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yD@rfgbwB;
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yD@wB; ÊÉÈÍ eDj? vuf;eDj =ifhrOfh? yD@ymifwmB; (2010)/

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2010 eDj? wDboFrfbyfgb
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1000
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cl;ylifo.efvlif qmB;ZMj

v.ifjwmif;

vrf;efg;

eMjvdufj

ugmrf;erf; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (1)
(É) yD@rfgbwB;nefOMjeefh - - - - - - - - - - - - (5)
(Ê) yD@rfgbwB;[Awf;[dkOfyAefrM;< - - - - - - - - - - - (7)
(Ë) yD@wB;rfgbvdlefqAif - - - - - - - - - - - - - (13)
(Ì) yD@rfgbwB;awrfgbOef;vfg< - - - - - - - - - - - (19)
(Í) yD@rfgbwB;vBj[Awf;[dkOf[Awf;< - - - - - - - - - - (29)
(u) yfgUqAif

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - (31)

(c) yBmjqAif

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - (33)

(i) udefqAif

- - - - - - - - - - - - - (34)

(q) vAefjqAif

- - - - - - - - - - - - (36)

(Î) vuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB;yAefoifOBh< - - - - - - - - - - (41)
(Ï) vuf;eDjyAefv.ifjwmifbrBmefg;ydkef; - - - - - - - - (49)
(Ð) vD=Uv.ifjyD@rfgbwB; yAefzdifjiOfj=def; - - - - - - - (53)
(Ñ) acMjoifbv.ifjuyf;uBmbvlpfjyD@rfgbwB; - - - - - - - (59)

ugmrf;erf;
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ref;twbrM; wDjymifo.efvdufjwB; ]r}[MjwlOf,Ofh/ rdlOfjwifjtwb
ymifo.efvdufj twbnOfyD@ 1969 eDjrM; awMbyD@ 1975 eefh
ymifo.efvdufjwB;eBh
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twbnOfyD@
1979 eDj yAefrM;yM;ymifo.efvdufj cmOf;uwf;,Ofh/ rdlOfjnef[Awf;
yB.;vlif;ymifeefhorfh rM;rFefjcmOf;vdlefqAiftvj qkrf;y.ifumefqifb
nkyfbukrfwdlifbymifbuef wMbcdkif[Awf;yM;yB.;yD@rfgb,Ofh/ ,dlif;nmef;{jvBj
yAefyB.;ulef;rdlif;ao zBmbedlifjauMj awyAefv.ifjyfgUyM;zdifjcdlOf;ao clwfh
n.ufbauMbcdkefjzdifjwB; nefqlrf[BmOBheefhao,Ofh? zBmbedlifjorfhaw
yAefv.ifj ,kufh,.ifjyef xmwfjqfgulef;n.efbwB;[Of;cOf wMbwdlef;cdkefj
ugMbrdlOf;eMj,OfheBtvj qkrf;y.ifumefqifbwFyf;wwf; wMb=rfj+rf;wif;
yDje.ifhnljtrjulef;rdlif;wif;vBmao cdkifomifj,lb,Ofh/
,.efhrD;rM;eifbeBtvj eifb[dkOfayM;awyAeferfhw.ef;z.ef;
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aowmifbcB@aenljtrjulef;rdlif;rM;,lb,Ofh/ rdlOfjqifbtwbtwh nrfb
ayM;=UxdkifuefuM@[dkOfauMj OBm;rM;wifjnOfyB.;vlif;ymifwDjukefeM;xkifh
ylif;? yD@ 1978 eDj cmOf;vdlefqAif tvj yB.;yD@rfgbwB;vdlefqAif wDjymif
o.efaq@OAif;uRufhtr;? OmefjclOfnkif yD@ 1979 eDj cOfqdlOf;eBhrM;?
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rdlif;ao nOftzjwdlef;rM;ul@i.efj,Ofh/ eifb[dkOfv.ifjyD@rfgbwB;ayM;aw
odkyfbtzjwdlef;,dkef;,mOf;ugMbeMjao wdlOf;[kefjrkef;cdkefjoifhrD;ydlif

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,.efhv.ifjwmif;ul@v.ifjv.ifjao,Ofh nrfbxmifb[mif@rM;uM@[dkOf/ rdlOfj
vAOf eifb[dkOf ayM;awyAefv.ifjurfhqB.jvBj wMbzdifjcdlOf;y.wf;n.efb
w.ef@edlifjeefh qifbaoMU[MuAyf;w.rf@yyfhzdkef qdlOf;nefuyf;uBmbvlpfj
vuf;eDjyD@wB; v.ifjwB; qdlOf;uM@eifbwBm;cdkwf;vBjeefhrM; +rf;yM;
v.ifj=Uwmif;[ef ndufb v.ifj,mrfjvBjidef;x.rfbrM; wDjzljxOfjulef;tub
cOf qdlOf;eefhao,Ofh wmifbcB@aenljtrj ulef;rdlif;[Of;rM;,Ofh/
oAefjyyfhvdufjzdkefvBm; qdlOf;nefvBjydkifjndifrM;qrf; É) yyfhusmrf;wlefjrdifj (uAif;aob) yD@ 1181 eDj? vkif;uRif;vdkOf;?
r.ufbrBb/
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idkef;e.ifrlOf/
Ë) uAefvdufjusmrf;,Arjf Oef;wB; qOfj=def;zMwFrfj/
Ì) yyfhv.ifjrdlif;wB;? wB.;o.if yD@ 1900 eDj? ausb-usDbou.wfh wFrfj/
Í) yyfhv.ifjrdlif;wB;? qOfjoBmrdlif;rif;'Bm; wFrfj/
Î) yyfhqMbwDho'pmefb - qOfjukefu.ufb_qOfjumif;odlOf wFrfj/
Ï) yyfhavM;uDby.if;csKufj/
Ð) usmrf;ydkif;avM;uMU/
Ñ) yyfhyMbvDhrFufhuodef;- ydkef;omrfu.ifusmrf;crf;- vMUorAefbwFrfj/
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ÉÉ) yyfhrmB +rfwDjvD=U ]yuf;,ArfjOef;}-vkif;omifboMb rdlif;udkif/
ÉÊ) yyfhvkufjvmOfedlOfumif[mOf - rdef;olUOkefb/
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ÉÍ) yyfhydkef;oBmrdlif; rdlif;rmef@ - nl;yMUwmef;(yDbanb)/
ÉÎ) yyfhydkef;oBmrdlif; rldif;z.rfh=rfj - ylOfbrl;yMUosdefb/

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yyfhydkefh=UyawboMb - rBmedlifj/
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zdkefyuf;yD@ y'd,wfhwDhowfhxrfbryMbvuFefbqOfjqdkifjwB; ul@
yD@yD@/
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c.yfjqfgwmifbau;ql;xdkif zljurfhqB.j[Fif;=U[Fif;[efrdlee
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OAif;ymifvlif? vkif;rl;vdifbwMU OAif;vmif;cdlOf;? ylbYoMbwdefb OAif;[Bm;vlif
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qdlifh[dkOf nefOMjeefhtwh auMU=U[efy.ifbqFifjvFif;vDeBh vAufhaubanb
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,Ofh/ n.efwmif;okwf; wMb=UxdkifyD@rfgbwB;nefOMjeefh =OfwD;ref;
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vkrfjZMUrdlif;ulef;vlif[Of;eBh ydkifjndifwDj ]vkufjvFif@Oef;}nef+ifh
OMj vFwfb tvj ]ykif;ymif;} nef+ifhOMj vdlef? ndufbwif; ]vFif@
vmOf} nef+ifhOMj emufjcmwfjcOfao,Ofh? qifbyAefrM; umifcdkef;?
umifOef;? cmOf;rBj? cmOf;uwf;? cmOf;Zlef tvj Oef;? vdlef? yD@
qdlOf;eBh,lb,Ofh/ wDjugmifjref; v.ifjnefvBjyAefrM;eifbeBeBh vlOfbvBj
wlpf;wDjefg;ZBmb=UarM yBm;vFif@rdlif; (yxODbzMboMb) u.pf;,Ofh/
wDjeBhtwh awvmwfjaev.ifj ,.efhvkrfjZMU(urfbZMb) tvj vkufj
vFwfbaowif;vdlef wif;vmOfcOfeBh rD;vrfhuwfhwdkef;yAef (Zdifj
ozMbOMU)[mif;acMzfgref;? ,lbefg;vlufjvdkrf anM;uMboMUavM;uMUvlif
eBhaonrfbuM;? q.rf;vlpfj Zdifjwdkef;yAef tvj Zdifjwdkef;vBm@
(omifbcMb'MUYwM;) cOfrD;eefhao nrfbrBj nrfbcD ugMbcmOf;wmif;zfg
ref;,lbzAefjzAefjtvj qifbvBjyAefrM;wDjruf; rBmOMj - yD@? vdlef?
Oef;? ,mrf; ,lb,Ofh/ yD@ vdlef Oef; ,mrf; qdlOf;eBh ulef;clif;umif[Of;
nOf,mrf;rlif; (,mrf;eMb'DbeMjzdlufb) tvjoif? ,mrf;r.if; (,mrf;[Bb
r.if;,mrf;rmef@)aotvjoif? nOfrdlOfjvFif; rdlOfjvyf;odifbtvjoif?
-5-

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

nOfz.if;cmOf; vdlefrmifj vdlefwArf rM;qdlOf;eefhtvjoif? ruf;rBmwFyf;
wwf;aowFufjnOf,lb,Ofh/ [Awf;eeftvj qifbvBjyAef rM;]yuf;yD@}
nefwB;[Of;wdkufh+ifhq.rf;ydlefj,lbOMj ]yFufhcwdifb} eefh,Ofh/
u.yfjeB yuf;yD@(yFufhcwdifb)eBh ref;y.ifbOMjyuf;nefvmwfjae
wDjwFwfjref;? nefqDhaev.ifjefg;yD@eefh vdlef? Oef;? ,mrf;cOfcOfj
yM;rD;q.rf;OBhqdlifh[dkOfeB,lb,Ofh/ q.rf;vlpfjwmif;=Uwmif;[eftvj vBm;
eyfhnmefb zdifjxkif;zfgref;ao,Ofh? qdlOfhvfgauMjcdlOf;eefh rD;yuf;yD@
[mif;acMzfgref;/ ayM;uFOfhZdifjZMUyefb+yfjc.yfjcdkef;edlifj+yfj nrfbeef
cmOf;uwf;? cmOf;rBj cdkef;+wfjcdkef; cmOf;uwf; cmOf;rBj eifbnefruf;refj
OBheefheB n.efuefOMj c.yfjclyfb nrfbeef c.yfjyD@eB,Ofh/ ayM;+wfjc.yfj
clyfbyD@eefh y.ufjvfgy.ufjeefhauMj ulef;[Of;vFufjvBm@qlOfjclyfbrBmyuf;yD@
cOfao +ifhOMjyD@rfgbeBwduf;wduf;/ rdlefeB,Ofh ,.efhwB;[Of;auMjyAefqdlOfh
,fgbcdlOf;vlifrM;cdlOf;edlifj orfhrD;yBm;=UarM? wmif;arMnmefbarMeyfhq.rf;
qefhvkrfjZMUvBjtvj qArfu.efbOef;n.ef wB;eBh[Awf;rM; yuf;yD@tvj
rD;rM;yD@rfgb,lbwduf;wduf;? qifborfhvBjrD;rM;ugmrf;nefOMj ]yD@rfgbwB;}
eB,lb,Ofh/
yD@rfgbwB;eBhawrD;rM;? awrfgbrM;vBj,dke;f ,mOf;[dkifemef;qArf
rdlOfjvBm[AifvBmymufboFefyD@,Ofh nrfb=UvBjaowMUauMj? v.ifjwmifbzdkef
nefuyf;uBmbvlpfj zdifjyD@rfgbwB;qrf; awMbOef;rdlOfjvAOfrD;rM;vBj
ÊÉÈÍ eDj yD@rdlif;,Ofh nefOMjeefh xkufbn.efuef w.if;udkrf;ofgbqfg
zfgref;OBh refjrefj,lb,Ofh/

-6-

yD@rfgbwB; [Awf;[dkOfyAefrM;
yD@rfgbwB;nefOMjeefh ayM;yAefulef;rD;xmefjeB wuf;=Uy.ifb
qfg,Ofhtvj nrfbugmrf;erfawMbuefoif,OfhaowMU? ayM;uyf;uBmbvlpfj
acMjugmrf;nefOMj yD@rfgbwB; [Awf;[dkOftwbyAefrM;nefOMjeefhtwh =U
uM@ulef;ul@auMU wB;ul@wDj wuf;awcOfjqfgcfgj=Uq.rf;,lbnrfb[mifh,Ofh/
u.yfjeB ayM;[Of;awclefhcB@iOfjwdkef;ydkef;Oef;vif v.ifjyD@rfgbwB;eB
qdkif awvBj[efrD;eifbeB wDjefg;yyfhzdkef ]cdlOf;wB;rdlif;wB;} eMjvdufj (4) w.ef@omrf
nefrkefqmif;qOfjyDbyOf@[if@ qOfjyefbwDhwMUydufhclU wFrfjOBheefh
ref;qOfjqDhaeOBhOMj cdlOf;wB;vlifcdlOf;edlifjeefh vlif;rM;wmif;eMjyMj
qmef;q.rf;oBmerfhclif;? vlif;rM;efg;rdlif;rmOf; ndlifbodkifbrdlif;uAif;ODao
twbwifjwlOfuOfbOMj yAefqkrf;qdlOfhcdlOf;wB;,fgb rFefjrdlOfjyD@oMboeMb
oDbymufb[Mjodyf;eefh,Ofh/ nOfrdlOfjeefh twbnmefbeyfhyD@wB;rM;OMj
eB,OfhanMj/
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[kyfj (yDboDb edlifj,MbqlU) nrfbeef n.efwmif;yD@c'dwfh=Ofymufb[kyfj?
yD@oMboeMbvBj oDbymufb[Mjodyf;,Ofh eBanMj/
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cOf+ifhxdkifwB;[Of;rdlOfjeefh)cOfeBh cdkefj,fgbrM;awhawheB quf;aeOBh
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-7-

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

qmef;zBmbwluf;rdlif;,lbeefbeefh uAif;,lifheBh +ifhyAefrdlif;vlifykifbwB;,Ofh
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wmef;eBh odkyfboyf;vFif;ugMbOMj wDjomyfberfhrmOf; (rlbnmef@rmOf;)
eefh rdlif;vlifwB;cOfeBh ,mrfjrD;rM;awhawhnefOMjeefh wFrfjaeOBh
vFif;vFif;,lbanMj/ u.yfjeB yD@wB;[Of;eBhtwbwifjrM;wDjrlbnmef@
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vBj,krfb,rfOBheifbeBanMj/ uyf;uBmbvlpfjacMjeBhao,Ofh acMjuFrf;ref;
rD;xFifjwif;erfu.efbanMj/
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cdlOf;vlifnkyfhrdlif; rdlif;zBmb+ifbwMju.if@eefh qArfrdlOfj,mrf;eefqefhwFrfb
nrfbqfgj? yAefulef;eyfh,rfqmOf;ykwfhxMUaonrfbuM; wifjOAif;vlif
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nrfbuM; efg;yyfhzdkefvmB;imef; v.ifjydkef;vdufjwB; xdkifqkrf;emrf;eMj
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wFrfba,MjrM;aonrfbuM;? wifjOAif; wifja[M wifjrdlif;rM;wif;erfao
vBj[efqefhvdufjvBm;? qefh,Aefbtijv.ifjwFrfjrBmwB;eBh cdkefjokifOBheB
wuf;quf;aeOBh vFif;vFif;,lbanMj/ wB;twbwifjrdlif;uAif;[kifjnef
rdlOfjvAOfOMjyAefrdlif;rdwfjeBh qArfrdlOfjyDboDb 850 ? rdlif;nkrf;y.ifboDbayMU
eBh rdlOfjyDboDb 59? yD@oMboeMb 485 eB vBj[efwmifbzdkefruf;rBmOBh
eifbeB vFif;vFif;anMj/ e.ufjaoeBh nrfbuM; efg;yyfhusmrf;omifbcMb,eMbwmifb? w.ef@vdufj=Ofxrf;usmrf;qlU?
eMjvdufj (4) nefqOfjzwfhwefbwMUODhvMboMU rmefj[B; aq@vmefh
wFrfjeefhauMj qDhaeOBhOMj OBm;vifYzM;yAefqOfj nOfedyfhymefb,Ofh 450
yD@eefh qOfj'[mef;wMbymufbqOfj qifborfhn.efuefxkwfbwFrfjvdufj
-8-

ydkef@[mefwB;

yDb wumwfjomrfu.ifeefheBtvjoif? w.ef@=uf; wDjeMjvdufjnefrD;wfgj
=OfacMjv.ifjzMboMbuB.;ysM;eefhauMj x.ufbaeOBhOMj - qOfjaoM;xMU
rwfjaxb uRMUugMbrdlif;wB;rdlOf;tzjoMboeMbeBtvjoif? qOfjrdwfhqefb
wDhuMUrwfjaxborfh ugMbrdlOf;rdlif;tcbwMbtzjoMboeMbeB,lbanMj/
rdlOfjyD@rdlif;yDboDb vBj=uf;odyf;[Mjeefh qOfjuofhoyMU qOfjrMb
wdifbuMU wif; qOfjxrfbrMU'FufhcDhwMU cOfrdlOf;tzjoMboeMbrdlif;tcbeB
tvjoif? wDjefg;yyfhzdkefyMbvDhrFufhuqdef; eMjvdufj (108) yyfhrBm
(56) nefvMUorAefbwFrfjOBh v.ifjyDbwumwfjomrfu.ifeefh auMjaeOBh
v.ifjOMj twbnOfyD@oMboeMbvBj oDbymufb=uf;odyf;eefh ao,Ofh
zdkefvdufj ymB;xrf;=dOfj=dif;rM;ul@w.ef@,OfheBanMj/
u.yfjeB ayM;rM;udkuf;wlpf;wif; yyfhydkef;vdufjwB; qOfjcl;arM
cOf nefwFrfjaeOBhOMj rdlOfjz.if; oMboeMbqOfjvBj oDbymufb[Mjodyf;
eefh wDjwdlif;urfbayM;qMUqdkifjwB;eefh ckefwB;cOfayM;arMruf;rBmOBhclU
omufju'dwfjwB;? yD@wB;? Oef;wB;aonrfbuM;? arMwmifbqdkOfjuefao
,Ofh z.if;eifbeef ckefwB;cOfeBhrD;rlbrmwfj yAefodyf;[MjqOfjeBauMj
yM;rD;vl;u.efbtvj? yD@wB;[Of;eBh rD;rM;qArfrdlOfj yD@oMboeMb YzM;
yAefqOfjvBj oDbymufb[Mjodyf;eefh wdkef;nrfb,.rf;wFrfbydlefj,OfheB
vFif;=UnOfvBj ,lbanMj/
wDjefg;yyfhzdkefyOf;+rf nefodlOf,dyf;urf wFrfjeefhauMj?
wDjeMjvdufj (77) wuf;r.ufbvmwfjaeOBhOMj rdlif;rmOf;vlifeefh zMb
oMbykwfhxMUcOfjrM;tvj ydlifwFrfjvdufjrBmcmefbcOf wdlOf;ckdefjoifhcdkefj
okifrM;? qArfrdlOfjrdlif;emefhqOfjeefh ayM;qfgUwdkOf;vBm;nmefbeyfh yD@
vdlef Oef; rM;eBtvjoif yM;rD;OBh,lb/
efg;ydkef;oMboeMbrdlif;qdkifjwB; nefzlj,fgbulef;vlifayMjxOfj
trjtubcOf uBhclefhcB@nkyfbvmwfjaeauMjOMjOBh qOfjO.ifha[MoFifvlifrdlif;
,lberf? efg;yMbvDhOMjrdlif;umefbwMbv'dwfheefh qOfjnljawb nefyAef
-9-

