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PHYSICS 2000 NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION
Time Allowed: Reading Time: 15 minutes Examination Time: 120 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS Attempt ALL questions. Permitted materials: Any Calculator. Answer the questions on your own writing paper; do not answer them on this question paper. Make sure that you attach your answer scripts to your completed cover sheet. Particular attention should be paid to giving clear diagrams and explanations. All numerical answers must have units.
MARKS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 8 multiple choice questions 3 questions 2 questions Total marks for the paper 8 marks 18 marks 24 marks 50 marks
AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION BLANK PAGE PAGE 2 of 9 .
the light is produced before the sound. 40 Pa. E. 4 J. E. The best explanation for the delay between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder from a distant lightning bolt is: A. 4 MJ. this is an illusion. 4000 kPa. B. approximately how many sodium ions are expected to be inside PAGE 3 of 9 . The membranes surrounding the cells contain hollow ion channels filled with this fluid. C. C. light comes in different colours. C. light beams travel in straight lines. B. On average. Answer by writing on your own writing paper the question number and the letter that corresponds to the best answer to the question. Q2 light beams can interfere. D. light travels faster than sound. B. they are produced at the same time. As a guide. Q1 Which of the following is the best evidence that light is a wave: A. D. Answer ALL questions in this section. the reason is not yet understood. E. sound travels faster than light. Q3 Which of the following quantities is closest to the energy released when 1 kg of dynamite explodes? A. Q4 The fluid surrounding the nerve cells in your brain contains about 1026 sodium ions per cubic metre of fluid. One mark each for a total of 8 marks. 4 kW. light beams can be reflected. D.AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION SECTION A Multiple choice questions. These channels are approximately cylindrical: about 1 µm long and 1 nm in radius. light energy comes in packets. called photons. you should allocate about 15 minutes to this section.
E. 3x104. Q8 Some of the Moon walking Apollo astronauts observed a layer of dust floating above the surface of the Moon. B. C. C. 1 m/s. 1 cm/s. The juggler weighs 47 kg and each of his five pins weighs 2 kg. C. carrying five juggling pins. correct – the total weight can be made to exceed 49 kg by an arbitrarily small amount. in deserts. and the Moon’s surface carries PAGE 4 of 9 . correct – the total weight will never exceed 49 kg correct – no jerking means no extra weight. incorrect – more information is needed. An eighth. they were mirages. by a factor depending on the mass of the car. E. B. A metal wire of cross sectional area 1 mm2 has a conducting electron density of 6x1028 m-3. D. If the wire is carrying 1 A of current. A. C.AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION such a channel. floating is expected because there is no gravity in a vacuum. The best explanation for these observations is that A. B. C. D. they were due to repulsive lunar gravity anomalies. A half. D. so that he is never holding more than one pin. 3x108. 3x102. like those that occur on Earth. He is A. what is the average net speed of the conducting electrons along the wire.6x10-19 C. His skill enables him to juggle smoothly without any jerking.01 mm/s. B. D. E. has to cross a swing bridge which has a maximum safe load rating of 50 kg. and so is the Moon’s surface. by the photoelectric effect. by the photoelectric effect. D. E. A quarter. Q6 The energy that is dissipated by the brakes to stop a car travelling at 50 km/h is what fraction of that dissipated to stop the car when travelling at 100 km/h? A. 0. 3x106. He believes he can make it across safely in one trip by juggling the pins. the dust is positively charged. E. Each electron has the charge 1. 0. Less. incorrect – the total weight is 47 kg + 5x2 kg = 57 kg. B. the dust is positively charged. A. A third.1 mm/s. Q5 3. They were surprised since the Moon has no atmosphere for the dust to float in. 1 mm/s. Q7 An expert juggler.
why a high bypass ratio engine uses less fuel than a low bypass ratio engine providing the same total thrust. you should allocate about 45 minutes to this section.AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION a balancing negative charge. and provides direct thrust. One reason is that a high bypass ratio engine can achieve the same thrust with less fuel consumption than a low bypass ratio engine. Six marks each for a total of 18 marks. intake compressor bypassed air exhaust engine core compressor turbine exhaust In turbofan jet engines the intake air is split into two streams. As a guide. The resulting high pressure gas drives a turbine which both powers the intake compressor. Explain. One stream. as shown in the highly simplified diagram. The "bypass ratio" is the ratio of the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to that of the core stream. Attempt ALL three questions in this section. In your explanation. with a lower average exhaust velocity. or force. For a given thrust. SECTION B Short answer questions. high bypass ratio engines have a greater total gas mass flow. which pushes the aircraft forward. using the physics of energy and momentum. Q9 A simple jet engine works by sucking air in the front. Modern turbofan engines have high bypass ratios. which is not combined with fuel and burnt. PAGE 5 of 9 . use equations as appropriate. This provides the thrust. burning fuel. The intake compressor accelerates the second "bypass" stream. and directing the high speed exhaust out the back. the core stream. is combined with fuel and burnt.
[1 mark] (c) PAGE 6 of 9 . steam expands. [2 marks] The formula relating the pressure P and the volume V of the expanding steam is known as the adiabatic expansion formula: PV 4/3 =C where C is constant over the entire duration. [3 marks] Estimate the reduced external pressure needed to produce “super-size” popcorn that has twice the volume of popcorn which is popped at atmospheric pressure. This pressure is called the "yield pressure" PY . pressure drops expansion stops when steam pressure equals atmospheric (a) Explain the effect that reducing the external pressure would have on the size of the popped popcorn. Arrows indicate steam pressure inside kernel bursts. as a multiple of atmospheric pressure. This could be achieved by popping in an airtight vessel whose pressure could be lowered. The steam then expands outwards. The final size of the popcorn is reached when the pressure of the expanding steam reaches the pressure of the external air – which is normally atmospheric pressure. Use this information to estimate the yield pressure PY . from the start to the end. (b) The volume of the un-popped kernel is observed to increase by 43 = 64 times after popping at atmospheric pressure. carrying the kernel’s contents with it. of the expansion. shell un-popped kernel.AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION Q10 Popcorn “pops” when a kernel is heated so that the pressure of the steam inside exerts a force which exceeds the strength of the popcorn shell.
