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e Corbusier Conquer New York
For New York is the Futurist city, the Baden Baden of that dying stench called Europe, the ironic gargantuan offspring of the senility, the debilitating spirituality and black breath of the European succubus. - Benjamin de Casseres, Mirrors of New York BlUER! AI BRING OU SURREALISM. AULREDI MENI PIPOUL IN NIU YORK JOVE BIN INFECTID BAI ZI LAIFQUIVING AND MARVELOS SORS OF SURREALISM. - Salvador Dalf Manhattan, great un filleted sale spread out on a rock ...
Madelon Vriesendorp, Freud Unlimited.
- Le Corbusier CONQUEST In the mid-thirties both Salvador Dali and Le Corbusier - they hate each through interpretative appropriation other - visit New York for the first time. Both conquer it, Dali conceptually was born?").' Le ("its skyscrapers proposing literally to destroy it. Their reactions - diametrically parts jealousy and admiration) to "reclaim" METHOD "I believe that the moment is at hand when by a paranoid and active advance of the mind, it will be possible to systematize thus help to discredit completely confusion and the world of reality":" in the late
("New York: why, why did you create my statue long ago, long before I are too small")" Corbusier by
opposite - are episodes (fueled by equal in the long history of European attempts
small talk. These incentives proved Diagram of the inner workings of the ParanoidCritical Method: limp. and staying up later at night or a private room. inmates of a particular insane asylum are encouraged to behave like normal people whenever very effective in motivating take care of the systematic the patients to look after themselves ward:" is that.invent a which they call Token Economy. These tokens were redeemable for canteen items or for amenities such as a color TV. but in the opposite the rituals of health.." A plastic token for each convention rememberedsmile. Instead of the diseased performing proposes a tourism of sanity into the realm of paranoia. TOURISM Dali's PCM is a form of reinforcement therapy. supported (made critical) by the "crutches" of Cartesian rationality. In the sixties two American behaviorists . The PCM is defined by Dali mostly in tantalizing neous method of irrational systematic objectifications formulas: knowledge based on the critical and of delirious associations and interpretations "4 It is easiest to explain the PCM by describing "reinforcement therapy" its exact opposite. Through the generous distribution possible.twenties Salvador Dali injects his Paranoid-Critical Method into the bloodstream mechanism experimental associations of Surrealism. his attention to the internal of an the systematic of paranoid phenomena." (Note large number of Polaroid cameras in foreground. etc. The two experimenters "posted a list of desired behaviors on the wall and then gave bonus points (tokens) to those patients who made their beds.. Such "incentives proved very effective in motivating the patients to look after themselves. swept their rooms. When Dali invents the PCM. ready to "record" this triumph of simulated normality.. Through 237 direction. such into some form of sanity like of normality will turn into real normality. the conscious "the sponta.Ayllon and Azrin . etc. of colored plastic tokens. sooner or later.) Method (PCM) is "The Conquest of the uncritical surrender to the sub- conscious of the early Surrealist automatisms sculpture. Dali in Paris. exploitation Dali proposes a second-phase of the unconscious through in writing. Surrealism: the PCM. envisaging the possibility "It was in 1929 that Salvador Dali turned method based on the power that dominates peculiar to paranoia. painting.. unprovable conjectures generated through the deliberate simulation of paranoiac thought processes. that the The hope that underlies such therapy simulation sick mind will insinuate itself successfully a hermit crab into an empty shell. lipstick.: . paranoia is fashionable 236 . " Instead of the passive and deliberately Reinforcement·therapy patients at hospital party: "sustained and potent challenge to Freud. worked in the kitchen. subsequently this method was to become the frenzied critical synthesis that bears the name of 'paranoid critical activity.'" The motto of the Paranoid-Critical Irrational.