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

qOfja[MoFifvlif rdlif;qdkifjwB; rdlif;vdefokifeefh rD;vkufjqBm;uM@vlif
wlefedlifjvBj+ifh[dufjqkdOfjOMj qOfjckefqBm; (rmif@qdlOf;auMjOMjyAefqOfj
ckef+if)eB/ qOfjnljawbeBh ,.efhcOfjqfgeyfhxdkOfedlOfoMboeMbqmOf;
ykwfhxMUeMbtvj qifby.BbvkufjqOfj ndufbvkrf;vmif;ref;ao {jrdlOf;
xdkifrdlif;zMwifjzMawMb nefyAefukefrdlif;vdefoDb'DUvifbuMb rdlif;oDb
=Ofb rdlOfjvAOfeBhao {j[Aef;nmefbxkwfbwFrfj ymif;[yfhnOfxrf;qOfj
ykwfhxMUrM;,Ofh/ OBm;vifrM;auMj zdkefxrf;qOfjomrfu.if usmrf;crf;qdlOf;
eBh {jzljrD;ydkefh=Uwmif;arMcOf ydefbyAefzBmbwB;[Of;rM;,lb,Ofh/ rdlOfj
vkufjqOfj qOfjckefqBm;rdlOf;ymif;[yfhnOf xrf;ykwfhxMUao olbzFOfcdkef;
rdlif;vdefokifqdkifjwB; OAif;iOfjvlifrdlif;e.iftoeefhqrf; yAefcmOf;+if
cOfjuwf;? z.if;vdlefqAif,Ofh/ zBmbedlifjauMj v.ifjxrf;qOfjzFOf+wfj
rdlif;qdkifjwB;eBh ref;rdlefeifbwlOfuOfbwlefoFifcrf;YzM;yAefqOfjuRMU
+wfjzFOfrdlif;qdkifjwB;,Ofhtvj qOfjnljawbeBh qifbqfgUnOfqmifhzdlufb
iM;vFifwmifby.ifao [yfhw.efjzdkefvdufjusmrf;crf;qOfjaou.pf;nrfbuM;
{j[Awf;yB.;,fgbyB.;vlif nefcOfjyM;ulef;rdlif;wif;vBm qlrf;odlO;f [yfhw.efj
OBjoMeefh,Ofh/ ydlifyAefnefomrfu.ifusmrf;crf;qOfj olbwOfjzFOf+wfj
rdlif;qdkifjwB;eBhauMj yAefcmOf;yD@oMboeMbvBj 450 yD@eBheB,Ofh/
u.yfjeB yD@wB;eBh zBmbedlifjauMj awvBjOMjyAefyD@rdlif; nefyDbw
umwfjomrfu.ifusmrf;crf;+wfjzFOfrdlif;wB;eefheBauMj OMjvBj,lb,Ofh/ yD@
oMboeMb wMbrdlif;qdkifjwB;eBauMjOMjvBj,lb,Ofh/ yD@nefwifjtwb
rdlif;qdkifjwB;yAef,fgb {jayM;rD;odlufjrD;ydkef; wDjw.if;wDjrBmruf;udkrf; {j
yAefnlnBmoBmzkif;wB;eBauMj OMjvBj,Ofh/
efg;ydkef;yDje.ifhxB;cOfauMjOMjOBh? yD@wB;wifjrdlif;a[MoFif(rdlif;
nefrD;zdifjxrf;oMboeMbYzM;yAefqOfjwArfxlefj) rdlif;yM; - rdlif;
ec.ef;yM;eBhqrf; rFefjrdlOfjyD@oMboeMbcrf;YzM;yAefqOfjvBj 450
eDj? yAif;uefwif;yD@c'dwfh=Ofymufb[kyfj? r.ufjyD@rdlif; yDboDb 94-93
- 10 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

eefheB,Ofh/
u.yfjeB yD@ 450 eDjeBh eifbefg;oMboeMbyAef yD@vmufbvBm;
vlifOBheefh efg;ydkef;qdkifjwB;auMj yAefyD@twbwifjrdlif;tvj yAefyD@
nefrD; v.ifjvmufbvBm;cdkufhcrfbvlifvmif wMbqdlOfhqmwfjqdkifjwB;ywf;
ydkefhOBh,Ofh/ ,.efheBtvj wifjtwbnOfyD@eefhrM; qOfjnljawb qifb
wFyf;wwf; ruf;refjylifugmrf; {jtwbnmefbeyfhyD@wB; twbvdlefqAif
eefhrM; {jyAefyD@rdlif;qdkifjwB; nefrD;iOf;vFif;oMboeMb=dOfj=dif;eefh
rM;q.rf; yD@vfgyD@eefh,lbeB,Ofh/
u.yfjeB yyfhzdkefusmrf;ydkef;oBmrdlif;ul@nefnefeBh erfaubnrfb
OMj ,mrfjaerM;v.ifjyuf;yD@wB;,Ofh? ,mrfjrD;,mrfjqfgUrM;,lb,Ofhnef
OMjeefh qFifjvFif;,lbtvj yDje.ifhe.ifhyDj oBmqdlOfh=dOfbidlefjcdlOf;wB;[Of;
cOfwif;vBmauMj w.if;udkrf;ofgbefg;qfgOBhvdkufhvdkufhOMj yuf;yD@wB; ayM;yAerf M;qArfymefrdlif;rlbnmef@rmOf; rdlif;vlif
ykifbwB; rdlOfjyD@oMboeMb 450 eDjeefh,Ofhtvj? yD@rfgbwB;eBh [Awf;
[dkOfyAefrM;nefOMjeefh nrfbxmrfnrfbw.yfbauMj =UawqFifjvFif;,Ofh
eB ,krfb,rfw.if;nOfuefugMbaourf;vlpfjanMj/
ulpf;eMb wMbyDje.ifhwB;[Of;cOful@auMUul@wDjul@vFef@? wMb
qOfj'[mef;omifbcMbcOf ul@umefbul@uRif; {jayM;w.if;rBmvBjiBmjiBmjao
qmif@n.efuefqfgUwdkOf;ugMbvBjvDimrf;eefh cfgjyefOBhydlifwFwfjwMbw.if;
rBmref;eifbeB # ydlifwFwfj(ylifbawbeD;)wMbw.if;rBmyD@wB; vBm;xDjedlifj/
ayM;=UyD@oMboeMb,Ofh cfgj=UyD@wB;rD;uM@[dkOfeB nOfyD@oMboeMb(yD@xrf;)wifj orfhnOfwlOfeyfh 450
x.ef(-)eB nefudkwf; awyAefwlOfeyfhyD@wB;rD;ugMbuM@[dkOfeefh,Ofh/
yD@wB;(yXw) = yD@oMboeMb(yXo) - 450
- 11 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

# ydlifwFwfjwMbw.if;rBmyD@wB; vBm;xDjo.if/
ayM;=UyD@c'dwfh,Ofh cfgj=UyD@wB;yAefuM@[dkOfeB nOfwlOfeyfhyD@c'dwfheefhwifj? orfhnOfwlOfeyfh 94 avM;(T)wMU/
yD@wB;(yXw) = yD@c'dwfh(yXc)T94 qdkif awvBjwlOfeyfh
nefyD@wB;zFOfOBh yD@rdlif;uM@[dkOfeefh,lb/
ydlifwFwfjo.ifnefeBhqrf; yAefwMbydlifvldif; {j=UvBjiBmjiBmjao
,Ofh? wDjugmifjref; qifbyfgUwlpf;efg;yyfhzdkef v.ifjvuf;eDjyD@wB;
nefawn.ufbrM;xFifjeefhwMU/ rdlOfjvAOftwh u.pf;vlOfb=UOBhv.ifjOMj yD@
wB;[Of;neftwbnmefbeyfhrM;wDj rdlif;ykifbwB;(wDby.if;udif;wrf;)eefh
awMbOef;rdlOfjvAOf nef[Awf;yD@rfgb ref;,lbeBh zFOfrM;efg; yD@ ÊÉÈÍ eDj
yD@rdlif;,Ofh nefOMjeefh u.pf;,OfhanMj/ zBmbedlifjauMj =Uy.ifbvBjOMj
wB;[Of;twbwifj[mifja[M iOfjrdlif; nefrD;odlufjrD;ydkef;rM;eBh ÊÉÈÍ
yD@nrfbwFrfbvlif;wfgj,Ofh nefOMjeefh =Uy.ifbqfgnOfvBj,lb,Ofh/

- 12 -

yD@rfgbwB;vdlefqAif nrfbeef
vdlefqAifqifbyAefrD@rfgbwB;
yD@rfgbwB;nefOMjeefh yAef,.efhyD@uOfbokwf;oAifjtvj yD@rfgb
wFef;ykwfjrM;/ ayM;+wfjyD@rfgb zfgzfgauMjekifjodlOfjvDclOf;cFrfh? x.ufbxBb
vBm@oD? twbnOfv.ifj,mrfjwmif;[Awf;vFufjvBm@xdkifql;vBm;rfgb[Fif;rfgb/
nOfqfguOfbOmif;yFwfj? nOfqfgvDqfgimrf; nefrfgbrfgbomif;ofgb wlOfrfgbrfgbao
,dlif;nmef;rkifjr.if; rmifbudlOf;v.ifjvDaougMbeMj,lbcdlOf;cdlOf;,Ofh/ ayM;
u.yfjeifbv.ifjaysMbrlef@odlOf;qfgu.pf;ao vFufjvBm@yD@rfgbqdlifhydlefju.pf;
tvjoif? u.yfjyD@rfgbtcb yD@rfgbuvM; yD@rfgbrmef@cOfrD;tvj [Of;xkufb
rD;eifbuOfbeBao[Awf;{jrD;ao cdkifomifjugMbtvjoif awyAefv.ifj
ausMb? v.ifjokrf;,mrf;? okrf;idkef;w.if;vBm@vBm@ao awnrfbrD;erfh
w.ef;cdkefj,fgboifvM;vM;/ eBhu.pf;nrfbuM; oifqkrf;y.ifumefcOfy.ifb
OMj yD@rfgbwB;eBh [Of;rD;xkif;umyfjo.rf;? uefbawM;ulef;xOfj? uMjelufh
wlOf;? [Bbu.if@r.if;eBauMj zdwf;eifbuOfb/ nrfbvAyfj[Aef;oifao ,lb
yOfbe.ef;vBm@ ayM;ydlefj[Awf;nrfbwlpf;? cdkif[MwMbae;u.pf;eefhauMj
yAefvBm;yB.;yD@rfgbzdwf;eefh rdlefuefeifbuOfb,Ofh/ wDjawhyD@rfgbwB;
nefOMjeefh n.efwmif;okwf; awvBjy.ifbqgfOMj yD@wB;eBh nrfbqfgjyD@zMb
oMb/ nrfbqfgjyD@,AefbtijvBmvBm/ yAefyD@qdlOfhcdlOf;wB;tvj yD@zdifj
wB; nefvrfbv.ifjokwf;? nrfb[Awf;nrfbyAefeefh,Ofh/ Oef;rdlOfjvAOf
wB;[Of; qdlOf;[Awf;uFifj=UarMcOfwif;erfeBh nOfOef;vAifhyAefn.ufbrfgb
rdlefeifb Oef;cl;arMtvjoif? Oef;,AefbtijzMboMbtvjoif? Oef;
vlbcOfjrfgberfhrfgbaotvjoif wmifavM;rM;{jyD@rfgbwB;[Bm? {jyD@rfgbwB;
OOf;O.wfjugMbxFifjtvj qifbOMj vBj[efwB;[Of;ugifugMbwDjv.ifjyD@rfgbwB;
- 13 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

eBh,Ofh/ u.yfjrmif@qdlOf;xmifbOMj vdlef[MjyAefyD@rfgb/ rmif@qdlOf;nOfvdlef
oDbtcb [Awf;yD@rfgbcOfauMjrD;/ rmif@auMUtwh yD@oifOef;oifauMj yBm
nrfbrD;ao udefcOfjOef;o.ifwMbao euf;erfheuf;vdef,lb/ rmif@
qdlOf;orfh nrfbOlefhc.yfjoif nrfbcwf;qfgoifao,Ofh vlifwlOfvdkrf;cdif;
awMbeMjumefao yfgUxMjOef;wBm,lbauMjrD;wif;erf,Ofh/ ulef;qdlOf;eBh
cOfwBm[mif;cOfeB nrfbugmrf;oifuM@[dkOfaowMU ,.efhxmwfjulef;oFef;
eifbcOfeBh qmif@wdkwfhwBm;qyf;yM; tzjql;awMbxdkifqmif@{jqdlOfhcdlOf;
[Bm? {joa'bqdlOfhcdlOf;wBmwFrfba,Mj,lyfjvlif; rdlefwmif;yAefnAwfbeefh
tvj wmif;vBjwBmvBjokrf;,.efhulef;okrf;ykefj eifbcOfeBh eifb[dkOfayM;
aw,dkwf;ugMbeefh zlj[ufhqdlOfhqmwfjzdifjwB;cOful@qOfj ul@wleful@
yM;eBh xkufbnOfrmufbwMpmefbydkwfbvFif;[efqiF fjvDao,Ofh yfgUyM;v.ifj
yD@rfgbwB;vdlefqAifeBhugMb awMb{jrefjudkrf;,dkef;,mOf;,lb nrfb[mifh,Ofh/
,.efhv.ifjc.ifjcrfnef,mrfjqdlOf;eBh,Ofh qifbvBjwmifbae v.ifjyD@rfgb
wB;vdlefqAif nrfbeef vdlefqAifqifbyAefyD@rfgbwB;eBh {jyAefwDjcdlifbcrfh
rM;,lb,Ofh/ yuf;yD@wB;eBh nrfbqfgjOMjvufhnOfwDjzfgrM;/ rD;rM;qArf
Oef;[dkif? vBm;[Awf;omifjyD@rfgbwB;auMj n.ufbyAefzdifjrM;ayM;[dkif? [dkif
ayM;cfgjvdkrf;? [MauMUw.if;udkrf;qmif@cB@ae ayM;vFyfjnrfbrD;ugMbeefh
,Ofh/ u.yfjeBtvj eifb[dkOfv.ifjvdlefqAifyD@rfgbwB;eBh ayM;awnrfbokrf;
vBm@ao zBmbedlifjauMjorfh{jvBjyAefz.ef;vDeefh ayM;[Of;o.ufj[M
vAyfj[Aef;wlpf;v.ifjref;qdkif awvBj[efOMj yD@rfgbwB; yAeftwbwDjvdlefqAif/ vdlefqAifyAefvdlefemrf;eMj
xlOf;=OfyD@rfgbwB; nefOMjeefh,Ofh/ [Awf;oiftvj vdlefqAiforfhrM;
yAefyD@rfgbwB;/ aw[Awf;[dkOf=UOMj qArfrdlOfjeefheefh vdlefqAifeBhyAefrM;
yD@rfgbwB; ayM;eBqdkif u.yfjoifvdlefqAiforfh nrfb+ifhOMjvdlefedlifjvMb/
qdlOf;eBh vDxmrfvDclefhcB@awhawh,lb/
efg;yD@wB; vdlefwB;eefh acMjugmrf;nefOMj ]qAif} wlOfeBh
- 14 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

ref;yAef,fgbOBh/ efg;acMjugmrf;wB;qArfu.efb ]qAif} nefOMjeefhref;
rD;wDjy.ifbOMj ,fgbugmifj? vdlOfwdlOf;? vDcFrfh? erfw.ef;? qkrfbuljerfvBm
eBtvj qifbwmif]eldifj}ao qfgUwdkOf;rM;,Ofh/ zBmbedlifjauMj u.yfj qAif eBh
rD;wDj y.ifbOMj ,kufhcdkefj? twbwifj? auMbrfgb eB,Ofh/ awMjeifbvkufjnGefb
twb[M vkufhqkuf; wMb,mifjwdefwMwMUugMbeMjeefh n.efuef+ifhOMj
qAif? qAifauM eBnrfbqfgj[dkOf/ wDjawhref; qAif nefOMjeefh ref;y.ifb
OMj yD@? vldefyD@/ vdlefyD@x.ufbvBm@/ vdlef=OfyD@eBu.pf;aonrfbuM;?
ugmrf;ulef;xOfjrdlOfju.efbauMjOMjOBh ]vdlefvDyD@qAifrdlif;ulef;? rkef;vyf; uyf;wmrf;vBm@rM;q,M;
cBmhx.ufb? n.ufbykwfjrOfbvkwfjw.if;yefb cefbxdkifrdlOfjvAOfqifbeBh vBjrM;
,OfhrFefj vuf;eDjydkuf;oef} eBvfg/
rmif@qdlOf;auMjorfhOMj ]yD@qAif,wl;? cBmhql;okwfhwFef;uef}
OMj?
ulef;xmrf;c.efbcOf rdlOfju.efbauMjOMj ]vBjxmrf;c.efbxmrf;qAif} eBtvjoif?
][MjclyfbqAifylyfb? =uf;clyfbqAifylyfb? vdlefurf@vdlefwmrf;} eB
tvjoif?
efg;ugmrf;rmufbodyf;o.ifvdlefwB;[Of;eBauMj vBj[ef OMj ]vdlefqAifiOfjvuf;eDj? vdlefurf@qDjuwf;emOf? vdlefomrf
rGufbukrfjcmOf wArfwlifj} eBtvjoif?
efg;yyfhv.ifjrmufbulyf;vlpfj cmOf;uwf;yD@rfgbwB; eMjvdufj(78)
eefh vBj[efOMjOBh ]vdlefqAif vdlefurf@ erfheBm;vlif;? uwf;eMbzMj=rfbxFifj
ukpfzlif;? tr;o.efh+if;eM/ r.ufbqAifuD@q.rf;[mefhvmef;zM wArf=pfjvB.
vM;? cmOf;ymwfbayMUodrf;cOfj umifeM; nOf+wfjefg;,.if,Ofh}
wMby.wf;edlifjorfhodkyfbOMjxFifjtwh - 15 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

]vdlefqAifrdlOfjz.if;uwf; ulef;tvbuBhyAefOwf;? [wf;odlrfhql;
uef? rlpfr.ufberfheBm;wef rdkwf;ukrfjvlif;rdlif;? wlpf;ykrfbcOfjuGif
zdlif;eBauMjrD;erf? ulef;n.rfbrkufhZB; [mif;udefcOfjykuf;wrf} eBauMj
rD;rM;wDjefg;ydlif ZmifvdlefqAif yD@twbrfgbwB;[Of;,lb,Ofh/
efg;ugmrf;wMUuef wB;[Of;rdlOfjul@y.ufjauMj rD;OBhOMj ]rAOf;oif wlOfref;yAefnefvAOf? =Of[AOfn.ufbomrfvkufj?
vkufjref; rD;odyf;o.if? vmefref;rD; omrfymufb=uf;odyf;vMb ndlpf;}
eB,Ofh/
auMUw.yfbauMjqifbw.yfbOMj ]wlOfqdkifnefvAOf =Of[AOfomrfvkufj? vkufjrD;odyf;o.if xdkif
vmefomrfymufb=uf;odyf;eBh nrfbv.wfjrdlOf;ugMb=UyAef - yuf;eDjyD@
qAifwB;[Of;? yD@edlifjomrfcmOf;? odyf;o.if=Ofvdlefclyf; omrfymufb=uf;
odyf;vkufjOef;a[M;!}eB
qdlOf;eBhtvjoif? vmwfjv.ifjyD@wB; vdlefwB;? vdlefqAifeBhurfj
erf,Ofh/
wDjugmrf;rmufbvlpfjvdlefqAifeefheBauMj vBj[efOMj ]vdlefqAifoAif[AifvFif;aq; rl;av;qmrfcmOf rlpfemOfwluf;
zsmef; wmef;vB.wuf;rlOf;olefwMjcBm; ydlefj,Bm;zkufbo.rfjuD;? cDjOlOf;
tvj zuf;a[M/ wlef;vB.,.rf;rM; cM;cAryf l;vdlif; rdlif;rGif rlOf;OOf;
yOf;+rfwuf;ygmif; omif;zdlOfvrf;,mOf;elyfbu.ef;auM ayM qdkufhyluf;rBh=uf;
=ufh[mrf;erfh ,.rf;aubaowdkif;} eBao quf;ae,Aefbtijefg;vdlefqAif
OBh/
wDjugmrf;rmufbodyf;o.ifvdlefwB;(xelU'MboDb)vdlefqAifeefh
eBauMjOMjteOBh ]umOfulifb,lifb,mifb emifbyfg; cmwfj,fg;ofgbauM ,MjcM;rkif;?
cmOf;nefeBm;okrfbnkrfbvlif@rBhomif; cmifju.if;u.ifbzlpf;=pfjvGBukif;
- 16 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

xkif;zdifjwB;twbvdlefeBh [Awf;iOfj[Awf;=Of/ qifbOMjvdlefqAif oAif
[AifvFif;aq; oAifao;elufhemif;xlOf qlOf;+ifhuefu.yfju.ef;uFefjumef;
udifbumifu.if;? cmOf;nef,dlOfj,Mj[Awf;v.ufb r.ufbqAifuD@udlif;=dOfj=dif;
q.wfbymef;wmyfjvB.o.if; r.if;cfgjpM;zMUOFif;yDjvFif;n.ifb vmef;umefh
[uf;nOfeefhndlpf} eBaotvjoif/
efg;yyfhqOfjcl;arMvlif qOfjumif;odlOf[Of;wFrfjOBh v.ifjemif;
uOfj[mefheefhauMj? wDjedlifjvBj[efyM;v.ifjyD@rfgbvBm@rM;OMj ]vdOfvdOfvlrf;ydOfrfg@w.ifuM;vrf; omif;crf;edlOfvB. emif;uB.
qyf;[AOf;? yDqAOf;+ifhq.rf;qAifeDjx.ufb}
eBauMjvBj[efq.rf;OBhtvj y.ifbOMjvFufjvBm@ yD@rfgbwB;vdlef
edlifjeBh qifbwmifb+ifh{jwArfxlefjwdlOf;vDawMbwDjy.ifbwB; vdlefyD@
rfgbvdlefedlifj? vdlefx.ufbvBm@eBh {jyAefvdlefqAifeB,lb,Ofh/ u.yfjeB
ayM;+wfjvdlefqAifeB yAefyD@rfgbwB;,OfheB =Uy.ifbuefOBh,Ofh/
,.efheBtvj ugmrf;qifbrD;rM;efg;yFufhcwdifbyuf;yD@wB;OMj ]r.ufbqAifuD@aoauMj =Uquf;vBjyD@rfgbwB;} ,lbeB,OfhanMj/
yD@wB;eBh ,.efhrfgbvdlefqAiftvj vdlefqAifeBhqifbyAefyD@rfgbwB;
,Ofh/ vdlefqAifeBh yAefcmOf;+ifz.if;uwf;tvj yAefz.if;r.ufbu.efr.ufbqAif
cOfv.efhuD@,Ofh/ nrfbqfgjyD@rfgbz.if;cmOf;rBj nefr.ufbvljvdlifcOfuD@ao
=wf;erfhuef {j,.yfb,lwfh,lwfh nefOMjeefhauMj xkufbvDy.ifbqfgvFif;
[ef/ yD@rfgbvdlef[MjeBh yAefyD@rfgbzMboMb? yAefyD@rfgbyD@xrf;ZMUqOfj/
yD@rfgbvdlefqAifnefOMjeBhtwh yAefyD@rfgbqdlOfhclOd f;? yD@rfgb,AefbtijqdlOfh
qmwfj nefOMjeefh xkufb=Uxkufb[ef{jqFifjvFif;vD,lb/ ayM;zdifj
,AefbtijqdlOfhcdlOf;=dif;qifb qmOf;qdlOfhcdlOf;eefh awcdkefj,fgb,Ofh/
yD@rfgbwB; nefuyf;qyf;vuf;eDjyD@vdlefOef;wB;eBh ref;rD;
ydlifzdifjwB;OBh u.pf;aonrfbuM;? yAefydkefh=UarM wMb[Of;[M;wif;erf
tvj nrfbvDvlifvDvdkrf;? xkufbodrf;yFif;rFufbomifj yD@rfgbwB;ugMbwduf;
- 17 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

wduf;qifb awxkufbwMbwB;,Ofh/ yD@wB;yD@eBh rFefjyD@ymifwBm;? vuf;eDj
=ifhrOfh? yD@wB; ÊÉÈÍ eDj,Ofh/ vdlefqAifrfgbyAefyD@rfgbwB;? yD@wB;rfgb
efg;vdlefqAif/ u.yfjeB ayM;+wfjvdlefqAifeB wB;n.efuefrlef@odlOf;[Awf;
omifjyB.;zdifjwB; auMbqAif(yD@rfgb),lb,Ofh/ auMbqAifnefOMjeefh yAefvBm;[Awf;omifjyD@rfgbwB;,Ofh/ qArfrdlOfjrdkefhodkef;u.ebf wB;[Of;auMb
qAifyD@rfgbwB;rM;/ rdlOfjeBhwMbwB;[Of; [Of;auMbqAifeBh wdkufhyAefv.ifjvDvlif
awvBjq.rf;tvj [Of;[M;oluOfwif;vBm omrfymefauMjqAwf;oFef;
qifbvBjOMjvDn.ef[Awf;n.efomifj yD@rfgbwB;auMbqAif nefyAefyD@wB;
vdlefqAif nrfbeef vdlefqAifyD@rfgbwB;eBh ugMbcdlOf;cdlOf;,lb,OfheBndlOfj/

