Which Motor?

 The proliferation of new ideas, materials and components creates many opportunities.  It is the motor that determines the characteristic of electric drive.  Motor determines the requirement of converter circuit and control techniques.

PM vs. Electromagnetic excitation • No electrical energy is absorbed by the field excitation system and thus there are no excitation losses which means substantial increase in the efficiency • Higher torque/current and output /volume • Better dynamic performance • Higher magnetic flux density in the air gap • Less maintenance • PM Machines eliminate gear requirement


The BLDC motor is based on a fundamental principle of magnetism. Similar poles repel each other, while opposite poles attract each other . PM excitation is used instead of electromagnetic excitation.

Feature Commutation Maintenance Life N/T Characteristic Efficiency Rating/size Initial Cost Speed Range Electric Noise Control BLDC Motor Electronic Less Longer Flat High High High High Low Brushed DC Motor Brushed Frequent Shorter Moderately Flat Moderate Moderate/Low Low Low More

Complex and Expensive Simple and Inexpensive


Feature Rotor Inertia Rating/size Initial Cost Speed Range Starting Current Slip Control

BLDC Motor Low High High High Rated No Slip Complex and Expensive

INDUCTION Motor Nonlinear High Moderate/Low Low Low 5 to 7 times rated current Present Simple and Inexpensive

N/T Characteristic Flat

samarium cobalt and neodymium iron boron .Three Classes of Permanent Magnets • Alnico • Ferrite • Rare earth magnets viz.

Demagnetization Characteristic .

Operating Points on Demagnetization Characteristic .

• As the name implies. BLDC motors do not use brushes for commutation. BLDC motors do not experience the slip. they are electronically commutated. • Air gap flux is set by magnet and little affected by armature current. • This means the magnetic field generated by the stator and the magnetic field generated by the rotor rotate at the same frequency.Introduction • Stator structure is similar to that of poly phase IM. . instead.

and many problems associated with brushes are eliminated • Spark less operation • Brush friction is eliminated • Motor length is reduced • Stiffness of rotor is improved.Advantages • The most obvious advantage of removal of brushes and commutator • Brush maintenance is no longer required. Higher speed is possible • Longer active length to diameter ratio • High torque to inertia ratio • Response is fast • Power density is more • Efficient • Compact • Less noise • Long operating life .

Extremely costly .      Closed loop control is mandatory Shaft position sensing is mandatory Increased complexity in electronic controller PM excitation is viable in small rating motors only.Disadvantages Brushless configuration comes with some below mentioned disadvantages.

Applications Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors are one of the motor types rapidly gaining popularity.  Computer peripherals  Automotive  Aerospace  Defense  Medical  Marine  Instrumentation . BLDC motors are used in following areas of applications.

Construction Stator  Stator resembles that of an IM  The stator of a BLDC motor consists of stacked steel laminations with windings placed in the slots that are axially cut along the inner periphery  Three stator windings are connected in star fashion  Each of this windings are constructed from numerous interconnected coils  One or more coils are placed in the slots and are interconnected to make winding  Each of these windings are distributed over the stator periphery to form an even numbers of poles .

are used in appliances.) • As their names indicate.Stator (contd. this comes with an extra cost. • The phase current also has trapezoidal and sinusoidal variations in the respective types of motor. small arm movements and so on. or less voltage rated motors are used in automotive. Motors with 100 volts. Forty-eight volts. the trapezoidal motor gives a back EMF in trapezoidal fashion and the sinusoidal motor’s back EMF is sinusoidal. or higher ratings. thereby increasing the copper intake by stator winding. . as the sinusoidal motors take extra winding interconnections because of the coils distribution on the stator periphery. However. robotics. • This makes the torque output by a sinusoidal motor smoother than that of a trapezoidal motor. the motor with the correct voltage rating of the stator can be chosen. • Depending upon the control power supply capability. automation and in industrial applications.


• Three phase motors have only three connecting leads with no loss of control flexibility. . magnet and insulation. • Also three phase winding can be well adapted to the development of the “sensor less” controllers. • For higher number of phase above figure may be higher at the cost of increase in number of power electronic switches and leads. excellent starting characteristics with smooth rotation in either direction and low torque ripple. iron.Selection of No of Phases • Often assumed to have three phases as it provides good utilization of copper.

