc% and shut door$L saith
:hrysostom$ Lyet fraud and co#etousness$ t'o most #iolent thie#es are still
included$ and a little gain e#il gotten 'ill sub#ert the rest of their
goods.L The eagle in Aeso"$ seeing a "iece of flesh no' ready to be
sacrificed$ s'e"t it a'ay 'ith her cla's$ and carried it to her nest< but
there 'as a burning coal stuc% to it by chance$ 'hich una'ares consumed her
young ones$ nest$ and all together. *et our simoniacal church-cho""ing
"atrons$ and sacrilegious har"ies$ loo% for no better success.
A second cause is ignorance$ and from thence contem"t$ _successit odium in
literas ab ignorantia #ulgi_< 'hich ;=C@,GDunius 'ell "ercei#ed& this
hatred and contem"t of learning "roceeds out of ;=C@=Gignorance< as they
are themsel#es barbarous$ idiots$ dull$ illiterate$ and "roud$ so they
esteem of others. _9int Mecaenates$ non deerunt 7lacce Marones_& *et there
be bountiful "atrons$ and there 'ill be "ainful scholars in all sciences.
ut 'hen they contemn learning$ and thin% themsel#es sufficiently
0ualified$ if they can 'rite and read$ scramble at a "iece of e#idence$ or
ha#e so much *atin as that em"eror had$ ;=C@.G_0ui nescit dissimulare$
nescit #i#ere_$ they are unfit to do their country ser#ice$ to "erform or
underta%e any action or em"loyment$ 'hich may tend to the good of a
common'ealth$ e+ce"t it be to fight$ or to do country justice$ 'ith common
sense$ 'hich e#ery yeoman can li%e'ise do. And so they bring u" their
children$ rude as they are themsel#es$ un0ualified$ untaught$ unci#il most
"art. ;=C@?G_Kuis e nostra ju#entute legitime instituitur literisN Kuis
oratores aut Philoso"hos tangitN 0uis historiam legit$ illam rerum
agendarum 0uasi animamN "raeci"itant "arentes #ota sua_$ Fc. !t'as *i"sius!
com"laint to his illiterate countrymen$ it may be ours. 8o' shall these men
judge of a scholar!s 'orth$ that ha#e no 'orth$ that %no' not 'hat belongs
to a student!s labours$ that cannot distinguish bet'een a true scholar and
a droneN or him that by reason of a #oluble tongue$ a strong #oice$ a
"leasing tone$ and some tri#ially "olyanthean hel"s$ steals and gleans a
fe' notes from other men!s har#ests$ and so ma%es a fairer sho'$ than he
that is truly learned indeed& that thin%s it no more to "reach$ than to
s"ea%$ ;=C@@GLor to run a'ay 'ith an em"ty cart<L as a gra#e man said& and
thereu"on #ilify us$ and our "ains< scorn us$ and all learning. ;=C@-G
ecause they are rich$ and ha#e other means to li#e$ they thin% it concerns
them not to %no'$ or to trouble themsel#es 'ith it< a fitter tas% for
younger brothers$ or "oor men!s sons$ to be "en and in%horn men$ "edantical
sla#es$ and no 'hit beseeming the calling of a gentleman$ as 7renchmen and
Germans commonly do$ neglect therefore all human learning$ 'hat ha#e they
to do 'ith itN *et mariners learn astronomy< merchants$ factors study
arithmetic< sur#eyors get them geometry< s"ectacle-ma%ers o"tics<
land-lea"ers geogra"hy< to'n-cler%s rhetoric$ 'hat should he do 'ith a
s"ade$ that hath no ground to dig< or they 'ith learning$ that ha#e no use
of itN thus they reason$ and are not ashamed to let mariners$ a""rentices$
and the basest ser#ants$ be better 0ualified than themsel#es. In former
times$ %ings$ "rinces$ and em"erors$ 'ere the only scholars$ e+cellent in
all faculties. Dulius :aesar mended the year$ and 'rit his o'n
;=C@AG ------Lmedia inter "realia sem"er$
9tellarum coeli0ue "lagis$ su"eris0ue #aca#it.L
;=C@/GAntonius$ Adrian$ 8ero$ 9e#e. Dul. Fc. ;=C@BGMichael the em"eror$ and
Isacius$ 'ere so much gi#en to their studies$ that no base fello' 'ould
ta%e so much "ains& 2rion$ Perseus$ Al"honsus$ Ptolomeus$ famous
astronomers< 9abor$ Mithridates$ *ysimachus$ admired "hysicians& Plato!s
%ings all& E#a+$ that Arabian "rince$ a most e+"ert je'eller$ and an
e+0uisite "hiloso"her< the %ings of Egy"t 'ere "riests of old$ chosen and
from thence$--_Idem re+ hominum$ Phoebi0ue sacerdos_& but those heroical
times are "ast< the Muses are no' banished in this bastard age$ _ad sordida
tuguriola_$ to meaner "ersons$ and confined alone almost to uni#ersities.
In those days$ scholars 'ere highly belo#ed$ ;=C-CGhonoured$ esteemed< as
old Ennius by 9ci"io Africanus$ Iirgil by Augustus< 5orace by Meceanas&
"rinces! com"anions< dear to them$ as Anacreon to Polycrates< Philo+enus to
3ionysius$ and highly re'arded. Ale+ander sent Jenocrates the "hiloso"her
fifty talents$ because he 'as "oor$ _#isu rerum$ aut eruditione "raestantes
#iri$ mensis olim regum adhibiti_$ as Philostratus relates of Adrian and
*am"ridius of Ale+ander 9e#erus& famous cler%s came to these "rinces!
courts$ _#elut in *ycaeum_$ as to a uni#ersity$ and 'ere admitted to their
tables$ _0uasi di#um e"ulis accumbentes_< Archilaus$ that Macedonian %ing$
'ould not 'illingly su" 'ithout Euri"ides$ (amongst the rest he dran% to
him at su""er one night$ and ga#e him a cu" of gold for his "ains)
_delectatus "oetae sua#i sermone_< and it 'as fit it should be so< because
as ;=C-,GPlato in his Protagoras 'ell saith$ a good "hiloso"her as much
e+cels other men$ as a great %ing doth the commons of his country< and
again$ ;=C-=G_0uoniam illis nihil deest$ et minime egere solent$ et
disci"linas 0uas "rofitentur$ soli a contem"tu #indicare "ossunt_$ they
needed not to beg so basely$ as they com"el ;=C-.Gscholars in our times to
com"lain of "o#erty$ or crouch to a rich chuff for a meal!s meat$ but could
#indicate themsel#es$ and those arts 'hich they "rofessed. 8o' they 'ould
and cannot& for it is held by some of them$ as an a+iom$ that to %ee" them
"oor$ 'ill ma%e them study< they must be dieted$ as horses to a race$ not
"am"ered$ ;=C-?G_Alendos #olunt$ non saginandos$ ne melioris mentis
flammula e+tinguatur_< a fat bird 'ill not sing$ a fat dog cannot hunt$ and
so by this de"ression of theirs ;=C-@Gsome 'ant means$ others 'ill$ all
'ant ;=C--Gencouragement$ as being forsa%en almost< and generally
contemned. !Tis an old saying$ _9int Mecaenates$ non deerunt 7lacce
Marones_$ and !tis a true saying still. Eet oftentimes I may not deny it
the main fault is in oursel#es. 2ur academics too fre0uently offend in
neglecting "atrons$ as ;=C-AGErasmus 'ell ta+eth$ or ma%ing ill choice of
them< _negligimus oblatos aut am"lectimur "arum a"tos_$ or if 'e get a good
one$ _non studemus mutuis officiis fa#orem ejus alere_$ 'e do not "ly and
follo' him as 'e should. _Idem mihi accidit Adolescenti_ (saith Erasmus)
ac%no'ledging his fault$ _et gra#issime "ecca#i_$ and so may ;=C-/GI say
myself$ I ha#e offended in this$ and so "erad#enture ha#e many others. 4e
did not _s"ondere magnatum fa#oribus$ 0ui cae"erunt nos am"lecti_$ a""ly
oursel#es 'ith that readiness 'e should& idleness$ lo#e of liberty$
_immodicus amor libertatis effecit ut diu cum "erfidis amicis_$ as he
confesseth$ _et "ertinaci "au"erate colluctarer_$ bashfulness$ melancholy$
timorousness$ cause many of us to be too bac%'ard and remiss. 9o some
offend in one e+treme$ but too many on the other$ 'e are most "art too
for'ard$ too solicitous$ too ambitious$ too im"udent< 'e commonly com"lain
_deesse Maecenates_$ of 'ant of encouragement$ 'ant of means$ 'hen as the
true defect is in our o'n 'ant of 'orth$ our insufficiency& did Maecenas
ta%e notice of 5orace or Iirgil till they had sho'n themsel#es firstN or
had a#ius and Me#ius any "atronsN _Egregium s"ecimen dent_$ saith Erasmus$
let them a""ro#e themsel#es 'orthy first$ sufficiently 0ualified for
learning and manners$ before they "resume or im"udently intrude and "ut
themsel#es on great men as too many do$ 'ith such base flattery$
"arasitical colloguing$ such hy"erbolical elogies they do usually insinuate
that it is a shame to hear and see. _Immodicae laudes conciliant in#idiam$
"otius 0uam laudem_$ and #ain commendations derogate from truth$ and 'e
thin% in conclusion$ _non melius de laudato$ "ejus de laudante_$ ill of
both$ the commender and commended. 9o 'e offend$ but the main fault is in
their harshness$ defect of "atrons. 5o' belo#ed of old$ and ho' much
res"ected 'as Plato to 3ionysiusN 5o' dear to Ale+ander 'as Aristotle$
3emeratus to Phili"$ 9olon to :roesus$ Aue+arcus and Trebatius to Augustus$
:assius to Ies"asian$ Plutarch to Trajan$ 9eneca to 8ero$ 9imonides to
5ieronN ho' honouredN
;=C-BG L9ed haec "rius fuere$ nunc recondita
9enent 0uiete$L
those days are gone< _Et s"es$ et ratio studiorum in :aesare tantum_&
;=CACG as he said of old$ 'e may truly say no'$ he is our amulet$ our
;=CA,Gsun$ our sole comfort and refuge$ our Ptolemy$ our common Maecenas$
_Dacobus munificus$ Dacobus "acificus$ mysta Musarum$ 1e+ Platonicus&
Grande decus$ columen0ue nostrum_& a famous scholar himself$ and the sole
"atron$ "illar$ and sustainer of learning& but his 'orth in this %ind is so
'ell %no'n$ that as Paterculus of :ato$ _Dam i"sum laudare nefas sit_& and
'hich ;=CA=G Pliny to Trajan. _9eria te carmina$ honor0ue aeternus
annalium$ non haec bre#is et "udenda "raedicatio colet_. ut he is no'
gone$ the sun of ours set$ and yet no night follo's$ _9ol occubuit$ no+
nulla se0uuta est_. 4e ha#e such another in his room$ ;=CA.G_aureus alter.
A#ulsus$ simili frondescit #irga metallo_$ and long may he reign and
flourish amongst us.