- 18 -

yD@rfgbwB; awrfgbOef;vfg
yDje.ifhnljtrjulef;rdlif;[Of;cOfaeMj yD@wB;eBhrD;rM;qArf[dkifauMj vBj=Uq.rf;,Ofh/ yD@wB;eBhrfgbvdlef
qAifeBauMj =Uq.rf;uef,Ofh/ ulpf;eMb yD@rfgbwB;eBh awrfgbOef;vfg
,mrf;vfg nrfbeef omif;usmefbwB;nef+ifhOMj vuf;eDjc.yfjclyfbyD@wB;
eefh awwArfawokwf;,mrf;vfgOef;vfgao orfhawolbwOfjcOfj+wfj
yD@rfgbOef;rfgb,mrf;vfg cmOf;vfgnefOMjeefh auMU=UwFwfjeFwfj,if;wdkufh
vAuhaf ubanbrmif,lbtvj {jvBjoyf;vFif;ae v.ifjvlpfjref;urfj
z.ifjaourf;/ v.ifjawruf;rBm{jyAefvBj Oef;yD@rfgbwB;eefhvBj[efrD;
o.ifrAOf; (É) qrf; yAefvBm;nefnOfq.rf; acMjugmrf;ulef;+ifh (aOM;[Mb'MUrMboMU)
ao yAefvBm;ql;iBmjao,Ofh? yAefvBm;nef nrfbwFwfjeFwfjoifao
,Ofh rD;v.ifjvFufjvBm@okwfheMj=efvifvBjao,Ofh? rmif@zOfbawqOfh
rmif@zOfbrmif@yD@orfh awvMj,Ofh/ u.yfjoiftvjeB clyfbyD@eBh
rD;odyf;o.ifvdlef? edlifjvdlefrD;omrfodyf;Oef;? clyfbyD@odyf;o.ifvdlefeBh
rD;vBjomrfymufb=uf;odyf;Oef;,Ofh/ ulpf;eMb q.rf;vlpfjZdifjZMUvlufj
ulef;clif;umif[Of;qrf; ydkifjwDjvkufjurfbZMbwif; vkufjvFif@Oef;nef
yAefvFwfbao wif;vFif@vmOfemufjcmwfjao,Ofh ayM;eyfhnOfwFwfj
eFwfjeB clyfbyD@wArfwArfeBhrD; 365 Oef;? 6 qlOf@rlif;? 12 rAwfhrdwfh
edwfhyBm 36X56 odufhoFufhumefh,Ofh/ u.yfjeB ayM;rM;udkuf;wlpf;wif;ydlifyAef
awhawheefh ayM;q.rf;nOfvBm;wB; rdlOfju.efbeB edlifjvdlefrD; 30
Oef;wArftvj clyfbyD@,.rf;OBhwMb 5 Oef;yBmzdufbvdlOfvdlOf,Ofh/ ulpf;eMb
Oef;rdlOfjvAOfeBh [Of;q.rf;nOfOef;wB;vdlefwB;nrfbqfgj/ [Of;q.rf;nOf
vdlefOef; zdifj=;vM; nefykifbeM;rdlif;rmef@cOfeyfhOBh {jyAefydlifydkifj
- 19 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

ndifaoq.rf;nOfeefhtvj vBjrD;OBhvdlefudufjvdlefulyfhao vdlefulyfheBh
yAefvdlef,fgbaorD; 30 Oef;? vdlefudufjorfhrD; 29 Oef; u.pf;tvj
clyfbyD@eB rD;vBj 354 Oef;u.pf;ao? clyfbyD@eBh ,.rf;wif;ZdifjZMU
OBh 11 Oef;yBmyBm,Ofh/ u.yfjeB efg;zdifjrmef@ nefqfgUwdkOf;qGrf;
,lb rdlOfjvAOfeBh qifbvBjrD;rM;yD@n.efbyD@vlifao? rmif@yD@eBh vBj
vdlOyf efvdlefyFwfbwMbvdlefedlifjao vBjrD;rM;vdlefrdlef o.ifvdlef? {j
+ifhOMj yxrMUOMbolOfb? wlUwDh,MUOMbolOfb OMbxmyfjeB,Ofh/ vBm;eBh
wB;[Of;rdlOfju.efb+ifhOMj vdlefo.efheB,Ofh/ yD@rfgbeBh vBjrfgbefg;vdlef
o.efheefh v.efhv.efh,Ofh/ u.yfjref;yAefvldefnefcOfjcdkifudkuf;uyf;uef
wif; vFif@vmOfemufjcmwfjcOf {jrFefjwif;Oef;vFwfbao ZdifjZMU
cmOf;,mrf;auMj ,Mb{jyFufbydlifjugMbvBjeefh,Ofh/ u.yfjeBayM;nOfydlifwFufj
OMjrM;eB yD@rfgbwB;awrfgbvdlefvfg Oef;vfgeefhOMjqdkif vBm;nmefbeyfh
q.rf; vdlefnef[Of;cOfq.rf;qfgU,lbrdlOfjvAOfeBh yAefvBm;q.rf;qfgUnef
zdwf;OBheefh,Ofh/ ayM;q.rf;nOf{jvBm;eBhyAef,fgb {jref;rFefjqdkif yD@
wB;wif;vlOfbrfgbvdlefyFwfbao yD@rfgbwB;awvBjyAef cmOf;=OfZlef,Ofh/
u.yfjeB ayM;=UOMjvBm;eBhnrfbxkufbeB wuf;nrfbvDvBjq.rf;,Ofh/ efg;
v.ifjwmif;eBhqrf; cOfjyM;v.ifjvdlefqAifrfgbOef; {jyAefOef;yD@rfgbwB;
eefh,Ofh/ vdlefqAifrfgbOef;eBh yAefvBm;nOfq.rf;acMjugmrf;ulef;[Of;OMj
u.pf;ao nrfbqfgjOef;vuf;eDjtvj nrfbqfgjOef;c.yfjclyfbzdifjwB;
wFwfjeFwfjnefOMjeefh xkufbvDy.ifbqfgvBj,lb,Ofh/ u.yfjeB yD@rfgbwB;
eBh nrfbqfgjnrfbxkufbvBjyAefq.rf;eifbOMjrM;eBhao xkufbrD;yuf;ydlif
wFwfjeFwfj[mif;acMq.rf; qdlOfhzfgcdlOf;ref;,lb,Ofh/
(Ê) qrf; yAefvBm;nefruf;rBmOef;yD@rfgb q.rf;c.yfjclyfbvuf;eDj nrfb
eef yAefvBm;nefnOfyD@rfgbnefrfgb q.rf;vFif@vmOfemufjcmwfjOMjeefh
,Ofh/ vBm;eBhyAefvBm;nefwFwfjeFwfjao nrfbayM;rD;wmif; yFufbydlifj
uefeefh,Ofh/ eMjzdlufbcOfeBh nOfvkujf wMOef; nefyAefvFwfbeefh
- 20 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

rdlOfjzFOfugMbwDjyBmqmef;okwf;ao twbnmefbeyfhcmOf;nefzGif;Oef;
y.wf;aoydlefjeefhrM; {jyAefvuf;eDjomif;usmefb nrfbeef yD@rfgbcOf
,Ofh/ rmef@cOforfhnOfq.rf; vFif@vmOfnoOeDbOMj/ qOfjrkefqOfj
qmif;cOfcOfjOMb orfhnOfvFif@vmOf nlufhYwMbovfbOMj,Ofh/ wB;[Of;
vl; qdkifOMjyAefcdlOf;,fgbcdlOf;vlif rD;yuf;rD;ydlifeBvMb/ awnOfoifyAef
vuf;eDjaoOMjvMb/ ayM;[Of;nOfacMjxmrfeBh yAefydkefhiOfjaoqGyfb[M
clefhcdkef;ugMbOef;vifqdkif yD@rfgbwB;[Of;eBh rD;zdifjvuf;eDj omif;
usmefbref; nrfbeef vBm;c.yfjclyfbyD@rfgbwB;eBhrD;eifbeB eB,Ofh/
efg;vFif@vmOfOMjOBh edlOfumif[mOfrD;vmOfnefvBjqdkOfjOBh =pfb
ref;uOfj[Aif/ efg;vmOf=pfbref;uOfj[Aifeefh vkufjvdlefeBhvkufhwDjqAifb
eMjwmif;wluf;zFefbeMjumif[mOfw.ifhZMUao cBmhyBugMbql;awMbeMjrdli;f
wmif;n.ufbq.rf; oBmcmOf;wmif;ref;,lbrmefbrmefb/ ayM;[dkifvBj 29
Oef;yBm 12 qlOf@rlif;vdlOf 44 rAwfhrDhedwfh orfhxFifj 2X9 odufhoFufh
umefheB yefb+yfjrFefjvkrfjZMU[Of; edlifj+yfj,lb,Ofh/ vkufjvdlefeBh
ref;u.pf;vwf;yBmrlbvmOf qdlOf;nefwluf;oBmumif zFefbeMjumif[mOf
(wGifhZMU) rdlif;urfbZMb[Of;ao ugMb,lbwMbaobaonrfbuM; nrfb+efb
w.efh rdwf;n.ufboBmwmif;ref;eBh ugMbaoy.ufj/ ,.efheB qkrf;vmOfqdlOf;
nefwluf;rD;efg; cmOf;wmif;umif[mOf nefvkufjvdlefyBugMbwMbaobeBh
qifbvBj+ifhOMjemufjcmwfj?ugmrf;wB;[Of;OMjvFif@vmOf@eB,Ofh/ rlbvmOf
qdlOf;nef nrfbrD;edlOfoAefjoBmwmif; vkufjvdlefyB+yfjurfbZMbeefh
orfhvBj+ifhOMj wMb,Mb? ugmrf;wB;[Of;OMj odlif;vmOfeB,Ofh/ ayM;[Of;
=UoAefjwmif;vdlefyB,Ofh eBauMj oAefjwmif;vmOfcOfyB? oAefjwmif;
vkujf vFwfb vkufjOef;cOfyB? oAefjwmif;vkufjusLOfbcOfyB eBauMj =U
nOfq.rf;eBhvBj,lb,Ofh/ q.rf;vlpfj xkif;zdifjvkrfjZMUclif;ulef;ao
,Ofh cdlOf;vfgaonrfbOMj wdkef;,krfb,rfOBhv.ifjvdlef? vmOf? vFifvmOf?
vkufjOef;? vkufjusLOfb cOfqdlOf;eBh rD;wmif;=rfbirf;edlOf ydlifyAef vkrfj
- 21 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

ZMU[Of; tvj edlOfwlOfqfg qdlOf;rD;edlOfref;eefh,lbeBtvj qifb
nGefuefvAyfj[Aef;? wlpf;uFrf;awMbcOfrM;eBh nmefbyD@rdlif;ref;
vBm[Aifawhawh,lb,Ofh/ efg;ydlifuyf;uBmbqdlOf;eefh vkufjvFwfb tvj
vkufjvdlefcOfeBh w.efhyAef=pfbvAOfu.pf;tvj [efiBmj=UiBmjao efg;
oBmwmif;cOfeefh vFef@wmif;cOfeBhugmifjawhawh/ vmOfcOfqrf;
rD;erfvBmao rdlefwmefbcyfhxFOfuefao yefb+yfjrdlif;ulef;[Of;OBheefh
,Ofh/ u.yfjeBvFif@vmOf qdlOf;nefrD;edlOfoAefjwmif;vdlef tvj vFwfb
eefh ulef;[Of;qifbruf;rBmyef qdkOfjoAifcOfao w.if;rBmOBhyefeifb[Of;
yuf;vuf;rBmaotvj w.if;nOfwmif;uBqrf oAefjcmOf;wmif;ulef;[Of;
eefh,Ofh/ cOfqrf; rD;ydlifqFufbtzOBh{j yAefvFif@vmOfomOf;qAwf;qkrf;
,Ofh/ vFif@vmOfqdlOf;eBh qifbrM;yAefydlifvlifwMbvuf;rBm zdifjxkif;yD@
rfgb cdlOf;zfgref;eefh,Ofh/ rdlefeifbrmef@cOfeBh nOfvFif@vmOfnoOeDb
(vmOfrMU[mif+ef) nefrD;rlbvmOf=uf;=pfbeefh ruf;rBm{jtwbyAef
vmOfyD@rfgbcOfeefh? qOfjrkefcOfauMjnOf vmOfnlufhYwMbovfb nef
yAefvmOfwdefvifqmifheB.Ueefh {jyAefvmOfyD@rfgb wMbcOfjOMbcOf,Ofh/
u.yfjeB uM@vmOfeBh ,if;yBbzFOfwDjnefudkuf;rFefj wif;vFwfbeB yAef
vdlefyFwfbrlef; ugmrf;ulef;[Of;+ifh,lb,OfhauMj vuf;rBmref;yBbxdkiftvj
qOfjrkefcOf yBbcOfjnOfOMbtoj/ rdlOfjvfgvFif@vmOf nefruf;rBmOBheBh
odkOfjwif;vFwfb,Ofhqifb yAefvdlefyFwfbrlef;awhawhao qOfjrkefcOf
auMjqifbcOfjOMbtvj? eifbrmif@zOfbvBjrD;yef vdlefyFwfbo.efheefh
rmef@cOfeBauMj vBjyfgUvFif@vmOfrMU[mif+efodkOfj wif;vFwfbtvj
rmif@y.ufj vldef[MjayM;rlwf;,OfhauMj yBbzFOfomif;usmefbyD@rfgbcOfvBj
ao? yfgUayM;awMbcOfjugMb efg;vdlef=uf;auMjrD;eefh? ,.efhvFif@ vmOf
yD@rfgbeBh v.efhv.efh,Ofh/ ayM;eB [Of;o.ufj[Mwlpf;cdkef;wdkef;wB;
[Of;vl;/ yD@rfgbwB;[Of;qrf; ydkifjedlOfvFif@vmOfnefvfg/ efg;vFif@vmOf
omOf;qAwf;qkrf;nefyAef - 22 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

(É)vmOfrMU[mif+ef
(Ê)vmOfu.efjoOfj
(Ë)vmOfOD;
(Ì)vmOfcgmif
(Í)vmOf=Ofwdkifj
(Î)vmOf[mif@=def;
(Ï)vmOf=dOf;w.if;
(Ð)vmOfcMty
(Ñ)vmOf=if;cOfj
(ÉÈ)vmOfr.efhxB
(ÉÉ)vmOfwdefzdlefyMjeMj (ÉÊ)vmOfwdefzdlefyMjvif
(ÉË)vmOfwlyfho.ufb
(ÉÌ)vmOfrlufbiifb
(ÉÍ)vmOfugef;ZB;vlif
(ÉÎ)vmOfolefzuf;uD;
(ÉÏ)vmOfo.ifbykef;
(ÉÐ)vmOfeuM;ZMUu.ef;ykef;
(ÉÑ)vmOfqmifheB.U
(ÊÈ)vmOfqmifhr.ufb,Mj
(ÊÉ)vmOfwdefvifqmifheB.U (Ê2)vmOfcM@udifb
(ÊË)vmOfoBmukyf;
(ÊÌ)vmOfrBhimrfj
(ÊÍ)vmOfydufjwmefb
(ÊÎ)vmOfcOfOlOf;
(ÊÏ)vmOfyMeB;crf;
cOfqdlOf;eBh wB;[Of;ydkifjedlOfvFif@vmOfqkrf;vfg/
wDjeBh {jayM;yAefwDjrBmw.if;? cfgjvFif;aetwh vkufjvFwfb
wif; vkufjvmOfcOfeBh efg;uM@edlifjOef;? vmOfeBhzfg;aovFwfb 4 rAwfh
rdwfhedwfh,Ofh/ ,.efhnefvmOfeBhugMbyBzfg;vdlOfvFwfb edlOfjOef; 4 rdwfh
edwhe
f Bh y.ifbOMj edlifjOef;vmOfn.ufbqOfh 4 rdwfhedwfh/ ayM;[dkif 15
Oef; awqOfhvdlOfr.ufjedlifjqlOf@rlif;/ ayM;[dkifedlifjvdlef qOfho.ifqlOf@
rlif;/ clyfbyD@rM;qOfhomOf;oDbqlOf@rlif;,Ofh/ omOf;oDbqlOf@rlif;eBhorfh
yAefwlifbyefbcdkef;Oef;edlifj+yfjurfbZMbtvj - vFwfbao? vmOfao
cdkef;rM;yAif;uefwDjuOfb eifbrdlOfjyD@uBm wDjedlifj+yfjurfbZMUeefh
eifbuOfb tvj ydlifyAefeifbeBeBh vBj+ifhOMjc.yfjclyfb nrfbeef omif;
usmefb nrfbeef yD@rfgb nrfbeef vuf;eDj? vuf;rBmyD@eB,Ofh/ y.ifbOMj
yD@cdkef;twbrfgbeB,Ofh/ yD@twbrfgb nefnOfq.rf;vBm;yuf;rBmvuf;eDj
- 23 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

eifbeBeBh qifbyAefv.ifjydlifnefwFwfjeFwfjao nrfbrD;wmif;vduf;
v.uf;vFufjvBm@,Ofh/
ulef;xOfjwB;qOfjedlifjauMj vmwfjaewmif;=Uref;eifbeBvFif@vmOfwB;[Of;OBhyAefydlif,fgbwMbruf;rBm {jyAefvFif@vmOf
yD@rfgbwB;qrf; yAefvFif@vmOfqkrf;vmOfqmifheB.U nefzBmbyMbvDh+ifhOMj
rlbvMUovfb? emufjcmwfjeMjzdlufbcOf+ifhOMj nFvfbZMboauM;yD;,fg;?
rmef@cOf+ifhOMjeuM;csFwfhausb/ ,.efheg;f wMcOf [efyAefqkrf;vmOf@
eBh rD;ydlifZmif[mif@ idlufjeuM;eB,Ofh/ qOfjumif;odlOftwhOMjyAefvmOf
ilif;qmifheB.U eB,Ofh/ nrfbqfgjnefvAOfwif; vmOfilif;qmifh/ vmOf
ilif;qmifheBh rD;wDjzFefbumif[mOfw.ifhZMU eMjwmif;+ifbao yM;efg;rlb
odlif;vmOf(wMb,Mb) ao,Ofh? vmOfqmifheB.UeBhqrf; rD;wDjzFefbumif
[mOfw.ifhZMU eMjwmif;qmef;? orfhyM;efg;rlbqkrf;vFif@vmOfomOf;qAwf;
,Ofh/ vmOfqkrf;eBh cOfjyM;vmOf[Mjvkufjao rD;wmif;qmef;eMjrdlif;
ao,Ofh [mif@ref; rdlefacMu.ifheifbilif;qmifhn.efb nmef;OufhwBm;nOf
aorAOf;rAOf;eefh OBh,lb,Ofh/ efg;eefh vmOfvkufj[rfhvFifvFifn.efb
nefrD;wDjw.ifhilif;ref;? rmef@cOftwh ,.efh[efyAefeuM; eBtvj yAef
wDjoBmvDref;(vmOfoBmvDidlufjeuM;) eefh yAefvmOfqmifheB.U nefyAef
vmOf wMbruf;rBmv.ifjvlpfj vuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB;[Of;eefheB,Ofh/ ,.efh
eB vmOfqmifheB.UeBh +ifhOMj vmOfwB;? vmOfyD@rfgbwB;? vmOfvuf;eDjwB;
eBauMj +ifhxldufj,lb,Ofh/ rdlOfjnefvFif@vmOf vmOfqmifheB.UeBh wif;
vkufjOef;vFwfb wif;urfbZMb[Of; vBjacMjruf;rBm zAifbyAif;odkOfjawMb
uef? udkuf;uefyAefoBmxFOfvAOfOBh,OfheB yAefcmOf;yuf;vuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB;
,Ofh/ y.ifbOMjzFOf,mrf;yD@rfgbwB; twbrfgb,OfheBanMj/ u.yfjeBwMbw.if;
rBmvBjiBmjiBmjeefhtwh yDje.ifhwB;[Of;cOfwif;vBm qArfvAufhqArf,fgb=rfjyM;
qOfj'[mef;oifbcMbcOfanMj? yD@wB;[Of;eBh rfgbq.rf;vuf;eDj nefydkifj
wDjvFif@vmOf vmOfqmifheB.Uao qifbyAefrM;yD@rfgbwB;? vdlefrfgbwB; Oef;
- 24 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