• Based on the required magnetic field density in the rotor. • The ferrite magnets are less expensive but they have the disadvantage of low flux density for a given volume. .Rotor • The rotor is made of permanent magnet and can vary from two to eight pole pairs with alternate North (N) and South (S) poles. Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) and the alloy of Neodymium. • Neodymium (Nd). the proper magnetic material is chosen to make the rotor. In contrast. the alloy material has high magnetic density per volume and enables the rotor to compress further for the same torque. Ferrite and Boron (NdFeB) are some examples of rare earth alloy magnets. • Continuous research is going on to improve the flux density to compress the rotor further. these alloy magnets improve the size-to-weight ratio and give higher torque for the same size motor using ferrite magnets. rare earth magnets are gaining popularity. As the technology advances. • Also. • Ferrite magnets are traditionally used to make permanent magnets.

) Different arrangements of magnets in a rotor.Rotor(contd. .

)  Magnets are mounted on the rotor  Large air-gap.Rotor (contd. Armature reaction is negligible  Magnets are buried inside the rotor  Xd is less than Xq  Small air-gap .

) Surface/Exterior Magnet Machine .Rotor(contd.

Rotor(contd.) Interior Magnet Machine .

• Generally 2 or 4 pole motors are used for very high speed. .Selection of number of Poles • Number of poles should be inversely proportional to maximum speed in order to limit commutation frequency and to reduce iron losses. • Thickness of rotor back iron and stator yoke reduce with higher number of poles.

 In order to keep the motor running.  Torque is produced because of the interaction between the magnetic field generated by the stator coils and the permanent magnets.  This sequence of energizing the windings is known as “SixStep Commutation” . the peak torque occurs when these two fields are at 90° to each other and falls off as the fields move together. . the second winding is negative (current exits the winding) and the third is in a non-energized condition. the magnetic field produced by the windings should shift position. Ideally.Operating Principle  Each commutation sequence has one of the windings energized to positive power (current enters into the winding). as the rotor moves to catch up with the stator field.

) .Operating Principle(contd.

) .Operating Principle(contd.

) .Operating Principle (contd.

Hall Effect Sensors • Unlike a brushed DC motor. the exact sequence of commutation can be determined. the commutation of a BLDC motor is controlled electronically. • It is important to know the rotor position in order to understand which winding is to be energized following the energizing sequence. • Based on the combination of these three Hall sensor signals. . • Rotor position is sensed using Hall effect sensors embedded in stationary part of motor. indicating the N or S pole is passing near the sensors. the stator windings should be energized in a sequence. • Whenever the rotor magnetic poles pass near the Hall sensors. they give a high or low signal. • Most BLDC motors have three Hall sensors. • To rotate the BLDC motor.

) BLDC Motor Transverse Section .Hall Effect Sensors (contd.

will generate an error in determination of the rotor position. These are a scaled down replica version of the rotor. with respect to the rotor magnets. some motors may have the Hall sensor magnets on the rotor.) Transverse section of a BLDC motor with a rotor that has alternate N and S permanent magnets. To simplify the process of mounting the Hall sensors onto the stator.• • • • • Hall Effect Sensors (contd. This enables users to adjust the complete assembly of Hall sensors. whenever the rotor rotates. the Hall sensor magnets give the same effect as the main magnets. in addition to the main rotor magnets. The Hall sensors are normally mounted on a PC board and fixed to the enclosure cap on the non-driving end. Embedding the Hall sensors into the stator is a complex process because any misalignment in these Hall sensors. to align with the rotor magnets. . Hall sensors are embedded into the stationary part of the motor. Therefore. in order to achieve the best performance.

H. . Hall who discovered it in 1879.Hall Effect Sensors (contd. the magnetic field exerts a transverse force on the moving charge carriers which tends to push them to one side of the conductor. A buildup of charge at the sides of the conductors will balance this magnetic influence. The voltage may range from 4 volts to 24 volts. • The Hall sensors require a power supply. producing a measurable voltage between the two sides of the conductor.) Hall Effect Theory • If an electric current carrying conductor is kept in a magnetic field. • This is most evident in a thin flat conductor. • The presence of this measurable transverse voltage is called the Hall effect after E. • Required current can range from 5 to 15 mA.

