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OilWell Drilling Technology 1 WB1

OilWell Drilling Technology 1 WB1

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Designed, Produced and Published by OPITO Ltd., Petroleum Open Learning, Minerva House, Bruntland Road, Portlethen, Aberdeen AB12 4QL
Printed by Paul Matthew Print & Design, 2 Coldside Road, Dundee DD3 8DF
© OPITO 1993 (rev.2002) ISBN 1 872041 85 X
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval or information storage system, transmitted iii any form or by any means,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.
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Oilwell Drilling Technology

Unit 1 : Basic Concepts
Contents Page
*
Training Target 1.2
*
Introduction 1.3
* Section 1 - Reservoirs and Reservoir Rocks 1.5
* Section 2 - Exploration Techniques 1.15
*
Section 3 - Drilling Rig Types 1.21
*
Section 4 - Drilling Personnel 1.33
* Check Yourself - Answers 1.37
Visual Cues
training targets for you to achieve
'1rt by the end of the unit
[1]
test yourself questions to see how
much you understand
III
[\Ii check yourself answers to let you
see if you have been thinking along
the right lines
activities for you to apply your new
knowledge or find things out for
yourself

summaries for you to recap on the
major steps In your progress
1.1



Training Target
The aim of this unit is to give you an insight into the basic concepts and techniques used in the
exploration for oil and gas. We will also look briefly at the drilling process, design features of
drilling rigs and the personnel involved in the drilling operation.
When you have completed the unit you will be able to:
• Name the two main types of sedimentary rock. D
• Define the rock properties of porosity and permeability. D
* Explain in broad terms the origin of petroleum. D
* Identify the types of rock structure which can form a petroleum reservoir. D
• Describe the large scale survey techniques used in petroleum exploration. D
• Explain the principles of three small scale survey techniques used in petroleum exploration. D
• Describe the basic concepts of the drilling process. D
• List the main types of drilling rig in use and the key features of each. D
* List the main personnel involved in the drilling operation and the functions of the drilling crew. D
Tick each box when you have met the target.
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Unit 1 : Basic Concepts


Introduction
Natural petroleum is contained in underground
reservoirs. The aim is to get it from the reservoir
to the surface in a safe and efficient manner.
There are two main stages involved in this:
* finding the petroleum
* transporting it to the surface and processing
it for the next phase
The first of these stages is called exploration, and
the second production.
It is worth noting here that natural petroleum is
also referred to as:
* petroleum
* oil and gas or
* hydrocarbons
I will be using all of these expressions from time to
time.
We are never absolutely sure whether oil or gas is
present in a reservoir until we have:
* drilled into that reservoir
* obtained a sample of the reservoir fluids at
the surface
Therefore, we can say that drilling a well is the last
step in the exploration stage. Once we know that
hydrocarbons are there, underground, it is
necessary to decide whether the amount present is
sufficient to justify the expense of installing
production facilities - offshore production platforms
for example.
So, a programme of appraisal drilling is planned,
which aims to define:
* the size and shape of the reservoir
* how much hydrocarbon is in place there
* how much of this oil and gas can actually
be brought to the surface
* what difficulties the operation is likely to
encounter.
If, after carrying all this out, we still believe that it is
worthwhile proceeding, we enter the production
stage proper.
Production facilities need to be designed and
installed - for example, how many wells or
production platforms are required? There are
usually a number of wells drilled into one reservoir.
As the number of wells drilled into a reservoir
increases, so does the cost but there are benefits:
* the overall rate of petroleum extraction can
usually be increased
* long term damage to the reservoir can be
minimised by avoiding points of high
production at a few isolated wells.
Development or production drilling is now carried
out, giving the ideal distribution of wells over the
reservoir to achieve the best economic return for
the whole operation. That is - the most
hydrocarbon, at the least cost, in the shortest time.
All these different types of drilling activity ­
exploration, appraisal, or development - will use a
wide range of skills contained within the area we
call Drilling Technology.
1.3
~
I
Before we look into the detail of the drilling operation, this unit on Basic Concepts provides you with some
background on four related topics:
* Section 1 talks about the structure of a reservoir and the types of rock which will be found there.
* Section 2 examines the various exploration techniques which need to be carried through before
the location of the first hole to be drilled is selected.
* Section 3 looks at the different drilling rig types and indicates why a particular design is selected
for a particular purpose. It also covers some basic drilling concepts.
* Section 4 considers the people who work on a drilling rig and how they relate to each other.
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Unit 1 : Basic Concepts
~
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Section 1 - Reservoirs and Reservoir Rocks
A reservoir is not a huge underground cavern
filled with fluid, as many people still imagine.
It is actually a rock system and within the pores,
cracks and channels of this system the reservoir
fluid - gas, oil, water or, in many cases, a mixture
of all three, is stored.
In this section you will find out about:
* the basic geology of reservoir rocks
* the types of reservoir fluid and how they got
there
* the structure of reservoirs - why they act as
reservoirs
Basic Geology of Reservoir Rocks
Most reservoirs are made up of sedimentary rocks. There are two principle types of sedimentary rock in
which hydrocarbons are commonly found. These are:
* clastic (or detrital) rocks
* biochemical rocks
Clastic rocks are formed by the settling out and accumulation of solid particles such as sand. These
particles are formed by the weathering of larger rocks.
They are carried (by rivers, etc.) to the point where they are deposited. Further layers of rock particles
(many thousands of feet thick in some cases) may be laid down on top of this sediment layer which will
eventually form the reservoir.
The force exerted by these further layers (known as the overburden) together with other chemical and
physical changes result in the formation of typical clastic rocks such as sandstones and shales.
Biochemical rocks are formed by the accumulation of marine life remains - fragments of shells, coral,
skeletons and so forth. Again, application of pressure and other changes result in the formation of typical
biochemical rocks such as limestones, chalks and dolomites.
1.5

Figure 1 shows photographs of a typical sandstone and dolomite, taken through an electron microscope
and magnified many times. Details of individual rock particles and pores can clearly be seen.

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Properties of Reservoir Rocks
We now have a reservoir rock which is perhaps
thousands of feet below the surface. You already
know that the reservoir fluids (hydrocarbons and
water) will reside in the pores, cracks and channels
of this system.
However, our main interest in the reservoir rock is
knowing:
• how much space is available for storage of
these fluids
* how easily they will flow to the wellbore
from where they can be transported to the surface.
These characteristics are referred to as porosity
and permeability.
Porosity
The space which is available between the rock
particles (known as the pore space - see figure 2)
is one important guide as to how much
hydrocarbon may be present.
To get a better visual impression of this, think of a
container full of marbles. The marbles represent
individual rock particles which are greatly
magnified. Between the marbles packed in the
container you can see spaces. These are the
pores. Added together they form the pore space.
Figure 2
The volume of pore space, expressed as a
percentage of the total rock volume, is called the
porosity of the rock. The storage capacity of our
reservoir, then, depends on the total volume of the
rock (how big the reservoir is) and its porosity.
@]
Actlvlty
Find two empty containers - empty
yoghurt cartons or plastic cups would be
ideal - some dry sand and some water.
Fill one container with sand and the other
with water. Now, pour some of the water,
slowly, into the container of sand.
What happens? Note down here what you
see.
You will need your yoghurt cartons for the
next activity.
1.7
~
I hope you saw that the water disappeared into the
sand. You will recall that I explained to you what
pore space was - the volume occupied by the
pores, cracks and channels of the reservoir rock
system. It is into this void space that our water is
disappearing.
Incidentally, it is worth noting that you could
estimate the storage capacity of this
mini-reservoir in the yoghurt carton by measuring
the volume of water necessary to fill to the top of
the sand.
i.'
u Test Yourself 1
Imagine a block of sandstone as a mini-reservoir with a total rock volume of one cubic metre
(or 1 000 Iitres).
If the porosity of this reservoir is 18% of the total volume of the rock, what is the maximum
volume of oil it could hold (in litres, say)?
!t{<o{ y I 1- /.'i' ir-,
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You will find the answer in Check Yourself 1 on page 1.37.
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Permeability to pass through in order to reach the well. This is
Reservoir Fluids
shown in figure 3.
You should now have a mental picture of how the
Scientists do not agree on hawaii and gas were
Permeability is a measure of how easy it is for the
pore space in the reservoir provides storage
originally formed. The most popular idea is called
reservoir fluids to make this journey. The higher
capacity for reservoir fluids - which can include
the organic theory. This supposes that these
the permeability (expressed in units called
gas, oil and water.
hydrocarbons were created from the remains of
Darcies), the easier for these fluids to flow and,
small plants and animals living mainly in the sea.
other things being equal, the higher the production
However, it is necessary that these fluids can flow,
Their remains would be covered up by other rock
rate from that particular well.
at an economic rate, through the reservoir to the
deposits washed down by rivers, sealed from the
wellbore, from where they are transported to the
air and, over time, exposed to pressure and other
It is worth noting that the permeability (and
surface. The property which allows this flow is
changes (in much the same way as the reservoir
called permeability.
therefore ease of flow) is affected not only by the
rocks themselves).
type of rock but also by the nature of the fluid
passing through it. Heavy oils will usually find it
The pore spaces in the rock must be connected
The oil and gas formed by this process, however,
more difficult to move through the pores of a given
together, providing a continuous channel for fluids
did not usually stay in the same place. You know
rock than water.
from your own experience that oil floats on water.
t t f A lot of sea water was trapped with the plant and
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tended to float upwards, through the water-filled
.. 0 {
pores of the rock, until it could rise no higher. (We
paths taken by fluid flowing .. -(" • -/." ..")I
will look at the reasons for this in the next section).
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The place where petroleum was first formed is
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known as the source rock. The process of moving
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from there is called migration, and you will have
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guessed, the rock in which this petroleum comes to
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rest is called the reservoir rock. Our task is to
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Figure 3
1.9