vdlefqAifyD@rfgbwB; awhawh,OfheB w.if;rBmuefugMbvBj,lb,Ofh/ (acMjrBm
w.if;rmif@qOfjorfhOMj nrfbqfgj vmOfqmifheB.U yAefvmOfqmifhr.ufb,Mj
qifbxkufb eB,Ofh/) yAef[dkOfauMjvBm; yAefvmOfqmifhvfg nefOMjeefh
[Of;OBhyAefykefjqOfj=UarMcOf ukrfu.ifuefao,Ofh? rdlOfjvAOftwh aw
nOf vmOfqmifheB.UeBh odkyfbcB@aeugMb/
vmOfqmifheB.UeBh yAefvmOfruf;rBmvuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB;,Ofh nef
OMjeefh [Of;=Uxdkif,Ofh/ ulpf;eMb q.rf;vlpfjxkif;zdifjnmefbeyfh
wB;[Of; nef,krfb,rfnOfyM; v.ifjvdlefrfgbvdlefv.ifjrM;OBm;vifeBhao
nOfykifbref;vkefjrM; q.rf;wDjzfgwDjref;,Ofh/ eifbvBm;nmefbyD@
nrfbrdlefuefeefh vBm;nmefbvdlefauMj qmif@yFufbuef,Ofh/ vBm;nmefb
Oef;auMjcFef;=Uydlifj,Ofh/ ,.efheB wB;wDjedlifjwif;wDjedlifj eifbvdlef
Oef; nrfbrdlefuefeefh vBm;nmefbvdlefauMj qmif@yFufbuef,Ofh/ vBm;
nmefbOef;auMj cFef;=Uydlifj,Ofh/ ,.efheB wB;wDjedlifjwif;wDjedlifj
eifbvdlefOef; nrfbrdlefuefeefh vdlefvyf;vdlefrlef;? cOfjOMbn.ufbOMb
Oef;umefbOef;uRif;auMj =UvBjyFufbydlifjuefrM;,Ofh/ wDjeBhnef[Of;
vlOfb=Utwh yD@rfgbvdlefqAifeBh yAefydlifvlifref;,Ofh/ awrfgbOef;vfg
nefOMjeefh eifbcB@aerM; nOfvuf;eDjrfgbvdlefqAifq.rf;vFif@vmOf
vmOfqmifhOMj qifbawyAefv.ifjzAifbyAif; zAifbzAefjugMbywf;ydkefhao
v.ifjyFufbydlifjwif;vBmauMj qifbawr.wfb[BmugMbvBj,lb,Ofh/ vlOfbq.rf;
nOfyuf;ydlifqOfj=UarMcOf nefrD;vBm;wFwfjeFwfjeefh u.pf;ao,Ofh?
nrfbvlOfbq.rf;vBm;vmrf;vdrf;nOf nef,.ifbq.rf;ydlefjaonrfb=UarM
wFwfjeFwfjv.ifjyD@rfgbwB;nDjoifeefhup
. f;,Ofh/ u.yfjeB ayM;[Of;aw
odkyfbclefh[Mwlpf;q.rf;ydlif yD@rfgbwB;ugMbeBqdkif rmif@yD@eBh zFOfOBh,OfhvdlefqAifwif;vdlef,lb aowMUauMj
u.yfjvFif@vmOf wif;wMOef;yBbzFOfxdkifOef;vuf;eDjtvj yD@rfgbwB;yBb
yAefvBj yBbzFOfvBj/ rdlOfjvfgayM;zFOfOef;vFif@vmOf vuf;eDjwArfwArf
- 25 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

qifbawqmif@x.ufbvBm@yD@ao cOfjql;yD@rfgbtvj vBjyfgUqAif,Ofh/
uyf;uBmbvlpfjv.ifjeBhao,Ofh vBj=UrM;v.ifjwB;[Of;,mrfjvBjrD;rM;vdlef
qAifo.efh,Ofh/ wMbaujvdwfjvBjv.ifjeBhqrf; yD@rfgbwB;eBh rfgbefg;vdlef
qAifv.efhv.efh nrfbeef rAOf;rmif@y.ufj rfgbvdlefqAifao rmif@y.ufjrfgbefg;
vdlefurf@eefh awnOfvBm;vfg/ vBm;nefurf;vdkef;eBh yAefvBm;nmefb
vdlef nefnOfq.rf;zdifjrmef@ nefo.efhvdlefyFwfbao nrfbayM;vBj
,myfboif yAefvBm;ql;iBmjnmefbeyfhq.rf;ydlefjao udefvlrfrM;eefh
u.pf;,Ofh/ ayM;OMjyD@rfgbwB;eBh awvBjrfgbefg;vdlefqAifwMbaob eifb
oyf;vFif;rM;wDjedlOf,Ofhwif;erfeefheBtwh awvBjnOfvBm;nefOMj
rM;urf;n.ef? vBm;nefnrfbyFwfjzdifjeyfhwB; nefofgbyM;vdlefqAif
o.efhao rfgbq.rf;vuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB; efg;vdlefqAifv.efhv.efheefh,Ofh/
ayM;[Of;awudkuf;wlpf;wif; vdlef Oef; yD@eMjzdlufbcOfeB vuf;eDjwB;
eBh rM;okwf;wDjvdlefwDboFrfbyfgb 15 Oef;urfjerfwMbaobao? rfgb
16 Oef;urfjerf,Ofh/ y.ifbOMj yD@rfgbwB; nefawrfgbq.rf; vuf;eDjyD@
wB;eBh awyAefOef;vdlefwDboFrfbyfgb vBjodyf;[Mj? odyf;=uf;Oef;
wMbaoburfjerf,OfheB =Uy.ifbw.if;rBmnOfvBjiBmjiBmj,lb/ wDjwFufjref;
wlp;f nOfyD@ylefhyD@eBh tvj yD@eMjaoauMj=UvBj,lb/ yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈË
eDj? vuf;eDj uwf;yOfh yD@ugBm; rFefj - 2008 wDboFrfbyfgb 15 Oef;?
yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÌ eDj? vuf;eDj clwf;,D; yD@odlOf rFefj 2009 wDboFrfbyfgb
16 Oef;? yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÍ eDj? vuf;eDj =ifhrOfh yD@ymifwBm; rFefj 2010
wDboFrfbyfgb 16 Oef;/ yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÎ eDj? vuf;eDj wOfboD yD@idlufj
rFefj 2011 wDboFrfbyfgb 16 Oef;? yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÏ eDj? vuf;eDj uMbofgU
yD@il; rFefj 2012 wDboFrfbyfgb 15 Oef;/
yDje.ifhwB;[Of;cOfaeMj wlpf;nOfacMjuFrf; qdlOf;omif;vmif;rM;wDjedlOfeBh ao,Ofh
wuf;wFyf;wwf;wrf;refjvBj v.ifjOMj wMbyD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÍ eDj vdlef
- 26 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

qAifyD@rfgbeBhqrf;? cmOf;vuf;eDj nrfbeef omif;usmefbwB; nefy.ifbOMj
yD@rfgbwB;eBhqrf; yAefOef;vdlefqAifrfgb ÉÈ crfj,Ofh/ u.yfjeB twbnOf
vdlefqAifrfgb Ñ crfj yD@ 2010 vdlefwDboFrfbyfgb 15 Oef;? vuf;eDjyD@
wB; clwf;,D; yD@odlOf nefyAefyD@wB; ÊÉÈÌ eDj? yD@uOfbeBhoAifjokwf;
rlwf;wArf,Ofh? wifjtwbnOf vdlefqAifrfgb ÉÈ crfj yD@ 2010 wDboFrfb
yfgb 16 Oef;? vuf;eDjyD@wB;[Of; cBmhcOfj yD@=ifhrOfh yD@ymifwBm;? olb
wOfjcOfj+wfj yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÍ eDj,Ofh nefOMjeefh ydkef@zmOfbyef {j
zD{julef;wif;vBm =Uy.ifbqFifjidef;q.rf;vBj,lb,Ofh/
yD@rdlif; ÊÉÈÍ eDj twbnOfvdlefqAifrgfb ÉÈ crfjeBhao aw
ugMbawMbyD@ 2011 eDj nefawrM;eBh {jxdkifvdlefqAifv.ifj Í crfj,lb
,Ofh/ [Awf;eBao ayM;xdkifrM; yD@eMjvdlefqAifv.ifj Í crfjeB vuf;eDj
yD@wB;[Of; awvBm@cOfjql; yD@wB; ÊÉÈÎ eDj? yD@wOfboD yD@idlufjeB
awrD;eifbeB,Ofh/ cmOf;,mrf;vuf;eDjx.ufbvBm@yD@? wMbyD@vfgyD@eefh
auMj twbnOfqArf ,mrf;rlif;? qlOf@rAwfh? qlOf@odufhref;auMj vlOfb
ydkef@zmOfbyefugMb wMbyD@vfgyD@eefh,lb,Ofh/
yDje.ifhoBmqdlOfh=dOfbidlefjcdlOf;wB;[Of;cOfwif;vBmaeMj u.yfjeB yD@rfgbwB; neftwbwDjOef;vuf;eDjeBhqrf; yAefnef
wFwfjeFwfjwFwfjawM;aoydlefjao? xkufbwif;zdifjaoydlefj,Ofhtvj
[Of;cOfxkufbvBjrD;qkrf; nefeyfhwmufjwMbyD@vdlefOef;wB;[Of;cOf
acMacMao? odkyfbvAyfj[Aef;clwfhn.ufbauMbwifjcdkef;zdifjvuf;eDjyD@rfgb
wB;ugMbeMj,lbeB ,krfb,rf[yfhnOfOBheifbeB nefOMjeefh vBjy.ifbvFif;
xdkiful@qOfjul@wleful@yM;,lbanMj/ {jyDje.ifhwB;[Of;cOf ul@auMU ulj
wDj y.ifbqFifjvFif;vDv.ifjyD@rfgbwB; awtwbrfgbOef;vfgeBhvBjvDimrf;ao
urf;/

- 27 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

ymifuFOfj y.B;yD@rfgbwB; ÊÈÌÊ (1978) ukefeM;xkifhylif;

omBodkuf;ulef;rldif; qdlOf;rM;cOfj=rfj
ymifuFOfj y.B;yD@rfgbwB; ÊÈÌÊ (1978) ukefeM;xkifhylif;
- 28 -

yD@rfgbwB; vBj[Awf;[dkOf[Awf;
vdlefqAifyAefyD@rfgbwB;? yD@rfgbwB; yAefvdlefqAif? yD@rgfbwB;
vdlefqAifeBh twbrfgbOef;vuf;eDjnefOMjeefh urf;eBh=Uy.ifb[efvFif;
uefrM;wif;erf,OfhaowMUauMj? uyf;uBmbvlpfjv.ifj[Awf;omifj yD@rfgb
wB;twh wkdufhvBj[efydlifjuef,lb/ u.yfjoiftvjeB yD@rfgbwB;auMbqAifeBh
yAef,AefbtijzdifjcdlOf;ulef;wB;/ nrfbqfgj,AefbtijqmOf;,krfb,rfzMb
oMb/ u.yjf eB w.ef@eBh vDvBj=UqFifj[efvFif;vDimrf;ao,Ofh ayM;+wfj
vdlefqAifyD@rfgbwB; wB;[Of;auMbqAif? wB;auMbqAif u.yfjyAefyD@rfgbwB;
nefOMjeefh n.efwmif;okwf;awvBjy.ifbydkifjOBh qifbxkufb,Ofh/ ayM;
eB auMbqAifyD@rfgbwB;nefOMjeefh yAefoif [Awf;[dkOfeB ayM;=efwlpf;
cdkef; ydkef;Oef;qdlOfhcdlOf;wB;yMjvifqdkif awvBj[efOMj wB;auMbqAifyD@rfgbwB; nefrmefbrFefjaoydlefjeBh yAefnef
wB;[Of;auMbqAifOef;vuf;eDjuOfb? cBmhql;Oef;vuf;eDjrfgbeBh wdlOf;xkufb
aoydlefj,Ofh/ vBm;eBhqrf; yAefOef;auMbqAifyD@rfgbnefnOfq.rf;Oef;
vFwfbudkuf;wif; ,mrf;vFif@vmOf@eefhtvj yAefOef;? yAef,mrf;? yAef
cmOf; nefwFwfjeFwfjwFwfjawM;ao rD;yuf;rD;ydlifcdkwf;qefhxmefj
vkrfjZMUeefhu.pf;,Ofh/ uM@nefylefhrM; awMbrldOfjvAOfehtB wh ,.efh
v.ifjwmif;nefnrfb=Ueefhao,Ofh ulef;wB;[Of; nOfwmif;v.ifjq.rf;
iBmjOMjyM;ao q.rf;nOfOef;vdlef nef[efiBmj=UiBmjeefh{jyAefiOfjydlif
ao n.ef[Awf;yD@rfgbwB;rM;,Ofh/ ulpf;OMj[dkOfauMj v.ifjnefckuf;clefh
Olefh[efcdkef;v.ifjwB;[Of; rD;yD@wB;rfgbvdlefqAifnefOMjeBhao [Awf;
omifjq.rf;uefrM;eBu.pf;auMj yAefv.ifjvDvlifydlifedlijf ,lb nefOMjeefh
twhauMj wef;=U[efZmifhrFefj,lb/ v.ifjyD@rfgbwB; vBj[Awf;[dkOf[Awf;
umef awodkyfbOMjaeugMbeBhtwh ,dlif;ql;ykefjv.ifjnrfb=Uao nrfb
- 29 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

eef ,.efhv.ifjvAyfj[Aef;vBjanbrM;ao vBjyAefwmif;yFufbydlifjugMbqdlOf;
eefh eifb[dkOf ayM;awqmif@OufhwBm; rFefjoAefjv.ifjwmif; nefqdkOfj
nefqfgjcdkef;ao,Ofh? v.ifjnrfb=Utvj v.ifjyFufbydlifjeefh {jr.wfb[Bm
qlrfOBm;ao,Ofh/ v.ifj=U[efxdkif zdifjcdlOf;nefnrfbyM;v.ifjqmOf;zMb
oMb uOfeOf;OBheefh ayM;aw[kefjrkef;xmifbqFifjydlif;vFif;rM;ao yAef
rM;v.ifjz.rh=f rfjydlifzdifjcdlOf; nefrD;yuf;rD;ydlifq.rf;vBm;wmif;nefvAOf
nefrdlefuefeefhao qifbvBjyBm;aerM;,lb,Ofh/
wB;twbauMbqAifyD@rfgbwB;eBh rFefjOef;yD@wB;vuf;eDjuOfb
okwf;oAifjao odkyfbokwfhcBmhvBm@ql; Oef;wB;vdlefqAifrfgbedlifjOef;?
nefnrfbqfgjvdlefqAif acMjugmrf;ulef;+Of;+ifhvBm@vBm@/ yAefOef;vdlef
qAifrfgbqFwfjqFwfj yAefOef;nefyD@auMjrfgb? vdlefauMjrfgb? ,mrf;auMjrfgb?
ZdifjcmOf;,MboDbnlUwlUauMjrfgbawhawh q.rf;Zdifjwdkef;yAefvdlefqAif
vlufjclif;ulef;[Of;eefh,Ofh/ yAefcmOf;wDjw.ifhZMUumif[mOfeefh vkufj
Oef;awMbwif;vFif@vmOf vmOfqmifheB.UwDjeMjwmif;qmef;/ yAefzGif;
vFif@vmOf vmOf=OfwdkifjcOf =rfbedlOfZMUumif[mOf yAefz.if;,mrf;nef
vFif@vmOfvkufjvmOf@cgmif nef+ifhOMj vmOfoFifrlef;cOf qdkefbcdkefj
nOf[Fif;,lb efg;rdlif;clif;edlOfeefh,Ofh/ vFif@vmOf qkrf;vmOfOD;cOfauMj
nrfba,Mj wdkufhwlifhwdkefbzdkwfhofgb[Fif; nmifj{jrdlif;clif;umif vBj
[efoBmvFif;ref;OBh,lb/ vlifbr.ufbnefawyefnBm@+rf nBm@=pf;
rdlif;wB;qrf; cmOf;eBhyAefr.ufbymef;ao;,Ofh/ r.ufbumifc.ifjcOf eBauMj
[mifj[Fef;wMbaw[mifjcdlifjyef rdli;f vB.wB;[Of;OBh,lb/ ulpf;eMb eifb
ugmrf;wB;rdlOfjul@y.ufjrD;eefh OMjOBhtwh - r.ufbqAifuD@yD@rfgbwB; eBtvj
r.ufbnefxmifb[mif@aoydlefjqrf; yAefr.ufbqAif nrfbeef r.ufbuGef
nefulef;rdlif;Oef;wluf;cOf+ifhOMj tcsb'Db eefhu.pf;,Ofh/ r.ufbeBh rD;
wmif;uyf;uBmbwif;yD@rfgbwB;ao yAefr.ufbyD@rfgb? r.ufbzdifjcdlOf;? r.ufb
nefyluf;wB.b[Of; {jckuf;xlyf;awMb yD@wB;rfgbvdlefqAifeefhOBh,lb
- 30 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

wMbaob,Ofh/ uM@r.ufbqAifr.ufbu.efwdkufhrD;,lb? uM@wB;wkdufhrD;,lbeB yD@
wB;rfgbvdlefqAif nefyAefzdifjauMbqAif zdifjyD@rfgbvdlefqAifeBhauMj
wuf;vDvBjrD;{j udkuf;ydkef; udkuf;cdlOf; udkuf;rdlif;ugMb,lb/
ydlifZmif(vufhceMb)auMbqAifyD@rfgbwB;qrf; wuf;awvBjyM;rD;
acMjuFrf;qdldOf;eBhqifb awvBj+ifhOMj auMbqAif,Ofh/
(u) yfgUqAif nrfbeef [yfhw.efjqAif? y.ifbOMj ruf;rBm[yfhw.efjyD@rfgbwB;
vdlefqAif/
(c) yBmjqAif nrfbeef uefbawM;yD@rfgb? y.ifbOMjruf;rBmeyfh,rfxdkif
uef/
(i) udefqAif nrfbeef [Awf;wmif;vDv.ifjvAifhvluef wif; wmif;udef
zdifjwB;/
(q) vAefjqAif nrfbeef v.ifjrlef@odlOf; vlpfjuefq.rf;zdifj,Aefb
tijwB;/
qdlOf;eBh,Ofh/ ayM;ydlifZmifqdlOf;eBhqkrfbuljwmefbwmefbqifb awvBj+ifh
OMj yAefauMbqAifyD@rfgbwB;,lb,Ofh/

(u) yfgUqAif nrfbeef [yfhw.efjqAif

yfgUqAifeBh yAefv.ifj[Awf;omifjwmif;ruf;rBm nefqlrf;odlOf;[yfh
w.efjyD@rfgbwB;vdlefqAif nefawtwbwifjugMbq.rf; vuf;eDjrfgbrfgbeefh
u.pf;,Ofh/ v.ifj[Awf;omifjyfgUqAif? yBmjqAif? udefvAif? vAefjqAif wif;
oAifjeBh [kyfj+rf;uefao +ifhOMjauMbqAifyD@rfgbwB;eB,Ofh/ wB;auMbqAif
eBh rFefjOef;yD@rfgbvdlefqAif vuf;eDjrfgbtvj vAufherk fbxOfjul@qBm;,dif;
zfgnrfb[Awf;umefoif,OfhOef;eBh/ n.efuefvkufhqOfh ywf;zAOfj,lb
oFefj rlwf;ofgwDjwlOfzfgcdif;ref;? OBhuAifj[Awf;oFefjwlpf;vFyfjoAif[Aif
=def;zfga,;ref;,lb,Ofh/ ayM;yAef wDjaq@wDjOAif; rdlif;a[MeB qBm;,dif;
ckefemif;cOf ydlefjyfgUqAif? ydlefjnrfbvyf;nrfbe.ef; wMbOef;edlifj/
- 31 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

n.efuefOBhqfgvDqfgimrf;? qfgxmefjokif? qfgomifbqfgodlOf;ao [yfhw.efj
yD@rfgbwB;,lb,Ofh/ ayM;=UOMj yD@rfgbwB; vdlefqAifrfgbvBm@cOfjrM;auMj
(ayM;=UOMj vuf;eDjuOfbokwf;ao ,mrf;vuf;eDjrfgbtwb,OfheBauMj)
efg;a[McOf ydlefjvefbr.ufjvefbu.ifj? oAifeefj ayM;yAefOMyAefcdlOf;vlif
ugMb/ oAifavMj oAifvAif;? oAifuif; oAifoFifb oFifr.if; oAifu.if@wB; ul@
rAOf;rAO;f cOfauMj ayM;ndkwfbeefjvlifugMbq.wfbwlOfj efg;aq@wif;OAif;
,OfhanMj/ z.if;=Ofrdlif;wdkufh[MofgrM; qOfjiOfj=def;cOfvkufhqOfhaonOf
rBhqAif(clOfjrBhr.ufbu.ef) yuf;oAyfbOBhwDjclifheMjOmif;=def;a,;zfgref;wif;
o.ifzBmbao ruf;rBmaev.ifjOMj - [Of;=UxdkifzdifjwB;yD@rfgbvdlefqAif
ao [Of;nrfbvlifnrfbvdkrf;? [Of;w.if;udkrf;OBh awMbv.efhn.uf;qfg[Of;
ao yfgUyM;zdifjxkif;ylb[Awf;rM; ,M@[Awf;OBh/ [Of;nOfukifb nOfrkefao
odkyfbtzjwdlef; vmwfjaevkrfjZMUurfbZMb v.ifjOMjrdlOfjeBhyAefyD@rgfb
wB;tvj [Of;nOfrBhr.ufbu.ef nefyAefr.ufbqAifwB;aoyuf;aeOBh eMjclifh
eMj=def;/ ymufjvFif;aev.ifj[Of;z.rfhzAifbao n.efuef[yfhw.efjyD@rfgb
wB;? rdlOfjeBh[Of;yfgUqAifyD@rfgbwB;eB,lb,Ofh/ r.ufbqAifo.ifclOjf nefyuf;OBh
eMja[MawM=def;[Of;rdlOfjeBh wuf;ouf;vFif;aeOMj [Of;cOfnrfb[mOf
vyf;[mOfe.ef;? [Of;wdkef;wlifhwdkefbq.rf; v.ifjvFufjvBm@vuf;eDjao?
eifbZMUvDyD@rfgb awrfgbofgqdkefjao wdlOf;w.ef;cdkefj,fgbugMbeMjeefh
[Of;[M;wif;vBmauMj nOfrdlOfjeBhOef;eBhugMb ydkifjvlpfjv.ifjauMbqAifeBh
ao wuf;awcdkefjoifhqefhokifugMb ul@rdlOfjul@cmOf;? aw=dOfj=dif;wdlOf;
w.e;f rM; eifbvkufjvdlefcdkefjwef; eifbvkufjOef;cdkefjwAifjeefh,lb
eB ,krfb,rf[Awf;omifj nOfrifbuvMbvD {jrD;okuf;eifbeB,Ofh/ rmif@
qdlOf;eBauMj wFrfjwif;vdufjxlOfbi.ufj,mOf;vlifrdlOfju.efbao nOfyMUOBh?
zFefOBh? w.ufbOBh eMjclifheMjOmif;zfgref;/ wDjwdefclOfjrBhr.ufbu.efauMj
qyf;yM;,MjzOfwAef;+rfao [Awf;vDv.ifjrD;okuf;(rifbuvMb)eefh,lb
,Ofh/ rmif@qdlOf;auMjwFrfjOMj ][yfhw.efjyD@rfgbwB;}? rmif@qdlOf;auMjwFrfj
- 32 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