*et me not be malicious$ and lie against my genius$ I may not deny$ but
that 'e ha#e a s"rin%ling of our gentry$ here and there one$ e+cellently
'ell learned$ li%e those 7uggeri in Germany< 3ubartus$ 3u Plessis$ 9adael$
in 7rance< Picus Mirandula$ 9chottus$ arotius$ in Italy< _A""arent rari
nantes in gurgite #asto_. ut they are but fe' in res"ect of the multitude$
the major "art (and some again e+ce"ted$ that are indifferent) are 'holly
bent for ha'%s and hounds$ and carried a'ay many times 'ith intem"erate
lust$ gaming and drin%ing. If they read a boo% at any time (_si 0uod est
interim otii a #enatu$ "oculis$ alea$ scortis_) !tis an English :hronicle$
9t. 5uon of ordeau+$ Amadis de Gaul$ Fc.$ a "lay-boo%$ or some "am"hlet of
ne's$ and that at such seasons only$ 'hen they cannot stir abroad$ to dri#e
a'ay time$ ;=CA?Gtheir sole discourse is dogs$ ha'%s$ horses$ and 'hat
ne'sN If some one ha#e been a tra#eller in Italy$ or as far as the
em"eror!s court$ 'intered in 2rleans$ and can court his mistress in bro%en
7rench$ 'ear his clothes neatly in the ne'est fashion$ sing some choice
outlandish tunes$ discourse of lords$ ladies$ to'ns$ "alaces$ and cities$
he is com"lete and to be admired& ;=CA@Gother'ise he and they are much at
one< no difference bet'een the master and the man$ but 'orshi"ful titles<
'in% and choose bet'i+t him that sits do'n (clothes e+ce"ted) and him that
holds the trencher behind him& yet these men must be our "atrons$ our
go#ernors too sometimes$ statesmen$ magistrates$ noble$ great$ and 'ise by
Mista%e me not (I say again) _Ios o Patritius sanguis_$ you that are 'orthy
senators$ gentlemen$ I honour your names and "ersons$ and 'ith all
submissi#eness$ "rostrate myself to your censure and ser#ice. There are
amongst you$ I do ingenuously confess$ many 'ell-deser#ing "atrons$ and
true "atriots$ of my %no'ledge$ besides many hundreds 'hich I ne#er sa'$ no
doubt$ or heard of$ "illars of our common'ealth$ ;=CA-G'hose 'orth$ bounty$
learning$ for'ardness$ true zeal in religion$ and good esteem of all
scholars$ ought to be consecrated to all "osterity< but of your ran%$ there
are a debauched$ corru"t$ co#etous$ illiterate cre' again$ no better than
stoc%s$ _merum "ecus (testor 3eum$ non mihi #ideri dignos ingenui hominis
a""ellatione)_ barbarous Thracians$ _et 0uis ille thra+ 0ui hoc neget_N a
sordid$ "rofane$ "ernicious com"any$ irreligious$ im"udent and stu"id$ I
%no' not 'hat e"ithets to gi#e them$ enemies to learning$ confounders of
the church$ and the ruin of a common'ealth< "atrons they are by right of
inheritance$ and "ut in trust freely to dis"ose of such li#ings to the
church!s good< but (hard tas%masters they "ro#e) they ta%e a'ay their
stra'$ and com"el them to ma%e their number of bric%& they commonly res"ect
their o'n ends$ commodity is the steer of all their actions$ and him they
"resent in conclusion$ as a man of greatest gifts$ that 'ill gi#e most< no
"enny$ ;=CAAGno "aternoster$ as the saying is. _8isi "reces auro fulcias$
am"lius irritas& ut :erberus offa_$ their attendants and officers must be
bribed$ feed$ and made$ as :erberus is 'ith a so" by him that goes to hell.
It 'as an old saying$ _2mnia 1omae #enalia_ (all things are #enal at 1ome$)
!tis a rag of Po"ery$ 'hich 'ill ne#er be rooted out$ there is no ho"e$ no
good to be done 'ithout money. A cler% may offer himself$ a""ro#e his
;=CA/G'orth$ learning$ honesty$ religion$ zeal$ they 'ill commend him for
it< but ;=CABG_"robitas laudatur et alget_. If he be a man of e+traordinary
"arts$ they 'ill floc% afar off to hear him$ as they did in A"uleius$ to
see Psyche& _multi mortales confluebant ad #idendum saeculi decus$ s"eculum
gloriosum$ laudatur ab omnibus$ s"ectatur ob omnibus$ nec 0uis0uam non re+$
non regius$ cu"idus ejus nu"tiarium "etitor accedit< mirantur 0uidem
di#inam formam omnes$ sed ut simulacrum fabre "olitum mirantur_< many
mortal men came to see fair Psyche the glory of her age$ they did admire
her$ commend$ desire her for her di#ine beauty$ and gaze u"on her< but as
on a "icture< none 'ould marry her$ _0uod indotato_$ fair Psyche had no
money. ;=C/CG9o they do by learning<
;=C/,G ------Ldidicit jam di#es a#arus
Tantum admirari$ tantum laudare disertos$
Ht "ueri Dunonis a#emL------
LEour rich men ha#e no' learn!d of latter days
T!admire$ commend$ and come together
To hear and see a 'orthy scholar s"ea%$
As children do a "eacoc%!s feather.L
5e shall ha#e all the good 'ords that may be gi#en$ ;=C/=Ga "ro"er man$ and
!tis "ity he hath no "referment$ all good 'ishes$ but ine+orable$ indurate
as he is$ he 'ill not "refer him$ though it be in his "o'er$ because he is
_indotatus_$ he hath no money. 2r if he do gi#e him entertainment$ let him
be ne#er so 'ell 0ualified$ "lead affinity$ consanguinity$ sufficiency$ he
shall ser#e se#en years$ as Dacob did for 1achel$ before he shall ha#e it.
;=C/.GIf he 'ill enter at first$ he must get in at that 9imoniacal gate$
come off soundly$ and "ut in good security to "erform all co#enants$ else
he 'ill not deal 'ith$ or admit him. ut if some "oor scholar$ some "arson
chaff$ 'ill offer himself< some trencher cha"lain$ that 'ill ta%e it to the
hal#es$ thirds$ or acce"ts of 'hat he 'ill gi#e$ he is 'elcome< be
conformable$ "reach as he 'ill ha#e him$ he li%es him before a million of
others< for the host is al'ays best chea"& and then as 5ierom said to
:romatius$ _"atella dignum o"erculum_$ such a "atron$ such a cler%< the
cure is 'ell su""lied$ and all "arties "leased. 9o that is still #erified
in our age$ 'hich ;=C/?G:hrysostom com"lained of in his time$ _Kui
o"ulentiores sunt$ in ordinem "arasitorum cogunt eos$ et i"sos tan0uam
canes ad mensas suas enutriunt$ eorum0ue im"udentes. Ienires ini0uarum
coenarum reli0uiis differtiunt$ iisdem "ro arbitro abulentes_& 1ich men
%ee" these lecturers$ and fa'ning "arasites$ li%e so many dogs at their
tables$ and filling their hungry guts 'ith the offals of their meat$ they
abuse them at their "leasure$ and ma%e them say 'hat they "ro"ose.
;=C/@GLAs children do by a bird or a butterfly in a string$ "ull in and let
him out as they list$ do they by their trencher cha"lains$ "rescribe$
command their 'its$ let in and out as to them it seems best.L If the "atron
be "recise$ so must his cha"lain be< if he be "a"istical$ his cler% must be
so too$ or else be turned out. These are those cler%s 'hich ser#e the turn$
'hom they commonly entertain$ and "resent to church li#ings$ 'hilst in the
meantime 'e that are Hni#ersity men$ li%e so many hidebound cal#es in a
"asture$ tarry out our time$ 'ither a'ay as a flo'er ungathered in a
garden$ and are ne#er used< or as so many candles$ illuminate oursel#es
alone$ obscuring one another!s light$ and are not discerned here at all$
the least of 'hich$ translated to a dar% room$ or to some country benefice$
'here it might shine a"art$ 'ould gi#e a fair light$ and be seen o#er all.
4hilst 'e lie 'aiting here as those sic% men did at the Pool of ;=C/-G
ethesda$ till the Angel stirred the 'ater$ e+"ecting a good hour$ they
ste" bet'een$ and beguile us of our "referment. I ha#e not yet said$ if
after long e+"ectation$ much e+"ense$ tra#el$ earnest suit of oursel#es and
friends$ 'e obtain a small benefice at last< our misery begins afresh$ 'e
are suddenly encountered 'ith the flesh$ 'orld$ and de#il$ 'ith a ne'
onset< 'e change a 0uiet life for an ocean of troubles$ 'e come to a
ruinous house$ 'hich before it be habitable$ must be necessarily to our
great damage re"aired< 'e are com"elled to sue for dila"idations$ or else
sued oursel#es$ and scarce yet settled$ 'e are called u"on for our
"redecessor!s arrearages< first-fruits$ tenths$ subsidies$ are instantly to
be "aid$ bene#olence$ "rocurations$ Fc.$ and 'hich is most to be feared$ 'e
light u"on a crac%ed title$ as it befell :lenard of rabant$ for his
rectory$ and charge of his _eginae_< he 'as no sooner inducted$ but
instantly sued$ _ce"imus0ue_ ;=C/AG(saith he) _strenue litigare$ et
im"lacabili bello confligere_& at length after ten years! suit$ as long as
Troy!s siege$ 'hen he had tired himself$ and s"ent his money$ he 'as fain
to lea#e all for 0uietness! sa%e$ and gi#e it u" to his ad#ersary. 2r else
'e are insulted o#er$ and tram"led on by domineering officers$ fleeced by
those greedy har"ies to get more fees< 'e stand in fear of some "recedent
la"se< 'e fall amongst refractory$ seditious sectaries$ "ee#ish "uritans$
"er#erse "a"ists$ a lasci#ious rout of atheistical E"icures$ that 'ill not
be reformed$ or some litigious "eo"le (those 'ild beasts of E"hesus must be
fought 'ith) that 'ill not "ay their dues 'ithout much re"ining$ or
com"elled by long suit< _*aici clericis o""ido infesti_$ an old a+iom$ all
they thin% 'ell gotten that is had from the church$ and by such unci#il$
harsh dealings$ they ma%e their "oor minister 'eary of his "lace$ if not
his life< and "ut case they be 0uiet honest men$ ma%e the best of it$ as
often it falls out$ from a "olite and terse academic$ he must turn rustic$
rude$ melancholise alone$ learn to forget$ or else$ as many do$ become
maltsters$ graziers$ cha"men$ Fc. (no' banished from the academy$ all
commerce of the muses$ and confined to a country #illage$ as 2#id 'as from
1ome to Pontus)$ and daily con#erse 'ith a com"any of idiots and clo'ns.
8os interim 0uod$ attinet (nec enim immunes ab hac no+a sumus) idem realus
manet$ idem nobis$ et si non multo gra#ius$ crimen objici "otest& nostra
enim cul"a sit$ nostra incuria$ nostra a#aritia$ 0uod tam fre0uentes$
foedae0ue fiant in Ecclesia nundinationes$ (tem"lum est #aenale$ deus0ue)
tot sordes in#ehantur$ tanta grassetur im"ietas$ tanta ne0uitia$ tam
insanus miseriarum Euri"us$ et turbarum aestuarium$ nostro in0uam$ omnium
(Academicorum im"rimis) #itio sit. Kuod tot 1es". malis afficiatur$ a nobis
seminarium< ultro malum hoc accersimus$ et 0ua#is contumelia$ 0ua#is
interim miseria digni$ 0ui "ro #irili non occurrimus. Kuid enim fieri "osse
s"eramus$ 0uum tot indies sine delectu "au"eres alumni$ terrae filii$ et
cujuscun0ue ordinis homunciones ad gradus certatim admittanturN 0ui si
definitionem$ distinctionem0ue unam aut alteram memoriter edidicerint$ et
"ro more tot annos in dialectica "osuerint$ non refert 0uo "rofectu$ 0uales
demum sint$ idiotae$ nugatores$ otiatores$ aleatores$ com"otores$ indigni$
libidinis #olu"tatum0ue administri$ L9"onsi Penelo"es$ nebulones$
Alcinoi0ue$L modo tot annos in academia insum"serint$ et se "ro togatis
#enditarint< lucri causa$ et amicorum intercessu "raesentantur< addo etiam
et magnificis nonnun0uam elogiis morum et scientiae< et jam #aledicturi
testimonialibus hisce litteris$ am"lissime conscri"tis in eorum gratiam
honorantur$ abiis$ 0ui fidei suae et e+istimationis jacturam "roculdubio
faciunt. L3octores enim et "rofessoresL (0uod ait ;=C//Gille) Lid unum
curant$ ut e+ "rofessionibus fre0uentibus$ et tumultuariis "otius 0uam
legitimis$ commoda sua "romo#erant$ et e+ dis"endio "ublico suum faciant
incrementum.L Id solum in #otis habent annui "lerum0ue magistratus$ ut ab
inci"ientium numero ;=C/BG"ecunias emungant$ nec multum interest 0ui sint$
literatores an literati$ modo "ingues$ nitidi$ ad as"ectum s"eciosi$ et
0uod #erbo dicam$ "ecuniosi sint. ;=CBCGPhiloso"hastri licentiantur in
artibus$ artem 0ui non habent$ ;=CB,GLEos0ue sa"ientes esse jubent$ 0ui
nulla "raediti sunt sa"ientia$ et nihil ad gradum "raeter0uam #elle
adferunt.L Theologastri (sol#ant modo) satis su"er0ue docti$ "er omnes
honorum gradus e#ehuntur et ascendunt. At0ue hinc fit 0uod tam #iles
scurrae$ tot "assim idiotae$ literarum cre"usculo "ositi$ lar#ae "astorum$
circumforanei$ #agi$ barbi$ fungi$ crassi$ asini$ merum "ecus in
sacrosanctos theologiae aditus$ illotis "edibus irrum"ant$ "raeter
in#erecundam frontem adferentes nihil$ #ulgares 0uasdam 0uis0uilias$ et
scholarium 0uaedam nugamenta$ indigna 0uae #el reci"iantur in tri#iis. 5oc
illud indignum genus hominum et famelicum$ indigum$ #agum$ #entris
manci"ium$ ad sti#am "otius relegandum$ ad haras a"tius 0uam ad aras$ 0uod
di#inas hasce literas tur"iter "rostituit< hi sunt 0ui "ul"ita com"lent$ in
aedes nobilium irre"unt$ et 0uum reli0uis #itae destituantur subsidiis$ ob
cor"oris et animi egestatem$ aliarum in re"ub. "artium minime ca"aces sint<
ad sacram hanc anchoram confugiunt$ sacerdotium 0uo#is modo ca"tantes$ non
e+ sinceritate$ 0uod ;=CB=GPaulus ait$ Lsed cau"onantes #erbum 3ei.L 8e
0uis interim #iris bonis detractum 0uid "utet$ 0uos habet ecclesia
Anglicana 0uam"lurimos$ eggregie doctos$ illustres$ intactae famae$
homines$ et "lures forsan 0uam 0uae#is Euro"ae "ro#incia< ne 0uis a
florentisimis Academiis$ 0uae #iros undi0ua0ue doctissimos$ omni #irtutum
genere sus"iciendos$ abunde "roducunt. Et multo "lures utra0ue habitura$
multo s"lendidior futura$ si non hae sordes s"lendidum lumen ejus
obfuscarent$ obstaret corru"tio$ et cau"onantes 0uaedam har"yae$
"roletarii0ue bonum hoc nobis non in#iderent. 8emo enim tam caeca mente$
0ui non hoc i"sum #ideat& nemo tam stolido ingenio$ 0ui non intelligat< tam
"ertinaci judicio$ 0ui non agnoscat$ ab his idiotis circumforaneis$ sacram
"ollui Theologiam$ ac caelestes Musas 0uasi "ro"hanum 0uiddam "rostitui.