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Activity
If you can obtain some clean, coarse grit (free from mud and clay, that is) you can try this:
Take your two empty yoghurt cartons saved from the first Activity. You also need the grit and a small quantity of oil
(light machine oil or even cooking oil will do).
Fill one container with water as before. Add about 1/
4"
of oil to the other container and then fill it with the grit.
Pour some of the water into the container of grit until free water is visible at the surface. Leave overnight.
When you come back to look at it, note down here what you see.
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1.10
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You should see that a film of oil becomes clearly
visible on the surface. This oil, therefore, must
have migrated from the bottom of the container to
the top.
It has floated upwards through the water which is
filling the pores of the grit until it can go no higher.
This is how natural petroleum migrates from the
source rock ie. the rock where it was formed, to
the reservoir rock.
This small reservoir contains larger rock particles
than you would usually find in practice but the idea
is exactly the same. It does indicate very clearly
that your yoghurt-carton reservoir has both porosity
(to hide the oil and water) and permeability (to
allow the oil to reach the surface).
The Structure of Reservoirs
You now have a mental picture of the petroleum
after it was formed, floating upwards through rock
pores and channels filled with water. It will stop
when it is no longer able to do this - when it
encounters a rock layer which does not contain
any pores and channels. This layer is called an
impervious rock, which means not permeable.
The impervious rock layer must be shaped in a
certain way, otherwise the petroleum would find its
way round the edges and continue its upward
migration. The impervious rock layer must form a
trap, such as a cap rock.
Figures 4a, 4b and 4c illustrate various types of
traps and how petroleum can accumulate under
these to form the petroleum reservoir.
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-------
-------
---------.
You will notice from these diagrams that the
reservoir fluids contained within the rock pores
have separated (over millions of years) into distinct
layers - gas at the top, then oil, then water as you
would expect.
In practice, the boundaries between the layers are
not as sharp as in the picture. This separation is,
however, important, when we decide how far into
the reservoir we should drill before completing the
well. Unit 9 will look at this in more detail.
-- porous,
permeable
reservoir rock
Figure 4a
1.11

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. porous,
' ... permeable
reservoir rock

Figure 4b ;;
water
porous,
permeable
reservoir rock
Figure 4c
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Test Yourself 2
Have a look at the sketch below. It shows two subsurface geological structures. If oil migrates upwards through the porous and permeable reservoir
rock then do you think that either of these structures could form an effective petroleum reservoir?
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/y./
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And why?
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You will find the answer in Check Yourself 2 on page 1.38.
1.13

I
The task is now to find the petroleum reservoir,
and the next section looks at some of the more
common exploration techniques which are used
prior to the final test - drilling.
Summary
In this section we have looked at sedimentary rocks and how they were first deposited. You will
have learnt that, in order to form an effective petroleum reservoir, this sedimentary rock must
possess two properties: porosity and permeability.
I described how petroleum was first formed in the source rock and how it migrated upwards
towards the reservoir.
The petroleum reservoir will then:
* consist of sedimentary rock having both porosity and permeability
* lie underneath an impermeable (impervious) layer (such as a cap rock), forming a
trap past which the reservoir fluids cannot leak
* contain reservoir fluids which have separated, in many cases into a gas layer at the
top, an oil layer in the middle and a water layer underneath
You now know what a petroleum reservoir is. In the next section you will learn how to find it.
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Unit 1 : Basic Concepts

I
Section 2 .. Exploration Techniques
In the previous section, I described how
sedimentary roCKS are laid down and why the
presence of these rocks would indicate the
possibility of oil and gas being present.
We need to know the broad geographical areas in
the world where these sedimentary rocks may be
found. This gives us a first clue as to where we
should drill.
These areas can be very large and techniques are
required to pinpoint more accurately the likely
subsurface structures where oil and gas could
accumulate. You already know that these are
called traps and will be familiar with the basic
types.
In this section, you will find out about:
* sedimentary basins
* exploration techniques - large scale
* exploration techniques - small scale
Sedimentary Basins
We have seen, previously, that most scientists now
accept the organic theory of petroleum production.
In other words, they believe that oil and gas were
formed from plant and animal remains, deposited
from rivers and seas, covered with further layers of
rock sediment and subjected to high pressures,
high temperatures and so on.
If this is the case, our sedimentary basins, or
geographical areas where large quantities of
sedimentary rock are found, will be located where
old river systems have deposited large quantities
of sediment into ancient seas. The locations of
these seas are well known by geologists, based on
a wide range of other evidence.
However, knowing that a petroleum reservoir could
be contained within a sedimentary basin which
may be hundreds of miles across is not much help
to an oil company. They want to know where to
drill the first well - precisely.
Therefore, we require other techniques which will
pinpoint more accurately the most favourable
location for drilling.
Exploration Techniques - large
scale
Here, we must think of techniques which are
suitable for land locations, and those which are
applicable over water.
Land
Geologists have found that they can sometimes
identify subsurface structures like faults and domes
by viewing ground contours at the surface. You will
see this more clearly by looking again at
figures 4a, band c and noting that these
subsurface shapes can, to some extent, be
mirrored at ground level.
Aerial photographic surveys are a most effective
means of gaining this broad impression. Domes
and outcrops often stand out clearly, perhaps by
changes in the vegetation. Figure 6 on the next
page shows an aerial photograph which illustrates
some of these characteristics.
1.15

I
"' ... pr!" __"IAUI_ _
The use of 3-dimensional photography increases
the ease with which surface characteristics can be
picked out from aerial photographs.
Nowadays, in addition, photographs from orbiting
satellites are increasingly used for this type of
exploration work.
Aerial surveys are often accompanied by field
surveys - geologists on the ground investigating in
more detail some of the structures picked out from
the air. They may be looking for the size and shape
of a dome, or the slope and rock type of an
outcrop. Again, figures 4a, band c demonstrate
how this information might be useful in selecting a
location to drill.
Water
Over water, the same type of information is
needed, but other techniques are required.
Sonar (reflected sound wave) surveys can be used
to plot the contours of the seabed, while divers are
sometimes employed to carry out a field survey
underwater.
!Figure 6
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1.16
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Exploration Techniques small
scale
At this stage, explorers for oil would want some
confirmation that what they saw on the surface
actually indicated a trap-type structure
underground.
They would also need some hint of the depth of
any likely structure. It would be very difficult to plan
an effective drilling programme if the target rock
formation could be at 5 000 feet or 15 000 feet.
We will/oak at three common methods for
obtaining this information:
* gravity surveys
* magnetic surveys
* seismic surveys
Gravity Surveys
Gravity surveys, as the name suggests, measure
differences in the pull of gravity from one
underground rock layer to another. Dense rocks
will have a higher gravitational pull. Figure 7
shows, in simple form, how a gravity meter
responds to layers of dense rock and how the
results are recorded.
pull


»>
;
;
J

layer of

dense

- :==-----=:::;----=::­
t-=­ - - -­-­
A cap rock will be present in some petroleum reservoirs (look at figures 4a, band c again) and, as this
may well be more dense than the underlying reservoir rock, a gravity survey could be a useful tool to
detect it.
gravity
meter
record
gravity
meter
response
subsurface
rock
structure
maximum
gravitational
--­

<,
<,
---
r-­
;:,;

j
; t ;:,;

=


...........





Figure 7

1.17

Magnetic Surveys On land
In this type of survey, a magnetometer is used to * by explosive charge
measure the strength and direction of the local * by thumper truck, which drops a heavy weight onto the ground
magnetic force. The presence of underground , by Vibrator, where a vibrating surface is kept in contact with the ground
rocks containing, particularly, iron will distort the
normal pattern of the earth's magnetic field in that Figure 8a shows a seismic survey on land.
area. This distortion can be measured and
recorded to give a picture of structures containing
magnetic minerals.
survey
truck
Seismic Surveys

exploSiv;.,.­
The word seismic means relating "to earthquakes charge
and this gives a clue to the principle of this
technique.
A shock wave is set off at the surface and travels
down through successive rock layers. At the
boundary of each one, part of the wave energy is "
reflected back to the surface where it is picked up
by sensitive instruments called geophones (on -,
\ \ "",,­
land) or hydrophones (on water). \ \ " ,
c \ \ \, _--­
The shock waves themselves can be generated in
\ \ 'y' y' ";/ / ­
\
I /
a variety of ways. For example:
" / ->: --------­
Figure 8a
/
/ /
/ / / -­
/ / --­ ----------­
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Over water
* by compressed air charge, which offers less threat to marine life than explosives
You can see this set-up in figure 8b.
compressed
air
survey
charge
hydrophones vessel
/