OMj ]ZMUvDyD@rfgb{jcdkefj,fgbwdlOf;w.ef;}? ]qlrf;odlOf;[yfhw.efjZMUvD
yD@rfgb}? ]wMbqAif,dkef;,mOf;rdkefboFefyD@} eBao? wFrfjwmifbedlOfrBm
omifbzFefb? omifbcmrf;ao qyf;aewDjeMj=def;OBh,lb/ rmif@qdlOf;eBauMj
nOferfhrmufb[mef(rmufbc.ef)zFwf;z.uf;yM;vlpfjerfh+rfemrfboMbao?
wDjolyf;auMj okwfbOMj ]qlrf;odlOf;[yfhw.efjZMUvDyD@rfgb? {jwif;vBm
,lbvDcdkefj,fgbwldOf;w.ef;} eBao qyf;,MjzOfwAef;+rfao eAyf;wDj
iOfjclOfjrBhr.ufbqAifwif;okwfbxrf; wif;OMjugmrf;vDOmef;rAwfjwMb? qifb
orfhnOfZB;qyf;oBmu.ifjx.yfbao qkwfbyB.brlufbwFufbcdlOf; {jvif@vlif
ugMbao,Ofh vMUzkpfbZuf;wl? udlefbwlOmif;ao [yfhw.efjyD@rfgbvdlef
qAif,Ofh/ eBhqrf; yAefv.ifjyfgUqAif nrfbeef [yfhw.efjqAify.ifbOMj[Awf;
omifj v.ifj[yfhw.efjyD@rfgbwB;vdlefqAif nefrfgbq.rf; vuf;eDjrfgbeefh
,Ofh/

(c) yBmjqAif nrfbeef uefbawM;yD@rfgb

yBmjqAifnefOMjeefh y.ifbOMjuefbawM;yD@rfgbnrfbeef y.ifbOMj
wmif;[Awf;omifj{jyAef v.ifjruf;rBmwMbeyfh,rf=Uquf;[efxdkifuef? qDh
aev.ifjnrfbvdkrf;uef? aeomufjaob wmif;wmifbae v.ifjOMj? yAefyDj
e.ifhqrfuefqdlOf;eBh,Ofh/ vBm;[Awf;omifjyBmjqAifqrf; - qArfrdlOfjrdlif;
wif;yBbvFif;? qBm;n.efb tvj rmOfb[Bm;cOfeefh vkufhqOfhao rdlOf;wlifh
wufhugmrf;yD@rfgbawMb yDje.ifhue
l f;xOfjulef;tub? uM@eifbyAefvBjefg;cdlOf;
=def;wB;[Of;eefh,Ofh/ ayM;yAefvkufjn.efbyM;umefjwAef;+rf,MjzOf
tvj u.ifjx.yfb(rlufbwFufb)aotvjoif? rmOfbcOfyM;wif;u.ifjr.wfj(u.ifj
yOfb)aotvjoif? cdkefjrdlOf;=def;edlifj,Ofh=def;edlifj? yluf;wB.bqOfj=def;
yDje.ifhwB;? rdlOf;wlifhwufhugmrf; ZMUvDyD@rfgb? v.ifjOMjyD@rfgbzFOfx.if,Ofh?
vDeyfh,rfao yBmj=OfwdlOfheMj(uefbawM;)zlj,fgbao[Of;/ vD[yfhy.ef;
vDwDjayMjxOfjtrjtubcOf,OfheBao [Awf;eBrM;? ayM;rdlif;vFif;rM;auMj
- 33 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

rmOfbomOf? qBm;,dif;? ckefemif;? qArfvkufjvAifhvkufj[Aef; n.efuefcdkefj
=def; vlif;=def; rdlOf;yBmj=OfwdlOfheMj? olbqfg;wlifhwufhuef[Awf;eB awMb
wif;vdlefqAif,Ofh/ v.ifjyfgUyM;wmif;arM=Uquf;uef? wmif;cOfjql;uef?
,.efbe.rf;awMbuef? eyfh,rfuef? ruf;rBmuefqdlOf;eBhqrf; yAefzdifjvD
vlifwB;rdlOfju.efb nefyM;efg;xkif;yBmjqAifeBh,Ofh/

(i) udefqAif

udefqAifnefOMjeBhqrf; yAefv.ifj[Awf;omifjvAifhvluef,Ofh/
eifb[dkOfawyAefwmif;ruf;rBm Oef;yD@rfgbwB;vdlefqAifeBh wB;[Of;ul@y.ufj
[Fef;nOfwmif;udefzdifjwB;ao vAifhvlawMbyDje.ifhwif;vBm eifbnef
olbwOfjcOfjzFOf=def;wlOfuOfbrM;eefh,Ofh/ rdlOfjz.if; yDjn.ufbe.ifhoBm
qdlOfhcdlOf;wB;[Of;? vkufjvmefcOfjrM;uefbawM; yBmj=OfwlOd fheMjauMbqAif
yD@rfgbeBh wB;[Of;rdlOfjul@y.ufj [Awf;yM;yB.;udefqAifq.rf; urf;vAOf,Ofh/
qdlOf;vkufjn.efbcOf nefrM;yBmj=OfqArfqOfheefh yefy.ef;vDu.pf;ao
nrfbuM;? w.efjyefwmif;udef,B.j,Frf;? rmufbnlrf? rmufbr.ufbOBmbOef;?
rmufbwB.b? rmufbwlyf;? rmufbq.uf;? rmufbOmefcOfu.pf;aonrfbuM;? yef
Zefol;idkef;ol;w.if;yD@rfgb? {jrD;vmyfj rD;okefb rD;rmefugMbeMjwif;yD@
eBao? ofgbyM;yefwDjaubref; idkef;auMUaxjaxj,Ofh/ yAefvBm;vkufj
n.efbauMjqlrf; zdifjwB;auMjvD? cdlOf;wB;auMjrefjvBm;edlifjeifbuOfb
,Ofh/ qdlOf;rM;yBmj=Of nef[mrfhymef,fgbeB nrfbyefol;idkef;/ yefol;
ugmrf;rmifbuvMbrD;okuf; tvj vAifhvlwmif;udef wif;wmif;udef,B.j,Ofh/
rmif@=def;auMj [Awf;erferfao +ifhyM;yDje.ifh=def;wfgj=def;edlOfaotvj
oif? r.ufbyM;yDje.ifhr.ubf ,MjcOfjwFufbaotvjoif? wif;qdlOf;uM@nef
rM;+wfjolbxdkifwDj=def;qdlOf;eefh [yfhvAifhvlyefukrfbxlefj,lb,Ofh/ eBh
qrf; yAefvBm;udefqAifyD@rfgbwB;,OfhanMj/ wDjudefqAifeBh wB;[Of;[Awf;
vAifhwmif;udefzdifjwB;u.pf;u.pf;,Ofh/ rdlefeifb cOfjykuf;? cOfjoB.;? cOfj
- 34 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

rAwfhuBmb? cOfjvdlif? cOfjvFifhZdkef;? cFOfh? OmefZkef;? xlOfbZl;? rmufb,Fef@?
cOfjrkef;? cOfjy.if; ul@rAOf;rAOf; q.rf;eifbuM@wB;[Of;[Awf;n.ufbvBjq.rf;
ydlifzdifjwB;eefh,Ofh/ rmif@qdlOf;auMj vAifho.rf;wDj=def;a,;aorFifb
wmif;vDulUolOfbwMb ylbr.efbeBm;,M@ qdlOf;vyfhvB.idkef;vB.crf;ugMbeefh
aotvjoif? +ifhvAifhqMbuMUvkufjn.efb ulef;xOfjaotvjoif?
n.efuef[Awf;wmif;vD wDj=def;zfga,;ref;,lb,OfhanMj/
ydlifvlifref;twh cfgjvAifhoifauMjvD nefawvBjwrf;yM;wMb
ruf;rBmudefqAifqrf; yAefcOfjeAOfa[Mbw.ifcFrf nefnOfoAefjcM;rwfhOBh
eefh,OfhanMj/ cOfjeAOfa[Mbw.ifcFrf nOfoAefjcM;cAOfz.wfjeBhqrf;
,dlif;ql;wMb{jv.ifjyAefnAefyAef[Fif; n.rfbv.rfjz.rfh=rfj? rD;odefvD
oAwfjqMbv.ifjcdlifbudkrf;c.wfbZefj? orfhv.wfjaz;v.wfjvmefbao [ufh
+rf=rfjudkrf; nrfbzmwfbnrfb,mefaoy.ufjeefh,Ofh/ wDj[drf;cOfjcFrf
a[Mborfh vBjwrf;yBm;rmufbclif@(omif;azM;) ,dlif;ql;{j,lbvDyD;oef;?
uwf;,Aefcsmrf;oMb rdlOfjvfgaonrfbOMj ,.efhu.yfjwmif;yAefao ,Mb{j
vBjvkwfj ,Mb{jvBjukwfj[mrf;yOfbao rD;okifyAef,fgb/ wDjcmifjcOfj
cFrfa[MbeefheifbuOfb vBjwrf;yBm;cOfjrOfjcOfjOmef rmif@qdlO;f auMjOMj
cOfjvdlif(cOfjr.ufbvdlif)eBauMjrD;/ eBhorfh ,dlif;ql;{jvBjwef;cdkwf;rdlOfj
cdkwf;,mrf;? {jvBjrmufjrD;vDyAef {jrD;eMjrD;wM? cdkefj,fgbrfgbokifwdlOf;
w.ef;ugMbeMjeB,Ofh/ rmif@qdlOf;auMj wrf;yM;cOfjx.efh rmif@z.ifj+ifhOMj
cOfjrkef;ukef;iM;/ rmif@qdlOf;wrf;yM;cOfjrfgb cOfj,MbclU/ urfjerftwh
wrf;yBm;yM;cOfjawMb? cOfjrAwfhuBmb {jzdlefwlpf;vFyfjwlpf;vDaovAifh
vluef? odkybf ,dkefjyefuef? [yfhvAifhuefeBh +ifhOMjudefqAif,Ofh/ ydlifvlif
ref;twh cOfjcFrfz.wfjoAefjcM;? rmufbclif@wif;cOfjvdlifeBh wuf;=UvBj
yM;yef {jzdifjauMbqAif,dkef;,mOf; eefh,Ofh/ rmif@qdlOf;auMj [yfhr.ufb
wMbvAifhcOfjvAifhvOfjwif; edlOfhnD;yMaowMUauMj cOfjcFrfz.wfj oAefj
cM;twh ,if;wdkufhvBjofgbyM; qifb,krfbOMjyAefyB.;udefqAifeB,Ofh/ yAef
- 35 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

cmOf;trjqOfj=def;wB;[Of;cOf aeerfhuwfhwmif;cFefb vBm;[kifrdkOfhcOf
awMbyDjndufbe.ifhwif;vBm,Ofh/ cmOf;eBh r.ufbrmufb,.wfj=Ofndufbzuf;
,dlOfjcdlOf;cAOfauMj n.ufbvdlifbaq;rAOf;tvj zuf;zdifjwB;eBh ,mrfj=dOfj
=dif;rM; ,.efhyB.;udefqAif,lb umyfjedlifjymefedlifj,Ofh/ eBhqrf; +ifhOMj
udefqAif eB,Ofh/
rdlOfjz.if;rD;qOfjcBbZMUckefrdlif;? ymefrD;qOfjrD;q.rf[mif;acM
eefheB Oef;yD@rfgbwB;eBh ulef;rdlif;n.efuefrdlOf;yBmjqOfjwDj[mifjwDja[M
efg;aq@eefhao? z.if;rdlif;vlifefg;a[McOforfh vlaev.ifjodlufjidlefj
ydkef;wB;? v.ifjcdlOf;=def;qOfjwB;[Of;cOf? v.ifjOMjwB;[Of;eBh vkufhwDj=Of
clif;vlif@vdlOfbao cBmh,Btzjwdkef;rM;/ ydkef;wB;udkuf;urfbZMbeBh twb
qArfrdlOfj ylauMbydkifjzdkifjauMb=if;rM;tvj qifbvBjrD;ugmrf;nefOMj ZB;
vFif;wDjvfgyAefrdlif;OMU erfho.ifbwDjvfgyAefrdlif;wB;rM;/ [dkifemef;,dkef;
,mOf;cmOf;[dkif yAefrM;cdlOf;wB;vlifvBmcdlOf;/ idlefjcdlOf;=def;ulef;wB;eBh
yAef[dkOfyAef[MrM;eB wDjymifyBmjqOfj([efeMjqOfj) efg;a[Meefh cdkef;vl
ae? cB@ae? vkufjvmefqdlOf;yAefcdlOf;=def;wB;eefh,lb,Ofh/ ayM;yB.;yBmj
qOfjeBh ,OfhwlOjf vDimrf;,Ofhqifb wDjymifeMjOmif;a[Meefh wB;[Of;
twbvAefjqAifvlpfjuef,Ofh/ yB.;yBmjqAif(yBmjqOfj)eBhqrf; zBmbedlifj
auMjvBjOMjyAefyB.;omif;oAefjqvmif; yBm;qdlOfhcdlOf;vlif{jwFwfjeFwfj
eefh,Ofh/ vmwfjaecdkef;ydkef;qdlOfhcdlOf;wlOfuOfbnefOMjeefh awcFrfh
vFyfjuM@[dkOf ,AefbtijvlifeBh vD[ufhvDyFif;ao xkufbyfgUyM;odrf;rFwfbOBh
uM@[dkOfnefOMjeefh yDje.ihw
f B;wif;vBm xkufbqlrf;odlOf;=Uy.ifbedlOfwmif;
vrfbv.ifjzdifjauMbqAifeBh,lb,Ofh/

(q) vAefjqAif

vAefjqAifeBh yAefwmif;[Awf;omifjv.ifjruf;rBmzdifjauMbqAif
nefedlifjao,Ofh? yAefv.ifjwmif;rlef@odlOf; vlpfjuefq.rf;zdifj,Aefb
- 36 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

tijwB;eefhu.pf;,Ofh/ ayM;yB.;yBmjqOfjyBmjqAif nef,dlif;ql;qOfjydlifb
erfhirf;vdef tvj ymifw.yfbodlufjydkef;idlefjcdlOf;wB;(cdlOf;=def;),Ofh,
OfheBauMj n.efuefvAefjqAifvlpfjuef,Ofh/ vBm;vAefjqAifqrf; rdlOfj
yB.;yBmjqOfjuefbawM;qOfjeefh zlj[myfbumef[myfbz.ef;wM@ckef qOfj
ckefcOf vBjvDimrf;cFrfhvFyfj? rD;odefrD;oqfjqMbqdlOf;eefh qOfjqdkijf
(qOfjZMU)qifbylifOmif;yefy.ef;vD ol;idkef;? ol;clOf;? ol;olef? vdef?
eM;/ rmif@qdlOf;auMjcdkefjyefwM@ckef(,Mbxl;)/ vdlOfyefidkef;=OfyD@
aotvjoif? wmifbyefqdkOfjoAifqkrfj? u.ef;? ndif@? rdlif; cOfqdlOf;eBh
{jyAefZl;(arMbukef;)ugMb? cOfjefg;oAefjZl;rdlif;ugMbaotvjoif rD;eifb
eB,Ofh/ rmif@qdlOf;eBauMj vBjcOfjyAefefg;oAefjvkufjqOfjvmefckef
ugMbaonrfbuM;? rmif@qdlOf;eBauMjvBjyM;ol;clOf;vmyfbclOf;vFOf;? clOf;uGifj?
clOf;rMUcDb? clOf;cdlifjqfgUwmif;wdkOf; nefrD;uM@rD;cefeefh {jyAefeMj
yAefwMugMb udkuf;ydkef;rdlOf;eMjeefh,Ofh/ ayM;OBm;yB.;yBmjqOfjtvj yB.;wmifb
qdkOfjyefy.ef;,Ofh n.efuef=rfqlrf;vAefjqAifaewmif;uwfh? v.ifj
qmif@wmif;arMzfgref;,lb,Ofh/ u.yfjeB odkyfbwif;yB.;yBmjqAifao,Ofh
nefyAefrM;yB.;vAefjqAifeBhqrf; rD;vBmrAOf;vBmoFef;awhawh/
ulef;ekrfbulef;uD@tvj zljrD;ykefjz.ef;ndufbzlj[myfbumef
uwfhcFefbcOfqdlOf;eefh nFefbrMUaeulef;rdlif;? yB.;eBhudkef;awhawh/ eifb
uM@wmif;arMvBm;zef;rdlif;? yBm;umefodkuf;zBmbwB;rD;eefh vAefjaeugMb
[mif@vD[mif@imrf;oAifjoAifj/ aevrfhuwfhwmif;,dkif;u.ifj? v.ifjayhu.ifj/
,dkOf;umifbv.ifjayhcdlifjumifb/ vBm;+ufbvBm;vmyfbvBm;vFOf;? vBm;oFefhvBm;
qdlif;ul@rAOf;rAOf;/ nFefbrMU? cDbrMU? cAufhuef/ wFif;+ufbzef;vmyfbvAefj
uef qdlOf;eBhu.pf;aonrfbuM;? cDbrMUaevBm;cDbul@rAOf;rAOf;ugMbuefOMj
eefh vBj,mrfj=Uidef;rM; efg;yuf;vAefjqAif,lbanMj/
rmOfbomOfcOfeBauMj vAefjrlef@uefwif; wmif;vAefj]rMU
odyf;o.if} rmOfbwif;omOf edlifjzBmbodyf;o.ifauMUao rmOfborfhwmifb
- 37 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

qdkOfjcOfyAefrmOfbrdlif;oFefOD/ omOfcOftwh yefbykwfjao yAefvBjomOf
vBmrdlif;,lb/ OBm;nOfugmrf;vBm; ]rMUodyf;o.if} w.ifjxmrfw.yfbvmwfjuef
,OfhwlOfjy.ifbvFif;vBjqfg,OfheB qifbvkufhwDjcyfhxFOfOBhqBm;,dif; qkrf;
zBmbzBmbeefhao qifbcOfjuMjnFefbrMU vBm;uMj]rMUodyf;o.if}vlpfj
uef? +ifhOMj ]uMjw.wfj}eefh,lbrlef@odlOf;/ +ifhyM;ugmrf;aovl;u.efb
,Ofh/ wmif;uMjrMUodyf;o.ifqrf; yAefwmif;vAefjaowMUauMj efg;ugmrf;
uMjtvjugmrf;xmrfeefh cdkef;vmwfjaecdkef; ydkef;wB;[Of;? v.ifjrmOfb
omOfrdlif;oFefOD tvj rdlif;edlOfrdlif;wfgjcOfrD;wmif;uyf;uBmbz.rfhzAifbuef
,lbwMbaobeefh,Ofh/ wDjeBh vDcOfjqfgawMbidlefjwdkef; ydkef;Oef;vif
wB;wif;vBm nefyAefwB;cdkef? wB;vdkOfh? wB;edlOf? wB;rmOf;cOfOBh,lb/
wmif;uMjrMUodyf;o.if wdkufhodkyfboBmqfgydkef;aovFif;aeOBh v.ifjydkef;wB;
rdlif;wfgjrdlif;edlOfcOfOef;eefh rD;wmif;qrfqfguefeifb rmOfb tvj omOf
efg;wmif;uMj]rMUodyf;o.if}nefyM;efg;zdifjauMbqAifeBh,lb/ tvhoifh
wmif;awMbtvj [Of;qmrf;vdwfjwlpf; =Of,B.jref;z.ifjvl; rdlif;oFefODqrf; yAefrdlif;iOfjcdlOf;vlifckefwB; nefodkyfbvmrf;
rM;wDj xOfjrdlif;vlif wmOfhvAuf; tvj wmOfhcmifcOfao qifbyAefrM;rdlif;
aq@? rdlif;uAif;? rdlif;OAif; ul@wDj ul@wmif; ul@i.efj eefh,Ofh/
rdlif;edlOfyFwfbrdlif;edlOfclif; rdlOfjeefhqrf; - (É)rdlif;wdif
(Ê)udkifrMU (Ë)rdlif;cFif (Ì)rdlif;cM (Í)rdlif;,M; (Î)rdlif;xlif
(Ï)rdlif;ulOfj (Ð)rdlif;rdlif; - cOfqdlOf;eBh,Ofh/
rdlif;wfgjodyf;rdlif;wfgjclif;qrf; - (É)rdlif;cdlOf; (Ê)rdlif;c.ef
(Ë)aq@Zmif (Ì)rdlif;wD; (Í)rldif;Oef; (Î)qmef;wMj (Ï)rdlif;vMj
(Ð)rdlif;rmOf; (Ñ)rdlif;oM (ÉÈ)rdlif;y.ef; - cOfqdlOf;eBh,Ofh/
rdlif;edlOf c.ifodyf;o.ifyef;eM;qrf; - ayM;nOfoAefjrdlif;rdlOfj
yD@ 1807 eDjeefhOMjqdkif (É) rdlif;cBm; (Ê) rdlif;v.if; (Ë) rdlif;cFif
(Ì)uAif;[Fif; (Í)rldif;zlif; (Î)rldif;vMj (Ï)rdlif;vMjnDbokrfbr.ufb
- 38 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