LIiles animae et effrontesL (sic enim *utherus ;=CB.G alicubi #ocat)
Llucelli causa$ ut muscae ad mulctra$ ad nobilium et heroum mensas
ad#olant$ in s"em sacerdotii$L cujuslibet honoris$ officii$ in 0uam#is
aulam$ urbem se ingerunt$ ad 0uod#is se ministerium com"onunt.-- LHt ner#is
alienis mobile lignum--3uciturL--5or. _*ib. II. 9at. A_. ;=CB?G Loffam
se0uentes$ "sittacorum more$ in "raedae s"em 0uid#is effutiunt&L
obsecundantes Parasiti ;=CB@G(Erasmus ait) L0uid#is docent$ dicunt$
scribunt$ suadent$ et contra conscientiam "robant$ non ut salutarem reddant
gregem$ sed ut magnificam sibi "arent fortunam.L ;=CB-GL2"iniones 0uas#is
et decreta contra #erbum 3ei astruunt$ ne non offendant "atronum$ sed ut
retineant fa#orem "rocerum$ et "o"uli "lausum$ sibi0ue i"sis o"es
accumulent.L Eo etenim "lerun0ue animo ad Theologiam accedunt$ non ut rem
di#inam$ sed ut suam facient< non ad Ecclesiae bonum "romo#endum$ sed
e+"ilandum< 0uaerentes$ 0uod Paulus ait$ Lnon 0uae Desu :hristi$ sed 0uae
sua$L non domini thesaurum$ sed ut sibi$ suis0ue thesaurizent. 8ec tantum
iis$ 0ui #ilirrie fortunae$ et abjectae$ sortis sunt$ hoc in usu est& sed
et medios$ summos elatos$ ne dicam E"isco"os$ hoc malum in#asit. ;=CBAG
L3icite "ontifices$ in sacris 0uid facit aurumNL ;=CB/GLsummos sae"e #iros
trans#ersos agit a#aritia$L et 0ui reli0uis morum "robitate "raelucerent<
hi facem "raeferunt ad 9imoniam$ et in corru"tionis hunc sco"ulum
im"ingentes$ non tondent "ecus$ sed deglubunt$ et 0uocun0ue se conferunt$
e+"ilant$ e+hauriunt$ abradunt$ magnum famae suae$ si non animae naufragium
facientes< ut non ab infimis ad summos$ sed a summis ad infimos malum
"romanasse #ideatur$ et illud #erum sit 0uod ille olim lusit$ Lemerat ille
"rius$ #endere jure "otest. 9imoniacus enimL (0uod cum *eone dicam)
Lgratiam non acce"it$ si non acci"it$ non habet$ et si non habet$ nec
gratus "otest esse<L tantum enim absunt istorum nonnulli$ 0ui ad cla#um
sedent a "romo#endo reli0uos$ ut "enitus im"ediant$ "robe sibi conscii$
0uibus artibus illic "er#enerint. ;=CBBGL8am 0ui ob literas emersisse illos
credat$ desi"it< 0ui #ero ingenii$ eruditionis$ e+"erientiae$ "robitatis$
"ietatis$ et Musarum id esse "retium "utatL (0uod olim re#era fuit$ hodie
"romittitur) L"lanissime insanit.L Htcun0ue #el undecun0ue malum hoc
originem ducat$ non ultra 0uaeram$ e+ his "rimordiis cae"it #itiorum
collu#ies$ omnis calamitas$ omne miseriarum agmen in Ecclesiam in#ehitur.
5inc tam fre0uens simonia$ hinc ortae 0uerelae$ fraudes$ im"osturae$ ab hoc
fonte se deri#arunt omnes ne0uitiae. 8e 0uid obiter dicam de ambitione$
adulatione "lus0uam aulica$ ne tristi domicaenio laborent$ de lu+u$ de
foedo nonnun0uam #itae e+em"lo$ 0uo nonnullos offendunt$ de com"otatione
9ybaritica$ Fc. hinc ille s0ualor academicus$ Ltristes hac tem"estate
:amenae$L 0uum 0ui#is homunculus artium ignarus$ hic artibus assurgat$ hunc
in modum "romo#eatur et ditescat$ ambitiosis a""ellationibus insignis$ et
multis dignitatibus augustus #ulgi oculos "erstringat$ bene se habeat$ et
grandia gradiens majestatem 0uandam ac am"litudinem "rae se ferens$
miram0ue sollicitudinem$ barba re#erendus$ toga nitidus$ "ur"ura coruscus$
su"ellectilis s"lendore$ et famulorum numero ma+ime cons"icuus. LKuales
statuaeL (0uod ait ;=,CCGille) L0uae sacris in aedibus columnis im"onuntur$
#elut oneri cedentes #identur$ ac si insudarent$ 0uum re#era sensu sint
carentes$ et nihil sa+eam adju#ent firmitatem&L atlantes #ideri #olunt$
0uum sint statuae la"ideae$ umbratiles re#era homunciones$ fungi$ forsan et
bardi$ nihil a sa+o differentes. Kuum interim docti #iri$ et #ilae
sanctioris ornamentis "raediti$ 0ui aestum diei sustinent$ his ini0ua sorte
ser#iant$ minimo forsan salario contenti$ "uris nominibus nuncu"ati$
humiles$ obscuri$ multo0ue digniores licet$ egentes$ inhonorati #itam
"ri#am "ri#atam agant$ tenui0ue se"ulti sacerdotio$ #el in collegiis suis
in aeternum incarcerati$ inglorie delitescant. 9ed nolo diutius hanc mo#ere
sentinam$ hinc illae lachrymae$ lugubris musarum habitus$ ;=,C,Ghinc i"sa
religio (0uod cum 9ecellio dicam) Lin ludibrium et contem"tum adducitur$L
abjectum sacerdotium (at0ue haec ubi fiunt$ ausim dicere$ et "ulidum ;=,C=G
"utidi dicterium de clero usur"are) L"utidum #ulgus$L ino"s$ rude$
sordidum$ melancholicum$ miserum$ des"icabile$ contemnendum.;=,C.G
9H9E:T. I--_8on-necessary$ remote$ out'ard$ ad#entitious$ or accidental
causes& as first from the 8urse_.
2f those remote$ out'ard$ ambient$ necessary causes$ I ha#e sufficiently
discoursed in the "recedent member$ the non-necessary follo'< of 'hich$
saith ;=,C?G7uchsius$ no art can be made$ by reason of their uncertainty$
casualty$ and multitude< so called Lnot necessaryL because according to
;=,C@G7ernelius$ Lthey may be a#oided$ and used 'ithout necessity.L Many of
these accidental causes$ 'hich I shall entreat of here$ might ha#e 'ell
been reduced to the former$ because they cannot be a#oided$ but fatally
ha""en to us$ though accidentally$ and una'ares$ at some time or other< the
rest are contingent and ine#itable$ and more "ro"erly inserted in this ran%
of causes. To rec%on u" all is a thing im"ossible< of some therefore most
remar%able of these contingent causes 'hich "roduce melancholy$ I 'ill
briefly s"ea% and in their order.
7rom a child!s nati#ity$ the first ill accident that can li%ely befall him
in this %ind is a bad nurse$ by 'hose means alone he may be tainted 'ith
this ;=,C-Gmalady from his cradle$ Aulus Gellius _l. ,=. c. ,._ brings in
Pha#orinus$ that elo0uent "hiloso"her$ "ro#ing this at large$ ;=,CAG Lthat
there is the same #irtue and "ro"erty in the mil% as in the seed$ and not
in men alone$ but in all other creatures< he gi#es instance in a %id and
lamb$ if either of them suc% of the other!s mil%$ the lamb of the goat!s$
or the %id of the e'e!s$ the 'ool of the one 'ill be hard$ and the hair of
the other soft.L Giraldus :ambrensis _Itinerar. :ambriae$ l. ,. c. =._
confirms this by a notable e+am"le 'hich ha""ened in his time. A so'-"ig by
chance suc%ed a brach$ and 'hen she 'as gro'n ;=,C/GL'ould miraculously
hunt all manner of deer$ and that as 'ell$ or rather better$ than any
ordinary hound.L 5is conclusion is$ ;=,CBGLthat men and beasts "artici"ate
of her nature and conditions by 'hose mil% they are fed.L Pha#orinus urges
it farther$ and demonstrates it more e#idently$ that if a nurse be
;=,,CGLmissha"en$ unchaste$ dishonest$ im"udent$ ;=,,,Gcruel$ or the li%e$
the child that suc%s u"on her breast 'ill be so too<L all other affections
of the mind and diseases are almost engrafted$ as it 'ere$ and im"rinted
into the tem"erature of the infant$ by the nurse!s mil%< as "o+$ le"rosy$
melancholy$ Fc. :ato for some such reason 'ould ma%e his ser#ants! children
suc% u"on his 'ife!s breast$ because by that means they 'ould lo#e him and
his the better$ and in all li%elihood agree 'ith them. A more e#ident
e+am"le that the minds are altered by mil% cannot be gi#en$ than that of
;=,,=G3ion$ 'hich he relates of :aligula!s cruelty< it could neither be
im"uted to father nor mother$ but to his cruel nurse alone$ that anointed
her "a"s 'ith blood still 'hen he suc%ed$ 'hich made him such a murderer$
and to e+"ress her cruelty to a hair& and that of Tiberius$ 'ho 'as a
common drun%ard$ because his nurse 'as such a one. _Et si delira fuerit_
(;=,,.Gone obser#es) _infantulum delirum faciet_$ if she be a fool or dolt$
the child she nurseth 'ill ta%e after her$ or other'ise be misaffected<
'hich 7ranciscus arbarus _l. =. c. ult. de re u+oria_ "ro#es at full$ and
Ant. Gui#arra$ _lib. =. de Marco Aurelio_& the child 'ill surely
"artici"ate. 7or bodily sic%ness there is no doubt to be made. Titus$
Ies"asian!s son$ 'as therefore sic%ly$ because the nurse 'as so$
*am"ridius. And if 'e may belie#e "hysicians$ many times children catch the
"o+ from a bad nurse$ otaldus _ca". -,. de lue #ener._ esides e#il
attendance$ negligence$ and many gross incon#eniences$ 'hich are incident
to nurses$ much danger may so come to the child. ;=,,?G7or these causes
Aristotle _Polit. lib. A. c. ,A._ Pha#orinus and Marcus Aurelius 'ould not
ha#e a child "ut to nurse at all$ but e#ery mother to bring u" her o'n$ of
'hat condition soe#er she be< for a sound and able mother to "ut out her
child to nurse$ is _naturae intem"eries_$ so ;=,,@GGuatso calls it$ !tis
fit therefore she should be nurse herself< the mother 'ill be more careful$
lo#ing$ and attendant$ than any ser#ile 'oman$ or such hired creatures<
this all the 'orld ac%no'ledgeth$ _con#enientissimum est_ (as 1od. a :astro
_de nat. mulierum. lib. ?. c. ,=._ in many 'ords confesseth) _matrem i"sam
lactare infantem_$ LIt is most fit that the mother should suc%le her o'n
infantL--'ho denies that it should be soN--and 'hich some 'omen most
curiously obser#e< amongst the rest$ ;=,,-Gthat 0ueen of 7rance$ a 9"aniard
by birth$ that 'as so "recise and zealous in this behalf$ that 'hen in her
absence a strange nurse had suc%led her child$ she 'as ne#er 0uiet till she
had made the infant #omit it u" again. ut she 'as too jealous. If it be
so$ as many times it is$ they must be "ut forth$ the mother be not fit or
'ell able to be a nurse$ I 'ould then ad#ise such mothers$ as
;=,,AGPlutarch doth in his boo% _de liberis educandis_ and ;=,,/G9. 5ierom$
_li. =. e"ist. =A. *aetae de institut. fil. Magninus "art =. 1eg. sanit.