/
/
/
/
' .: //
­

In both cases, the shock waves travel through
different types of rock at different speeds and
therefore will arrive back at the surface at different
times. It obviously takes a computer to analyse the
large number of signals being received at the
surface, but a remarkably accurate picture can be
built up of subsurface formations in terms of both
shape and physical characteristics.
Looking back over this section, you will notice that
all of the techniques described are carried out on
or above the surface, although they do give us
some good indications of what lies below.
When the drilling site is selected and the well is
actually being drilled, however, we find ourselves
directly in contact with deeper and deeper
subsurface rock formations.
This gives us new opportunities for looking at, and
getting information from, these rock layers. I will
describe these opportunities for you in detail when
we come to Unit 9 - Formation Evaluation.
Figure 8b
1.19

I
Summary
In this section I described for you how sedimentary basins were originally formed. You will have
learnt that they can be very large and we need some other way of homing-in on the first drilling
location.
First, a broad survey of the area can be carried out by:
* aerial photography land
* satellite photography land
* field geologists land
* sonar techniques water
Then a precise location for drilling can be chosen with the help of three techniques:
* gravimetric surveys measures differences in the gravitational pull of various
rocks
* magnetic surveys measures differences in the magnetic properties of
various rocks
* seismic surveys measures differences in the speed of sound through
various rocks
We now know where to drill. In the next section you will look at some basic steps in the drilling
operation and the rigs used to do the job.
1 " I
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Unit '1 : Basic Concepts
Section 3 - Drilling Rig Types
~
I
By using the appropriate exploration techniques
described in the last section, it should now be
possible to select a location to drill. A particular
type of rig will be chosen to meet the location and
depth requirements of this exploration well.
As you will have learnt from the introduction to this
unit, different types of well will be drilled at different
stages of the oilfield development. Exploration,
fixed semi­
appraisal and development drilling were
land jack-up
platform submersible
drilfship
mentioned and each of these will influence the
design of the rig to be used.
Location will also have a significant influence.
Arctic, jungle or desert conditions? Drilling from
land or water? And so on.
In this section we will look at the main types of
drilling rig designs:
land rigs
or, to drill from water,
* jack-up rigs
* platform rigs
* semi-submersibles
* drillships
Figure 9 shows the typical locations in which these
various rig types operate. Figure 9
1.21

".-'
c'
In Unit 2 you will look at Drilling Systems and
Equipment. It will become clear, whatever the rig
design, it must carry out the same basic function ­
to make a hole in the ground.
It will also comprise these five basic systems:
* hoisting system
* rotating system
* circulating system
* power system
* blowout prevention system
I said that all drilling rigs have the same essential
job - to make a hole in the ground.
Before we look at the different types of rig,
therefore, I feel we should have a brief look at
some basic drilling concepts. This will allow you to
picture more clearly the various stages of the
drilling operation.
Basic Drilling Concepts
The drilling of any well is carried out in a number of
clearly defined stages. At each stage the actual
hole is drilled using a drill bit. A typical drill bit is
shown in figure 10,
Figure 10
The bit is connected to the bottom of an assembly
of pipes called a drill string. As the hole is
deepened more lengths of drill pipe are added until
the total depth of that stage is reached.
1 The first section of hole is drilled using a large
diameter bit (see figure 11), This hole is
drilled to a relatively §fl?ILgw depth before
drilling is stopped and the drill string and bit
are removed from the hole.
drill
surface
,'.::':
,'.':':;:
',,:'
-'_'__ 1st section of
. 'hole drilled with
large diameter bit
. '.': .
....
>(
'.:'
, 1

drill bit
(say,
26" diameter)
.: .:..?
Figure 11
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2 Steel pipe called a casing string is lowered At a pre-determined depth, drilling is once again
into the hole. Its function is to stop the drilled stopped and this section of hole is lined with
hole from collapsing as it is deepened. casing. This casing is also cemented in place
as shown in figure 13 below.
(You will look at other functions of casing in surface
more detail in Unit 5 • Casing and
Cementing). ,'1 st section'
of hole
(26" dta.)
3 The diameter of the casing string is smaller
1st section
than that of the drilled hole. This means that
of hole
there is a gap between the outside of the casing
I "
cement filled
anriulus
and the inside of the hole. This ring shaped
annulus
space is called the annulus. .'
:- filled with
"
','II" ,
cement
11-. 'listcasing

To secure the casing in place and isolate the string
1st casing string
.• t7
·"·11.'" "
Cl .- to:. ,.
::JI, '.'
formations behind the casing, the annulus is f> &. ,.'
(20" dia.) -'­
filled with a cement slurry.
i J.'
.' .
• /"a: ""11 ".:
A r:
, Figure 12 shows the status of the hole at this
:,.
.-.: 2nd section
stage.
of hole (17
1
/
2
" dia.)
'....<\
"
111-41__cement filled
."
annulus
Figure 12
2nd casing
iAI
sIring (13%" dia.)
4 When the cement has set, drilling can continue.
A drill bit which will fit inside the casing is
connected to the drill string and more hole is
Figure 13
drilled.
1.23

I

This sequence of drilling, then lining the hole with
casing which is cemented in place, continues until
the total depth of the well is reached. Figure 14
shows a well drilled to its total depth.
Bear in mind, when you look at drawings of wells,
that they will be grossly out of proportion. If we
tried to illustrate a 10 000 feet deep well which was
12 inches in diameter, using a scale of 1 in 12, we
would require a sheet of paper the height of the
Eiffel Tower!
""""
.1
e : of hole
.·.·0

,,;1---- cement
"r"1st casing'
III ::,
;

section
of hole
f.:.:

'e -:111,
lit" 2nd casing
b Ijl'.­
<\ I
,. 14
lAlJ'
f
section of
:
.'

• hole drilled to
. "
..
'. total depth (12
1
// dia.l
.;,
..
.
;f...--.-cement
lu-l'r;./ ..

Figure 14
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[]
Test Yourself 3
Below I have given you a selection of bit sizes, casing sizes and hole depths which are out of
order:
Bit Sizes 17
1
/ " 26" 8
1
/ " 12
1
/ "
2 2 4
Casing Sizes 20" 7" 13
3
/
8
" 9
5
/
8
"
Hole Depth 11 500' 4500' 9500' 1 500'
Use this information to fill in the missing details in the drilling programme below:
Drilling Programme
Bit Size Casing Size Hole Depth
lS (i j,
Stage One
2.\:J
'
l
L!"I[ )
Stage Two
Stage Three
'\."
Stage Four
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 3 on page 1.39.
1.25

I
Land Rigs
Land rigs vary enormously in size - in their capacity
to lift, circulate fluids and generate power.
Masts
For lighter work, cantilever masts (also known as
jack-knife derricks) are common. Figure 15 shows
a typical one.
Masts of this type are assembled on the ground
from large welded sections fastened together with
pins. They may then be raised to the vertical
position by using the rig's own power unit and
hoisting line. Small masts may be truck mounted,
while some are telescopic. The rigging-up time
for masts tends to be less than for conventional
derricks.
Rigging-up time is the time it takes to assemble a
mast into the vertical position, on-site from all its
components. It also includes the time to install the
power unit, all the cables and the piping.
\
pin
/connection
raisingleg
,/
figure 15
1
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1.26
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~
Derricks
There is no really clear-cut distinction between a
mast and a derrick. Sometimes the words are used
interchangeably.
To keep things simple, we will regard a derrick as
the framework-tower type of support usually
associated with oilwell drilling. Figure 16 shows a
common arrangement.
Typically, derricks are assembled on-site by bolting
individual pieces together. The rigging-up time for
this method is, of course, longer than for a
cantilever mast.
We will look at the differences between masts and
derricks in more detail in Unit 2.
-- substructure
Figure 16
1.27
---------------_.

Jack-Up Rigs
A jack-up rig consists of a movable platform which
can be jacked up and down the (usually) three
supporting legs. Figure 17 shows one of the
standard designs
These provide a common means of drilling in
water, where the water depth is relatively shallow ­
say, 50 to 350 feet
Jack-ups will be floated out to location and the legs
then lowered independently until they are bedded
securely and the platform is level and above wave
height.
It is clear that their use would be restricted when
there are strong currents or an unstable seabed.
Figure 17
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-,-------------------------------------------­
steel
jacket­

Figure 18
--------­ »>
-
Platform Rigs
A platform is a fixed installation offshore from
which development drilling and petroleum
production is carried out. A steel platform design is
shown in figure 18, as an example.
The deck, supported by a steel jacket in this case,
carries equipment and accommodation modules
and a helicopter pad. It will also support one or
more drilling rigs and associated equipment.