(Ð)rdlif;[rf; (Ñ)yl;vMjvlif (ÉÈ)rdlif;nl (ÉÉ)uAif;w.if (ÉÊ)rldif;[dif;
cOfqdlOf;eBh,Ofh/ (acMjrBmw.if; - oAefjqdkOfjoAifrdlif;efg; odyf;o.ifyef;
eM;eBh q.rf;vlpfjyD@rdlif;vBm@aotvjoif? yBm;nkyfhydlifbz.if;irf;vBm@
aotvjoif? urf;urf;rD;v.ifjvFufjvBm@,lbwMbaobtvj oAefjeBhqrf;
yAefoAefjrdlif; nefwmifbzdkefOBhrdlOfjyD@rdlif; 1807 eDjeefhu.pf;,Ofh/
oAejf qdkOfjrdlif;eBh wif;nefaeOBhwDjefg;oAefjyD@ 1890 eBauMj vBj
[efyFufbydlifjuefwif;erf,Ofh/ oAefj 1807 eDjeBh nrfbyM;uAif;[kifj/
oAefj 1890 qrf; yM;uAif;[kifj,lb,Ofh/ qdkOfjoAiftvj acMjn.ufboAif
ref;qmif@yFufbydlifj,lb/)
ayM;wlpf;nOfoAefjrdlif;qdlOf;eBhao rM;+rf;udkuf;wif;wmif;uMj
rMUodyf;o.ifao,Ofh odkyfbvAyfj[Aef;clefhcB@wlpf; v.ifjzdifjwB;qdkif
awvDcOfjqfguM@[dkOf/ eifbrmOfbeifbomOfcOf uMjrMUodyf;o.ifeefh rmOfb
n.efbomOfn.efbcOfauMj n.efuefvAefjc.ifb? +ifhOMjc.ifbwMqD;? c.ifb
t[UcOfqdlOf;eBhao? vkufjn.efbekrfbcOforfh vAefjawMbtuw.wfja[Mb
aotvjoif? ulef;ekrfbcOforfh vAefjw.wfju.ef;uefaonrfbuM;?
ulef;vlif ulef;cmOfhcOfauMjnrfb,lb n.efuefvAefjqdlif;udefrlef@
anMj/ rmif@qdlOf;auMjuMjrlef@uefao [Awf;ugmrf;rmufbq.rf;odyf;o.if
vdlef? cmOf;yD@wB;,lb,OfhanMj/
u.yfjzdifjwB;auMbqAifyD@rfgbwB;eBhao,Ofh v.ifj=Uwmif;arMwB;
[Of;,mrf;eefeefhtvjoif? vBm;cDbrMUauMj cDbvBm@? cDbcdkefjodkuf;? uufh
oBmxOf? vAefjwdefodlOf;? wdefn.efb? wdefyB? wdefvFefjtvjoif? cDb
wdefumiftvj udkifhumifhyB.bodwfhodOfb? yB.bwdefokif? cDbtcb? cDbwB;? cDbuM;
vM;eB vBj[efrD;rM;ul@rAOf;rAOf;/ ZBmb[ufh+rfz.rfhzAifbuefeBauMj uMjrMU
odyf;o.if? udefqAif? yBmjqAifcOfqdlOf;eBh yefwmif;urfhxFrfwMboBmqfgqdlOfh
cdlOf; refjudkrf;,dkef;,mOf;rM;awhawh/ ,AefbtijudefqAif nefnOf
wmif;udefolifbxdkifulef;xOfj ulef;tub? yDje.ifh[drf;=def;[drf;a,;? [yfh
- 39 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

yDje.ifhauMUaojvAifhvleBh awvD[yfh+if;aouM@[dkOf/ wDjyB.;auMbqAifeBh
n.efuefcdkef;ckuf;qfgvBjcdkef;? clefhcB@odlufjydkef;idlefjwB;cdlOf;=def;wB;
aevkufjvmeftvj vD[ufh+rf;vBm;eBhao vD,dlifjq.rf;odrf;yFif;OBhuM@
[dkOf/ u.yfjeB ayM;xdkifvdlefqAifnefwB;[Of;[Awf; yBmjqAif? udefqAif?
vAefjqAif? yfgUqAif nefyAefydliaf uMbqAifqdlOf;eBh? eifbvAufhekrfbxOfjul@
ymeful@oFef;cOf cOfjyM;zAefjeefh? wMbzdifjwB;rdlOf;eMjtvj rdlOfjeBh
aw=dif;ugMbeefh wB;[Of;ul@auMU xkufbvAyfj[Aef; vBm;auMbqAifao cdkif
omifj[Awf;y.ifyD@rfgbwB;auMbqAifugMb,lbcdlOf;cdlOf;,Ofh/ zdifjauMbqAifnef
uyf;uBmbvlpfjv.ifj[Awf;omifj yD@rfgbwB;qrf; rD;eifbeBuGpf;,Ofh/ nef
wmifbvmwfjcB@aerM;rdlOfjvAOfeBh yAefydlifvdlif;wDjuFyfjref;u.pf;/ eifb
[dkOfaw=UvBj wDjugmifjref;aoodkyfbvFif;aeugMb qFifjqFifjxFifjeefh
twh yAefumefv.ifjq.yfb[Mvrf;ydkef;tvj ,krfb,rfqOfj=UarMwB;[Of;
cOf ul@qOfjul@wlef awn.efuefodkyfbclefhwBb aoMU[Mtr;ukrf;{jwdlOf;
vDwdlOf;cFrfhw.ef;ugMbeMj,lbeB/

- 40 -

vuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB; yAefoifOBh,lb
yDje.ifhwB;[Of;cOfwif;vBmaeMj ayM;=UOMjyD@rfgbwB;nefOMjeefh yAefv.ifjx.ufbxBbvFufjvBm@
yD@uOfbodkyfbcOfjql;yD@rfgbeB vBjOMjwArfxlefj,OfhaowMUauMj? wMb
vuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB; nefOMjeefhtwh yBbwArfxlefjy.ifbacMjvFif;vDvBjvl;
u.efb/ uyf;uBmbvlpfj yD@vuf;eDjao,Ofh n.efwmif;okwf;awvBj=UOBh
v.ifjOMj trjyD@wB;rD;odyf;wlOf/ cOfqrf;yAef umyfb? vmyfj? [Bm;? rdlif;? ydkuf;? uwf;? clwf;? =ifh? wOfb? uMb
cOfao,Ofh/ Oef;wB;odyf;Oef;eBauMj +ifh,Ofh/ vkufjyD@
wB;qrf; yAef qfgU? yOfh? ,D;? rOfh? oD? ofgU? oDiMU? rlwfb? oef? [Ofh? rAwfh? ufgU
cOfodyf;o.ifwlOfeBh,Ofh/ e.ufjaoeBh udkuf;wif;vkufjyD@wB;
odyf;o.ifwlOfeBh rD;rdifj(emrfb)vkufjyD@wB; odyf;oGifwlOf nefyAef qfgU= el? yOfh = ugBm;(OlOf;)? ,D; = odlOf? rOfh = ymifwmB;?
oD = idlufjeuM;? ofgU = il;? oDiMU = rMU? rlwfb = tyh(arj)?
oef = vdif;? [Ofh = uBb? rAwfh = rM? ufgU = rl(qmifh)
cOfqdlOf;eBh,Ofh/
vBm;eyfhnmefbvuf;eDjyD@wB; tvj vBm;wrf;Omif;yD@wB;twh
rD;eifbeB/ awvBjnOftrjyD@wB;edlifjwlOf ulyf;yefvkufjyD@wB;edlifj
wlOf {jyAefulyfhao +ifhugMbqfgUugMb,lb,OfhanMj/ rdlOfju.efbeefh yD@wB;
Oef;wB;eB wdkef;eyfhnmefbq.rf;eBhugMbv.efhv.efh,Ofh/ rdlefeifbtwb
- umyfbqfgU? vmyfjyOfh? [Bm;,D;? rdlif;rOfh ugMbawMb wlOful@trjyD@tvj
vkufjyD@ ayM;avM;ulyfhrFefjuefugMb eefh,Ofh/ eBhaw[dkifwMb=uf;odyf;
Oef;tvj wB;[Of;+ifhOMjOef;wB; edlifjyefb+yfjeB,Ofh/ =uf;odyf;yD@
- 41 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

auMj qifb+wfjcdkef;edlifjyD@yefb+yfj vuf;eDjyD@wB;,lb,OfhanMj/
[Awf;eBeyfhugMb ayM;vkufjyD@wB;okwf;ugMbwMb=uf;odyf;Oef;yefb+yfj?
=uf;yefb+yfjeB yAefedlifjyD@ao? ayM;[dkifodyf;o.ifyD@ wef;vBm@rFefj
emrfbvkufjyD@wB;odyf;o.ifwlOfwArfeB cdkef;+ifhOMj ]edlifjvkefh} eB,Ofh/
zdifjeyfhvuf;eDjyD@wB;eBh wB;[Of;qfgUwdkOf;rM;{jyAefydlifcdlOf;
[dkif,mOf;eMb,OfhauMj OBm;vifrM;vBj[efokufh,kifjuOfeOf;rM; ,.efhodkuf;
odlOf? ,.efhqmOf;zMboMb? ,.efhyBm;rdlif; tvj ,.efhcmefhwMbyfgUyM;zdifj
wlOfuOfbao ql;iBmjugMbqdlOf;eBh,Ofh/ rdlefeifb v.ifjyD@rfgbomif;usmefbtvj
oif? v.ifj,Aefbtijtvjoif? wB;vBjy.BbzMjxkif;zdifjcdlOf;wlOf uOfbao
q.rf;,dlif;vBm;ydlefjugMbeefhauMj yAefydlifvlifv.ifjedlifj,Ofh/ xFifj
vGijf edlifjqrf; ,dlif;nmef;yfgUyM;zdifjwlOfuOfb,lbaowMU ,.efhiOf; ,A
efbtijzdifjydlefjorfhirf;OBhtvj vBjnOfvBm;ref;vAef;ugMbeefhauMj
rD;,Ofh/ wDjwFufjref; rdlefeifbayM;+wfjOef;vdlefodyf;vyf;eB Oef;
eBhwuf;+ifhOMjOef;trjyD@wmBao? wDjy.ifbtwh cfgjOMjOef;trjyD@wB;
okwf;wArfeldifj+yfjeB,Ofh/ ayM;wlpf;efg;yyfh usmrf;avM;uDby.if;csKufj
wB.;iOfj nefqOfjndifbwuMUydufhclU(e.ifydif) wFrfjOBheefhtvjoif? efg;
usmrf;ydkef;avM;uMU qOfjoFefOD wFrfjeefhtvjoif awvBj[efrFefj
v.ifjOMj yBm;eyfhwB;rD;wMbodyf;Oef;? odyf;cmOf;,lb,Ofh/ ayM;udkuf;wlpf;
wif;Oef;ulef;wmifbcdlOf;qdkif awvBj[efeifbeB ÉX umyfb - OBm;Oef;ykwfhw=; (,Mb=U)
ÊX vmyfj - OBm;Oef;wemif;vMb(udufj)
ËX [Bm; - OBm;Oef;usMboyfhyaw; (rAufhwlU)
ÌX rdlif; - Oef;wemif;elpfb - Oef;nM;wdwfh - emrfbuMvkefb/
ÍX ydkuf; - Oef;wemif;vMb - Oef;qef - emrfbodlOf/
ÎX uwf; - Oef;nifbuMb - Oef;nif;umef; - emrfbomifboDj/
ÏX clwf; - Oef;ykwfhw=; - Oef;ykwfh - emrfbqmifh/
- 42 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

ÐX =ifh - Oef;usMboyaw; - Owf;zwf; - emrfbel/
ÑX wOfb - Oef;o.ufjusMb - Oef;okuf; - emrfbOlOf;/
ÉÈX uMb - Oef;qaeb - Oef;oOf - emrfbwlOfZB;(idlufjymifbvBmb) eB
vBj[efrD;eifbeB,Ofh/ wDjefg;yyfhv.ifjrdlif;wB; w.ef@edlifj? rBmo.if nef
ou.wfh wFrfjeefhauMj rdlOfjtwbcB@aev.ifjvuf;eDjyD@wB; Oef;wB;
,lbaowMU vdkef;vifrM;orfhqfgUwdkOf;Oef;nM;wdwfheBh ][Fif;nlnBm
ulef;}[Of; ,lbwDju.uf;=Of/ qef,lbwDjeMjzmufb? nif;umef;,lb=OfrMb/
ykwfh,lbwDjeMj? zwf;,lbwDjnFOfwDjrdkOf;? okuf;,lbwDjnluf;wDjwdef/
oOf,lbwDjw.ifhtvj trjwdefeBao yAefugMbqAwf;vkufjOef;ao? Oef;
wB;odyf;Oef;nOf[BmugMb,Ofh/ yyfheBh ydkef@n.ufbrdlOfj 1900 yD@wArfeefh
eBtvj [dkifvBj 110 yD@,Ofh/ y.ifbOMjzdifjwB;eBh okufhrM;qArfrdlOfjylefhrM;
ymufbyD@eefheB,Ofh/ uyf;uBmbvlpfjv.ifjvFi@f vmOfeBauMj qkrf;vmOf
nefnkyfhz.if;edlOfvdlefqAifyD@rfgbwB;qrf; yAef]vmOfcMty} yMbvDhOMjylUosMU/ ykifbeMUzkufho eBauMj+ifh,Ofh/ wDjeBhref;wFrfjteOBhv.ifjulef;
nefudlwfb[efeMjefg;vdlefqAif z.if;vmOfcMtyz.if;irf;eBhawyAefOMj
ulef;odkOfj,lOf;/ v.ifjqmif;wmif;urf@vDao awrD;wlefjqfgan;vl
,Ofh/ cOfawyAefulef;uMUul;vlifao qdkOfjawvif@vdkOf;? wB;auMUtvj
yDjndufbe.ifh[drf;+rf;auMj awxkufbqfgoljawMb,Ofh/ cOfeBhawvBj,lb
omufj,mOf;aoydlefj aw=Uxkdiferf,OfheBao wFrfjaerM;auMj? OBm;
vifqdlOf;eefh u.pf;vBj[efqfgUacMjyMbvDhugMbwduf;wduf;ao acMjugmrf;
wB;auMj nrfbvBj[efqfgUwdkOf;,Ofh/ eBhauMj v.ifjedlifj,Ofh/ ulpf;eMb
v.ifjcyfhvuf;eDjOef;wB;twh vBj[ef+ifhOMj zDOef;eB,lbtvj vBj
idlefjwMbodkyfbvrf;q.rf;z.ifj,lb/
efg;yyfhqOfjndifbwMUydufhcUl (e.ifydif) eBh u.pf;nrfbuM;? ayM;
wlpf;cdkef;efg;yyfhqMbwDho'pmefb nefqOfjcl;arMvlif[Of; qOfjumif;
odlOfwFrfj qOfjukefu.ufbcOfodkyfbxkwfbwFrfjeefhauMj wuf;awvBj
- 43 -

- 44 -

rldif;[mOfh
rdlif;rlwfb

umyfboDiMU vmyfjrlwfb [mB;oef

vmyfjofgU

vmyfjrOfh

umyfboD

umyfb,D;

[mB;oD

[mB;oDiMU

rdlif;ufgU

[mB;rAwfh

umyfboef vmyfj[Ofh

rdlif;ofgU

rldif;yOfh

[mB;qfgU

vmyfjufgU

rldif;rOfh

umyfbrAwfh

[mB;,D;

vmyfjyOfh

umyfbqfgU

uwf;[mOfh

uwf;ufgU

uwf;yOfh

uwf;rOfh

uwf;ofgU

=ifhyOfh

=ifhrOfh

=ifhofgU

clwf;rAwfh =ifhufgU

clwf;qfgU

clwf;,D;

clwf;oD

clwf;oDiMU =ifhrlwfb

ydkuf;oDiMU uwf;rlwfb clwf;oef =ifh[Ofh

ydkuf;oef

ydkuf;rAwfh

ydkuf;qfg

ydkuf;,D;

ydkuf;oD

vmB;cyfh Oef;wB; yD@vuf;eDjeefh rD;eifbeB

wOfbrAwfh

wOfbqfgU

wOfb,D;

wOfboD

uMbufgU

uMbyOfh

uMbrOfh

uMbofgU

wOfboDiMU uMbrlwfb

wOfboef uMb[mOfh

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

[efvBm;cyfhOef;wB; yD@wB;eefh rD;eifbwfgjeBheifbuOfb -

ydkef@[mefwB;

OMjeBaowMUauMj? q.rf;nOfzBmbnefa[M;ref; rdlefeifb
(É) umyfbqfgUtrjOef;=if nrfbvDrdkOf;zlumef;,mOf;
ndufbulpfvlif nFOfbaq@/
(Ê) vBm;wmrf;orfh vmyfjyOfhnrfbvD[dkOfjOmefbvOfjql;ckef
qdlifheifbeBugMbao y.BbyFwfjv.ifjodyf;Oef;wB;? yD@rfgbwB;qldOf;eBhrM;
,lb,Ofh/ zBmbedlifjauMj nOfvuf;eDjcOfjudkuf;{jqfgUwdkOf;q.rf; vBm;eyfh
uMbvM;rmef@ugMbauMj yefOBhwmif;ref;tvj vdkef;vifrM;n.efuefwbB
q.rf;wmif;eBhugMbao nOfydlifwB;OOf;O.wfjugMb,lb,Ofh/
ydkifjedlOfv.uf; Oef;=uf;odyf;Oef;yefb+yfjao,Ofh wB;[Of;
,mrfjrD;rM;,Aefbtijzdifjxkif;yuf;vuf;eDj(yuf;yD@yFufhcwdifb)ao rD;
rM;zdifj+ifh [MjOef;edlifjumwfb? odyf;Oef;(odyf;vkufjOef;)edlifjOlifj?
omrfOlifjedlifjvdlef? o.ifvdlefa,jyefb+yfj? =uf;yefb+yfja,jvuf;eDj
,Ofh/ wMbvdlefqAifyAefiOfjyD@wduf;wduf;tvj trjyD@wBmvdlefodyf;vyf;
wduf;wduf;eefh vBjq.rf;vBm;eyfhyD@tcb? yuf;yD@rmef@ao vdlefvyf;
vdlefrlef;q.rf;odyf;o.ifvdlefwB; nefyAefvdlefqAif vdlefurf@ vdlef
omrfeefh eyfhawMbodyf;o.ifvdlef,Ofh/ wDjawhvBm;eyfhyD@wB; vdlef
wB; Oef;wB; q.rf;yuf;yD@wB;ao vdlefvyf;vdlefrlef; ZBmbqmOf;wB;eBh
yAefrAO;f edlifj[mif;acMref;OBh nefOMjeefhauMj vDy.ifbqfguefao vD
odkyfbvAyfj[Aef;xFifjvl;u.efb,Ofh/ u.yfjeB vBm;eyfhwB;rmif@nefeBh
qifbrdlefyD@tcb? rdlefvdlefrmef@yuf;yD@rmef@OBh,Ofh/ [Of;vDcdkef;vAyfj
[Aef;cdkef; yuf;ydlifyD@wB;[Of;uOfbuOfbeefhcdkef;ao vDqfgUwdkOf;q.rf;
yuf;ydlifzdifjydlifcdlOf;wlOfuOfbugMb,lb/ v.ifjeBhydkifjwDjedlOfusmrf;wlefjrdifj
(zDOef;)-wB;? ,lef;? cdkef? vdkOfh? vmOf;? xB;cOfaoauMj awcdkef;=UvBj
idlefjref;iBmjiBmj,lb/ qkrf;qdlOf; yDje.ifhwB;qdlOf;eBhqrf; nrfb,mrfjvBj=U
idef;v.ifjOMj zdifjydlifyuf;yD@cOf,mrfjvBjcmrfbwmif;,MUao cOfvBjzMj
yB.byFwfjzdifjyD@cOf/ ulpf;,mrfjidef;efg;ydkef;wfgjclif; tvj rdlif;rmef@
- 45 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

ndufbrdlif;uM;vM;u.pf;/
efg;rdlif;tcb umyfjymefokif@qkif@omef@(nefyAefw.ufbwfgb
okef@,Fwfhodef@)eefh ,.efhcOfyluf;y.ifyBm;zdifjrdlif;rfgbtvj cOfvBj,MU
r.wfbzdifjxkif; ymefckefa[Mcrf;rmif@z.ifjao tr;yluf;wifjzdifjrdlif;
yBm;nkyfhy.ifqOfjq.rfqdkifj/ ,mrf;eef cOfrlefhtr;zdifjxkif;cOf{jyAef
yuf;vAOfydlifvAOftvj zdijf wB;vdlefqAifeBh ,.efhyAefcmOf;umefokufheBtvj
{jcBmhvBm@yefql;vdlefoDb {jrdlefyD@rfgbtcbugMbeB,Ofh/ twbnOfrdlOfjeefh
rM; r.ufjyD@rdlif;qAwf;odyf;ceBheBh wB;[Of;qfgUwdkOf;yD@rfgbvdlefoDbrM;,lb
,Ofh/ rdlefeBeifbuOfb wDjrdlif;uM;vM;,mrf;vAOfeBh rdlOfjeefh,mrfjrD;rM;rdlif;qdkifjwB;
nefwlOfuOfbckefwB;[Of;cOf nkyfhy.ifydlifbirf;eefh,lb/ rdlif;eefhqrf;
yAefrldif;wB;nBmjomrf(nMbomrfb) cdlOf;odkyfbckefwB;n=rf,Ofh/ cdlOf;ckef
wB;eBhauMj qfgUwdkOf;zdifjnmefbeyfhyD@wB; Oef;wB;rM;qArfrdlOfjymefylb
ymefr.efbvBmumyfjvBmymef,Ofh/ efg;ydkef;wB; yl;'if;usD;? yyfhrBmomrf(nef
wFrfjOBhv.ifjcdlOf;wB;n=rf? cdlOf;nef,mrfj=dif;rM;wDjomyfberfhz'lrf;
ykwfb? efg;tu;eBh ugmrf;wB;OMjtu;erfhomif)eefh OMjOBhtwh - yD@rdlif;
qlOf;aO; nefqfgUrM;qArfymef rdlif;'mrf;rdlif;'D;eefh rM;vBm@rdlOfjckef
odlOf[mifrdlif;(yXo-2040-2082) nefrD;OAif;iOfjwDj c'[cn.ef;/
odlOf[mifrdlif;eBh qdkOfjawhref;yAef wmOfhnBmjqAyfb,mwfbZMU(y.ifbOMjqOfj
vlif nefvBj[yfhnOfwDjclif;umif[mOfvlif;rM;)eB,Ofh/ ,.efhqlOf@ymef
ref;rM; qifb,MUyFwfjxkif;zdifjylb[Awf;rM; ,M@[Awf;OBhao y.pfbyFwjf
yD@wB;? orfhvBm@vuf;eDjao qfgUyD@uM;vM;ugMbtvj wDjyMb[AOfjref;
q'Bm;ax;OlOf;eefh qifbrBmw.if;OBhyefqdkOfjrfgbOMj ]nBmjaqbyD@}(y.ifb
OMjulj,drf@nOfyD@cdlOf;rAOf;ydlefj)eB,Ofh/
efg;ydkef;qdkifjwB;[Of;eBauMj vBj[efv.ifjyuf;yD@wB;[Of;vFufj
vBm@rM;eBh yM;rD;efg;ydkef;rdlif;eBm;,lb/ uyf;uBmbvlpfjv.ifjeBhao,Ofh
- 46 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