excursions undeniable "souvenirs" of the paranoid of those of concrete evidence that brings the "discoveries" back to the rest of mankind.if distorted . model of such a critical operation .. the initial delusion that is The paranoiac always hits the nail on the head. so. and mania. will reflect a small part of the total image. through unstoppable. just like the particles of an atom. in a new light . force. before embarking on his career as a Surrealist in Paris. the synthetic but discrete operations: reproduction and to a critical point the real world: "The reality of the external world is used for illustration "7 that never ends.e. which is only one fragment of a much larger tapestry In fact. field metal molecules align themselves pull.. essentially Dali describes one of his dreams. to prove unprovable) thesis of Mary's Ascension- ideally in forms as obvious and As a didactic the paranoiac (i. "Now that I am awake I still find this dream as masterly as when I slept. separated from the next one only by space..t: medical research. Just as in a magnetic a collective. collect all of them in a single large bag and then drop them from an altitude of 50 feet.. its definition persecution of delusion. 1929. all pointing The essence of paranoia is this intense . the paranoiac turns the whole in the same direction: with field of facts. now project an image of the Holy Virgin on the falling peas. of the paranoiac's way of seeing the world correspondences. Method is a sequence of Salvador Dali. by the afflicted individual event.. as snapshots.that is. 2. observation and reinforces is caught in one system of speculation in such a way that it absolutely his thesis . Paranoia is a shock of recognition SOUVENIRS As the name suggests.in this case. c. paranoia is a delirium of interpretation. to exert and in systematic themselves strictly rational associations. matter where the hammer blows fal/. cumulative world into a magnetic the one he is going in. the compression of these gaseous speculations of objectifying where they achieve the density of fact: the critical part of the method consists of the fabrication tourism.. This is my method: take five bags of green peas.relationship and proof . to serve the reality of our mind ." "understood" confirms has been amplified beyond simple Each fact. no his point of departure.with its rich harvest of unsuspected analogies and patterns. 238 239 . each pea. now one projects the image upside down and takes a photograph. Dalf's Paranoid-Critical two consecutive 1.
Broad promenade under the east arch of the bridge leads to English Village at upper left. the worn. The PCM is both the product of and the remedy against that anxiety: it promises that.. put into the real world where it of evidence for unprovable of this evidence on the world. with fragments of London life . that the supply is depleted. all existing categorizations. the better they can to that society's destruction. by recording it in a medium that cannot lie. That is the cause of the Reality Shortage.toe of a saint's statue gradually disappears inexorably under perpetual of his devotees' kisses. contents of the world can be recharged or enriched simply through the act of interpretation. been categorized unknown. the guards . it now spans an artificial lake. The Acropolis disintegrates.the more metropolitan tion of the reality of nature and artifacts. to make a fresh start . reality is consumed. "London Bridge Racquet Club in foreground is part of the park complex at the West End of the bridge. the faster the process of consumpThey are worn out so rapidly .and incidentally solving the Reality Shortage at Lake Havasu. the conjecture criticalobjectified. These false facts relate to the real world as spies to a given society: the more conventional devote themselves and unnoted their existence. three years after its demolition in England.adding authenticity at both ends..asif 241 the higher the frequency of the Kiss. ingredients. the Parthenon visits. it isis collapsing due to the ever· escalating frequency of tourists' As the big . To refine the effect even more one can coat each pea with a reflective film.. a triumph of engineering skill and determination by English and American Builders five generations apart" . etc. of the world have stock of the and catalogued. or at least upset.. and evidences can catalogue. Everything is known. consumed like uranium. under the onslaught Kiss of mankind.the red phone booths. TOE London Bridge rebuilt in original form at Lake Havasu. "8 of the Ascension is the initial paranoiac propellant. through that ever-new generations be generated to short-circuit conceptual recycling. Arizona. the double-decker buses. the definitive 240 . the upside-down fall of the peas will produce the effect of the Ascension. conform to the laws of gravity. Paranoid-Critical speculations activity is the fabrication grafting and the subsequent so that a "false" fact takes its unlawful place among the "real" facts. that the definitive world has been taken. including that which is still of false facts and fabricated The PCM proposes to destroy. a quarter of a world away from Scotland where its stones were quarried. . which will give it the quality of a screen . is made made undeniable. perhaps the most blatant Paranoid-Crttica! journey in recent memory: dismantled stone by stone. London Bridge stood again. Here. This process intensifies parallel malaise: the fact that all facts. so the Big Toe of reality dissolves slowly but exposure to the continuous The higher the density of a civilization ... " "Nearly a century and a half after its inauguration."Due to the acceleration.. that postulate can become active. in the 20th century and is accompanied by a phenomena. Facts wear.