1.29
-- - - _.- -_.
Semi-Submersibles
In this case, a deck is supported by a tubular
structure, and by two hulls to provide buoyancy.
A semi-submersible is a floating drilling rig. A
Again, the deck carries equipment and
typical layout is shown in figure 19 below.
accommodation modules, a helicopter pad and a
drilling rig.
Semi-submersibles can move easily from one
location to another either by being towed or under
their own power.
They are mainly used, therefore, for exploration
and appraisal drilling where this ease of
movement is essential.
When on location, the semi-sub (as it is often
helipad
called) takes on water ballast (into the two hulls,
etc). This will lower the structure in the water and
lower the centre of gravity.
In this position it is shielded from the effects of

rough water at the surface and achieves a high

degree of stability.
-----....


hulls _
-----­

m&
A semi-sub can operate in deeper water than a
jack-up. Its maximum operating water depth
depends on the type of mooring system employed.
Some semi-subs use anchors with wire and chain
to hold them on station. Others use dynamic
positioning which is a system of computer
controlled thrusters, to maintain their position. We
will look at mooring systems in more detail in
Unit 6. Modern semi-subs using anchors may, in
exceptional circumstances, drill in water up to
3 000 feet deep.
Semi-subs using dynamic positioning systems are
capable of drilling in even deeper waters, up to
6 000 feet deep.
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1.30
--
, , I I
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I ~
I I. ,:1 I.
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~
I
Drillships
These are ships specially built or converted for deep sea drilling. Their main
features are:
* the ability to drill in almost any depth of water
* greater mobility than semi-subs or jack-ups
* dynamic positioning equipment can be fitted, as with semi-subs
* greater storage capacity than other rig types
• not as stable as semi-subs or jack-ups while drilling
Figure 20 will give you an overall impression of the layout.
derrick _
~ -
~ . -­
Figure 20
[]
Test Yourself 4
You plan to drill three exploration wells in the following depths of
water. What type of rig would you select to drill each of these wells.
* 4500 feet t ril
* 280 feet -) JV;" ",. U {? ~ i . ~
* 1 500 feet
t.efl": I S'';<>i'<J"' e( In bIer
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 4 on page 1.39.
1.31
I
~
[g
Summary
To begin with, we looked at some basic drilling concepts. I will go into these in more detail
in later units. For now, however, you have an overall impression.
The various types of drilling rig were then described. I talked about two types of land rig ­
a mast and a derrick.
Then we considered drilling from water and looked at jack-ups, platform rigs,
semi-submersibles and drillships. The differences between these rig types were
highlighted.
We will now take a look at the personnel who operate these rigs.
1.32
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Unit 1 : Basic Concepts

Section 4 ... Drilling Personnel
The way in which rigs are crewed up will, of
course, vary greatly from one situation to another.
There are common features and these are the
ones I wish to concentrate on.
Drilling Operations Personnel
operating
company
t
I company rep.

Ileurn engineer
ling ,engineer
site' geologist
f_
--I
Figure 21 gives a typical picture of:
• operating (0;1) company personnel
* drilling contractor personnel, and
* the types of service companies
involved in the drilling operation, and how they
relate to each other.
drilling
contractor
t

1--
tool pusher
service
companies

I
r-­
tourpusher
driller
J
__
I
-.J
asst. driller
derrickman
n 19
roughneck
v g
roustabout
fishing
well servicing
Figure 21
OIl
r---­
engineering
) I
chief mechanic
rig mechanic
motor man
responsible to
---- liaison with
1.33

I
The company representative on site (perhaps
called the company man or drilling supervisor)
ensures that the drilling programme is carried out
in a safe and efficient manner.
He reports to, and is employed by, the operating
company which holds the licence to drill the hole.
He will have operating company specialists on site
to assist him.
Service company personnel report to the company
man, but must liaise very closely with the drilling
team.
Members of this drilling team are listed opposite,
together with their main tasks and reporting links.
ii
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Toolpusher:
Tourpusher:
Driller:
Assistant Driller:
Derrickman:
Roughneck:
Roustabout:
In overall charge of rig operations, implementing the drilling plan and compliance with
all safety requirements. Reports to the company representative.
Assistant to the toolpusher. Will be in charge of a particular shift (often the night shift).
Responsible to the toolpusher for implementing the drilling plan and for safety, and
reports to him.
In charge of the drilling process and operations. Responsible for compliance with the
drilling plan and for the drilling crew. Reports to the tool/tourpusher.
Assists the driller. Usually responsible to the driller for the operation of bulk storage
equipment (for handling mud chemicals, etc.) and for the mud flowline system.
Reports to the driller.
Responsible for the storage and movement of tubulars in the derrick and monitoring
the mud systems. Reports to the driller.
Works on the rig floor. Responsible for general rig floor activities under the direction
of the driller/assistant driller. Reports to the driller.
A member of the general workforce, assisting with the movement of materials,
cleaning, painting, etc. Reports to the roustabout foreman (not shown on figure 21).
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Test Yourself 5
In this unit we have been through some of the major steps in a typical exploration programme.
I would like you to think back over what you have learnt and list as many of the steps in the programme as you can.
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 5 on page 1.40.
1.35
~
I
. ----------------------------------------­
Summary l!1
In this section we have looked at a typical drilling operation and described the people and
activities which make it happen. I have indicated how they link together into an efficient team.
Finally, I have listed the essential members of the drilling crew and detailed their main tasks.
You have now completed the first unit about Basic Drilling Concepts in this Drilling Technology
open learning programme.
Go back to the Training Target at the beginning of this unit and check that you can tick all of the
boxes. If you are unsure of anything, read over the relevant sections again and have a chat with
your tutor if necessary.
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Unit 1 : Basic Concepts
~
Check Yourself .. Answers
Check Yourself 1
The maximum amount of oil which our mini-reservoir can hold is the pore volume of the reservoir.
We can calculate this by multiplying
total rock volume x porosity
or 1 cu. metre (1 000 Iitres) x 18% = 180litres
Our block of sandstone, therefore, could hold a maximum of 180 litres of oil.
1.37






......
.

...........
Oil has now migrated to our two possible reservoirs.
You can see this below:
Check Yourself 2
In the first sketch, oil has accumulated under the caprock, which has prevented it migrating further. This could therefore be an effective petroleum
reservoir. In the second drawing, the impervious rock layer has a break in it, due to faulting, and this has allowed oil to leak out and upwards. The
structure would not, therefore form an effective petroleum reservoir.
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Check Yourself 3
Drilling Programme
Bit Size Casing Size Hole
Depth
Stage One 26" 20" 1 500'
Stage Two 17
1
/
2
" 13
3
/
8
" 4500'
Stage Three 12
1
/
4
" 9
5
/
8
" 9500'
Stage Four 8
1
/
2
" 7" 11 500'
If your answers are not the same as these, try working through the
section again.
Check Yourself 4
To drill in 280 feet of water a jack-up would be suitable, as long as
the seabed provided a sound footing for the jack-up legs and local
currents were not too strong.
To drill in 1 500 feet of water, a semi-submersible is likely to be
used which uses either anchors or dynamic positioning systems to
maintain its position.
To drill in 4 500 feet of water, a dynamically positioned drillshlp is
the more likely choice.
1.39

I

Check Yourself 5
The major steps in a typical exploration programme are roughly as * On the basis of this evidence you can decide where to drill.
follows: However, the drilling rig must be selected and to do that you need to
answer a few more questions:
* By consultation with geologists, you would know where the major
sedimentary basins are located in the geographical area of - are you drilling on land?
interest to you. - or over water?
- if over water, in what depth are you drilling?
The next stage which we have not talked about is how to obtain - how deep does the hole need to be?
permission for all the work we intend to carry out on the project. How
this is done varies enormously from one country to another and is often a * Your rig is selected. You must ensure that it is crewed up properly
matter for legal experts to handle. I suggest we leave it to them. and all the service company personnel you require will be on hand at
the correct time.
* Assuming permissions have been granted, an aerial or satellite
survey, possibly combined with a ground survey will be carried out
over land locations. Over water, a sonic survey may be called for. Let drilling commence.
* This work will narrow the area down and allow more detailed
surveys using gravitational, magnetic or seismic techniques. The
use of seismic methods is a high probability in any modern
exploration programme.
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€ontents

Training Target
Introduction
Section 1 - The Hoisting System
3 - T.ne Circulating System
* Section 5 - The Blowout Prevention (BOP) System
* Check Yourself - Answers
Page
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.12
2.28
2.38
2.41
2.54
2.1
~
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~ Training Target
When you have completed this unit, you will be able to:
* List the five basic drilling rig systems.
D
* Summarise how each system operates.
D
* Identify the components of each of the five systems.
D
* Explain the function of the components identified.
D
* Describe in simple terms the construction of the components.
D
* Outline the relationship of each system in the overall drilling process.
D
Tick each box when you have met the target.
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mud conditioning
equipment
) - II I travelling block
fl" \I! , drilling hook
I l', F"i crown block
BOPs -I I If-7-.
Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment
Introduction
You saw in the first unit of this programme that In this unit we will go through each of the systems
there are a number of different types of drilling rigs listed. We will look at the individual components in
in common use. It doesn't matter what type of rig the system and see how they contribute to the
you think about, it has one function only: overall drilling process.
to make a hole in the ground Although the equipment is basically the same on all
rigs, floaters (semi-subs and drillships) have some
In order to perform this function safely and special equipment which is not found on land
efficiently, the rig has a number of components installations. We will be looking at specialised
which can be grouped together in four basic floating drilling rig systems and equipment in
systems. These systems are the: Unit 6. In this unit we will concentrate on
conventional equipment such as you would find on
* hoisting system a land rig or on a fixed platform offshore. power unit
* rotating system Figure 1 shows a simplified line drawing of a
typical rig with its systems and components.
* circulating system
As we go through the unit system by system, we
* power system will gradually build up the complete picture of the
drilling installation which you see in figure 1.
In addition to the four I have listed above, there is
a further system which must be considered in any
discussion of rig components. This system,
although not essential to the drilling process, is
critical for rig safety. It is the:
* blowout prevention system
drill collars
Figure 1
drill bit
2.3
Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment
Section 1 - The Hoisting System
As you will shortly see, holes are drilled with long The Derrick
lengths of pipe - with a drill bit at the end - which in
a deep hole can weigh two hundred tons or more. The derrick is the tall, towerlike structure which
This considerable weight has to be suspended in most people think of as an Oil Rig.
the hole, raised and lowered. A hoisting system
accomplishes this task. A standard (pyramid shaped) derrick consists of
four steel supporting legs standing on a square
, If you think about it, the hoisting system performs base. This base is known as the substructure
the same function as a crane. On a drilling rig, and the top of this substructure is the drilling rig
however; the boom of the crane is fixed in the floor. The supporting legs are joined together with
vertical position and is called the derrick (or mast). steel cross bracings which stiffen the structure and
give the necessary load bearing strength.
This derrick is the first component in the hoisting
system. Let's list all the components in the system The height of the derrick does not affect its load
and then look at each of them in turn. bearing capacity but will limit the length of drill pipe
sections which may be removed. As you will see
The Hoisting System Components
later, it is necessary from time to time to pull all the
drill pipe out of the hole. The top of the derrick
must be high enough above the rig floor for the
* derrick
pipe sections to be taken out of the hole and
temporarily stored within the rig structure.
* drawworks
Derrick heights vary from around 90 feet on small
* drilling line
land rigs, to over 150 feet on some large offshore
installations. This height is measured from the rig
* crown block
floor.
* travelling assembly (travelling block and
Figure 2 shows a simplified drawing of a derrick.
hook)