awnOf]acMjrBmwDjw.if;} nefyM;rD;efg;yyfhrBm+rfwDjvD=U ]yuf;,Arfj
Oef;}eefh wrf;aeaoauMj xmifbawy.ifbqFifjvFif;vDwArfxlefjugMb
vBj,lb/ efg;yyfheBhOMj - ]v.ifjyuf;vuf;eDjeBh ulef;rdlOfju.efbcOfodkyfb
uefaoyuf;rBmrM;OBheefh yD@xrf;tvj yD@wB;eBhyuf;rBm,dyf;uFrf;rM;q.rf;
uef vBj[efeifbeB/ wFrfjrBmOBhyAefyyfhyAefzdkefOBhrM; nefOMjzdkefvdufj
omufju'dwjf qFefbeefh vBj[efrD;OBh,lbqdlifheef/ wDjefg;zdkefomufju
'dwfjqFefbeefh wFrfjrBmOBhrdlefeifbwDj - yD@auM;qMb 1173 yD@xrf;
=ifhrlwfb yD@wB;[Bm;oDiMU/ vdlef[Mjv.ifjoDbcrfj Oef;[Mjaw;? omif;usmefb
wluf;/ =uf;crfj? qAwf;aeb nwMbwmufj/ ylOfbcsLufjrdlif;eBm;yefvdufj
rM; {jqOfjZMUcOftr;yFufhcwdifb/ ayM;rOfbqmif@tr; {jnOfvlif;wfgj
OMjeB/ qOfjvlifrdlif;eBm;e.ef;tz;yD@eefh} wFrfjrBmOBhrD;eifbeB/
odkyfbaowFrfjOBhxFifjqrf; - ]ayM;cdkef;clyf;wlpf;wDj wlOfyfgU
yD@ yD@xrf;eefh yAefyD@tyh? yD@wB;[Bm;oDiMU orfhyAefyD@rMU} eB,lb
tvj/ eBhqdkif ayM;cdkef;wlpf;efg;v.uf;yD@wlOfemrfbyfgUyD@eefh yD@wB;
vBjwluf;vdkef;yD@xrf;,lbv.uf;edlifj/ yAef[dkOfauMj emrfbwlOfyfgUyD@eefh
xkufbvDvBjrdlefuef,lbaowMUauMj vuf;eDjnefodkyfbyuf;rM;xFifjeefh
awyAefnefvBm@cBmhq.rf;yD@rfgb vdlef[Mjeefhtvj vBjyAefugMbeifbeB,lb
,Ofh/ ayM;vFufjvBm@cBmhq.rf; wDjvdlefqAifqdkif vlOfbokwfhugMbyMjeMj
v.uf;edlifj/ yD@wB;awyAef rdlif;rlwfbyD@tyh? yD@xrf; nefrBmOBh=ifhrlwfb
auMj yD@tyhrdlefuefyAif;uef,lb,Ofh/ zljvAyfj[Aef;(olUawboDb)cOf
qOfjtvj zlj=UqFifjcOfqOfj vDcB@clwfhclefhOlefhn.ufboyf;aeqFifjvFif;
yefwDjeBjeBh,lb xmifbeifbeB} eBao ouf;vFif;aerM;,lbtvj
wmefbvD=Uy.ifbqFifjvFif;q.rf; v.ifjvlpfjvuf;eDjyD@rfgbwB;yAefoifOBh
,lb nefOMjeBh,lb,Ofh/ ,.efheBtvj wDjefg;zdkefvdufjeBh qifbqfgUwdkOf;
OBhacMjugmrf; nefyAefyD@rdlif; {jwmifwDjomufju'dwfj/ yuf;yD@{jwmif
yFufhcwdifb/ vuf;eDj{jwmifomif;usmefbao? yD@rfgbwB; {jykwfjwDjyD@rfgb
- 47 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

tcbugMb nefOMjqdlOf;eBhOBh,lb,Ofh/ ayM;[Of;n.efuefy.ifbqFifjvFif;qfg
edlOfacMjugmrf;qfgUwdkOf;qdlOf;eBhvDvD,Ofhqdkif efg;umyfjymefnef,myfbzdkwfbvlifeBh [Of;cOfvBjwmif;z.rfh=rfj
ZBmb,AefbtijzdifjcdlOf;nefedlifj,Ofhao auMbwifjvBjzdifjyuf;yD@ yD@
rfgbwB;auMbqAif,OfhnefOMjeefh ,krfb,rf[efxdkifOBh,lb,Ofh/ rdkOf;c.ef
vAOf wlyf;erfhnrfbvif@OMj? nOfuefOMjyM;uefyAefqifb cOfj,Aefaw
,Aef;yAefcOfjnkefbcdkef;vBj,Ofh/ yDje.ifhwB;[Of;ul@auMUul@wDj {jarM
[ufh+rfn.rfjyFif;? {jarMqB.j[Fif;xFrfuefugMbaourf;/ [Of;n.efuefnOf
wmif;=Uy.ifbedlOfqdlOfhcdlOf;ao n.efurfhuFrfqB.jomifjwDjeMjumefnefyluf;
y.ifrdlif;rgfgb[Of;cOfugMb =rfjuefvlpfjwMU/

- 48 -

vuf;eDjyAefv.ifjwmifbrBmefg;ydkef;
wB;[Of;=U,Ofhv.ifjyD@wB;? Oef;wB;? vdlefqAifrfgbqdlOf;eBh,Ofh
auMj vD=UyM;v.ifjydlifvrfbv.ifjvuf;eDj,lb/ efg;cdlOf;wB;[Of;eBh qkrf;
qdlOf;nefqfgUwdkOf;vuf;eDjeBh erfaoqdlOf;nefnrfb=Uxdkifv.ifjvuf;
eDj,Ofh/ ulpf;eMb ,lbzfg,lbref;ao qifbnOf,mefuefOBh eBhy.ifbOMj
wdkufhrD;oBmiBmvD,lb/ wMbyfgUyM;zdifjcdlOf;eBh wdkufhcdkwf;,mrf;,lb/ yBbvBjOMj
wlu;f vdkef;eMb,Ofh eBvl;u.efb/ u.yfjoiftvj vBjwmifbaev.ifjeBheB
qrf;? u.yfj,mrfjvBjidef;ugmrf; acMjymufbvmwfj qOfjwlefcl;OM;vlifefg;
rdlif;qdkifjwB;qOfjeldifjOMj - efg;yuf;yD@ awrM;wFrfj{jokufh[Awf;oif?
nrfbrD;wDjy.ifboif? zfgauMjnrfb=Uref; eBOMj/ eBhzdwf;vlifzdwf;vmif
awhawh/ u.yfjwlOfuOfbnrfb=Unrfby.ifbqfgtvj zfgauMjnrfb=UeB aw
odkyfbOMjqdlifheB,lb[MU/ ,.efhyAeuf Aif;cmef; wlOfzmef;clyf;odlOf? wlOf
rlefjrdlOf;omifjedlOfukif; nefqOfjumif;odlOf OMjeefhawhtvj[dkOf/ wDj
awhref; ulef;wB;nefyfgUyM;zdifjcdlOf;v.ifjvuf;eDjeBh erfaoulef;
qdlOf;nefnrfbyfgUyM;eefh,lb/ y.ifbOMjulef;=UwlOfwdkufhrD;r.ufjulef;vdkrf;
wlOf,lbeBauMj OMjvBj,Ofh/ efg;ydkef;wB;eefh acMjwmifbzdkefrdlOfju.efbeBh
nOfvuf;eDjaowFrfjrBmOBhnefOMjeefh ,mrfjvBj[efrM;eifbeB,lbtvj
eifb[dkOfawyAef idlefj=Ofcdwf;ref;wMbodkyfbvmrf;OlefhvBjugMbeefh aw
x.efx.wfbaowFrfjaez.ifj eifbwDjwfgjeBh,lb vuf;eDj tvj yD@wB; nefwmifbaev.ifjwB;rdlOfju.efb [Awf;
omifjoif twbwifjoif yAefoifrM;nefOMjeefh rdlOfjanbwDbqAwf;odyf;omrfwlOf? yD@wB; (ÉÎÏ)eefh ckefrdlif;
nkrf;y.ifbuMcrf;eBh vBjugMbqB.jxFrf[Fif;odkuf;yef ckefa[Mcrf;olUrkifbw'Db
rdlif;yvlif@(rldif;ayb-cdlOf;ydOfb)eBtvjoif/ awMbrdlOfjanbwDb(860)
- 49 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

eDj? yD@wB;(ÑÍÌ)eefh efg;yyfhodkuf;ckefwB;eefh wif;vBj[efcdlOf;ulef;
ydOfbcOfrM;[myfbumefodkuf;OBhvl;u.efb/ rdlOfjyD@(ÐÍÌ)wlOfeefh ckefvlif
ulOfjavM;Zlif@rdlif;emefjqOfjeBh nkyfhydlifbrdlif;emefjqOfjrM;? yAefnef
=dOfj=dif;rM;awhawheBtvjoif/ ymefrdlif;r.ufbcmOfrmOf;vlif nefyAef
umyfjymefrdlif;rmOf;eefh OAif;rD;oDbymufbyBmomrfOAif; nefOMjeefhtvj
oif/ efg;ydkef;qdlif;wB;eBh vBj[efwB;,mrfj=dif;rM;omrfzOfb/ yAefymef
rdlif;olj? ymefckefwB;vlif=uf;rdlif;? ymefrdlif;rmOf;vlifuOfj[Bm;a[M nef
OMjeefh oifnrfbwlpf;efg;yuf;yD@wB; awnrfbqmif@=Uq.rf;vBj/
rdlefeifb rdlOfjyD@vuf;eDjuMbqfgU(yXr-1251 eDj yXwÉÑÐË) eefh OBm;qOfjZMUrdlif;,lef; cdkefjrM;yfgUwdkuf;ndif;uvAwfj
uMjwDjrdlif;wlefeefh? qOfjZMU,M;xOfjrdlif;wlefymB @ nrfbylefhqOfj
ckefeMjvdif; q.rf;wDhvBjtvj nOfvlif;rdlOf;rdlif;rmef@eBtvjoif? OBm;
rM;qOfjckefvdif; rM;twbOAif;cOfjomef [drf;erfh,mOf(rdlOfjvAOf[mrf;
,Ofh)yMj+ifbvMjoAOfjvlifeefh,OfheB yM;v.ifjtwbwifjOAif;aotvj
oif/
yD@vuf;eDjuMbqfgUeBheifbuOfb ndif;uvAwfjrM;twbOAif;vB.
,AOfj(OAif;vMjoAOfjrfgb) rdlif;wB;y.wf;+ifb/ yMjqmef;OAif;oFefODeefheB
tvjoif/ awOMj zBmbzMboMbeBauMj yD@wB;vuf;eDjclwf;oDiMU (yXw
ÉÑÑÉ)eefh qOfjZMUoFefOD+ifb qOfjckefomifbwlefj[kif; twbu.if;rl;
oFefOD,Ofh/ awOMj zBmbydlifrdlif;ugMbrM;uyf;odkyfbeBauMj ayM;uyf;uBmbwif;
rdlif;cdlOf;wB;eB vBj[efwif;yD@wB;eifbuOfb/
rdlefeifb yD@vuf;eDjumyfbrAwfh (yXw-ÉÑÑÊ) nduf;uvAwfjodkyfb'wfj
xM;rM;xkdifarbrAOfh/ uBmbclOfudkwfjq.rf; ,lb,OfheBtvjoif/ zBmbyBm;rdlif;eB
auMj qOfjZMUoDbayMU wif; qOfjZMU,.if=pfjvBjugMbwdlifbymifb
nkyfbukrfuefv.ifjrmefjv.ifjrdlif; wmif;rdlif;ndif;uvAwfj(yXw-ÊÈÊÍ)
- 50 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

eefh,Ofh/
vuf;eDjclwf;qgfgU (yXr-1228 yXw-ÉÑÎÈ) qOfjZMUrdlif;
eBm; wif; qOfjZMUvBm;cMj zdwf;ueftvj nOfodkuf;wB;eifbuef[Frf
uefeBtvjoif ndif;uvAwfjauMUedlifj qdkOfjuFyfbwAefbowfhxM;'lOf;OM; wmif
wlOfndif;uvAwfjcOf? vkufhwmif;rmefjrlOfbao rM;olef;v.ifjYwM;wMbcmif
tcb? wB;? ulef;vB. cOf yAefc'dwfhzMboMb eBtvjoif wFrfjOBhzBmbwB;
eifbeB/ wMb=Ucdkef;idlefjwdkef;uOfbwB;eefh xkufb=Uquf;yuf;yD@vuf;
eDjyD@wB;,lbnefOMjeefh acMjwmifbvmwfjqdlOf;wDjedlOfeBh ydlif;x.ifb
OBh yefidlefjwmif;ref;,lb/ vDq.yfb[Mvrf;ydkef;wlOfuOfbao ,kufh,.ifj
wmifbaewDjyDje.ifhwB;[Of;cOfcdkef;,lb,OfheB cfgjyefwmif;ymrfhxdkifuef
eifbeB/

- 51 -

zljwFrfjvdufj (auMUefg;umif@) tvj arMo.ef]r}[MjwlOf qdlOf;ugMbo.ef
vdufjwB;yef efg;xkifhylif; rdlOfj 1978

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

- 52 -

vD=Uv.ifjyD@rfgbwB; yAefzdifjiOfj=def;
yDjrfgbwB;nefOMjeefh u.yfjcmOf;ruf;rBmyuf;yD@(yFufhcwdifb)clyfb
yD@wB;nefedlifjokwf;oAifjugMbtvj yuf;yD@nefrfgbxFifjnefedlifjodkyfb
wFef;ykwfjrM;eefh vBj+ifhOMjyD@rfgb? yD@rfgbwB;eB,Ofh/ yD@rfgbwB;yAefcmOf;
vdlefqAif z.if;r.ufbu.efuD@cmOf;uwf;? yAefz.if;wB;[Of;awMUcOfjofgb,.if
ofgba,;? z.if;wB;[Of;omif;zdlif;wmifbumifh {j,OfhwlOfjvDimrf;eefh,Ofh/
wB;ul@auMUwB;ul@wDj ,.efhyAefidlefjqldOfhcdlOf;vAOftvj xkufb
vD=UOBhv.ifjyD@rfgbwB;yAefzdifjiOfj=def;? orfhyAefzdifjyuf;ydlifvAOfnef
qArfrdlOfju.efb,mrf;eefeB/ ayM;+wfjyD@rfgbwB; [Of;auMbqAif? wB;auMb
qAifnefOMjeefh y.ifbOMj wB;[Of;[yfhw.efjqlrf;odlOf;yD@rfgbwB; nef
awrM;eefh/ wB;[Of;yBmjqAifnefOMjeefh wB;[Of;eyfh,rf=UxdkifxOfj
tub z.if;ZMUvDyD@rfgbtwbx.ufbxBbrM;efg;=OfyD@/ nOfwif;zdifjvD,Aefb
tijao olb[MqlOf;qfg;[ufh+rfuef/ wB;[Of;vAefjqAifnefOMjeefh vAufh
ekrfbxOfjcdkef;clefhcB@? zdkuf;[Aef;? [Awf;omifjaev.ifjuwfhwmif;arMzfg
ref; aysMbaysMbodlOf;odlOf;/ wB;[Of;udefqAifnefOMjeBhqrf; y.ifbOMj
- wB;=Uquf;uef? wB;arM[ufh+rfz.rfhyFif;uef q.rf;ugmrf;rdlOfju.efbOMj
]qMU=rfjcD vD=rfjodlOf;? v.ifjqMUnrfbyefrD; v.ifjvDnrfbyefoAifj}
qdlOf;eefh,OfheB nefOMjeefh awvBj=UOBhqArfydkif;ref;/
orfhxFifjv.ifjedlifj yD@wB;eBhvBjo.ufj[M ulj,drfwDjydlefjrM;
nrfbqfgj/ rD;rM;udkuf;cdlOf;wB;qArfrdlOfju.efb/ u.yfjeB eifbclOf;vAif;yAefcdlifj
q.ifjclOf;c.ifwmif;vDcldOf;[Of;eefh yD@rfgbwB;? yD@wB;eBhauMj yAefzdifj
ydlifbvlifcdlOf;wB;wif;vBm,Ofh/ yD@rfgbwB;eBh yAefyD@zdifjwB;? nrfbqfgjyD@
,AefbtijzMboMbvBm@vBm@nefOMjeefhauMj xkufb[efOBhvrfbvrfbv.ifj
v.ifj,Ofh/ u.yfjeBtvj yD@rfgbwB;? wB;[Awf;qifb awyAefxdkifwDjwluf;
- 53 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

xkufb,Ofh/ oifOMjyD@rfgbwB;? wB;nrfb[Awf;eBqdkif zdifjyuf;yD@wB;? zdifj
eyfhnmefbcdlOf;wB;aw[Bm/ ayM;wB;yAefcdlOf;ulef;nrfbrD;zdifj? zdifj[BmeB
cdlOf;ulef;wB;awvBjnBm? uB.yBmOBm;rM; wB;awnrfb[wf;,dkefwlOfuOfbwB;
eefh OMjyAefwB;ao? idlefjcdlOf;wuf;aw[Bmq.rf;zdifj nefnrfbqFifj
nrfbvFif;eefhvl;u.efb,Ofh/ ydlOfjeB xkufbvD=Uv.ifjyD@rfgbwB;ao cdkef;
yfgUyM;[Awf;{j yAefzdifjiOfj=def;? zdifjnefo.ef=U wDjnljtrjyDje.ifh
wDj=def;zfgref;eefhOBh,Ofh/
ayM;=Uv.ifjyD@rfgb cdlOf;wB;qifbawrfgbokif/ zdifjwB;qifbaw
=dOfj=dif;/ tzjwdlef;cOfjwmif;wdkOf;/ ayM;zdifjwB;cOfjwmif;wdkOf;efg;
wB;erferfqifb cdlOf;wB;awvBjwrf;qfgwMb vkufjzfgvmefref;ugMbeMj
,Ofh/ ugmrf;wB;rdlOfju.efbrD;OBhOMj ]rmefjrdli;f wuf;vBjrD;qOfjrD;ckef? eMj
=def;nefedlifj wuf;vBjrD;zdifjiOfj=def;} eB/ eBhqDhaeOMj - rdlif;nef
nrfbrD;qOfj? ulef;rdlif;zM;uMbvBjcmefqfgvdlOfwdlOf;/ nefnrfbudkifbokrf;
auMj orfhqmif@okrf;qmif@vlU/ rdlefeB,Ofh- eMj=def;vifedlifjauMj
ayM;nrfbrD;zdifjiOfj=def; (zdifjydlifnljtrjnefyAefzdifjcldOf;) eBqdkif
vkufjvmif;awOMj,myfb/ eMj=def;awnrfbofg? rmufjrD;awnrfbckdefj/
u.yfjeB wB;[Of;qifbOMj - ]nljtrjnrfbaewmif;? vkufjvmif;nrfb=U
acMj}eB,Ofh/ wMbvkufjvmif;{j=UacMjulef;? wMbeMj=def;rlef;ao vBj
,lbvlef;odlOf;omifbeefh zdifjiOfj=def;qdlOfhcdlOf;eBh nrfbrD;nrfbvBj?
wuf;=UuM@awvBjrD;,Ofh/ rdlOfjeefh[Of;rD;rM; rdlOfjeBhcFef;vDrD;{jrefj
cdlifbOBhvl;u.efb,Ofh/
zdifjiOfj=def;eBh vlif;rM;wDjzdifjqdlOfhcdlOf;nljtrj/ u.yfjeB,Mb
vdkrf;zdifjiOfj=def;nefOMjeefh y.ifbOMj ,Mbayvdkrf;zdifjqdlOfhcdlOf;eB
,Ofh/ ,.efheB v.efhr.ef;ugmrf;wB;[Of;rdlOfju.efbqifbrD;OMj ]wlefjrBha,j
wlefj,if;rD;[mufj? au;erfhvBauMjvBjrD;=;? yAefulef;cFef;vBjrD;cl;qdlOfh
qmwfj} eBtvj? eifb[dkOf,Mb{jzdifjxkif; idlefjcdlOf;O.wfjOBm;[BmvBm@eefh
- 54 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