ca". A._ and the said 1odericus$ that they ma%e choice of a sound 'oman$ of
a good com"le+ion$ honest$ free from bodily diseases$ if it be "ossible$
all "assions and "erturbations of the mind$ as sorro'$ fear$ grief$
;=,,BGfolly$ melancholy. 7or such "assions corru"t the mil%$ and alter the
tem"erature of the child$ 'hich no' being ;=,=CG _Hdum et molle lutum_$ La
moist and soft clay$L is easily seasoned and "er#erted. And if such a nurse
may be found out$ that 'ill be diligent and careful 'ithal$ let Pha#orinus
and M. Aurelius "lead ho' they can against it$ I had rather acce"t of her
in some cases than the mother herself$ and 'hich onacialus the "hysician$
8ic. iesius the "olitician$ _lib. ?. de re"ub. ca". /._ a""ro#es$
;=,=,GL9ome nurses are much to be "referred to some mothers.L 7or 'hy may
not the mother be naught$ a "ee#ish drun%en flirt$ a 'as"ish choleric slut$
a crazed "iece$ a fool (as many mothers are)$ unsound as soon as the nurseN
There is more choice of nurses than mothers< and therefore e+ce"t the
mother be most #irtuous$ staid$ a 'oman of e+cellent good "arts$ and of a
sound com"le+ion$ I 'ould ha#e all children in such cases committed to
discreet strangers. And !tis the only 'ay< as by marriage they are
engrafted to other families to alter the breed$ or if anything be amiss in
the mother$ as *udo#icus Mercatus contends$ _Tom. =. lib. de morb. haered._
to "re#ent diseases and future maladies$ to correct and 0ualify the child!s
ill-dis"osed tem"erature$ 'hich he had from his "arents. This is an
e+cellent remedy$ if good choice be made of such a nurse.
9H9E:T. II.--_Education a :ause of Melancholy_.
Education$ of these accidental causes of melancholy$ may justly challenge
the ne+t "lace$ for if a man esca"e a bad nurse$ he may be undone by e#il
bringing u". ;=,==GDason Pratensis "uts this of education for a "rinci"al
cause< bad "arents$ ste"mothers$ tutors$ masters$ teachers$ too rigorous$
too se#ere$ too remiss or indulgent on the other side$ are often fountains
and furtherers of this disease. Parents and such as ha#e the tuition and
o#ersight of children$ offend many times in that they are too stern$ al'ays
threatening$ chiding$ bra'ling$ 'hi""ing$ or stri%ing< by means of 'hich
their "oor children are so disheartened and co'ed$ that they ne#er after
ha#e any courage$ a merry hour in their li#es$ or ta%e "leasure in
anything. There is a great moderation to be had in such things$ as matters
of so great moment to the ma%ing or marring of a child. 9ome fright their
children 'ith beggars$ bugbears$ and hobgoblins$ if they cry$ or be
other'ise unruly& but they are much to blame in it$ many times$ saith
*a#ater$ _de s"ectris$ "art. ,$ ca". @._ _e+ metu in morbos gra#es incidunt
et noctu dormientes clamant_$ for fear they fall into many diseases$ and
cry out in their slee"$ and are much the 'orse for it all their li#es&
these things ought not at all$ or to be s"aringly done$ and u"on just
occasion. Tyrannical$ im"atient$ hair-brain schoolmasters$ _aridi
magistri_$ so ;=,=.G7abius terms them$ _Ajaces flagelliferi_$ are in this
%ind as bad as hangmen and e+ecutioners$ they ma%e many children endure a
martyrdom all the 'hile they are at school$ 'ith bad diet$ if they board in
their houses$ too much se#erity and ill-usage$ they 0uite "er#ert their
tem"erature of body and mind& still chiding$ railing$ fro'ning$ lashing$
tas%ing$ %ee"ing$ that they are _fracti animis_$ mo"ed many times$ 'eary of
their li#es$ ;=,=?G_nimia se#eritate deficiunt et des"erant_$ and thin% no
sla#ery in the 'orld (as once I did myself) li%e to that of a grammar
scholar. _Praece"torum ine"tiis discruciantur ingenia "uerorum_$ ;=,=@G
saith Erasmus$ they tremble at his #oice$ loo%s$ coming in. 9t. Austin$ in
the first boo% of his _confess. et ? ca._ calls this schooling _meliculosam
necessitatem_$ and else'here a martyrdom$ and confesseth of himself$ ho'
cruelly he 'as tortured in mind for learning Gree%$ _nulla #erba no#eram$
et sae#is terroribus et "oenis$ ut nossem$ instabatur mihi #ehementer_$ I
%no' nothing$ and 'ith cruel terrors and "unishment I 'as daily com"elled.
;=,=-Geza com"lains in li%e case of a rigorous schoolmaster in Paris$ that
made him by his continual thunder and threats once in a mind to dro'n
himself$ had he not met by the 'ay 'ith an uncle of his that #indicated him
from that misery for the time$ by ta%ing him to his house. Trinca#ellius$
_lib. ,. consil. ,-._ had a "atient nineteen years of age$ e+tremely
melancholy$ _ob nimium studium$ Tar#itii et "raece"toris minas_$ by reason
of o#ermuch study$ and his ;=,=AGtutor!s threats. Many masters are
hard-hearted$ and bitter to their ser#ants$ and by that means do so deject$
'ith terrible s"eeches and hard usage so crucify them$ that they become
des"erate$ and can ne#er be recalled.
2thers again$ in that o""osite e+treme$ do as great harm by their too much
remissness$ they gi#e them no bringing u"$ no calling to busy themsel#es
about$ or to li#e in$ teach them no trade$ or set them in any good course<
by means of 'hich their ser#ants$ children$ scholars$ are carried a'ay 'ith
that stream of drun%enness$ idleness$ gaming$ and many such irregular
courses$ that in the end they rue it$ curse their "arents$ and mischief
themsel#es. Too much indulgence causeth the li%e$ ;=,=/G_ine"ta "atris
lenitas et facilitas "ra#a_$ 'hen as Mitio-li%e$ 'ith too much liberty and
too great allo'ance$ they feed their children!s humours$ let them re#el$
'ench$ riot$ s'agger$ and do 'hat they 'ill themsel#es$ and then "unish
them 'ith a noise of musicians<
;=,=BG L2bsonet$ "otet$ oleat unguenta de meo<
AmatN dabitur a me argentum ubi erit commodum.
7ores effregitN restituentur& descidit
IestemN resarcietur.--7aciat 0uod lubet$
9umat$ consumat$ "erdat$ decretum est "ati.L
ut as 3emeo told him$ _tu illum corrum"i sinis_$ your lenity 'ill be his
undoing$ _"rae#idere #ideor jam diem$ illum$ 0uum hic egens "rofugiet
ali0uo militatum_$ I foresee his ruin. 9o "arents often err$ many fond
mothers es"ecially$ dote so much u"on their children$ li%e ;=,.CGAeso"!s
a"e$ till in the end they crush them to death$ _:or"orum nutrices animarum
no#ercae_$ "am"ering u" their bodies to the undoing of their souls& they
'ill not let them be ;=,.,Gcorrected or controlled$ but still soothed u" in
e#erything they do$ that in conclusion Lthey bring sorro'$ shame$ hea#iness
to their "arentsL (Ecclus. ca". +++. /$ B)$ Lbecome 'anton$ stubborn$
'ilful$ and disobedient<L rude$ untaught$ headstrong$ incorrigible$ and
graceless< Lthey lo#e them so foolishly$L saith ;=,.=G:ardan$ Lthat they
rather seem to hate them$ bringing them not u" to #irtue but injury$ not to
learning but to riot$ not to sober life and con#ersation$ but to all
"leasure and licentious beha#iour.L 4ho is he of so little e+"erience that
%no's not this of 7abius to be trueN ;=,..GLEducation is another nature$
altering the mind and 'ill$ and I 'ould to GodL (saith he) L'e oursel#es
did not s"oil our children!s manners$ by our o#ermuch coc%ering and nice
education$ and 'ea%en the strength of their bodies and minds$ that causeth
custom$ custom nature$L Fc. 7or these causes Plutarch in his boo% _de lib.
educ._ and 5ierom. _e"ist. lib. ,. e"ist. ,A. to *aeta de institut.
filiae_$ gi#es a most es"ecial charge to all "arents$ and many good
cautions about bringing u" of children$ that they be not committed to
indiscreet$ "assionate$ bedlam tutors$ light$ giddy-headed$ or co#etous
"ersons$ and s"are for no cost$ that they may be 'ell nurtured and taught$
it being a matter of so great conse0uence. 7or such "arents as do
other'ise$ Plutarch esteems of them ;=,.?GLthat are more careful of their
shoes than of their feet$L that rate their 'ealth abo#e their children. And
he$ saith ;=,.@G:ardan$ Lthat lea#es his son to a co#etous schoolmaster to
be informed$ or to a close Abbey to fast and learn 'isdom together$ doth no
other$ than that he be a learned fool$ or a sic%ly 'ise man.L
9H9E:T. III.--_Terrors and Affrights$ :auses of Melancholy_.
Tully$ in the fourth of his Tusculans$ distinguishes these terrors 'hich
arise from the a""rehension of some terrible object heard or seen$ from
other fears$ and so doth Patritius _lib. @. Tit. ?. de regis institut._ 2f
all fears they are most "ernicious and #iolent$ and so suddenly alter the
'hole tem"erature of the body$ mo#e the soul and s"irits$ stri%e such a
dee" im"ression$ that the "arties can ne#er be reco#ered$ causing more
grie#ous and fiercer melancholy$ as 7eli+ Plater$ _c. .. de mentis
alienat_. ;=,.-Gs"ea%s out of his e+"erience$ than any in'ard cause
'hatsoe#er& Land im"rints itself so forcibly in the s"irits$ brain$
humours$ that if all the mass of blood 'ere let out of the body$ it could
hardly be e+tracted. This horrible %ind of melancholyL (for so he terms it)
Lhad been often brought before him$ and troubles and affrights commonly men
and 'omen$ young and old of all sorts.L ;=,.AG5ercules de 9a+onia calls
this %ind of melancholy (_ab agitatione s"irituum_) by a "eculiar name$ it
comes from the agitation$ motion$ contraction$ dilatation of s"irits$ not
from any distem"erature of humours$ and "roduceth strong effects. This
terror is most usually caused$ as ;=,./GPlutarch 'ill ha#e$ Lfrom some
imminent danger$ 'hen a terrible object is at hand$L heard$ seen$ or
concei#ed$ ;=,.BGLtruly a""earing$ or in a ;=,?CGdream&L and many times the
more sudden the accident$ it is the more #iolent.