water table
I
Ft:dJEl:sE--finger board
rig floor ,v" '" "Fl 1, iL/'l A
-- substructure
Figure 2

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You will see that there are two platforms
incorporated in the structure. These are labelled:
* the water table
* the finger board (also called the monkey
board)
The water table is a working platform at the top of
the derrick which enables maintenance to be
carried out on the equipment there.
. r"
The finger board is another working platform
which is located approximately 90 feet high in the
derrick. This is where one of the rig crew (the
derrickman) works when drill pipe is being pulled
from the hole.

You will recall at the start of this section I made
reference to a derrick or mast.
- I
Figure 3 shows a simplified drawing of a mast.
A mast performs the same function as the derrick
but is usually much lighter in construction. It is
used on land drilling operations and is capable of
being transported between locations as a complete
unit or in a couple of sections.
mast
rigged
down
mast
erected
Figure 3
2.5
_.._----­

I
Drawworks
If we continue our analogy of a crane and hoisting
system, the winch of the crane is equivalent to the
drawworks of a drilling rig hoisting system.
The main purpose of this piece of equipment is to
lift pipe out of and lower it back into the hole.
The drawworks is located in the middle of the back
edge of the rig floor.
How it Works
Its principle feature is a spool, or drum, which can
driller's console
(workstation)
Figure 4
be rotated using power from the rig power system.
Wireline (drilling line) is reeled onto the drum and
from there passes through a system of pulleys
(crown and travelling blocks). A hook is fixed at
the lower end of the pulley system. As with the
winch of a crane, when the operator, in this case
the driller, rotates the drum in one direction, the
drilling line is reeled onto the drum raising the
movable pulley and hook. If the drum is allowed to
rotate in the other direction the hook will descend,
pulled down by the suspended load. Since the drill
pipe is connected to the moving pulley, the pipe
can be raised or lowered.
'. r\
.
secondary spool
(sand reel)
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The drawworks usually has a second spool, known
as a sand reel, fitted behind the main drum. The
wire from this spool passes over a single pulley
and can be used for running tools into and out of
the hole. The sand reel is sometimes called a
coring reel, however, it is not used much these
days. Independent wireline units are used for this
purpose.
Incorporated into the drawworks are the catheads.
These are used together with large spanners or
tongs to make or break the threaded connections
between individual joints or pipe.
You will see in Unit 3 how these operations are
actually carried out. We will also look at some
alternative equipment used in these operations.
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Your tutor should be able to help you if
you are unsure.
Make sure that you understand how this
system works.
Activity
Look again at figure 4 and identify the
main drum and catheads of the
drawworks.
~
The Brake System
An important feature of the drawworks is the brake system. This allows the driller to control the
tremendous load of the drill pipe or casing suspended from the pulley system. There are at least two
brake systems on most rigs. One is a mechanical friction device which uses two bands passing over
brake drums. The bands are connected to a large brake handle located at the side of the drawworks.
This is operated by the driller to halt the descent of a loaded pulley system. The other brake is either
hydraulic or, more commonly these days, electrically operated. This auxiliary brake is used to control the
rate of descent of the load. It helps to reduce the wear on the primary friction system.
Figure 5 shows the friction type brake mechanism.
brake bands over
brake
handle-­
brake drums
Figure 5
2.7

I
Gear System
An integral part of the drawworks is the gear
(transmission) system. A clutch, high and low
speed gears together with a foot operated throttle,
allow a wide range of hoisting speeds to be used.
Control
The driller's workstation is at the brake handle of
the drawworks. From this position he must be able
to control the rig and oversee the activities of his
drilling crew. Instruments give him indications of
the status of equipment and machinery, and
operating controls are all within easy reach of the
driller. We will look at most of this equipment when
we consider the drilling operations in the next unit.
Look again at figure 4 and note the driller's
workstation by the brake handle.
:)
;1
o

o






The Drilling line, Crown Block and
Travelling Assembly
The last three items in our list of hoisting system
components together make up the pulley system
which I have referred to on a number of occasions
already.
The drilling line is a multistrand wire rope which is
secured to the drum of the drawworks. Its
diameter varies according to the type and size of
rig, but on a large semi-submersible it might be as
much as 1
3
/
4
" in diameter.
From the drum of the drawworks the line passes
over one of the pulleys (sheaves) of the crown
block which you can see in figure 6.
This fixed multi-sheaved assembly is located at the
top of the derrick and is surrounded by the working
platform which you will remember we called the
water table.
The sheaves themselves are up to 5 feet in
diameter and are free to rotate on heavy duty
bearings.
crown block
sheaves

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Figure 6
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From the crown block the drilling line passes to and
round a sheave contained within a moving set of
sheaves known as the travelling block.
Connected to the bottom of the travelling block is
the drilling hook and these two items comprise
the travelling assembly. The hook may be
integral with the travelling block or may be
removable.
Figure 7 shows a travelling assembly. Take a
look at this now. Note the two ears on the hook.
Two forged steel rods called links can be attached
to the ears. The links support an item of
equipment called an elevator which is used when
all the pipe is being pulled from the well.
drilling line
travelling
block
drilling
hook
ears ~ , J Q.../Ar.
Figure 7
I will explain how the elevator is used in the next
unit.
The drilling line then passes over another sheave
crown
on the crown block and down again to the travelling
block
block. The number of passes the drilling line
makes between crown and travelling blocks give an
eight, ten or twelve line suspension.
After making its final pass over the crown block the
drilling line goes down to the base of the rig where
it is clamped on a drilling line anchor, sometimes
called the deadline anchor. The drilling line is not
terminated at the deadline anchor but continues on
to a reel of spare line.
deadline
A careful record is kept of the work done by the
anchor
line. This is measured in units of ton-miles. (If a
line has moved a one ton load a distance of one
mile, it has received one ton-mile of usage). After
a pre-determined number of ton-miles have been
recorded, the line is slipped and cut. This means
that the anchor is slackened and fresh line is
slipped into the system from the spare line spool.
A corresponding length of wire is then cut off at the
drawworks end of the line.
Figure 8 shows the hoisting system in simplified
form.
Figure 8
2.9

I
[]
Test Yourself 1
In the following list of components some are part of the hoisting system and some are not.
Tick either yes or no in the boxes provided.
Yes No
1. Travelling Block
CJ 0
2. Drawworks
0 0
3. Drilling Line LJ lJ
4. Rotary Table
0
[J
5. Derrick
D D
6. Drill Bit
D U
7. Crown Block
0 D
8. Deadline Anchor
D D
9. Drilling Hook
D U
10. Drilling Collars
0 D
11. Shale Shaker
D D
12. Drawworks Drum
D U
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 1 on page 2.54.
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~ Summary
In this section we have looked at the
components of a drilling rig hoisting
system.
While working through this section you
have learned what the function of the
hoisting system is and the individual
components which make up this system.
You saw that the components are:
" the derrick
* the drawworks
* the drilling line
* the crown block
* the travelling assembly
The drilling line is attached to the main drum of
the drawworks and from there it passes to the top
of the derrick. It then makes a number of passes
between the crown block and travelling block
below, to give an eight, ten or twelve line
suspension. The line is then clamped by the dead
line anchor at the base of the derrick.
You saw that the drilling hook is attached to the
underside of the travelling block, forming the
travelling assembly.
We likened this whole system to that of a crane,
with the derrick representing the crane's boom in
the vertical position. The driller lifts the drill pipe or
other load by engaging a clutch and spooling line
onto the drawworks drum. The load is lowered by
releasing the brake on the drawworks drum,
allowing the load to pull the travelling assembly
down.
In the next section we will be looking at the
equipment used to apply weight to and rotate
the drilling bit.
2.11
Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment

Section 2 - The Rotating System
Just like any drilling operation whether it be in
wood, steel or other material, some type of cutting
tool has to be rotated whilst weight is applied to
make the hole. In oilwell drilling operations the
cutting tool is the drill bit and in this section we will
look at the equipment used to turn the bit, i.e. the
rotating system.
A rotating system can be thought of as having
three main sub-systems:
* drill bit
* drill string
* rotating mechanism
The actual transmission of the rotating action to the
drill bit can be carried out in a number of ways. I
will first of all describe what we could call the
conventional system. At the end of this section we
will look at some alternative rotating mechanisms.
The Drill Bit
The drill bit is probably the most critical item of a
drilling operation. It must be capable of making
hole in rocks which vary from very soft clay-like
material to extremely hard granites. Since one bit
would not be suitable for these widely differing
conditions, there are a number of different designs
available.
They can be broadly classified into the following
categories:
* drag bits
* tri-cone roller bits
* diamond bits
* polycrystalline diamond bits
Drag Bits
A drag bit is very rarely seen these days. It was
one of the earliest types of bit and it cuts by the
shovelling action of blades on the formation. I
don't intend to say any more about drag bits but I
have included an illustration of one, as figure 9.
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Tri-cone Roller Bits
Tri-cone roller bits are the most commonly used
drill bits at present. A large variety of designs are
available to cope with the different formations
encountered. Figure 10 shows a typical tri-cone
roller bit.
jet
nozzle I /, (0
let's look at a typical bit arrangement.
As the name suggests, this type of bit has three
cones which are free to roll on bearings. The
cones incorporate the cutting structure. This
consists of teeth cut into the cone, or inserts
pressed into holes in the cone surface. For soft
formations the teeth are long and widely spaced.
This gives a digging or gouging action. Short
stubby teeth which are closer together provide a
chipping or crushing action. This is more suitable
for hard formations.
Drilling fluid helps to lubricate the bit and carry
away cuttings from the bottom of the hole. It exits
the bit through holes called jet nozzles. The
nozzles are replaceable so that the orifice size can
be altered to match the fluid pressure and volume
requirements. '
Diamond Bits
Diamond bits use industrial diamonds as their
cutting structure. They drill by the scraping action
of the diamonds which protrude from a metal
matrix. The design of diamond bits varies greatly
in the shape of the body, the size and setting of the
diamonds. Figure 11 shows a diamond bit.
Figure 10
Figure 11
2.13

Polycrystalline Diamond Bits
The drilling action of the bit is a shearing one. As
each polycrystalline cutter rotates on a different
path from its neighbour, it shears the rock rather
Recently, polycrystalline diamond bits have
like the action of a lathe. This means that the bit is
found a lot of favour. These bits consist of a hard [1]
faced steel body in which are inserted cutters.
more suitable for soft to medium non-brittle Test Yourself 2
formations.
The cutters are discs of synthetic diamond and are
arranged in rows spiralling outwards and upwards
The following 3 sentences describe
Replaceable nozzles are fitted in the body of the
from the bit centre to the outside which you can
different drilling bits. Decide if the bit
bit. Drilling fluid flows round the bit and past flow
see in figure 12.
described is more suitable for a soft,
channels cut in the bit's body.
medium or hard formation.
When used under the right conditions,
1. A tri-cone bit with short cutting inserts
polycrystalline diamond bits have greatly improved
which are close together.
penetration rates whilst reducing operating weight
f-te'll.£;\
on the bit. In general this also means longer bit life
with a consequent reduction in overall drilling
times.
2. A bit with a hard faced steel body and
synthetic diamond cutters inserted.
SCFl- {<, {I!\k,e-\1.U W1 ·
3. A bit with three rollers where each
roller has long widely spaced teeth cut
into it.

cutters of
synthetic diamonds
You will find the answers in
Check Yourself 2 on page 2.54.
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under-reamer
Other Drilling Tools
Before we leave the subject of bits, we should look
at other special purpose drilling tools. These are
under-reamers and hole openers.
These tools, when used, are placed immediately
above a bit to enlarge or maintain the hole size.
hole-opener
I have shown examples of these tools in figure 13.
collapsible
arms
Figure 13
In the tools illustrated, the cutting action is by
rotating cones (as with the tri-cone bit) which
protrude out from the central stem.
Both these tools perform similar functions but the
cones of the under-reamer are mounted on
collapsible arms.
The arms are extended during the drilling operation
by the pressure of drilling fluid circulating through
the tool.
When no fluid is being circulated the arms retract
allowing the tool to pass through a smaller section
of hole.
Remember that hole size was discussed in Unit 1.
2.15


The Drill String
During this programme you will come across a
number of strings. The drill string is one. In
Unit 6we will be looking at casing strings, and
you will probably see the term tubing string. In
this context a string consists of a number of
individual lengths of pipe joined together.
The drill string is made up of lengths of drill pipe,
plus the bottom hole assembly.
The bottom hole assembly consists of a number of
items placed just above the bit. We will look at this
shortly, but first let's concentrate on the drill pipe.
Drill Pipe
Drill pipe is tubular steel pipe with threaded end
connections called tool joints. It is used as:
* a shaft to rotate the bit,
* a conduit to convey drilling fluid to the
bottom of the hole and
* a tool to run in and pullout the bottom
hole assembly and bit.
As the hole is deepened, extra lengths of drill pipe are added to the drill string as required.
Individual joints of drill pipe are about 32 feet long on average. The diameter varies but some frequently
used pipe diameters are 4 '/2'" 5" and 5 1/z". These dimensions are always measured on the outside
diameter. Figure 14 shows a length of drill pipe.
box end
pin end
. :':":/:'.
Figure 14
The tool joints are screw threads used to join two lengths of pipe together. The threads themselves have
a round profile with a pronounced taper for ease of connection and disconnection. One end of the pipe is
a male thread usually called the pin end, the other is female and is referred to as the box end.
When drill pipe is being connected, the box end always points up so that the pin can be stabbed into it.
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Bottom Hole Assembly
The bottom hole assembly consists of a number
of pieces of equipment which are placed just above
the bit. These are:
drill collars
* stabilizers
* various subs
Drill collars
Drill collars are basically heavier weight drill pipes.
They have larger outside diameters (up to 10") and
smaller inside diameters. A string of drill collars
has several tasks to perform, i.e.
* provide the necessary weight to the bit
hold the drill string in tension
help maintain hole direction
Let's consider these tasks. You may think the drill
pipe can provide the weight on the bit and hold the
string tension. Imagine a hole being drilled which
is several thousand feet deep. If the weight of the
drill string was allowed to rest on the bit, the whole
drill string would be in compression. This means
the string would buckle and twist, with the danger
that the pipe might break (twist off).
drill string
Having a string of heavy drill collars enables just
in tension
part of the weight of the collars to be applied to the
bit. In this way the lower portion of the collars is in
whole of
compression with its weight resting on the bit. The drill string in
compression
upper portion plus the entire drill pipe section
remains in tension, supported on the hook of the
travelling assembly.
The number of drill collars required will depend on
the weight on the bit necessary for optimum drilling
rate under prevailing conditions. It is usual practice
to have 10 to 30 percent excess drill collar weight
over the amount applied to the bit.
The maintenance of hole direction in a vertical hole
relies on the pendulum effect of the drill string.
This effect is the tendency of the drill string to hang
in a vertical position due to the force of gravity.
Having heavy drill collars increases the pendulum
effect and strengthens the tendency for the drill
string to remain vertical.
In figure 15 I have shown how the drill collars keep
the drill pipe in tension and provide weight to the bit
for drilling.
part of weight of
drill collars on bit
with lower portion of
collars in compression
Figure 15
2.17

I
Heavy Weight Drill Pipe (HWDP)
Before we leave the subject of drill pipe, I should
mention heavier weight drill pipe. Joints of this pipe
are placed between normal drill pipe and the drill
collars. They act as a cross-over between the rigid
drill collars and the flexible drill pipe. This helps to
prevent failure at the cross-over point.
[!]
Test Yourself 3
For a particular section of hole, the optimum weight on bit should be 50 000 Ibs. Drill collars of 8"
diameter with a 3" bore are being used. These collars weigh 4 410 Ibs per joint.
The drilling fluid in the hole has a buoyancy factor of 0.833 which means that only 83.3% of the
actual collar weight is available as weight on bit.
If 25% excess drill collar weight over weight on bit is used, how many drill collars are required in this
bottom hole assembly?
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You will find the answer in Check Yourself 3 on page 2.55.
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Stabilizers
Stabilizers are short lengths of pipe with fins or
ribs which are the same size across as the bit
diameter or slightly less.
The fins may be aluminium or rubber but more
often are steel with tungsten carbide inserts on the
edge.
They are located between the collars and also help
to maintain a straight hole by keeping the collars
centralized. Also, by a scraping action, they
maintain a full hole diameter.
Figure 16 shows two stabilizers, one with straight
ribs and one with spiral ribs.
spiral
...
ribs
.0
...
straight
ribs
Figure 16
Subs
Subs - in the drilling industry, the word sub
refers to any short length of pipe,
collar and so on which has a specific
function.
Crossover subs - are designed with different
threaded ends to enable
different sizes or types of
drill pipe or collar to be
connected together.
Shock sub- a shock sub may be placed just
above the bit. It has a steel
spring or rubber packing to
absorb the impact of the bit
bouncing on hard formation .
Bit sub - this is a short sub with a box on each
end. It connects the bit to the
drill collars and ensures that the
collars and drill pipe are always run
with the pin end facing down.
So the bottom hole assembly is the current
arrangement of tools incorporated into the collar
section of the drill string. It may consist of any
arrangement of the items mentioned above, and
possibly other specialised drilling tools.
2.19