the wheelbarrow and its enigmatic bags ." INDIANS 1 Dali explodes the Angelus and gives it a new PC activity existed long before its formal invention. Millet's original protagonists have disappeared. - hypotheses: 2. lease on lite. 1932-33: Millet's couple now confronted with the accusatory offspring of their scandalous relationship. hides an erection. Yet when he printed his footstep on the New World. As a child. PC activity ties the loose ends left by the rationalism ment finally together.. Dali could see a reproduction of this painting from his school bench. the two enigmatic only announce the imminent pitchfork is the force of sexual attraction hat glowing in the sunset is a close-up of the impatient member. he proved both theses to his own satisfaction. When Columbus sailed west. Through the systematic the fabrication ambiguous petrified reshuffling of these worn-out contents. but their accessories .have been reconstructed as paranoiac "substitutes. if not fits. and so on. so intense that the memory of these two immobile silhouettes never left me ..the pitchfork. the man's hat. From that moment. ostensibly taken off in a gesture of piety.frame and discovers hidden meanings: the couple is in a moment of sexual desire that will animate them in the next bags slumped together on the wheelbarrow intimacy of the still-separated couple... fingerprints evidence of a 243 242 . the second wrong. the woman's red tip of the man's instant. It "produced a vague anxiety in me . through . and Dali's permutations of Millet's Angelus. or like banging a piece into a jigsaw puzzle so that it sticks. Through interpretation. the scene is completed stuck firmly in the earth.the world can be reshuffled is a disappointment. At first sight it is one of the most banal of 19th·century with two bags of unspecified pitchfork horizon.fabricated that their discoverer had indeed reached India. that the world was round. DESIRE Francois Millet. the made concrete..the tableaux preceding Dali reveals that the Angelus is an of flashbacks and flash-forwards cliches: a loaded by a couple on a barren field. " of the Enlighten- As an example of recycling the used contents of the globe. like a pack of cards whose original sequence PC activity is like cheating with the last moves of a game of solitaire that refuses to come out. the natives became "Indians" . L'Ange/us." Meditation on the Harp. Illustration for Les Chants de Maldoror. 1934-35: here. The first conjecture was right. he wanted to prove two distinct 1. saying prayers in front of a wheelbarrow contents. a basket and a church spire on the and following the known image - freeze. that he would reach India by sailing westward. Dali himself attacks Millet's Angelus.
to impose the "reality" analogy between the Romans and Manhattan's of his stolen goods." but even those that were rejected left traces of the Grid (with its fabulous incremental Wild West the inexhaustible Lebensraum of the synthetic or scars. Murray's Roman Gardens .becomes of New York as project. Manhattan constant bombardment and grafts.to the extent of using actual to impose his own form of PROJECT Jollain's "bird's-eye view of New Amsterdam. archipelago of Western culture.the past authenticity imitative.the graft of a particular left by the extirpation Amsterdam foundation operation of the previous culture. Many "took. on 42nd Erkins knows of his New Amsterdam cloning: the transplantation effort. they were doomed to extinction discovered . as modern message . the more so if it occurs in the void to New Amsterdam makes no difference. the 1672 map becomes in retrospect souvenirs. including gabled roofs and a canal that has to be excavated with superhuman Street . transplantations the only true representation From its discovery.. of projections.is in itself a PC process.' 1672. In the artificial accommodating light of the PCM. has been an urban canvas. speculative error.) (A PC race.island a complete catalogue of European precedents . avatars and simulacrums . Columbus depicted a split second before his two theses .he depends on maximum souvenirs of a journey that never was .Antiquity of paranoiac transposition. of conceptual = from mud to bedrock. the only true representation of New York as project: the result of a never-ending flow of paranoid projections firmly established on the soil of Manhattan. on the most conventional. exposed to a misrepresentations.is also an operation that the situation a hypothesis reshuffled In a more conscious way. plaster casts of the objects of antiquity Modernity. architectures).the correct one that the world is round and the incorrect one that he had reached India . Through the strategies of the Skyscrapers accurate prediction: "tourisrns" and the Great Lobotomies (with their invisible interior a more and more of colossal portrait of a paranoiac Venice. he claims to reproduce never really existed except as inhabitants . Therefore. when the mistake was evidence.Dali. of America by Christopher 1959.wiped out as embarrassing GRAFT Any process of colonization . the 1672 "map" of New York . urban model onto an Indian island. receptivity).both literal and mental- that testify to all the accumulated 244 245 .were established as "facts" by the imprint of his footstep on the shore. culture onto an alien site . The Discovery Columbus. undeniable in his own mind. but this new is settled in an of Amsterdam's .
show many parallels persona and method of operation myself. he claims: "I live like a monk and hate to show version: Purism). with Dalf's PCM. but I carry the idea of combat in my person. Coming from Switzerland. The successive steps . of the speculative into the undeniably The transformation different "there" is for modern architecture. but there is no doubt that this streak has been and with relish. He must always find the hole. by its proud owner. wants to perform without belonging to the even in its most aggressive campaigns of modern architecture performance: it insists on its otherworld Iiness. Like a lone actor who enacts an play from that of other actors on the same stage. In times of danger.of making his criticalconcrete. presented as a last-minute to share the paranoiac thesis that a calamity will wipe out that unwise part of mankind that clings to old forms of habitation and urban coexistence. Architecture traumatic absolutely scheduled realization fication is inevit_qbly_aJorm of PC_a_ctivity.. I have been called to all countries to do battle. Le Corbusier despises Surrealism...portrait. . For this subversive play within a play it has cultivated modeled on Noah's Paranoid-Critical is invariably an urgent invitation Modern architecture for redemption. we construct our Arks so that mankind CONCRETE Le Corbusier's structures favorite method of objectification is reinforced . as in traffic where there are no red or green lights!":" OTHERWORLDLINESS Architecture "In times of danger. a rhetorical justiopportunity episode in the Bible..COMBAT Le Corbusier is·ten years older than Dali. the chief must be where others aren't. Some of these must be the involuntary systematically exploited. signs of a truly paranoiac streak in his character. the chief must go where others aren't. " "While everybody else foolishly pretends that nothing is wrong.. " = the imposition on the world of structures it never asked in the minds for and that existed previously only as clouds of conjectures of their creators. may survive the coming flood .from 247 246 . In a classic paranoid self. private Protestant Le Corbusier's he shares with Dali that Paris that is the breedbut also of Cubism (and Le Corbusier's But ing ground not only of Surrealism Dali abhors Modernism.