Magnetic Circuit Analysis Magnetic equivalent circuit Motor cross section and flux pattern .

• It is of course permissible to simplify the circuit in this way only if the two halves are balanced. .) • Only half of the equivalent circuit is shown. • Each magnet is represented by a 'Norton' equivalent circuit consisting of a flux generator in parallel with an internal leakage permeance.Magnetic Circuit Analysis (contd. • The lower half is the mirror-image of the upper half about the horizontal axis. which is an equipotential. • Steel core of the stator and the rotor shaft are assumed to be infinitely permeable.

Magnetic Circuit Analysis (contd. µrec relative recoil permeability l axial length of motor r1 radius of stator bore g air-gap length .) Am pole area of the magnet lm magnet length in the direction of magnetization Br remanent flux-density.

05 to 0. Generally rotor leakage permeance is 5-20 % of magnet internal permeance. Kc is Carter’s coefficient Air-gap area .) Air-gap reluctance. Rotor leakage permeance is difficult to estimate because flux paths are not obvious. Pr1 is 0. Equivalent air-gap length .2 . For accurate evaluation finite element method is used.Magnetic Circuit Analysis (contd.

Magnetic Circuit Analysis (contd. The analysis of multiple-pole motors is similar to that of the two-pole motor. . there will in general be an appreciable ripple superimposed on the calculated waveform. and there are circumferential as well as radial components of B at the edges of the magnets. using natural equipotentials the magnetic equivalent circuit can be reduced to the per-pole equivalent circuit. The detailed analysis of all these effects requires a numerical method such as the finiteelement method.) • • • • The air-gap flux-density on open-circuit is shown. Because of fringing. Because of the slotting of the stator bore. the distribution is not perfectly rectangular.

(θ = 0) Stator has 12 slots and three phase winding. There are two slots per pole per phase.EMF Equation Simple concept machine is shown. . Centre of north pole magnet is aligned with X axis. Air-gap flux density waveform is ideally square. Two pole magnet has pole arc of 180°.

 θ represents movement of rotor from reference position.EMF Equation (contd. .)  Each phase winding consists of two adjacent full pitched coils of N1 turn each.  Maximum positive flux linkage occurs at 0°and maximum negative flux linkage at 180°.  Axis of two coils are displayed by 30°. EMF induced in coil a1A1 Maximum flux linkage can be found by integrating flux density around air-gap.  Flux linkage (Ψ) varies linearly.

Phase voltage is stepped.EMF Equation (contd. Phase emf. Nph = 2 N1 is number of turns in series per phase . Total phase voltage is sum of coil voltages if coils are connected in series.) EMF induced in second coil of phase A is identical but retarded by 30°. Flat top of wave form is 150° ideally but due to fringing practically it is 120°.

P = ω Te = 2 e I If winding is star connected then at a time just two phases conduct. Te = 2eI/ ω Te = 4 Nph Bg l r1 I N.m. Instantaneous power.Torque Equation Current pulses are 120° wide. Resemblance: E = kØω and Te = kØI Where k= 4 Nph and Ø= ΠBg l r1 .

) Star Connection Delta Connection .Torque Equation (contd.

Torque – Speed Characteristic V = E + IR V = supply voltage . Stall current. E= sum of two phase emfs in series R = sum of two phase resistances in series No load speed. . Stall torque.

 Speed is controlled by voltage control  Speed drops as load increases  Voltage is controlled by chopping or PWM  Continuous limit is determined by heat transfer or by temperature rise  Intermittent limit is determined by maximum rating of switch and by temperature rise  Practically characteristic slightly deviates due to effects of inductance and parasitic effect .Torque – Speed Characteristic (contd.)  Characteristic is similar to that of dc shunt motor.

each 120° electrical separated by 60° sectors with zero mmf.Motor with 180° Magnet Arc and 120° Square Wave Current  Rotor magnet poles are shaded to distinguish north and south.  Star connected winding and two phases conduct at a time.  Third ring is called MMF ring between rotor ring and phase belt ring. .  Currents in two slots are identical and conductors in them are in series.  Phase belts are shaded as complete 60° sectors of stator bore.  MMF ring represents mmf distribution of stator currents at particular instant.  Two sectors of opposite polarity.  Two slots in each of phase belts.