I
[!]
Test Yourself 4
The following statements relate to components in a bottom hole assembly.
Tick which of these statements are true or false.
True False
1. A bit sub is used to connect the drill bit to the drill collars, it has a pin
connection at each end. D
2. Stabilizers help maintain the,hole direction in a vertical hole.
3. Drill collars allow all the weight of the drill string to be applied to the bit.
4. Crossover subs are used to connect the bit to the drill pipe.
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You will find the answer in Check Yourself 4 on page 2.56.
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The Rotating Mechanism
This is the last sub-section in our rotating system.
In a conventional system the rotating mechanism
consists of the following components:
kelly and kelly bushing
* swivel
* rotary table and master bushing kelly
Kelly and Kelly Bushing
During normal drilling operations, the top of the drill
string screws into a square or hexagonal sectioned
pipe called the kelly. In fact, a small sub called the
saver sub Is placed between the drill pipe and the
kelly. This helps to prevent wear on the threads of
the kelly which is screwed on and off more than
any other joint in the whole string. You will see wily
this is so in Unit 3.
kelly
bushing
The kelly is a hollow forged steel rod approximately
40 feet in length. It's outer cross section is either
square or hexagonal in shape over the greater part
of it's length. At each end the kelly has a round
shape of the same diameter as the tool joint of the
drill pipe or saver sub. Look now at figure 17
which shows a kelly with its kelly bushing attached. Figure 17
2.21
~
Connected to the kelly but free to slide up and In the next section of this unit we will be looking at
down over its whole length, is the kelly bushing. the drilling fluid circulating system.
This piece of equipment has an internal profile the
same as the outside of the kelly. Rollers are fitted You will see that the fluid enters the drill string
to ensure that the kelly can move freely through the through the swivel. The inlet is referred to as the
bushing even when the bushing is turning. The gooseneck because of its shape. The pressure of
bottom of the kelly bushing has four drive pins or a the fluid at this point can be very high, so the
square section which locate in corresponding holes swivel has high pressure seals built into it.
in the rotary table bushing.
We will come back to the rotary table shortly.
Rotary Table and Master Bushing
At the top of the kelly is fitted a valve called a kelly
These are the final items in our rotating
cock. This can be closed to prevent any backflow
mechanism. The rotary table has two main
of drilling fluid up the drill string. We will look
functions:
further at this item in the final section of this unit.
* to rotate the kelly and hence the drill string
The Swivel * to support the weight of the drill string
when it is not supported by the hoisting
The kelly assembly is permanently attached to a system
swivel. During drilling operations the swivel is
suspended by a handle, or bail, from the hook of The second function we will be covering in detail
the travelling block. The hook does not rotate but when we look at drilling operations in the next unit.
the kelly does. The swivel therefore has two
sections, one rotating and one non-rotating. The For now we will just look at the way the rotary table
swivel has to be capable of supporting the total turns the kelly.
weight of the drill string whilst the lower part
rotates. This means that very heavy duty bearings
are incorporated into its body. Figure 18 shows a
figure 18
swivel.
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Rotary Table
The table itself consists basically of a disc which is
located in the middle of the drilling rig floor. It is
capable of being rotated from an electric motor
connected to the rotary table by a shaft.
Alternatively, older units may be rotated by a drive
mechanism consisting of a drive sprocket and
chain. The drive sprocket is part of the drawworks.
Master Bushing
In the centre of the rotary table is a hole which
accommodates a further bushing. This one is
called the-master bushing. It is into the master
bushing that the drive pins of the kelly bushing fit.
So, when the rotary table is spun, the master
bushing transmits the rotary motion to the kelly
bushing which in turn spins the kelly and drill string.
Figure 19 shows the rotary table and master
bushing. It also shows the relationship between
them and the kelly.
master bushing
holes for
drive pins
kelly bushing
rotary table
Figure 19
2.23

[]
Test Yourself 5
Match the items on the left with the correct section of the rotating system on the right by drawing
connecting lines. I have done the first one for you.
swivel bail ...
tri-cone roller +----­
drill collar +--__
... drill bit
synthetic diamond insert
kelly bushing .. .. drill string
gooseneck .-.-.
stabilizer .­
master bushing ..
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 5 on page 2.56.
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Other Types Of Rotating
Mechanism
At the start of this section I said that we would look
at some alternative rotating mechanisms. We can
do that now.
Although the kelly, kelly bushing and rotary table
are by far the most common method used to turn
the drill bit, two other systems are sometimes
used. These are:
* downhole motors and turbines
* top drive systems
'Downhole Motors and Downhole
Turbines
These are tools which allow the drill bit to be
rotated without rotating the whole drill string.
Drilling fluid being pumped down the drill string
provides the energy to drive the motor or turbine.
A drive shaft is connected from the motor to the
bit so, when drilling fluid is being circulated, the
motor or turbine is rotated and so is the bit.
These tools are used extensively in directional
drilling operations, although their use is not limited
to this application. We will be looking at directional
drilling in Unit 8 where I will go a little deeper into
the operation of the downhole motor and turbine.
Top Drive System
This is used instead of the rotary table, kelly and
kelly bushing. Unlike the downhole motor however,
it rotates the-whole drill string.
It turns the drill pipe from an electric motor
assembly which is connected to the rig's
conventional swivel. The system provides the
rotating power of the rotary table up in the derrick.
Using a top drive unit enables drilling to be carried
out using stands of drill pipe. A stand consists of
three joints of pipe connected together, making a
total length of ± 100 feet. This reduces the number
of connections to be made during drilling.
2.25

·_----------------­
[1]
Test Yourself 6
Read through the following sentences and fill in the missing words from the list below.
A rotating system as tree main su systems, ten It, t e an t e rotating mec arusrn.
· h h . b h drill bl h (frill d h . h'
There are a number of different drill bit designs available such as drag bits, .. ... :.,:.'... So.. , diamond bits and polycrystalline diamond bits.
\) I,C{,III"!:' (( dhi' I d b bi I .. hi'
..................\. .' an a e openers are sometimes p ace a ave a It to en arge or maintain a a e size.
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Inan d
'II' ). ()
;
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are use
d
to
h Id h
t
tri . tensi d
main
. t
atn weiq
. ioh
It. stnng, 0 e s nng In ension an t on
b'
· I t' hani h bl t h i,v- I! ;.' (( Hi.· hi h t . h . h
In a convl3n trona rota Ing mec arusm t e rotary ta e urns t e :..\.,.1. . .'.-:.. :.'.>... .. ,w IC ransrnits t e rotary motion tot e
(\(,/\ :c;' •• bi
.................... ;..: and from there to the drill stnng and It.
. .. ... (2, \0\-('1" . .
Dnlling flUid enters the dnll stnng Via the : : In the swivel.
Choose the missing words from:
kelly bail top drive under reamers
bit sub gooseneck tri-cone roller bits drill string
stabilizers drill collars kelly bushing
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 6 on page 2.57.
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~ Summary
In this section we have been looking at the equipment used to actually drill a hole. This
consisted of a cutting tool, equipment to apply weight to the tool and equipment to rotate the
tool. You saw that the cutting tool, which is called the drill bit, must be capable of making hole
in a variety of different rocks. To do this, several types of bit are available, from a simple drag
bit to sophisticated polycrystalline diamond bits.
We looked at the drill string next and I explained the function and construction of drill pipe and
the components of the bottom hole assembly.
Finally, we considered the rotating mechanism. I pointed out that there are a number of ways
of turning a bit but the most common system utilised a swivel, kelly, bushing and rotary table.
We looked at the way this system operates to transmit a rotary motion from the rotary table
through to the drill bit. At the end of the section we had a brief look at a couple of alternative
methods of rotating the bit.
In the next section we will move on to the circulating system and you will see how drilling fluids
are pumped and conditioned.
2.27
Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment


Section 3 - The Circulating System
On a number of occasions already, I have mentioned the term drilling fluid, without saying much more
about it. This term in fact covers a range of liquids (and sometimes gases) which perform a number of
functions during the drilling operation.
Initially, the primary function of the drilling fluid was to clean, cool and lubricate the bit and to carry cuttings
from the hole. Nowadays much more is expected of this fluid as you will see in Unit 4.
The drilling fluid is more commonly called drilling mud or simply mud and I will use this term during the
rest of the section.
When drilling is in progress, mud is continuously pumped down through the drill string, and out of the jet
nozzles in the bit. Since the diameter of the bit is larger than that of the drill string, an annular space is left
around the drill string as drilling progresses.
The mud returns to the surface through this annulus carrying with it the cuttings from the bottom of the
hole.
At the surface, the cuttings are sieved from the mud. The mud is further cleaned as necessary and then
pumped back down the hole again.
In this section we will look at the equipment used to pump the mud and condition it at the surface. In
other words the circulating system:
I have listed below the individual components of
the circulating system:
* mud pits
* mud pumps
* standpipe and rotary hose
* swivel
* shale shaker
* mud conditioning equipment
Figure 20 on the next page shows the complete
circulating system.
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stand ,
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pipe
Mud Pits
mud pumps rotary
These are simply a series of interconnected tanks
hose
in which the mud is initially prepared and stored,
The end tank from which the pumps take their
I kelly
suction is known as the active pit. A mud mixing
hopper is located by the active pit. This is used to
add chemicals to the mud when its weight and
mud mixing hopper \
consistency needs to be changed.
--.r-- suction
line
At the other end of the line of tanks is the pit which
receives the mud as it flows from the hole. This is
known as the settling pit or sand trap. The
underside of this tank is usually sloped. This
means that any solid particles which settle to the
bottom, gravitate towards valves. The valves are
opened periodically to dump the accumulated
solids. Between the active pit and the settling pit
are other tanks in which mud is stored and
conditioned. We will look at the conditioning
equipment shortly.
Mud Pumps
At the heart of the circulating system are the mud
pumps. Their function is to circulate the mud
under pressure from the active pit, through the drill
string, to the bit, and return it up the annulus to the
return
settling pit.
flow
Figure 20 line
2.29