;=,?,G L9tat terror animis$ et cor attonitum salit$
Pa#idum0ue tre"idis "al"itat #enis jecur.L
LTheir soul!s affright$ their heart amazed 0ua%es$
The trembling li#er "ants i! th! #eins$ and aches.L
Arthemedorus the grammarian lost his 'its by the une+"ected sight of a
crocodile$ *aurentius _A. de melan_. ;=,?=GThe massacre at *yons$ ,@A=$ in
the reign of :harles IJ.$ 'as so terrible and fearful$ that many ran mad$
some died$ great-bellied 'omen 'ere brought to bed before their time$
generally all affrighted aghast. Many lose their 'its ;=,?.GLby the sudden
sight of some s"ectrum or de#il$ a thing #ery common in all ages$L saith
*a#ater _"art ,. ca". B._ as 2restes did at the sight of the 7uries$ 'hich
a""eared to him in blac% (as ;=,??GPausanias records). The Gree%s call them
;Gree%& mormolucheiaG$ 'hich so terrify their souls$ or if they be but
affrighted by some counterfeit de#ils in jest$
;=,?@G ------Lut "ueri tre"idant$ at0ue omnia caecis
In tenebris metuuntL------
as children in the dar% concei#e hobgoblins$ and are so afraid$ they are
the 'orse for it all their li#es. 9ome by sudden fires$ earth0ua%es$
inundations$ or any such dismal objects& Themiscon the "hysician fell into
a hydro"hobia$ by seeing one sic% of that disease& (3ioscorides _l. -. c.
..._) or by the sight of a monster$ a carcase$ they are dis0uieted many
months follo'ing$ and cannot endure the room 'here a cor"se hath been$ for
a 'orld 'ould not be alone 'ith a dead man$ or lie in that bed many years
after in 'hich a man hath died. At ;=,?-Gasil many little children in the
s"ringtime 'ent to gather flo'ers in a meado' at the to'n!s end$ 'here a
malefactor hung in gibbets< all gazing at it$ one by chance flung a stone$
and made it stir$ by 'hich accident$ the children affrighted ran a'ay< one
slo'er than the rest$ loo%ing bac%$ and seeing the stirred carcase 'ag
to'ards her$ cried out it came after$ and 'as so terribly affrighted$ that
for many days she could not rest$ eat$ or slee"$ she could not be "acified$
but melancholy$ died. ;=,?AGIn the same to'n another child$ beyond the
1hine$ sa' a gra#e o"ened$ and u"on the sight of a carcase$ 'as so troubled
in mind that she could not be comforted$ but a little after de"arted$ and
'as buried by it. Platerus _obser#at. l. ,_$ a gentle'oman of the same city
sa' a fat hog cut u"$ 'hen the entrails 'ere o"ened$ and a noisome sa#our
offended her nose$ she much misli%ed$ and 'ould not longer abide& a
"hysician in "resence$ told her$ as that hog$ so 'as she$ full of filthy
e+crements$ and aggra#ated the matter by some other loathsome instances$
insomuch$ this nice gentle'oman a""rehended it so dee"ly$ that she fell
forth'ith a-#omiting$ 'as so mightily distem"ered in mind and body$ that
'ith all his art and "ersuasions$ for some months after$ he could not
restore her to herself again$ she could not forget it$ or remo#e the object
out of her sight$ _Idem_. Many cannot endure to see a 'ound o"ened$ but
they are offended& a man e+ecuted$ or labour of any fearful disease$ as
"ossession$ a"o"le+ies$ one be'itched< ;=,?/Gor if they read by chance of
some terrible thing$ the sym"toms alone of such a disease$ or that 'hich
they disli%e$ they are instantly troubled in mind$ aghast$ ready to a""ly
it to themsel#es$ they are as much dis0uieted as if they had seen it$ or
'ere so affected themsel#es. _5ecatas sibi #identur somniare_$ they dream
and continually thin% of it. As lamentable effects are caused by such
terrible objects heard$ read$ or seen$ _auditus ma+imos motus in cor"ore
facit_$ as ;=,?BGPlutarch holds$ no sense ma%es greater alteration of body
and mind& sudden s"eech sometimes$ une+"ected ne's$ be they good or bad$
_"rae#isa minus oratio_$ 'ill mo#e as much$ _animum obruere$ et de sede sua
dejicere_$ as a ;=,@CG"hiloso"her obser#es$ 'ill ta%e a'ay our slee" and
a""etite$ disturb and 0uite o#erturn us. *et them bear 'itness that ha#e
heard those tragical alarms$ outcries$ hideous noises$ 'hich are many times
suddenly heard in the dead of the night by irru"tion of enemies and
accidental fires$ Fc.$ those ;=,@,G"anic fears$ 'hich often dri#e men out
of their 'its$ berea#e them of sense$ understanding and all$ some for a
time$ some for their 'hole li#es$ they ne#er reco#er it. The ;=,@=G
Midianites 'ere so affrighted by Gideon!s soldiers$ they brea%ing but e#ery
one a "itcher< and ;=,@.G5annibal!s army by such a "anic fear 'as
discomfited at the 'alls of 1ome. Augusta *i#ia hearing a fe' tragical
#erses recited out of Iirgil$ _Tu Marcellus eris_$ Fc.$ fell do'n dead in a
s'oon. Edinus %ing of 3enmar%$ by a sudden sound 'hich he heard$ ;=,@?G
L'as turned into fury 'ith all his men$L :ranzius$ _l. @$ 3an. hist._ and
Ale+ander ab Ale+andro _l. .. c. @._ Amatus *usitanus had a "atient$ that
by reason of bad tidings became e"ile"ticus$ _cen. =. cura BC_$ :ardan
_subtil. l. ,/_$ sa' one that lost his 'its by mista%ing of an echo. If one
sense alone can cause such #iolent commotions of the mind$ 'hat may 'e
thin% 'hen hearing$ sight$ and those other senses are all troubled at onceN
as by some earth0ua%es$ thunder$ lightning$ tem"ests$ Fc. At ologna in
Italy$ _anno_ ,@C?$ there 'as such a fearful earth0ua%e about ele#en
o!cloc% in the night (as ;=,@@Geroaldus in his boo% _de terrae motu_$ hath
commended to "osterity) that all the city trembled$ the "eo"le thought the
'orld 'as at an end$ _actum de mortalibus_$ such a fearful noise$ it made
such a detestable smell$ the inhabitants 'ere infinitely affrighted$ and
some ran mad. _Audi rem atrocem$ et annalibus memorandam_ (mine author
adds)$ hear a strange story$ and 'orthy to be chronicled& I had a ser#ant
at the same time called 7ulco Argelanus$ a bold and "ro"er man$ so
grie#ously terrified 'ith it$ that he ;=,@-G'as first melancholy$ after
doted$ at last mad$ and made a'ay himself. At ;=,@AG7uscinum in Da"ona
Lthere 'as such an earth0ua%e$ and dar%ness on a sudden$ that many men 'ere
offended 'ith headache$ many o#er'helmed 'ith sorro' and melancholy. At
Meacum 'hole streets and goodly "alaces 'ere o#erturned at the same time$
and there 'as such a hideous noise 'ithal$ li%e thunder$ and filthy smell$
that their hair stared for fear$ and their hearts 0ua%ed$ men and beasts
'ere incredibly terrified. In 9acai$ another city$ the same earth0ua%e 'as
so terrible unto them$ that many 'ere bereft of their senses< and others by
that horrible s"ectacle so much amazed$ that they %ne' not 'hat they did.L
lasius a :hristian$ the re"orter of the ne's$ 'as so affrighted for his
"art$ that though it 'ere t'o months after$ he 'as scarce his o'n man$
neither could he dri#e the remembrance of it out of his mind. Many times$
some years follo'ing$ they 'ill tremble afresh at the ;=,@/Gremembrance or
conceit of such a terrible object$ e#en all their li#es long$ if mention be
made of it. :ornelius Agri""a relates out of Gulielmus Parisiensis$ a story
of one$ that after a distasteful "urge 'hich a "hysician had "rescribed
unto him$ 'as so much mo#ed$ ;=,@BGLthat at the #ery sight of "hysic he
'ould be distem"ered$L though he ne#er so much as smelled to it$ the bo+ of
"hysic long after 'ould gi#e him a "urge< nay$ the #ery remembrance of it
did effect it< ;=,-CGLli%e tra#ellers and seamen$L saith Plutarch$ Lthat
'hen they ha#e been sanded$ or dashed on a roc%$ for e#er after fear not
that mischance only$ but all such dangers 'hatsoe#er.L
9H9E:T. II.--_9coffs$ :alumnies$ bitter Dests$ ho' they cause Melancholy_.
It is an old saying$ ;=,-,GLA blo' 'ith a 'ord stri%es dee"er than a blo'
'ith a s'ord&L and many men are as much galled 'ith a calumny$ a scurrilous
and bitter jest$ a libel$ a "as0uil$ satire$ a"ologue$ e"igram$ stage-"lay
or the li%e$ as 'ith any misfortune 'hatsoe#er. Princes and "otentates$
that are other'ise ha""y$ and ha#e all at command$ secure and free$ _0uibus
"otentia sceleris im"unitatem fecit_$ are grie#ously #e+ed 'ith these
"as0uilling libels$ and satires& they fear a railing ;=,-=GAretine$ more
than an enemy in the field$ 'hich made most "rinces of his time (as some
relate) Lallo' him a liberal "ension$ that he should not ta+ them in his
satires.L ;=,-.GThe Gods had their Momus$ 5omer his >oilus$ Achilles his
Thersites$ Phili" his 3emades& the :aesars themsel#es in 1ome 'ere commonly
taunted. There 'as ne#er 'anting a Petronius$ a *ucian in those times$ nor
'ill be a 1abelais$ an Eu"hormio$ a occalinus in ours. Adrian the si+th
"o"e ;=,-?G'as so highly offended$ and grie#ously #e+ed 'ith "as0uillers at
1ome$ he ga#e command that his statue should be demolished and burned$ the
ashes flung into the ri#er Tiber$ and had done it forth'ith$ had not
*udo#icus 9uessanus$ a facete com"anion$ dissuaded him to the contrary$ by
telling him$ that "as0uil!s ashes 'ould turn to frogs in the bottom of the
ri#er$ and croa% 'orse and louder than before$--_genus irritabile #atum_$
and therefore ;=,-@G9ocrates in Plato ad#iseth all his friends$ Lthat
res"ect their credits$ to stand in a'e of "oets$ for they are terrible
fello's$ can "raise and dis"raise as they see cause.L _5inc 0uam sit
calamus sae#ior ense "atet_. The "ro"het 3a#id com"lains$ Psalm c++iii. ?.
Lthat his soul 'as full of the moc%ing of the 'ealthy$ and of the
des"itefulness of the "roud$L and Psalm l#. ?. Lfor the #oice of the
'ic%ed$ Fc.$ and their hate& his heart trembled 'ithin him$ and the terrors
of death came u"on him< fear and horrible fear$L Fc.$ and Psal. l+i+. =C.