The different directions of rotation are due to the oppositely directed Coriolis forces on inflowing and out-flowing air. Once rotating. A cyclone is a slowly rotating mass of air that has a low pressure area at its centre. not anti-cyclones. Because the Earth rotates. An anticyclone slowly rotates in the opposite direction and has a high pressure centre. Therefore the air experiences the Coriolis force. a fixed point on its surface is accelerating. Its magnitude is proportional to the air’s rotational angular velocity. develop into rapidly rotating hurricanes. explain why (usually) only cyclones. Coriolis. which is radial in direction and opposite to the pressure force. the air experiences a rotated Coriolis force. Latent heat from evaporating tropical ocean water allows cyclones to develop into rapidly rotating hurricanes. In terms of these three forces. driven by atmospheric pressure differences. and pressure. as indicated in the diagram. It acts in a direction perpendicular to the air’s velocity. centripetal. centripetal force pressure force centripetal force pressure force HIGH LOW Anticyclone Coriolis force Cyclone Coriolis force PAGE 7 of 9 .AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION Q11 This question concerns the behaviour of masses of air moving about the surface of the Earth. The required centripetal force is proportional to the square of the air’s rotational angular velocity. For slowly rotating cyclones and anticyclones the centripetal force maintaining the rotation is provided by the difference between the radial Coriolis and pressure forces. This is an inertial force. sometimes called a pseudo-force.
As a guide. Attempt BOTH questions in this section.7 s in other races at this time.3 km 6 6 away. In the 100 m sprint a tail wind of more than 2 m/s is classified as a "wind assist" and the run is not eligible for record status.027 for a typical athlete.49 s to a zero wind time t 0 .4x10 m and the Moon a sphere of radius 1. for a run in the USA in July 1988. The Earth is a sphere of radius 6. [6 marks] On Earth.5 m eye height? [2 marks] (c) Q13 Wind can have a big effect on an athlete's performance. (a) (b) Explain briefly in words and with a diagram why the horizon is closer on the Moon. However athletes often have to train with a wind of speed w along the track (> 0 for a tail wind.5 m/s tail wind. and did not record a w = 5. since it has been claimed that the wind meter was broken. and the height of the observer's eyes above the surface. On a plain on the Moon their horizon is only about 2. Q12 On a flat part of the Earth. [1 mark] Given that she was running times of 10. assuming there was a w=5. Twelve marks each for a total of 24 marks. [4 marks] Obtain a formula for the distance to the horizon in terms of the radius of the planet or moon. < 0 for a head wind). The following formula allows them to convert their times t w with wind speed w to an equivalent (approximate) zero wind speed time t0 2 ⎪ tw ⎧ ⎪ ⎛ wt w ⎞ ⎫ t0 = ⎨1− D ⎝ 1− ⎠ ⎬ 1− D ⎪ 100 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (approximate conversion formula) D = 0.49 s. is the corrected time consistent the wind meter being broken? [1 mark] (b) PAGE 8 of 9 .5 m/s tail wind. However there is some controversy about this time. how much further can a person with a 2 m eye height see than a person with a 1. Florence Griffith-Joyner holds the women’s 100 m record of 10.5 m is about 4. you should allocate about 60 minutes to this section. (a) Use the approximate conversion formula to convert the time t w = 10. the horizon for a person with an eye height of 1.7x10 m.AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION SECTION C Long questions. such as a quiet sea.4 km away.
[2 marks] PAGE 9 of 9 . Also. These satisfy FP − Av − FW ( w) = 0 (d) Solve this equation for v. explain why ignoring the term does not change the result very much. So we will assume that the whole race is run at speed v. A a constant parameter. which is the force the athlete exerts on the track at zero speed. which is more suitable for practical use. because it contains the unknown t0 on both sides. That is. [2 marks] In the 100 m sprint athletes reach their full speed v very quickly. the total force is zero. There are three relevant terms. And the wind resistance with wind speed w. Since the athlete's speed is then constant. FW (w) . Use the result to express the ratio t0 / t w in terms of FP . and FW (0). and D only. t w . [4 marks] This formula is awkward to use. The propulsive force FP . FW (w) . (f) Justify the use of the approximate conversion formula. w. which accounts for the decreasing physiological effectiveness of the athlete with speed. This would explain why so many records were broken at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. [2 marks] The constant in the approximate conversion formula above is defined to be D = FW (0) / FP . The "decay" term -Av.AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE OLYMPIADS 2000 PHYSICS NATIONAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION It is also believed that higher altitudes give sprint athletes an advantage. The approximate conversion formula (above). can be obtained from it by ignoring a certain term. (e) Use these formulae in the result from (d) to express the ratio t0 / t w in terms of t0 . “A” should not occur in your formula. assume that the wind resistance is given by w⎞ 2 2⎛ FW = B(v − w ) = Bv ⎝1 − ⎠ v 2 with B a constant parameter. which has an altitude of 2250 m. (c) Give a physics based explanation for why this might be true. Note that v and w are independent parameters.