yD@rfgbwB; tvj vuf;eDjyD@wB;eBh ,.efhyAefiOfj[mufjzdifjulef;cdlOf;wB;
[Of;awhawhtvj cFef;nrfbvDvdkrf;/ xkufbvDw.if;udkrf;ofgbefg;qfgOBhrefj
refj,Ofh/ ayM;=UzdifjauMbqAifyD@rfgbqifb wB;aw=Uv.ifjyD@rfgbwB; yAef
Oef;vfg rdlOfjvfg vdlefvfg cmOf;vfgeBvBj,lb,Ofh/ wB;[Awf;[dkOfauMbqAif?
ayM;Oef;yD@rfgbwB;[Awf;oif? yBmjqAifyD@rfgbeBh rD;erfhwe
. f;oif/ vAefj
qAifeBh [Awf;[dkOfvAefj/ vAefjoifvBmvBm? awrD;z.ef;vDoif/ udefqAif
eBh awvBj[Awf;[dkOf/ ,lOfoAifjidkef;u.pf;,lOfh qdlOf;eBhayM;nrfbauMbqAif
yD@rfgb awnrfb=Utvj vDvBjcdlOf;cdlOf;cB@ae vkufjvmefulef;=def;cdlOf;
[Of;OBh,lb,Ofh/ zdifjiOf;=def;eBh vDvBjyfgUyM;{jrdlefeifbcl;qdlOfhqmwfj
nefedlifj,lb,Ofh/
xFifjv.ifjedlifj vD=Uv.ifjzdifjeyfhnmefb vuf;eDjyD@wB;?
ayM;=Uvuf;eDjwB;qifb aw=UvBjyD@wB;/ ayM;=Uvuf;eDj=rfjyM;yD@
wB;qifb aw=UvBjidlefjwB;[Of;rdlOfju.efbOef;vif [Awf;oifrM;/ [Awf;
rdlOfjvfg cmOf;vfgeBvBj,Ofh/ u.yfjoiftvjeB yD@idlefjydkef;wB;eBh wFrfj
wmifbOBhwif;vdufjwB; q.rf;vuf;eDjwB;[Of;tvj OMj,Ofh/ vuf;eDjeBh
yAefqdkOfjoAifyuf;yD@wB;? ayM;=Uvuf;eDjqifb v.ifjxkufb[Awf;xkufbomifj
xkufbtOj xkufbq.rf;wB;[Of;rdlOfju.efb nefyAefzdifjcdlOf;[Of;eefh [Of;
qifbaw=UvBj,Ofh/ ayM;=UzdifjidlefjwB;qifb rdlOfjeBh[Of;qifbaw
qmif@vdlufjnOf[Awf;omifjq.rf; nefvD nefcdkwf;rFefjumyfjymef,Ofh/
u.yfjeB ayM;nrfb=Uvuf;eDjyD@wB;? wB;nrfbqmif@=Ucdkef;zdifjwB;
nefawhnefqFwfj/ ayM;wB;nrfb=UzdifjwB;wFwfjeFwfj wB;awyAef
ulef;ugif/ ulef;ugifeBh nefnrfbxkufbq.rf;auMj qmif@q.rf;rFefjqmif@
cdkifrFefj? zdlOfbnefvD[Awf;q.rf; orfhawnrfbqmif@=UwMbcdkifomifj
q.rf;tvjauMjawrD;? [Awf;eBao cdlOf;wB;eBh qmif@zmwfb,mefuBuef
ugMb/ wlOfqrfauMjqfguBuefOBh nefOMjeefhawyAefrM;/ u.yfjeB ulef;cdlOf;
vAOf ulef;=def;vAOfauMj wmif;[efwmif;,dyf;uFrf;zdifjawnrfbrM;cOfj
- 55 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

uef/ awqmif@yAef=;zfgwmif;ref;/ vBm=OfvBmuef;aotvj eMj=def;
auMjawnrfboMb? eMjrdlif;auMjawnrfbofg nefOMjeefh nrfbumif;
v.wfjvBj? =Uwuf;awyAefrM;,Ofh/
ayM;yAefulef;vDauMUedlifjtwh zfgauMjnrfbrkifjr.if;? zfgauMj
nrfbcfgj{jyAefeifb ]nBmjOMjqDb? ,DjOMj[kif} eefh +wfjwlOfxdkifwDjzfg
ref;tvj? qdlOfhzfgauMjcdlOf;ref; n.efuefyfgUodrf;,kufh,.ifjvkrf;vM;zdifj
zfgcdlOf;ref;/ e.ufjaoeBh ,Aefbtijnefcyl f;rFefjuefeefhauMj =rfjOMj
cdlOf;nrfbrldefuefaowMU qB.jxFrfuef? yef[Fif;uefrM;eB vBj[efyAef
wDjvDqlrf;odlOf;vlifrM;ydlifedlifj,lb/ ulpf;eMb zdifjeBhrD;wDjcdlOf;u.pf;
ao,Ofh? ,AefbtijeBh rD;wDjulef;tvj wB;[Of;xkufb[efxdkify.ifbqfg
vFif;vFif; qifbawawMUtwhwluf;xkufbawMbwmif;,Ofh/ v.ifj,Aefbtij
eBhqB.juefvBjaowMU? v.ifjzdifjtijeBh ,.efhye
A fydlifcdlOf;zfgref;tvj
wMbqB.jvBjeBh vBj[efanb/ cdlOf;eefhu.pf; [Awf;qifbawxkufbwDj/
ayM;cdlOf;eefh nrfb[Awf;auMjzfgawrM;[Awf;yef/ zfgnrfb[Awf;yeftoj/
awMjayM;rD;ulef;wmifbcdlOf; nefvBj,krfb,rfOMj qfgvDawhawhaorM;
[Awf;yefeBauMj wuf;awnrfby.ifbydkifjyAefzdifjcdlOf;eefhvBjvDvD? {j
xdkifv.efhr.ef;u.efbeB [efxdkif,lb/ u.yfjeB wMbzdifjcdlOf;=dOjf =dif;eefh
cdlOf;ulef;eefh [Awf;iOfj[Awf;ydlifao ofgb[Fif;cwf;omifjugMb qifbaw
=dOfj=dif;rM;vBjawhawh,Ofh/
efg;rdlif;z.rfh=rfjvlif[Of;eBhauMj eifb[dkOfawvBjwmif;irf;,Aef
aocdkefjoifhugMbeefh ulef;cdlOf;udkuf;rdlif;ul@cdlOf;cdlOf;eBh xkufby.ifbqfg[ef
edlOfuef rdlefyuf;ydlifzdifjiOfj=def;eefh,Ofh/ rdlefeB wMb{jOmefjrdlif;qdlOfh
cdlOf;vlifcdkefj,fgbeefh wB;[Of;rdlOfjeBhauMj rD;ykefjz.ef;zdifjvlifo.if
oAefj/ edlifj-yAefzdifjcdlOf;wB;ref;acMacMeefhao/ o.if-yAefzdifjcdlOf;
ulef;rdlif;z.rfh=rfjeefh,Ofh/ u.yfjeB ayM;yAefzdifjrdlif;z.rhf=rfjeB +wfj
wDjvfgauMj,Ofh? ulef;cdlOf;udkuf;rdlif;[Of;cOf xkufbvBjqB.juefugMb/ [Awf;
- 56 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

omifjugMbzAifbyAif;eifbuef/ ayM;w.ef@wMbzdifjcdlOf;eBtwh uyf;uBmbzfg
ref;wuf;awvBjcdkifomifjq.rf; efg;ydlifzfgref;[mif;acM/ ayM;nrfbwdlOfh
rFefjcdlOf;efg;rdlif;z.rfh=rfjaoauMj,Ofh,OfheB yuf;ydlifrD;eifbeB/ ,.efh
qdlOfheifbeBao,Ofh xkufbvD=Uv.ifjyD@rfgb tvj vuf;eDjnefOMjeefh
u.yfjyAefzdifjcdlOf;wB;tvj wB;eBhxkufb=U,Ofh/ wB;[Awf;wMbwB;=U/ wB;
[Awf;wMbwB;[ef/ orfhnrfb,dlif;nrfb[Awf;oifrFefj v.ifjwdlOfhuOf;oBmiBm
cdlOf;rdlif;z.rfh=rfjeB nrfbyAefwDjzdwf;oif/ ydlOfjeB-vAyfj[Aef;{j=Utvj
cwf;qfg[Awf;omifjwMbzdifjcdlOf;iOfj=def; qdlOf;wB;cdkefj,fgbtvj? eBhyAef
zdifjiOfj=def; v.ifjxkufbvD=Uvlif? wMbcdlOf;wB;ul@auMU? ulef;wB;[Of;
ul@wDjwDj? ul@=def;=def;,Ofh/

- 57 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

omBodkuf; OmefjomBtv; cOfjrM;efg; ymify.B;yD@rfgbwB; ÊÈÏÊ (1978)
ukefeM; xkifhylif;

- 58 -

acMjoifbv.ifjuyf;uBmbvlpfj yD@rfgbwB;
ndifydkifjvlpfjyD@wB; vdlefwB; Oef;wB;ao,Ofh yyfhvdufj
zdkefusmrf;rD;rM; wif;erf,OfhaowMU yAefOBhydlifzfgvBm;ref;aou.pf;
nrfbuM;? yyfhzdkefnefawvBjydkifjndifawhawheefh ,if;yBb[ef/ zdkef
vdufjrdlOfjvAOfeBh ,krfb,rfawyAefclOfuBmbql; v.ifj=UykefjcdlOf;ao? aw
cmrfjylefhvBjwmif;,myfbzdkwfb nefOMjrM;eBhwmefbwmefb ,lbao,Ofh?
awaujvdwfjyefv.ifjyD@ v.ifjOef;ugMbvBjurfjerf,lb nefOMjeefh
[yfhnOfOBh,lb/ eBaowMUauMj v.ifjzdifjvdlef nefyAefv.ifjodyf;o.if
vdlefwB;[Of;eefhtwh wdkufhudkwf;OBhxFifjvl;u.efb/ eifb[dkOfawyAefyyfh
yAefzdkefwMbzdifjcdlOf;ao {jayM;yAefwDjydkifjndif ,dyf;uFrf;qfgUwdkOf;ugMb
vBjcmOf;rdlOf;eMjeefhauMj cyfhcdkifOBh,lb/ ulpf;eMb ,.efheMjvdufjv.ifj
yD@rfgbwB;eBh ,lOfref;erfnldOfb,mOf;ugMbtvj qifbnOfwDj,rfyGwf;
ref;ao yefOBhwMbqfgUwdkOf;{jrdlefuefugMbvBj cmOf;eMjeefh,lb/ eBhtwh
aw+ifhOMjyAef ]yFefjvuf;eDj} wMbyuf;ydlifyD@rfgbwB; (qfgUq.wfbwlOfj
vkrfjZMU) eBauMj OMjvBj,lb/ wMb=Uquf;yD@vdlefOef;ref;vBj udkuf;oAifb
wif;Oef;vldefvkrfjZMUauMj [Awf;nOfvBj,lb/ rdlOfjeBhawyAefOef;oif?
yD@rfgbwB;yD@eBh awtwbOef;vuf;eDjoif rdlOjf Oef;vfgeBauMj [Awf;
{j=UvBjrdlefuefugMb wif;vkrfjZMUvBj,lb/ eldifjOef;Oef;uGpf; vlOfb
nOftrjvAuf;n.efb axMcBmhyefugMb v.uf;awMbvGuf;eefhuGpf;,Ofh/
rdlefeifbclOf;rM;rdlif;xB; nefqfgUvBjawMbqlOf@eefh ]yFefjyuf;vuf;
eDjwB;} [Of;auMj awqfgUvBjawMbqlOf@,lb,Ofh/ ayM;zfgrD;,dlif;nmef;
cfgjcyfhcdkifwlpf;,lbqdkif aw[yfhw.efjOBh,lbao awqB.jcdkifomifjq.rf;
{jqAOf;yAefwlOf,lb,Ofh/
yD@rdlif;(omufju'dwfj)eBh wDjy.ifbref;qrf; - ulef;vlifcOfrdlOfj
- 59 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

u.efbqdlOf;eefh wlOfuOfbudlwfbyAefulef;rM; rdlOfjyD@vfg/ nMb,lUnomufj
vBjrM;,OfhuM@[dkOf? eifbOMjqdlOf;eBh eifb[dkOfawrOfbvlifrOfbvdkrf;? {jvBj
yAefwDjw.if;rBmOBhtvj qifb+ifhOMjomufju'dwfjeB,lb,Ofh/ yDjwB;(yD@
rdlif;)[Of;qrf; ,dkif@cFef;rD;wDjy.ifbwmif;vdkufhvdlOf,lbtvj eifb[dkOfaw
=UvBjyD@rdlif;[Of;rD;uM@[dkOf zFOfuM@[dkOf,Ofheefh [Of;xkufbcyfhcdkif{jul@
qOfjul@wlef=U,lb/ v.ifjeBh ayM;[Of;nOfyD@rdlif;c.efjavM;efg; ]yFefj
yuf;vuf;eDjwB;}nefOMjrM;eefh ugMbqdkif ]yFefjyuf;yD@} [Of;awqfgU
wdkOf;vBjwMb=uf;odyf;yD@,Ofh/ awn.efuefvBjqfgeifb[dkOf/
vuf;eDj nefn.efuefOBhrOf@rmif@ao vlifvdkrf;ref;OBheefh
rdlOfjvAOf nOfacMjugmrf;nefOMjomif;usmefbeefh wmifaoqfgUOBh,lb/ wDj
y.ifbref;twh omif;usmefbnefOMjeBh zMboMboufhuwMUcOfOMj ]omif
usmefw}/ yMbvDhorfhOMj ]omifuefw}eBtvj? wDjy.ifbref;yAef,mrf;
nefvFufjvBm@cBmhuefeefh eB,Ofh/ zMboMbugmrf;omif;usmefbnefvFufj
vBm@cBmhvlif;rM;wDj ugmrf;oufhuwMU tvj yMbvDheefh edlifjvdlef tvj
edlifjvdlef? edlifjOef; tvj edlifjOef;? edlifj,mrf; tvj edlifj,mrf;
vFufjvBm@cBmhuef,lbaowMU? ayM;xdkifedlifjclyfbyD@vFufjvBm@cBmhuefeefh
qifbOMj r[Mbomif;usmefb eB,lb,Ofh/ Oef;nefOMj omif;usmefbwluf;
eefh yAefOef;c.yfjclyfbedlifjyD@ Oef;y.if;ref;q.rf;nOfOef;vFwfb
(olb'DU,MUomifbOqfho'MU)ao rD; 365 Oef;? 6 qlOf@rlif;? 12 rAwfh
rdwfhedwfh? yBm 36X56 odufhoFufhumefh ,mrf;rlif;qmufjrdlOfjvAOf,Ofh/
yD@rfgbwB; twbnOfefg;vdlefqAif(vdlefc'dwfhwDboFrfbyfgb) efg;
15 Oef;? 16 Oef;qdlOf;eefh vuf;eDjyD@wB;c.yfjclyfbao qifbvFufj
vBmjcBmhcOfjyD@rfgbwB;,lb,Ofh/ ulpf;uM@ yD@rfgbomif;usmefbvdlef[Mjeefh
auMj ,dyf;nOfq.rf;rM;,lb,Ofhtvj v.ifjyD@rfgbwB;eBh qlrf[BmOBhrM;wif;
[dkif,Ofh/ uAOfbvlpfjv.ifjeBhao zlj=UarM[Of;cOful@wDjwDj ul@cdlOf;cdlOf;
ayM;rM;qlUvkrf;wkrf@w.rf@uefao n.efOlefhomif? n.efwFyf;wwf;?
- 60 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

n.ef[Awf;omifjeB awyAef[kdOf/ OBheifbyAefqkrf;auMbzdifjtijao [Awf;
wrf;OBhyefzdifjeyfhwmufjvfg? wFrfjOBhyefyyfhzdkefyuf;ydlifzdifjyuf;yD@wB;
vgf q.ifbnrfbvD[dkOf/ wMbqkrf;zljwFrfjvdufjykefjauMbzdifjtijeBh xkufb
vDrD;yef,lb,Ofh/
yB.;omif;usmefb nrfbeef yB.;yD@rfgbnef,krfb,rf[Awf;,lbrdlOfj
vAOfqrf;? yB.;r[Mbomif;usmefbvdlef[Mj nefOMjyB.;yD@rfgb[Awf;,lbefg;rdlif;eBh
,mrf;vAOfeBh - [Awf;Oef;[yfhomif;usmefb awMbxdkifOef;omif;usmefbcdkefj
nwMbwmufj? efg;Oef;qdlOf;eBhao o.ef;erfh=wf;erfhuefaysMbrlef@
eefh,Ofh/ nefyAefrM;zdifjtijwB; vkufhwDjrdlif;uM;vM; ndefbwD;,fg;
zMboMb[defbwlbaorM; urfjz.ifj,krfb,rfeifbeB,lb,Ofh/
u.yfjoiftvj [Awf;yB.;omif;usmefbyD@rfgbeBqdkif nefnrfbvD
rdlOfjefg;yD@uOfbylehrf M;eefh OBhOmif;yFwfj? okufjoDyFwfjao,Ofh? efg;yD@
rgfbeefh {jyAefwlOfvDqfgvDugMb Oef;wMrdlOf;eMjOMjeBao,Ofh [Awf;yB.;
o.ef;erfh =wf;erfhyAefzdifjtijxkif;ref;rM; OMjeB,Ofh/
Oef;vuf;eDjyD@wB;vdlefqAif? wB;vBjeyfh,rf,lb rdlOfju.efb
rM;eefh - ayM;OMjvuf;eDjyD@uOfb awvBm@cBmhOef;cOfjyD@rfgbeefh {j
ayM;yAeferdufjrifbuvMbvD yD@rfgbodkyfbugMbcmOf;,mOf;rdlOf;eMj? rdlOfjaw
+wfjxdkifOef;yD@rfgbeefh [Awf;yAefv.ifjvDrifbuvMb? oMb,Mbqdkefjofg
vD qArfwDjefg;=def;e.ufj=def;? wDj,lbwef;oOf;? OwfhOM;zModlOfbqdlOf;
eBh ywf;ylxltr;zAOfjcFrfhqdkefjofgrlwf;uAifj ul@wDjvDimrf;OBhtvjoif/
Oef;nefcOfjrM;efg;yD@rfgbeefh uM@nefy.ifyAefvBjodkOfjzfg[Aif;ref; vlb
wmef;OlpfbOmufjcOfjrfgberfhrfgb uMjwDjnef,krfb,rfudlOf;vDeMbx YzM;
YwM; oifbcMb ndufbvlpfj YoMbayMjtrjxOfjtub yDje.ifhqdlOfhcdlOf;qdlOf;
eefhvfg/ idkef;crf;nefvBjOef;yD@rfgbeefh nOfodrf;OBh[Awf;yAef Zef
xlifZefx.if; yAefidkef; =OfrmefrifbuvMbvmyfjomyfjyuMbwMbyD@rfgb
rdlOf;eMjeefhtvjoif/ Oef;yD@rfgbeefh awvBjqAifurf@ idlifhtOjvGifj
- 61 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

nMUrifbuvMb rOfbvBj[Awf;v.ifjnrfbvD/ nMUulUolOfb? awvBjn.ef
uef,lbvlpfjefg;nMb,kifbvD? qfgvDwlOfvDrD;rmifbuvMbao ,lbvlpfj
z.rhf=rfjrlef@aysMbqlrf;odlOf;/ uFrf;q.rf;zdifjtij idlefjcdlOf;wlOfuOfbugMb
eifbOMjrM; [Awf;yAefrmifbuvMbvD {jxlefjyD@rdlOf;eMjcmOf;[dkif OMj
eB,Ofh/
Oef;vuf;eDj - vuf;eDjuOfbrFefjOef;yD@uOfb rM;okwf;oAifjefg;
Oef;eefhao,Ofh vuf;eDjrfgbeefhorfh yAefOef;yD@rfgbul;cOfj+wfjrM;/
efg;uM@oGifOef;eBh yAefOef;yD@uOfb yD@rfgbvFufjvBm@ cBmhuefeefh,lbtvj
yAefOBhOef;nefyBbedrfwAifj/ rD;OBheifbeB,lbeefh qifbOMjzdkefr.efb
usmrf;uOfba[M;OBh yAefOef;vDurf@ a[M;OBheifbeB,OfhanMj/ yD@rfgbqrf;
qifbruf;nOfOef;odkyfbvmrf;rM;xFifjOef;edlifjeefh,Ofh/
wlpf;nOfwlOfugmrf;qdlOf;eBhao [Of;xkubf rD;yuf;ydlifzdifj[Awf;
omifjcdkify.if yB.;yD@rfgbwB;,Ofh nefOMjeefh qFifjvFif;,lb/ aw[Awf;[dkOf
[Awf;? aw[Awf;,mrf;vfgnefOMjeefh Oef;vuf;eDjeBh qDhaeOBh,lb/
ref;y.ifbOMj Oef;vuf;eDjeBh yAefOef;vDurf@eB,Ofh/ zBmbykefhOef;vuf;
eDjqrf; yAefOef;yD@uOfb(Oef;urf;vdkef;okwf;wMbyD@ylefh)ao? zBmbeBh
Oef;vuf;eDjqrf; yAefOef;yD@rfgb(Oef;twbeMj n.efwmif;okwf;wMb
yD@awugMb/ y.ifbOMjOef;nefv.wfjumif;wif; iOf;yD@uOfbeB,Ofh/)u.yfj
eB ayM;awcdkef;cyfhwlpf; Oef;omif;usmefb nrfbeef Oef;vFufjvBm@
vuf;eDjwB;[Of;qrf; awvBj[efrD;eifbeB - ]Oef;yD@uOfb? Oef;vuf;
eDj? Oef;yD@rfgb} eBao awvBj[efrD;omrfOef;,lb,Ofh/ o.ifOef;yAef
Oef;[mifj[Fef;? Oef;xDjomrfyAefOef;yD@rfgbwB;awhawh,OfheB cfgjwmifb
vmwfjcB@aeeifbeB/

- 62 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

eifb[dkOfawwdlOf;vDwdlOf;cFrfheefh awyfgUwkif;[yfhnOfwmif;
xwf;omif? wmif;OlefhqB.jwDjqOfj=UarMcOf,lbwMbaob wif;qlrf;wif;
odlOf;ao/
ydkef@[mefwB;

- 63 -

zdifjauMbqAif yD@rfgbwB;

- 64 -

ydkef@[mefwB;

- 65 -

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