) What Noah needed was reinforced What Modern Architecture concrete.have been removed.the shuttering . leaving only the fingerprints of the wood's grain. First. in everyday life. possible pursuit. that each reinforced-concrete building site. His barge offers accommodation for up to 160 clochards. (It is no coincidence locked shipyard.) of warfare are PC objects: the most rational possible to invent and build the and potential glories 249 New City commensurate 248 with the demands . Broken down in sequence. Then a mouse-gray liquid is poured into the empty speculative forms to give them permanent life on earth. for construction proceeds as all its commonness follows. pairs of double-decker of reinforced concrete. Infinitely malleable at first. real lovers of sun and the great outdoors. reinforced concrete can objectify vacuity and fullness with equal ease: it is the architects' plastic.are inserted: the reinforcing counter- process of paranoiac calculation. then suddenly hard as rock. infinitely malleable at first. the conjectural the initial thesis. an object that establishes all these metaphors on a literal plane. resembles Noah's project: an inexplicably BUMS In 1929 Le Corbusier realizes a Floating Asylum for the Parisian Salvation Army. especially after the signs of the initial madness . in perpetual need of indifferent (Bums are the ideal clients of modern architecture: to architectural doctrine shelter and hygiene. It is Le Corbusier's all-consuming ambition at the service of the most irrational and to formal layout.dimensioned strictly according to the of Newtonian physics . an undeniable reality.the negative of Then steel reinforcements rational principles Dali's diagram of the Peranoid-Crtttcal Method at work doubles as diagram of reinforced-concrete construction: a mouse-gray liquid with the substance of vomit. held up by steel reinforcements calculated according to the strictest Newtonian physics. (Remnant of World War I military experimentation. which is made Like architecture. needs is a flood. is no less dreamlike. then suddenly hard as rock. all paraphernalia instruments CITY But these are mere finger exercises. reinforced-concrete structure of shuttering is erected .the speculative transposition to the real- of this construction method constitute a of Dali's dream of photographing Mary's Ascension that.) They are arranged in beds along the length of the barge. with its landmad clutter of shuttering. .
"! "an archidisturbanc-e of Le Corbusier's task is clear: before he can deliver the city with which he of his brainchild."14 They are immature. other lice . It is his tragic bad luck that such a city already exists.... the louse sion . but because he is eye to is inconceivable to Le Corbusier for "there. Why? In order to struggle for improvement in their lives? In order to suffer! To have gone so far. "The louse is flattered. birthright glamorous namely Manhattan. They represent not the second (real) Machine 'Age but "tumult. night in the tower oppressed "Identikit" portrait of Le Corbusier's imaginary New York.. simultaneously: waging a systemic campaign of ridicule and defamation against the American Skyscraper tectural while carrying out a parallel operation and the anti-Manhattan. romantic city ordinance?" . . a prodigious hiatus between us and the realities of nature [italics added]. but his legs become ten or twenty times too long .. "Living in order to work! This means breaking our backs. of this grotesque congregation has reestablished of architectural cripples. at the foot of the tower. to have allowed ourselves to drift so far in our cities . So men have grouped themselves together. To establish the he has to destroy New York's credibility. skyscraper . moral bewilderment.. deprestaller than the others.. " That the louse is exhilarated. . "In the age of speed. Manhattan. the machine age." "handled "12 are misshapen "adolescents nonsensically as the result of a deplorably hairgrowth. Imagine a man undergoing Skyscrapers a mysterious of his organic life.. it is by the other towers: sadness.. first explosive stage of the new middle ages .. plunging into a black abyss of artificiality... is pregnant. But on top of those skyscrapers becomes radiant. the skyscraper the city. Flowers! We must live surrounded by flowers!" Illustration and caption for the Radiant City. so that we are mere hunted animals! . driving ourselves mad.that the human mechanism has run off the rails.. For the inhabitants petrified - not yet modern.. these strange skyscrapers The louse loves it. academic contraption. when he develops this ambition... The skyscraper the pedestrian. he has to prove that it does not yet exist. For Le Corbusier New York's Skyscrapers accident..an 251 He sees the ocean and boats.of the machine civilization. "The louse approves of these expenses to decorate the cork of his "15 250 . . IDENTIKIT Le Corbusier's campaign of denigration that its strategist is made possible only by the fact has never beheld the object of his aggression .. he is above the not by nature.the 1916 Zoning Law. has him louse Le Corbusier feels only pity. of actually designing the antiare "child's play. eye with other Skyscrapers. at are usually crowned by some the top. the torso remains normal. Skyscraper From 1920 he fights on two fronts and its natural habitat. alone . The louse hoists himself up in the tower..all our cities . kill the sparkle of its modernity.. He moves anxiously near the bottom of the skyscraper.