.  Where either one is zero no torque is produced.Motor with 180° Magnet Arc and 120° Square Wave Current (contd. au and cl are closed.  Negative torque is produced where mmf distribution and rotor flux density distribution have unlike polarity.)  Phase A is conducting positive current and phase C is conducting negative current.  Positive torque is produced where mmf distribution and rotor flux density distribution have like polarity.

Motor with 180° Magnet Arc and 120° Square Wave Current (contd.) .

Motor with 180° Magnet Arc and 120° Square Wave Current (contd. Even with highly coercive magnets and full 180° magnet arcs.) • Production of smooth. • But there is always a dip in the torque in the neighborhood of the commutation angles. • To some extent these two effects cancel each other. ripple-free torque depends on fact that the magnet pole arc exceeds the m. giving rise to a torque ripple component with a fundamental frequency equal to 6p times the rotation frequency. The magnet is therefore able to rotate 60° with no change in the flux-density under either of the conducting phasebelts.f.f.m. • In a practical motor the magnet flux-density distribution cannot be perfectly rectangular.m. This torque dip occurs every 60 electrical degrees. An inevitable result of this is that only 2/3 of the magnet and 2/3 of the stator conductors are active at any instant. this transition depends on the phase inductance and the available . there is a transition section of the order of 10-20° in width. where p is the number of polepairs. two slots per phasebelt). • The magnitude and width of the torque dip may be exaggerated further by the time it takes to commutate the phase current from one phaseleg to another. so that satisfactory results are achieved with a magnet arc as short as 150° and two slots per pole per phase (i.e. the m. • Likewise on the stator side.. arc by 60°. distribution is not rectangular but has a stepped waveform.

 Stator winding must be connected in delta.  Each phase current is 180° square wave.)  Stator mmf distribution is square wave having 180° of +ve mmf and 180° of –ve mmf.Motor with 120° Magnet Arc and 180° Square Wave Current (contd.  MMF distribution must be switched forward. .

Motor with 120° Magnet Arc and 180° Square Wave Current (contd.) .

120° magnet arc motor has 1. but produces the same torque with only 2/3 the magnet material.5 times the copper losses. • Therefore 120° magnet arc motor is likely to be less efficient than that of 180° magnet arc motor. but that only 2/3 of them are producing torque those that are 'covered' by a rotor pole. • Offsetting this disadvantage is the fact that for the same magnet flux density. • If the stator outside diameter is kept the same. the slots can be made deeper so that the loss of ampere-conductors can be at least partially recovered.Comparison between 120° Magnet Arc and 180° Magnet Arc Motor • In 120° magnet arc all stator conductors are excited at any instant. • If the ampere-conductors per slot and the peak flux-density are kept the same. . flux in 120° magnet arc motor is only 2/3 that in 180° magnet arc motor so that only 2/3 of the stator yoke thickness is required in case of 120° magnet arc motor .

Control of Motor .

Control of Motor (contd.) .

an optical encoder can be fitted on the Optical encoders are available with different choices of Pulse Per Revolution (PPR). the Hall signals can be used to measure the speed feedback.) • The speed can be controlled in a closed loop by measuring the actual speed of the motor. • • • • • .Control of Motor (contd. ranging from hundreds to thousands. A timer from the PIC18FXX31 can be used to count between two Hall transitions. the actual speed of the motor can be calculated. Error speed is processed through process controller and the PWM control is adjusted. For high-resolution speed measurements. For low-cost. • The error in the set speed and actual speed is calculated. • Speed can be adjusted by adjusting PWM duty cycle. With this count. • Average voltage applied across stator depends on modulation index of PWM cycle. low-resolution speed requirements.

.  Hall sensor signals change state when back EMF polarity changes from +ve to -ve or from -ve to +ve.Sensor less Control  BLDC motors can be commutated by monitoring back EMF.

) .Sensor less Control (contd.

Torque Profile .