L1ebu%e hath bro%en my heart$ and I am full of hea#iness.L 4ho hath not
li%e cause to com"lain$ and is not so troubled$ that shall fall into the
mouths of such menN for many are of so ;=,--G"etulant a s"leen< and ha#e
that figure 9arcasmus so often in their mouths$ so bitter$ so foolish$ as
;=,-AGalthazar :astilio notes of them$ that Lthey cannot s"ea%$ but they
must bite<L they had rather lose a friend than a jest< and 'hat com"any
soe#er they come in$ they 'ill be scoffing$ insulting o#er their inferiors$
es"ecially o#er such as any 'ay de"end u"on them$ humouring$ misusing$ or
"utting gulleries on some or other till they ha#e made by their humouring
or gulling ;=,-/G_e+ stulto insanum_$ a mo"e or a noddy$ and all to ma%e
themsel#es merry&
;=,-BG ------Ldummodo risum
E+cutiat sibi< non hic cui0uam "arcit amico<L
7riends$ neuters$ enemies$ all are as one$ to ma%e a fool a madman$ is
their s"ort$ and they ha#e no greater felicity than to scoff and deride
others< they must sacrifice to the god of laughter$ 'ith them in ;=,ACG
A"uleius$ once a day$ or else they shall be melancholy themsel#es< they
care not ho' they grind and misuse others$ so they may e+hilarate their o'n
"ersons. Their 'its indeed ser#e them to that sole "ur"ose$ to ma%e s"ort$
to brea% a scurrile jest$ 'hich is _le#issimus ingenii fructus_$ the froth
of 'it$ as ;=,A,GTully holds$ and for this they are often a""lauded$ in all
other discourse$ dry$ barren$ stramineous$ dull and hea#y$ here lies their
genius$ in this they alone e+cel$ "lease themsel#es and others. *eo
3ecimus$ that scoffing "o"e$ as Do#ius hath registered in the 7ourth boo%
of his life$ too% an e+traordinary delight in humouring of silly fello's$
and to "ut gulleries u"on them$ ;=,A=Gby commending some$ "ersuading others
to this or that& he made _e+ stolidis stultissimos$ et ma+ime ridiculos$ e+
stultis insanos_< soft fello's$ star% noddies< and such as 'ere foolish$
0uite mad before he left them. 2ne memorable e+am"le he recites there$ of
Tarascomus of Parma$ a musician that 'as so humoured by *eo 3ecimus$ and
ibiena his second in this business$ that he thought himself to be a man of
most e+cellent s%ill$ ('ho 'as indeed a ninny) they ;=,A.GLmade him set
foolish songs$ and in#ent ne' ridiculous "rece"ts$ 'hich they did highly
commend$L as to tie his arm that "layed on the lute$ to ma%e him stri%e a
s'eeter stro%e$ ;=,A?GLand to "ull do'n the arras hangings$ because the
#oice 'ould be clearer$ by reason of the re#erberation of the 'all.L In the
li%e manner they "ersuaded one araballius of :aieta$ that he 'as as good a
"oet as Petrarch< 'ould ha#e him to be made a laureate "oet$ and in#ite all
his friends to his instalment< and had so "ossessed the "oor man 'ith a
conceit of his e+cellent "oetry$ that 'hen some of his more discreet
friends told him of his folly$ he 'as #ery angry 'ith them$ and said
;=,A@GLthey en#ied his honour$ and "ros"erity&L it 'as strange (saith
Do#ius) to see an old man of -C years$ a #enerable and gra#e old man$ so
gulled. ut 'hat cannot such scoffers do$ es"ecially if they find a soft
creature$ on 'hom they may 'or%N nay$ to say truth$ 'ho is so 'ise$ or so
discreet$ that may not be humoured in this %ind$ es"ecially if some
e+cellent 'its shall set u"on him< he that mads others$ if he 'ere so
humoured$ 'ould be as mad himself$ as much grie#ed and tormented< he might
cry 'ith him in the comedy$ _Proh Du"iter tu homo me$ adigas ad insaniam_.
7or all is in these things as they are ta%en< if he be a silly soul$ and do
not "ercei#e it$ !tis 'ell$ he may ha"ly ma%e others s"ort$ and be no 'hit
troubled himself< but if he be a""rehensi#e of his folly$ and ta%e it to
heart$ then it torments him 'orse than any lash& a bitter jest$ a slander$
a calumny$ "ierceth dee"er than any loss$ danger$ bodily "ain$ or injury
'hatsoe#er< _le#iter enim #olat_$ (it flies s'iftly) as ernard of an
arro'$ _sed gra#iter #ulnerat_$ (but 'ounds dee"ly)$ es"ecially if it shall
"roceed from a #irulent tongue$ Lit cutsL (saith 3a#id) Lli%e a t'o-edged
s'ord. They shoot bitter 'ords as arro's$L Psal. l+i#. @. LAnd they smote
'ith their tongues$L Der. +#iii. ,/$ and that so hard$ that they lea#e an
incurable 'ound behind them. Many men are undone by this means$ mo"ed$ and
so dejected$ that they are ne#er to be reco#ered< and of all other men
li#ing$ those 'hich are actually melancholy$ or inclined to it$ are most
sensible$ (as being sus"icious$ choleric$ a"t to mista%e) and im"atient of
an injury in that %ind& they aggra#ate$ and so meditate continually of it$
that it is a "er"etual corrosi#e$ not to be remo#ed$ till time 'ear it out.
Although they "erad#enture that so scoff$ do it alone in mirth and
merriment$ and hold it _o"timum aliena frui insania_$ an e+cellent thing to
enjoy another man!s madness< yet they must %no'$ that it is a mortal sin
(as ;=,A-GThomas holds) and as the "ro"het ;=,AAG3a#id denounceth$ Lthey
that use it$ shall ne#er d'ell in God!s tabernacle.L
9uch scurrilous jests$ flouts$ and sarcasms$ therefore$ ought not at all to
be used< es"ecially to our betters$ to those that are in misery$ or any 'ay
distressed& for to such$ _aerumnarum incrementa sunt_$ they multi"ly grief$
and as ;=,A/Ghe "ercei#ed$ _In multis "udor$ in multis iracundia_$ Fc.$
many are ashamed$ many #e+ed$ angered$ and there is no greater cause or
furtherer of melancholy. Martin :romerus$ in the 9i+th boo% of his history$
hath a "retty story to this "ur"ose$ of Iladislaus$ the second %ing of
Poland$ and Peter 3unnius$ earl of 9hrine< they had been hunting late$ and
'ere enforced to lodge in a "oor cottage. 4hen they 'ent to bed$ Iladislaus
told the earl in jest$ that his 'ife lay softer 'ith the abbot of 9hrine<
he not able to contain$ re"lied$ _Et tua cum 3abesso_$ and yours 'ith
3abessus$ a gallant young gentleman in the court$ 'hom :hristina the 0ueen
lo#ed. _Tetigit id dictum Princi"is animum_$ these 'ords of his so galled
the "rince$ that he 'as long after _tristis et cogitabundus_$ #ery sad and
melancholy for many months< but they 'ere the earl!s utter undoing& for
'hen :hristina heard of it$ she "ersecuted him to death. 9o"hia the
em"ress$ Dustinian!s 'ife$ bro%e a bitter jest u"on 8arsetes the eunuch$ a
famous ca"tain then dis0uieted for an o#erthro' 'hich he lately had& that
he 'as fitter for a distaff and to %ee" 'omen com"any$ than to 'ield a
s'ord$ or to be general of an army& but it cost her dear$ for he so far
distasted it$ that he 'ent forth'ith to the ad#erse "art$ much troubled in
his thoughts$ caused the *ombards to rebel$ and thence "rocured many
miseries to the common'ealth. Tiberius the em"eror 'ithheld a legacy from
the "eo"le of 1ome$ 'hich his "redecessor Augustus had lately gi#en$ and
"ercei#ing a fello' round a dead corse in the ear$ 'ould needs %no'
'herefore he did so< the fello' re"lied$ that he 'ished the de"arted soul
to signify to Augustus$ the commons of 1ome 'ere yet un"aid& for this
bitter jest the em"eror caused him forth'ith to be slain$ and carry the
ne's himself. 7or this reason$ all those that other'ise a""ro#e of jests in
some cases$ and facete com"anions$ (as 'ho doth notN) let them laugh and be
merry$ _rum"antur et illa :odro_$ !tis laudable and fit$ those yet 'ill by
no means admit them in their com"anies$ that are any 'ay inclined to this
malady& _non jocandum cum iis 0ui miseri sunt$ et aerumnosi_$ no jesting
'ith a discontented "erson. !Tis :astilio!s ca#eat$ ;=,ABGDo. Pontanus$ and
;=,/CGGalateus$ and e#ery good man!s.
LPlay 'ith me$ but hurt me not&
Dest 'ith me$ but shame me not.L
:omitas is a #irtue bet'een rusticity and scurrility$ t'o e+tremes$ as
affability is bet'een flattery and contention$ it must not e+ceed< but be
still accom"anied 'ith that ;=,/,G;Gree%& ablabeiaG or innocency$ _0uae
nemini nocet$ omnem injuriae$ oblationem abhorrens_$ hurts no man$ abhors
all offer of injury. Though a man be liable to such a jest or oblo0uy$ ha#e
been o#erseen$ or committed a foul fact$ yet it is no good manners or
humanity$ to u"braid$ to hit him in the teeth 'ith his offence$ or to scoff
at such a one< !tis an old a+iom$ _tur"is in reum omnis e+"robratio_.;=,/=G
I s"ea% not of such as generally ta+ #ice$ arclay$ Gentilis$ Erasmus$
Agri""a$ 7ishcartus$ Fc.$ the Iarronists and *ucians of our time$
satirists$ e"igrammists$ comedians$ a"ologists$ Fc.$ but such as "ersonate$
rail$ scoff$ calumniate$ "erstringe by name$ or in "resence offend<
;=,/.G L*udit 0ui stolida "rocacitate
8on est 9estius ille sed caballus&L
!Tis horse-"lay this$ and those jests (as he ;=,/?Gsaith) Lare no better
than injuries$L biting jests$ _mordentes et aculeati_$ they are "oisoned
jests$ lea#e a sting behind them$ and ought not to be used.
;=,/@G L9et not thy foot to ma%e the blind to fall<
8or 'ilfully offend thy 'ea%er brother&
8or 'ound the dead 'ith thy tongue!s bitter gall$
8either rejoice thou in the fall of other.L
If these rules could be %e"t$ 'e should ha#e much more ease and 0uietness
than 'e ha#e$ less melancholy$ 'hereas on the contrary$ 'e study to misuse
each other$ ho' to sting and gall$ li%e t'o fighting boors$ bending all our
force and 'it$ friends$ fortune$ to crucify ;=,/-Gone another!s souls< by
means of 'hich$ there is little content and charity$ much #irulency$
hatred$ malice$ and dis0uietness among us.
9H9E:T. I.--_*oss of *iberty$ 9er#itude$ Im"risonment$ ho' they cause
To this catalogue of causes$ I may 'ell anne+ loss of liberty$ ser#itude$
or im"risonment$ 'hich to some "ersons is as great a torture as any of the
rest. Though they ha#e all things con#enient$ sum"tuous houses to their
use$ fair 'al%s and gardens$ delicious bo'ers$ galleries$ good fare and
diet$ and all things corres"ondent$ yet they are not content$ because they
are confined$ may not come and go at their "leasure$ ha#e and do 'hat they
'ill$ but li#e ;=,/AG_aliena 0uadra_$ at another man!s table and command.
As it is ;=,//Gin meats so it is in all other things$ "laces$ societies$
s"orts< let them be ne#er so "leasant$ commodious$ 'holesome$ so good< yet
_omnium rerum est satietas_$ there is a loathing satiety of all things. The
children of Israel 'ere tired 'ith manna$ it is ir%some to them so to li#e$
as to a bird in his cage$ or a dog in his %ennel$ they are 'eary of it.
They are ha""y$ it is true$ and ha#e all things$ to another man!s judgment$
that heart can 'ish$ or that they themsel#es can desire$ _bona si sua
norint_& yet they loathe it$ and are tired 'ith the "resent& _Est natura
hominum no#itatis a#ida_< men!s nature is still desirous of ne's$ #ariety$
delights< and our 'andering affections are so irregular in this %ind$ that
they must change$ though it must be to the 'orst. achelors must be
married$ and married men 'ould be bachelors< they do not lo#e their o'n
'i#es$ though other'ise fair$ 'ise$ #irtuous$ and 'ell 0ualified$ because
they are theirs< our "resent estate is still the 'orst$ 'e cannot endure
one course of life long$ _et 0uod modo #o#erat$ odit_$ one calling long$
_esse in honore ju#at$ mo+ dis"licet_< one "lace long$ ;=,/BG_1omae Tibur
amo$ #entosus Tybure 1omam_$ that 'hich 'e earnestly sought$ 'e no'
contemn. _5oc 0uosdam agit ad mortem_$ (saith ;=,BCG9eneca) _0uod "ro"osita
sae"e mutando in eadem re#ol#untur$ et non relin0uunt no#itati locum&
7astidio cae"it esse #ita$ et i"sus mundus$ et subit illud ra"idissimarum
deliciarum$ Kuous0ue eadem_N this alone %ills many a man$ that they are
tied to the same still$ as a horse in a mill$ a dog in a 'heel$ they run
round$ 'ithout alteration or ne's$ their life gro'eth odious$ the 'orld
loathsome$ and that 'hich crosseth their furious delights$ 'hatN still the
sameN Marcus Aurelius and 9olomon$ that had e+"erience of all 'orldly
delights and "leasure$ confessed as much of themsel#es< 'hat they most
desired$ 'as tedious at last$ and that their lust could ne#er be satisfied$
all 'as #anity and affliction of mind.