= rational) abstraction. (This form of forcible police tactic to prevent further OVEREXPOSURE The Cartesian Skyscraper is naked. Le Corbusier's Cartesian rabbit.surprise! and the jungle pulls out the Horizontal Skyscraper. But the have tried to design superior costumes. European architects But Le Corbusier understands unrecognizable by a suspect. Manhattan's resemblance in a series of hasty paste-ups of grainy images . who invents the victims (the and avoids the scene of lice).ignorance that he carefully preserves for the duration If an identikit descriptions portrait of an alleged criminalon the strength of his attacksare unverifiable. that the only way to make the Skyscraper undress is of misbehavior is to undress it. is that they already wear costumes. is supposed to hold the Cartesian Skyscrapers Usually after such PC kidnappings essence of New York's Skyscrapers Before.) course also a well-known the victims are forced to spend the rest of their lives in disguise. In this performance Skyscraper become unrecognizable: the Skyscraper turns into a Cartesian (~ French the jungle into a carpet of green vegetation that together. The secret formula of Le Corbusier's Radiant City: the "City of Panic [Manhattan] .fabricated Le Corbusier is a paranoid detective the crime. When he finally "introduces" he is like a prestidigiuni- gives his trick away: he makes the American Skyscraper disappear in the black velvet pouch of his speculative incompatible elements in his Paranoid-Critical both the Manhattan verse. his imputations assembled from photographic then Le Corbusier's fragments portrait of more or less accurate product par excellence.. too.." mug shots . from the original Manhattan model. long attempt to cut an umbilical cord. a I5-yearand models.that show no whatsoever to his supposed adversary. in fact. forges the likeness of the perpetrator TOP HAT Le Corbusier's passionate involvement with New York is. by the police and that for his European audience. a purely specula- by his victims . of New York is an identikit: guilt is illustrated tive collage of its "criminal" In book after book. in the jungle. In spite of his angry obliterations he is secretly nourished tator who accidentally by its reservoir of precedents his anti-Skyscraper.is a Paranoid-Critical urbanistic features. of models from their natural contexts. adds jungle (nature in its purest possible form). 253 Top and base have been amputated 252 . then shakes up the top hat and .
Le Corbusier that allowed the (no place for a Murray's) and a top (no seductive claims of competing realities). Its lack of a base to the sun implied by the thin by any of the forms of floor by floor.. the Horizontal Skyscraper. True believer in the myth of technology itself is fantastic. there is hardly any noise . Skyscraper in all its honesty on such a scale that it exists only at the price Technology of the Fantastic. . Skyscraper to remain virginal.. the merciless overexposure cruciform social intercourse Presto! The Cartesian Rabbit.the remnants of the jungle .. that is businessmen Le Corbusier's Skyscraper means business only. . and extension of the from It has of total banality. official thinkers always pretended they wanted to realize. surrounding park with elevated highways.) Le Corbusier names the grouping implanted infantile If the Cartesian Skyscraper anti-Manhattan. No trace here of New York's soul-destroying "You are under the shade of trees. By stripping ideological off the reassuring exterior architecture hysteria of the interior architecture even undoes the Great Lobotomy. "To say skyscraper automobiles .believe of Manhattan's tects .. "armored platform against aerial bombardments:' (The "best" modern architecture is that which is prepared for the "worst" catastrophe. of these Cartesian Skyscrapers primitive. or...the Radiant City. use of technology imagination as instrument equals abuse. The glass walls of his Horizontal cultural void. to flourish. rationality . The make. The air is clean and pure. at the top. "16 steerec archl efficiency.has colonized the mind and is to say offices. all preclude occupation that have begun to invade Manhattan. can only be displayed in its purest form. then the Radiant City is finally Le Corbusier's metropolitan wilderness. He introduces The Cartesian/Horizontal splendor. "Vast lawns spread all around you.pragmatism.) There is no place here for Manhattan's For Le Corbusier. 60 floors of offices and. the distance of Europe.. in their park . for him technology totemic presence.' "What? You cannot see where the buildings are? "Look through the charmingly diapered arabesques of branches out into 255 254 . a strictly 'enclose a complete NON-EVENT Section through the Cartesian Skyscraper: metro in the basement. It is exactly the rational Skyscraper that Manhattan's stone claddlr'8. (Some desirable social activity is allergic to daylight.the part in between is stripped of its "old-fashioned" dressed in glass and stretched to 220 meters. is the antipode of Manhattan's Towers. of its plan. of a European. while in practice they as far away from it as possible.