8o' if it be death itself$ another hell$ to be glutted 'ith one %ind of
s"ort$ dieted 'ith one dish$ tied to one "lace< though they ha#e all things
other'ise as they can desire$ and are in hea#en to another man!s o"inion$
'hat misery and discontent shall they ha#e$ that li#e in sla#ery$ or in
"rison itselfN _Kuod tristius morte$ in ser#itute #i#endum_$ as 5ermolaus
told Ale+ander in ;=,B,G:urtius$ 'orse than death is bondage& ;=,B=G_hoc
animo scito omnes fortes$ ut mortem ser#ituti ante"onant_$ All bra#e men at
arms (Tully holds) are so affected. ;=,B.G_E0uidem ego is sum$ 0ui
ser#itutem e+tremum omnium malorum esse arbitror_& I am he (saith oterus)
that account ser#itude the e+tremity of misery. And 'hat calamity do they
endure$ that li#e 'ith those hard tas%masters$ in gold mines (li%e those
.C$CCC ;=,B?GIndian sla#es at Potosi$ in Peru)$ tin-mines$ lead-mines$
stone-0uarries$ coal-"its$ li%e so many mould'ar"s under ground$ condemned
to the galleys$ to "er"etual drudgery$ hunger$ thirst$ and stri"es$ 'ithout
all ho"e of deli#eryN 5o' are those 'omen in Tur%ey affected$ that most
"art of the year come not abroad< those Italian and 9"anish dames$ that are
me'ed u" li%e ha'%s$ and loc%ed u" by their jealous husbandsN ho' tedious
is it to them that li#e in sto#es and ca#es half a year togetherN as in
Iceland$ Musco#y$ or under the ;=,B@G"ole itself$ 'here they ha#e si+
months! "er"etual night. 8ay$ 'hat misery and discontent do they endure$
that are in "risonN They 'ant all those si+ non-natural things at once$
good air$ good diet$ e+ercise$ com"any$ slee"$ rest$ ease$ Fc.$ that are
bound in chains all day long$ suffer hunger$ and (as ;=,B-G*ucian describes
it) Lmust abide that filthy stin%$ and rattling of chains$ ho'lings$
"itiful outcries$ that "risoners usually ma%e< these things are not only
troublesome$ but intolerable.L They lie nastily among toads and frogs in a
dar% dungeon$ in their o'n dung$ in "ain of body$ in "ain of soul$ as
Dose"h did$ Psal. c#. ,/$ Lthey hurt his feet in the stoc%s$ the iron
entered his soul.L They li#e solitary$ alone$ se0uestered from all com"any
but heart-eating melancholy< and for 'ant of meat$ must eat that bread of
affliction$ "rey u"on themsel#es. 4ell might ;=,BAGArculanus "ut long
im"risonment for a cause$ es"ecially to such as ha#e li#ed jo#ially$ in all
sensuality and lust$ u"on a sudden are estranged and debarred from all
manner of "leasures& as 'ere 5uniades$ Ed'ard$ and 1ichard II.$ Ialerian
the Em"eror$ ajazet the Tur%. If it be ir%some to miss our ordinary
com"anions and re"ast for once a day$ or an hour$ 'hat shall it be to lose
them for e#erN If it be so great a delight to li#e at liberty$ and to enjoy
that #ariety of objects the 'orld affords< 'hat misery and discontent must
it needs bring to him$ that shall no' be cast headlong into that 9"anish
in0uisition$ to fall from hea#en to hell$ to be cubbed u" u"on a sudden$
ho' shall he be "er"le+ed$ 'hat shall become of himN ;=,B/G 1obert 3u%e of
8ormandy being im"risoned by his youngest brother 5enry I.$ _ab illo die
inconsolabili dolore in carcere contabuit_$ saith Matthe' Paris$ from that
day for'ard "ined a'ay 'ith grief. ;=,BBGDugurtha that generous ca"tain$
Lbrought to 1ome in trium"h$ and after im"risoned$ through anguish of his
soul$ and melancholy$ died.L ;==CCG1oger$ isho" of 9alisbury$ the second
man from 6ing 9te"hen (he that built that famous castle of ;==C,G3e#izes in
4iltshire$) 'as so tortured in "rison 'ith hunger$ and all those calamities
accom"anying such men$ ;==C=G_ut #i#ere noluerit$ mori nescierit_$ he 'ould
not li#e$ and could not die$ bet'een fear of death$ and torments of life.
7rancis 6ing of 7rance 'as ta%en "risoner by :harles I.$ _ad mortem fere
melancholicus_$ saith Guicciardini$ melancholy almost to death$ and that in
an instant. ut this is as clear as the sun$ and needs no further
9H9E:T. II.--_Po#erty and 4ant$ :auses of Melancholy_.
Po#erty and 'ant are so #iolent o""ugners$ so un'elcome guests$ so much
abhorred of all men$ that I may not omit to s"ea% of them a"art. Po#erty$
although (if considered aright$ to a 'ise$ understanding$ truly regenerate$
and contented man) it be _donum 3ei_$ a blessed estate$ the 'ay to hea#en$
as ;==C.G:hrysostom calls it$ God!s gift$ the mother of modesty$ and much
to be "referred before riches (as shall be sho'n in his ;==C?G"lace)$ yet
as it is esteemed in the 'orld!s censure$ it is a most odious calling$ #ile
and base$ a se#ere torture$ _summum scelus_$ a most intolerable burden< 'e
;==C@Gshun it all$ _cane "ejus et angue_ ('orse than a dog or a sna%e)$ 'e
abhor the name of it$ ;==C-G_Pau"ertas fugitur$ toto0ue arcessitur orbe_$
as being the fountain of all other miseries$ cares$ 'oes$ labours$ and
grie#ances 'hatsoe#er. To a#oid 'hich$ 'e 'ill ta%e any "ains$--_e+tremos
currit mercator ad Indos_$ 'e 'ill lea#e no ha#en$ no coast$ no cree% of
the 'orld unsearched$ though it be to the hazard of our li#es$ 'e 'ill di#e
to the bottom of the sea$ to the bo'els of the earth$ ;==CAGfi#e$ si+$
se#en$ eight$ nine hundred fathom dee"$ through all fi#e zones$ and both
e+tremes of heat and cold& 'e 'ill turn "arasites and sla#es$ "rostitute
oursel#es$ s'ear and lie$ damn our bodies and souls$ forsa%e God$ abjure
religion$ steal$ rob$ murder$ rather than endure this insufferable yo%e of
"o#erty$ 'hich doth so tyrannise$ crucify$ and generally de"ress us.
7or loo% into the 'orld$ and you shall see men most "art esteemed according
to their means$ and ha""y as they are rich& ;==C/G_Hbi0ue tanti 0uis0ue
0uantum habuit fuit_. If he be li%ely to thri#e$ and in the 'ay of
"referment$ 'ho but heN In the #ulgar o"inion$ if a man be 'ealthy$ no
matter ho' he gets it$ of 'hat "arentage$ ho' 0ualified$ ho' #irtuously
endo'ed$ or #illainously inclined< let him be a ba'd$ a gri"e$ an usurer$ a
#illain$ a "agan$ a barbarian$ a 'retch$ ;==CBG*ucian!s tyrant$ Lon 'hom
you may loo% 'ith less security than on the sun<L so that he be rich (and
liberal 'ithal) he shall be honoured$ admired$ adored$ re#erenced$ and
highly ;==,CGmagnified. LThe rich is had in re"utation because of his
goods$L Eccl. +. .,. 5e shall be befriended& Lfor riches gather many
friends$L Pro#. +i+. ?$--_multos numerabit amicos_$ all ;==,,Gha""iness
ebbs and flo's 'ith his money. 5e shall be accounted a gracious lord$ a
Mecaenas$ a benefactor$ a 'ise$ discreet$ a "ro"er$ a #aliant$ a fortunate
man$ of a generous s"irit$ _Pullus Do#is$ et gallinae$ filius albae_& a
ho"eful$ a good man$ a #irtuous$ honest man. _Kuando ego ie Dunonium
"uerum$ et matris "artum #ere aureum_$ as ;==,=GTully said of 2cta#ianus$
'hile he 'as ado"ted :aesar$ and an heir ;==,.Ga""arent of so great a
monarchy$ he 'as a golden child. All ;==,?Ghonour$ offices$ a""lause$ grand
titles$ and turgent e"ithets are "ut u"on him$ _omnes omnia bona dicere_<
all men!s eyes are u"on him$ God bless his good 'orshi"$ his honour<
;==,@Ge#ery man s"ea%s 'ell of him$ e#ery man "resents him$ see%s and sues
to him for his lo#e$ fa#our$ and "rotection$ to ser#e him$ belong unto him$
e#ery man riseth to him$ as to Themistocles in the 2lym"ics$ if he s"ea%$
as of 5erod$ _Io+ 3ei$ non hominis_$ the #oice of God$ not of man. All the
graces$ Ieneres$ "leasures$ elegances attend him$ ;==,-G golden fortune
accom"anies and lodgeth 'ith him< and as to those 1oman em"erors$ is "laced
in his chamber.
;==,AG ------L9ecura na#iget aura$
7ortunam0ue suo tem"eret arbitrio&L
he may sail as he 'ill himself$ and tem"er his estate at his "leasure$
jo#ial days$ s"lendour and magnificence$ s'eet music$ dainty fare$ the good
things$ and fat of the land$ fine clothes$ rich attires$ soft beds$ do'n
"illo's are at his command$ all the 'orld labours for him$ thousands of
artificers are his sla#es to drudge for him$ run$ ride$ and "ost for him&
;==,/G3i#ines (for _Pythia Phili""isat_) la'yers$ "hysicians$ "hiloso"hers$
scholars are his$ 'holly de#ote to his ser#ice. E#ery man see%s his
;==,BGac0uaintance$ his %indred$ to match 'ith him$ though he be an oaf$ a
ninny$ a monster$ a goose-ca"$ _u+orem ducat 3anaen_$ ;===CG'hen$ and 'hom
he 'ill$ _hunc o"tant generum 1e+ et 1egina_--he is an e+cellent
;===,Gmatch for my son$ my daughter$ my niece$ Fc. _Kuic0uid calca#erit
hic$ 1osa fiet_$ let him go 'hither he 'ill$ trum"ets sound$ bells ring$
Fc.$ all ha""iness attends him$ e#ery man is 'illing to entertain him$ he
su"s in ;====GA"ollo 'heresoe#er he comes< 'hat "re"aration is made for his
;===.GentertainmentN fish and fo'l$ s"ices and "erfumes$ all that sea and
land affords. 4hat coo%ery$ mas%ing$ mirth to e+hilarate his "ersonN
;===?G L3a Trebio$ "one ad Trebium$ #is frater ab illia
4hat dish 'ill your good 'orshi" eat ofN
;===@G ------Ldulcia "oma$
Et 0uoscun0ue feret cultus tibi fundus honores$
Ante *arem$ gustet #enerabilior *are di#es.L
L9'eet a""les$ and 'hate!er thy fields afford$
efore thy Gods be ser#!d$ let ser#e thy *ord.L
4hat s"ort 'ill your honour ha#eN ha'%ing$ hunting$ fishing$ fo'ling$
bulls$ bears$ cards$ dice$ coc%s$ "layers$ tumblers$ fiddlers$ jesters$
Fc.$ they are at your good 'orshi"!s command. 7air houses$ gardens$
orchards$ terraces$ galleries$ cabinets$ "leasant 'al%s$ delightsome
"laces$ they are at hand& ;===-G_in aureis lac$ #inum in argenteis$
adolescentulae ad nutum s"eciosae_$ 'ine$ 'enches$ Fc. a Tur%ish "aradise$
a hea#en u"on earth. Though he be a silly soft fello'$ and scarce ha#e
common sense$ yet if he be borne to fortunes (as I ha#e said) ;===AG_jure
haereditario sa"ere jubetur_$ he must ha#e honour and office in his course&
;===/G_8emo nisi di#es honore dignus_ (Ambros. _offic. =,._) none so 'orthy
as himself& he shall ha#e it$ _at0ue esto 0uic0uid 9er#ius aut *abeo_. Get
money enough and command ;===BG%ingdoms$ "ro#inces$ armies$ hearts$ hands$
and affections< thou shalt ha#e "o"es$ "atriarchs to be thy cha"lains and
"arasites& thou shalt ha#e (Tamerlane-li%e) %ings to dra' thy coach$ 0ueens
to be thy laundresses$ em"erors thy footstools$ build more to'ns and cities
than great Ale+ander$ abel to'ers$ "yramids and Mausolean tombs$ Fc.