"Those translucent prisms that seem to float in the air without anchorat nightfall. strips. He creates the urban non-event that New York's own planners have always avoided (despite their lip service to it): Decongested Congestion. to the exclusion of those indefinable have been built into the Ferrissian Mountain. :'17 In designing the Cartesian Skyscraper as universal accommodation emotional business. has "reestablished is exactly that victs are lined up 400 meters apart (i.. nects them with a network of elevated highways so that automobiles = modern) instead of pedestrians (medieval) can shuttle agents.cities of forged fabric . eight Manhattan the distance between Hood's super-peaks They are spaced out beyond any possible association. It called me 'Barbarian'! . to really Le Corbusier has been the fairy tales of Manhattan's But his real intention in the Radiant City is even more destructive: solve the problems of congestion. Marooned in grass. makes it unrecognizable reconstruction. The Voisin Plan imposed on Paris as if according to the Surrealist formula of "~Cadavre Exguis. Alhambra. Metropolis in search of a location. his Cartesian conblocks .. The City Council has never contacted me. freely from tower to tower over a carpet of chlorophyll-producing he solves the Problem but kills the Culture of Congestion. magically glittering offices ." whereby fragments are grafted onto an ~m in deliberate ignoranc." The essence of Manhattan where traditional it is an ultra-modern are simultaneously structure When he first (= businessmen Mega-Village enlarged to the scale of a Metropolis. "A Battle of Giants? No! The miracle of trees and parks reaffirms the human scale .the sky toward those widely spaced crystal towers that soar higher than any pinnacle on earth. "Since 1922 I have continued to work. " Anti-Manhattan in the heart of Paris.' Le Corbusier dismantles back to Europe.it. flashing in summer sunshine. Both operations Manhattan theoretical are pure PC processes . in general and in detail. credulous victim of the pragmatic Le Corbusier's Radiant City as a pedestrian would see . In 1925 the first attempt to graft it onto the face of the earth is made "in the name of the beauty and destiny of Paris.but if a is a phantom pregnancy. AFTERBIRTH Through the twenties.or not see . "It is in the name of the beauty of Paris that you say 'No!'" "It is in the name of the beauty and destiny of Paris that I insist 'Yesl'" him alone. ~urther anatomy. on the problem of Paris. Le Corbusier has correctly perceived that Manhattan the pedestrian. smuggles it and stores it for future banks of the Hudson. softly gleaming under gray winter skies.. Everything has been made public... are huge blocks of for age to the ground.?" The Plan Voisin is 256 257 . the Radiant City is its afterbirth. a and mutant lifestyles infraconprovoked and sustained by the most fantastic then isolates the Skyscrapers and finally collection of Super-r+louses" ever devised. as Manhattan is "removing stone by stone the the Kremlin and the Louvre" to "build them anew on the New York. The Cartesian Rabbit multiplies itself to constitute the Radiant City: Le Corbusier's antiManhattan unveiled.. " services that builders. Further tricks of a Paranoid-Critical magician..about but with nothing in between).e..
we erect the Cartesian skyscraper. from its beginnings. elegantly shining in the sky of France . Manhattan will be destroyed in Paris.. so that a poetic hybrid is "released" As if Paris' surface were folded.. New York is countered by the Cartesian City. the second from draws a body and folds. "19 line and the horizontal.. The only way his city can be understood juxtaposition of the "negative" Ville Radieuse. . turbulent machine age . harmonious and lyrical. "The two theses face to face.I counteract the straight of the American Skyscraper. _. "Le Cadavre of the child's game in which a piece of paper is draws a head and folds the paper. TWINS The Radiant City is intended architectural Le Corbusier's as the apotheosis of an experiment Manhattan....one element turned frantic efforts to outdistance into another. from which even the Louvre barely escapes.adaptation folded." that are Lower housing blocks meander around Cartesian Skyscrapers scraped away to be replaced by "jungle": In spite of Le Corbusier's dedication Further steps in a campaign of denigration: Le Corbusier's juxtaposition Paris-New York. clamor of the giant adolescent of the with horizontal skyscrapers. the first participant the subconscious. . first explosive stage of a new middle age). hair standing on end. Le Corbusier draws a torso that deliberately ignores the further anatomy of the "exquisite corpse. '259 is by comparison and of the in spite of Manhattan and the "positive" together 258 .. SLIPPER The Parisian authorities do not take the Radiant proposal seriously. peddling his horizontal glass Skyscraper colossal glass slipper on an Odyssey from Metropolis to Metropolis. limpid. illustration for the Radiant City. or. according to the early Surrealist theorem Exquis" . illustration for the Radiant City..' arranged on a plain in central Paris where all traces of history have been the so-called mobilization of the Ground. Their like a furious prince dragging a rejection forces Le Corbusier to become a Cartesian carpetbagger. city of will tame the vertical.New YorkjVilie Radieuse: "opposites" that have become inseparable. "Two spirits confront each other: the French tradition of the Notre Dame. etc. The two are like Siamese twins that grow progressively of a surgeon's desperate efforts to separate them. the Voisin Plan (with its Horizontal Skyscrapers) and the American tradition (tumult.verbally and even visually . precise. malist and romantic conceptions "Against New York's skyscraper "Against New York. it seems. in alchemy . birth of a Siamese Twin. But despite the only way to describe his new city . to Paris' future.. " planned.is in terms of its differences from Manhattan. Paris. "Our invention. this plan is clearly a pretext The transplantation is intended to generate not a new Paris but a was directed against the purely for- first anti-Manhattan.
.~" Nobody wants even to try the slipper on.. "This was assuming the form of a childish caprice '?' He sails for New York. of paranoia . -.natural or self-induced . the baking of "a fifteen-meter The baker on board offers to bake a version 2Y2 meters long (the maximum capacity of the ship's oven) with "a wood armature disembarks reporters an "utterly disconcerting it would not break in two the moment it began to dry . '. The only unshaded part was a negligible strip of Africa. -_ -_ " "Doors slam behind me. of a sensational "I want to go to America. his wares] would sell.a Surrealist project originally loaf of bread. .e_.. . His Reinforced among the multitudes.' " .it is a "Last spring he pulled out a pad and drew a map of the world.'?' Manhattan. ..-_ " " . Argentina.."? he Barcelona. _" Dali's first discovery is that in Manhattan Dough is just another false fact of convention.~.... paradox. "Each image that came from America I would sniff. shading the areas where he felt his books [i. :' But when Dali thing" happens: "Not one of the during the whole interview either in [of a waiting group] asked me a single question about the loaf of bread which I held conspicuously The disconcerter Surrealism disconcerted: my arm or resting on the ground as if it had been a large cane.. .'~"'''':--=." inside it so that intended to upset Paris. Buenos Aires? destination of a New City!" ARRIVAL 1 In 1935 the attraction voluptuousness fragrances of the New World becomes irresistible for Dali. everywhere offers his towers. his thesis. with the with which one welcomes the first whiffs of the inaugural meal of which one is about to partake... .~--:_-. Rome. last stopover for the Cartesian carpetbagger on his way to New York.For shock effect on arrival. Rio de Janeiro. PC activity counts for its impact on a solid background Just as the success of Robin Hood's activity depends on the continuous 260 261 ...retroactively . is invisible. "...In the best traditions worldwide journey. __ "22 Illustration for the Radiant City: Buenos Aires..." " .. "I am right... "But deep inside me I know: "I am right. Algiers. . . offers the most chaotic cities the chance to be the opposite of the "pathetic That only reinforces "I am kicked out. I want to go to America . so to speak.. "New York: pathetic paradox . "I am right. Dali decides to realize . . Buenos Aires. ".