command hea#en and earth$ and tell the 'orld it is thy #assal$ _auro emitur
diadema$ argento caelum "anditur$ denarius "hiloso"hum conducit$ nummus jus
cogit$ obolus literatum "ascit$ metallum sanitatem conciliat$ aes amicos
conglutinat_. ;==.CGAnd therefore not 'ithout good cause$ Dohn de Medicis$
that rich 7lorentine$ 'hen he lay u"on his death-bed$ calling his sons$
:osmo and *aurence$ before him$ amongst other sober sayings$ re"eated this$
_animo 0uieto digredior$ 0uod #os sanos et di#ites "ost me relin0uam_$ LIt
doth me good to thin% yet$ though I be dying$ that I shall lea#e you$ my
children$ sound and rich&L for 'ealth s'ays all. It is not 'ith us$ as
amongst those *acedaemonian senators of *ycurgus in Plutarch$ L5e "referred
that deser#ed best$ 'as most #irtuous and 'orthy of the "lace$ ;==.,Gnot
s'iftness$ or strength$ or 'ealth$ or friends carried it in those days&L
but _inter o"timos o"timus$ inter tem"erantes tem"erantissimus_$ the most
tem"erate and best. 4e ha#e no aristocracies but in contem"lation$ all
oligarchies$ 'herein a fe' rich men domineer$ do 'hat they list$ and are
"ri#ileged by their greatness. ;==.=GThey may freely tres"ass$ and do as
they "lease$ no man dare accuse them$ no not so much as mutter against
them$ there is no notice ta%en of it$ they may securely do it$ li#e after
their o'n la's$ and for their money get "ardons$ indulgences$ redeem their
souls from "urgatory and hell itself$--_clausum "ossidet arca Do#em_. *et
them be e"icures$ or atheists$ libertines$ Machia#ellians$ (as they often
are) ;==..G_Et 0uam#is "erjuris erit$ sine gente$ cruentus_$ they may go
to hea#en through the eye of a needle$ if they 'ill themsel#es$ they may be
canonised for saints$ they shall be ;==.?Ghonourably interred in Mausolean
tombs$ commended by "oets$ registered in histories$ ha#e tem"les and
statues erected to their names$--_e manibus illis--nascentur #iolae_.--If
he be bountiful in his life$ and liberal at his death$ he shall ha#e one to
s'ear$ as he did by :laudius the Em"eror in Tacitus$ he sa' his soul go to
hea#en$ and be miserably lamented at his funeral. _Ambubalarum collegia$
Fc. Trimalcionis to"anta_ in Petronius _recta in caelum abiit_$ 'ent right
to hea#en& a$ base 0uean$ ;==.@GLthou 'ouldst ha#e scorned once in thy
misery to ha#e a "enny from her<L and 'hyN _modio nummos metiit_$ she
measured her money by the bushel. These "rerogati#es do not usually belong
to rich men$ but to such as are most "art seeming rich$ let him ha#e but a
good ;==.-Goutside$ he carries it$ and shall be adored for a god$ as
;==.AG:yrus 'as amongst the Persians$ _ob s"lendidum a""aratum_$ for his
gay attires< no' most men are esteemed according to their clothes. In our
gullish times$ 'hom you "erad#enture in modesty 'ould gi#e "lace to$ as
being decei#ed by his habit$ and "resuming him some great 'orshi"ful man$
belie#e it$ if you shall e+amine his estate$ he 'ill li%ely be "ro#ed a
ser#ing man of no great note$ my lady!s tailor$ his lordshi"!s barber$ or
some such gull$ a 7astidius ris%$ 9ir Petronel 7lash$ a mere outside. 2nly
this res"ect is gi#en him$ that 'heresoe#er he comes$ he may call for 'hat
he 'ill$ and ta%e "lace by reason of his out'ard habit.
ut on the contrary$ if he be "oor$ Pro#. +#. ,@$ Lall his days are
miserable$L he is under hatches$ dejected$ rejected and forsa%en$ "oor in
"urse$ "oor in s"irit< ;==./G_"rout res nobis fluit$ ita et animus se
habet_< ;==.BGmoney gi#es life and soul. Though he be honest$ 'ise$
learned$ 'ell-deser#ing$ noble by birth$ and of e+cellent good "arts< yet
in that he is "oor$ unli%ely to rise$ come to honour$ office$ or good
means$ he is contemned$ neglected$ _frustra sa"it$ inter literas esurit$
amicus molestus_. ;==?CGLIf he s"ea%$ 'hat babbler is thisNL Ecclus$ his
nobility 'ithout 'ealth$ is ;==?,G_"rojecta #ilior alga_$ and he not
esteemed& _nos #iles "ulli nati infelicibus o#is_$ if once "oor$ 'e are
metamor"hosed in an instant$ base sla#es$ #illains$ and #ile drudges<
;==?=Gfor to be "oor$ is to be a %na#e$ a fool$ a 'retch$ a 'ic%ed$ an
odious fello'$ a common eyesore$ say "oor and say all< they are born to
labour$ to misery$ to carry burdens li%e juments$ _"istum stercus comedere_
'ith Hlysses! com"anions$ and as :hremilus objected in Aristo"hanes$ ;==?.G
_salem lingere_$ lic% salt$ to em"ty ja%es$ fay channels$ ;==??Gcarry out
dirt and dunghills$ s'ee" chimneys$ rub horse-heels$ Fc. I say nothing of
Tur%s$ galley-sla#es$ 'hich are bought ;==?@Gand sold li%e juments$ or
those African 8egroes$ or "oor ;==?-GIndian drudges$ _0ui indies hinc inde
deferendis oneribus occumbunt$ nam 0uod a"ud nos bo#es et asini #ehunt$
trahunt_$ Fc. ;==?AG_Id omne misellis Indis_$ they are ugly to behold$ and
though erst s"ruce$ no' rusty and s0ualid$ because "oor$ ;==?/G_immundas
fortunas a0uum est s0ualorem se0ui_$ it is ordinarily so. ;==?BGL2thers eat
to li#e$ but they li#e to drudge$L ;==@CG_ser#ilis et misera gens nihil
recusare audet_$ a ser#ile generation$ that dare refuse no
tas%.--;==@,G_5eus tu 3romo$ ca"e hoc flabellum$ #entulum hinc facito dum
la#amus_$ sirrah blo' 'ind u"on us 'hile 'e 'ash$ and bid your fello' get
him u" betimes in the morning$ be it fair or foul$ he shall run fifty miles
afoot tomorro'$ to carry me a letter to my mistress$ _9ocia ad "istrinam_$
9ocia shall tarry at home and grind malt all day long$ Tristan thresh. Thus
are they commanded$ being indeed some of them as so many footstools for
rich men to tread on$ bloc%s for them to get on horsebac%$ or as
;==@=GL'alls for them to "iss on.L They are commonly such "eo"le$ rude$
silly$ su"erstitious idiots$ nasty$ unclean$ lousy$ "oor$ dejected$
sla#ishly humble& and as ;==@.G*eo Afer obser#es of the commonalty of
Africa$ _natura #iliores sunt$ nec a"ud suos duces majore in "recio 0uam si
canes essent_& ;==@?Gbase by nature$ and no more esteemed than dogs$
_miseram$ laboriosam$ calamitosam #itam agunt$ et ino"em$ infelicem$
rudiores asinis$ ut e brutis "lane natos dicas_& no learning$ no %no'ledge$
no ci#ility$ scarce common$ sense$ nought but barbarism amongst them$
_belluino more #i#unt$ ne0ue calceos gestant$ ne0ue #estes_$ li%e rogues
and #agabonds$ they go barefooted and barelegged$ the soles of their feet
being as hard as horse-hoofs$ as ;==@@G1adzi#ilus obser#ed at 3amietta in
Egy"t$ leading a laborious$ miserable$ 'retched$ unha""y life$ ;==@-GLli%e
beasts and juments$ if not 'orse&L (for a ;==@AG9"aniard in Incatan$ sold
three Indian boys for a cheese$ and a hundred 8egro sla#es for a horse)
their discourse is scurrility$ their _summum bonum_$ a "ot of ale. There is
not any sla#ery 'hich these #illains 'ill not undergo$ _inter illos
"leri0ue latrinas e#acuant$ alii culinariam curant$ alii stabularios agunt$
urinatores et id genus similia e+ercent_$ Fc. li%e those "eo"le that d'ell
in the ;==@/GAl"s$ chimney-s'ee"ers$ ja%es-farmers$ dirt-daubers$ #agrant
rogues$ they labour hard some$ and yet cannot get clothes to "ut on$ or
bread to eat. 7or 'hat can filthy "o#erty gi#e else$ but ;==@BGbeggary$
fulsome nastiness$ s0ualor$ contem"t$ drudgery$ labour$ ugliness$ hunger
and thirst< _"ediculorum$ et "ulicum numerum_N as ;==-CG he 'ell follo'ed
it in Aristo"hanes$ fleas and lice$ _"ro "allio #estem laceram$ et "ro
"ul#inari la"idem bene magnum ad ca"ut_$ rags for his raiment$ and a stone
for his "illo'$ _"ro cathedra$ ru"tae ca"ut urnae_$ he sits in a bro%en
"itcher$ or on a bloc% for a chair$ _et mal#ae$ ramos "ro "anibus comedit_$
he drin%s 'ater$ and li#es on 'ort lea#es$ "ulse$ li%e a hog$ or scra"s
li%e a dog$ _ut nunc nobis #ita afficitur$ 0uis non "utabit insaniam esse$
infelicitatem0ue_N as :hremilus concludes his s"eech$ as 'e "oor men li#e
no'adays$ 'ho 'ill not ta%e our life to be ;==-,G infelicity$ misery$ and
If they be of little better condition than those base #illains$
hunger-star#ed beggars$ 'andering rogues$ those ordinary sla#es$ and
day-labouring drudges< yet they are commonly so "reyed u"on by ;==-=G
"olling officers for brea%ing the la's$ by their tyrannising landlords$ so
flayed and fleeced by "er"etual ;==-.Ge+actions$ that though they do
drudge$ fare hard$ and star#e their genius$ they cannot li#e in ;==-?Gsome
countries< but 'hat they ha#e is instantly ta%en from them$ the #ery care
they ta%e to li#e$ to be drudges$ to maintain their "oor families$ their
trouble and an+iety Lta%es a'ay their slee"$L 9irac. +++i. ,$ it ma%es them
'eary of their li#es& 'hen they ha#e ta%en all "ains$ done their utmost and
honest endea#ours$ if they be cast behind by sic%ness$ or o#erta%en 'ith
years$ no man "ities them$ hard-hearted and merciless$ uncharitable as they
are$ they lea#e them so distressed$ to beg$ steal$ murmur$ and ;==-@G
rebel$ or else star#e. The feeling and fear of this misery com"elled those
old 1omans$ 'hom Menenius Agri""a "acified$ to resist their go#ernors&
outla's$ and rebels in most "laces$ to ta%e u" seditious arms$ and in all
ages hath caused u"roars$ murmurings$ seditions$ rebellions$ thefts$
murders$ mutinies$ jars and contentions in e#ery common'ealth& grudging$
re"ining$ com"laining$ discontent in each "ri#ate family$ because they 'ant
means to li#e according to their callings$ bring u" their children$ it
brea%s their hearts$ they cannot do as they 'ould. 8o greater misery than
for a lord to ha#e a %night!s li#ing$ a gentleman a yeoman!s$ not to be
able to li#e as his birth and "lace re0uire. Po#erty and 'ant are generally
corrosi#es to all %inds of men$ es"ecially to such as ha#e been in good and
flourishing estate$ are suddenly distressed$ ;==--Gnobly born$ liberally
brought u"$ and$ by some disaster and casualty miserably dejected. 7or the
rest$ as they ha#e base fortunes$ so ha#e they base minds corres"ondent$
li%e b