. Dall invents his own New York on his first day in town: a Manhattan to be modern.it does not scrape the sky.. " strips . :' 263 . Dali enters the Skyscraper. "The poetry of New York is not that of a practical concrete building that scrapes the sky. The poetry of New York is organ. organ of virginal roars that I had just heard in my sleep.. it means that.. of the lions' by the persistence pursuit of efficiency..supply of rich people traversing completely his forest. On the wall of the elevator there was a copy of a Spanish red velvet century . broken only by roars and savage cries.. A crew of workers black smoke that whistled like apocaby means of that blackish lyptic dragons was in the act of patining the outer walls of the building in order to 'age' this excessively new skyscraper smoke characteristic of the old houses of Paris. organ of actuality. "No. a Paranoidalready had a horror of this . its ambivalent New York's only efficiency pragmatic 3. conscious. doctrines. utterly anti-Parisian so as to imitate the supposed 'modern sparkle' of New York .. on the other hand. expecting to find the rational core of the true Machine Age. away at the earth around the foundations cupolas of your thousand new religions. ideologies. Le Corbusier has spent 15 years proving that Manhattan is not yet modern.. dissimulations. That same night Dalf has a dream involving "eroticism After I was fully awake... Directly under Dalf's window are the lions of the Central Park Zoo... New York was not a modern city. On Park Avenue "fierce anti-modernism spectacular armed with implements projecting "New York. organ. its with a jolt. resurrection all meeting fashion. before any other city..that I felt completely lost. New York. and metaphor. the modern architects a la Le Corbusier were materials. and history-less abyss .. If a 2Y2-meter in Manhattan.that of an immense 'modern and mechanical' city . " what Gustave Moreau apoplectic with Prometheus 2. it is seething biology .. it now. the stark folly of whose historical wardrobes gnaws "I n Paris. Dalf looks only at their surface.... Atlantis of the suband swells the inverted rites of your Roxy Theatre? And lighted the venomous "New York . Paranoid-Critical "souvenir" of a "jungle" that never existed there... Three disintegrates.. and you erect pyramids of democracy with the vertical organ pipes of your skyscrapers at the point of infinity of liberty! of the Atlantic Dream. manifested itself in the most 1.. organ of bad taste. a second revelation occurs as he ascends in an elevator. On his first day in Manhattan fundamentally different he experiences mutations three revelations that disthat make this Metropolis close to him the essential cultural Critical redesign: New York is a field where all histories.the velvet was authentic and probably of the fifteenth at the summit of the Chrysler Building?" Manhattan's towers. there is no such scale against which its intended shock waves can register. Le Corbusier has stripped racking their brains to find new and flashy. I was surprised and lions. the thinness of Manhattan's mimicry of philistinism. She erected pyramids of slavery to death. beginning with the very facade. .. but New York can shock Dali. by space and time. " But the lions' roar is real. appear simulto celebrate a final taneously. once carefully separated spasm of Western culture. you are an Egypt! But the Egypt turned inside out . "For having been so at the beginning. organ of calves' lungs. or seems to be. it resounds in it with the compass of the biology .. SHOCK 1 Dali cannot shock New York. so all plots to "discredit REDESIGN 1 To acquire the right to invent his own New York. The linearity of history is short-circuited from any other. " He maps his discovery through association that does not even want the world of reality" rely on a reality that is. This silence. "I was surprised by the fact that instead of electricity painting by EI Greco hung from heavily ornamented it was lighted by a large candle. These roars were mingled with the cries of ducks and other animals more difficult to differentiate.. "What Piranesi invented the ornamental colors that flutter EFFICIENCY 1 In his blind rage. revisions and the European myth of Manhattan is its poetic efficiency. but it is just this superficial inspection that exposes. organ . on solid ground and even in good health. "The poetry of New York is not serene esthetics. organ of Babel. was so unlike the din that I had expected .. loaf of French bread becomes unnoticeable. This was followed by complete silence. the poetry of New York is that of a giant many-piped systole and diastole of the visceral canticle of elementary organ of red ivory .
. 264 265 ..' said Le Corbusier [to the interpreter on the USA]... higher than another. why did you erect my statue long ago. "New York: why... especially when. threatening. after the suit. desire that illuminates them and makes all the central heating and the central poetry circulate within their ferruginous suspends all other functions of the city." his interpretation he turns the whole city into of New York assume the anthropoMillet's Ange/uses . he snapped his empty camera at Le Corbusier who looked mollified . New York is not white. :' Dalf's Paranoid-Critical a spectacle. in its campaign to impose real Modernism on board were busy taking pictures of other celebrities... .. motionless.Dali prepares this Manhattanist puritanical "apologists poetry as truculent antidote to the who have virginity . '''Jacobs. " of the aseptic beauty of functionalism" tried to impose New York "as an example of anti-artistic They have all made a terrible mistake. Le Corbusier is as invisible in New York as Dali's bread.. Being an obliging fellow. For a moment. failure of all attempts to arrange an adoption. with one final gesture. glass slipper spurned by worldwide consensus . the money. and ready to perform the sexual act. New York is all round. New York is vivid red. "New York is a round pyramid!" MONUMENT "Each evening the skyscrapers of New York assume the anthropomorphic shapes of multiple gigantic Millet's Ange/uses .12 years pregnant with the Radiant City. performed conquest of Manhattan for his sole pleasure. to lay the phantom foundling on the doorstep of its natural father and instigate a paternity For him no reporters. found that the him to take a MoMA. It is there for him alone. sponsor of his crossing. Le Corbusier exists but cannot be recorded. " PC activity records facts that do not exist. As if under a curse. long before I was born. however. .. is a model of economy. motionless.... gigantic and ready to perform the sexual act and to devour one another .' said the photographer.Le Corbusier sails for New York with the accumulated bitterness of an unwed mother. 'where are the photographers?' press cameramen He slipped a newspaperman returning engaged for him by Jacobs .... "New York is not prismatic. "Each evening the skyscrapers morphic shapes of multiple It is the sanguinary bone structure. more desperate than another?'?' ARRIVAL 2 Also in 1935 . five dollars and implored picture of Le Corbusier.. 'I've used up all my film.
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