I
action of a double acting pump
discharge discharge
There are usually two pumps on a drilling rig. They
are always of the positive displacement type. In
other words plunger pumps rather like a bicycle
pump.
The pumps are either:
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* duplex, double-acting
or
* triplex, single-acting
suction suction
A duplex pump has two cylinders. Each cylinder
has two suction and two discharge valves. As the
piston moves through the cylinder it is discharging
mud in front at the same time as mud is filling the
action of a single acting pump
cylinder behind.
discharge
A triplex pump has three cylinders with each
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cylinder having only one suction and one discharge
valve. The cylinder is filled as the piston moves
back and is discharged as the piston moves
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For one complete cycle of each piston a triplex ,',. .' ./'"'
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pump discharges one cylinder full of mud. In a
duplex pump however, because it is double acting,
two cylinder volumes are discharged for every
...
cycle of each piston.
suction
Figure 21 shows the pump action for each type.
Figure 21

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Standpipe and Rotary Hose
After leaving the pumps the mud is piped to the
gooseneck of the swivel. The connecting
pipework consists of high pressure piping from the
pump, the standpipe and the rotary hose. This
pipework must be capable of handling large
volumes of mud under high pressure but keep
pressure losses to a minimum.
The pumps discharge mud to a manifold, an
assembly of pipes and valves which permits
isolation of pumps for maintenance and repair.
The extension of the piping in the derrick consists
of a vertical pipe firmly clamped to the derrick. The
pipe is known as the standpipe.
From the top of the standpipe the mud is passed to
the swivel. During normal drilling operations the
swivel will be slowly moving down while the
standpipe is of course stationary. This means that
the connection between the two must be flexible.
The rotary hose provides this flexible link. If you
look back to figure 20, you can see the
relationship between the pumps, standpipe and
rotary hose in the circulating system.
In my list of the components of the circulating
system the swivel came next. However, as I have
already described the swivel as part of the rotating
mechanism, we will move on to the following
component, the shale shaker.
Shale Shaker
Before looking at this item, think again about the
path of the mud after the swivel. It is travelling
down through the hollow kelly, the hollow drill pipe
and collars and out through the jet nozzles in the
bit. From there it is going to return to the surface
via the annulus and flow into the settling pit.
On its return journey from the bottom of the hole,
the mud will be carrying rock particles cut by the
bit. Before the mud can be pumped back down the
hole, these cuttings must be removed by the shale
shaker.
The shale shaker which is shown in figure 22 is
mounted above and at the rear end of the settling
pit. It consists of a sloping, wire mesh screen
which is made to vibrate. Mud returning from the
hole flows through a pipe and passes over the
screen. The liquid mud falls through the screen
and into the settling tank. Larger particles are
trapped on the screen from where they are shaken
to the bottom edge to be collected for disposal.
Figure 22
Fine particles of sand and silt however will pass
through the shale shaker. These must be removed
in special desanders or desilters. We will look at
some of this equipment now in the final part of this
circulating system section.
2.31
~
Mud Conditioning Equipment
The properties of the mud must be very carefully
controlled in order that it can do its job properly.
Chemicals may be added as we have seen
already. Unwanted substances such as sand and
silt, or sometimes gas, may have to be removed.
Hydrocyclones are used as desanders and
desilters. Mud is pumped into the hydrocyclone
via a tangentially fitted inlet. This causes the mud
to whirl round the cone shaped vessel creating high
centrifugal forces. The suspended solids are
driven towards the wall of the hydrocyclone and
downwards in an accelerating spiral. The liquid
moves inwards and upwards as a spiralling vortex.
The solids, i.e. sand or silt are discharged from the
variable opening at the bottom of the unit, whilst'
the liquid overflows from the top.
If you look at figure 23 you will see this action
illustrated.
t solidsoutlet
Figure 23
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Another type of separation unit used for mud
conditioning is the centrifuge. This is used for
salvaging materials which are to be kept in the mud
system. It consists of a rotating cone shaped drum
inlet
clay
discharge
which spins at a high speed. Inside is a screw
conveyor which moves the coarse particles
towards the discharge.
Figure 24 shows one of these units.
From time to time, high pressure low volume gas
accumulations may be encountered whilst drilling.
This gas can enter the mud causing it to become
gas cut.
..


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coarse solid
discharge
Figure 24
2.33


[1]
Test Yourself 7
Think of two possible problems which may result from the mud becoming gas cut.
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You will find the answer in Check Yourself 7 on page 2.58.
Two types of degasser units are provided to
separate gas from drilling mud.
mud gas separators
vacuum degassers
The first of these units usually consists of a vertical
vessel through which the gas cut mud can be
circulated.
Gas is released from the mud in the separator and
is led away to be disposed of through a flare.
The gas free mud can then be returned to the pits.
This type of unit is suitable for handling high
pressure gas and mud which flows from a well
when a kick takes place.
You will be introduced to kicks in Unit 7 when we
cover well control.
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Vacuum degassers are more commonly used to
separate entrained gas. This can be seen as foam
bubbles on top of the mud in the pits.
vacuum pump
This type of degasser is a horizontal barrel which is
located above a mud tank from which it takes the
mud. The mud enters the vessel and overflows
from a tray down a pair of inclined plates. A
vacuum is created in the vessel which helps to
release gas from the mud. The gas is withdrawn
by the vacuum pump and vented to a safe place.
The conditioned mud flows from the bottom of the
degasser to be returned to the mud pits.
If you look at figure 25 you will see how the mud
flows through one of these units.
inclined
plates
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2.35
"

I
----------_.------.­
[1]
Test Yourself 8
When drilling mud is being circulated it is taken from the active tank or pit and finally returns to the
tank. In between, the mud passes a series of pieces of equipment. Number the following items in
their correct sequence in the circulating path. I have done the first one for you.
Piece of Equipment Sequence
a Mud pits IT]
b Stand pipe
0
c Mud pumps
0
d. Kelly
UJ
e Swivel [D
f Drill pipe
CJ
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Drill bit [J
h Annulus
0
Shale shaker LJ
j Drill collars
"
CJ
k Rotary hose
GJ
Mud conditioning equipment [IJ
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 8 on page 2.58.
2.36
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~ Summary
In this section we have concentrated on the
equipment used to circulate drilling fluid
(mud) through the drill string and back to the
surface.
You saw that the individual components of
the system consisted of:
* mud pits
mud pumps
* standpipe and rotary hose
* swivel
shale shaker
* mud conditioning equipment
I explained that the pumps take the mud from the
pits and pass it to the swivel via the standpipe
and rotary hose. The mud flows down through
the hollow kelly, drill pipe and collars and jets out
through nozzles in the bit. It returns to the
surface up the annulus where it flows over a
vibrating screen, the shale shaker. After cuttings
have been removed at the shaker, mud
conditioning equipment is used to remove sand,
silt and gas, etc. Finally, the mud flows back into
the active pit to be picked up by the pumps once
more.
In the three sections we have looked at up to now
we have covered the major items of equipment
used to drill a hole. In the next section we will
look at the system which provides the power
necessary to operate the equipment.
2.37
Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment

I
Section 4 - The Power System
A number of the items of drilling equipment which we have looked at up to now require to be driven in During drilling, great weights have to be lifted, large
some way. volumes of mud at high pressures have to be
pumped and the whole drill string has to be turned.
This requires a great deal of power but power is
*
*
[]]
Test Yourself 9
Think about the systems we have covered, and write down the three major components that
would require some kind of driving mechanism.
,
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You will find the answer in Check Yourself 9 on page 2.58.
also required for other machinery and equipment of
the rig, such as the shale shaker, mud conditioning
equipment, air compressors and so on.
On a jack-up rig, power is required for operating
the jacking equipment. On a semi-submersible rig
power is required for the ballasting system. In
addition to that required for the operations,
electrical power is needed for heating and
ventilation, cooking, etc.
Altogether, we are looking at a considerable power
demand.
In this section we are going to restrict ourselves to
a discussion of the actual rig power requirements.
The workings of different types of engines and
electrical power generators are also beyond the
scope of this unit. We will just look at the subject
in fairly general terms.
During this section we will look at power
requirements and types of power systems.
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2.38
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Power Requirements
Thinking again about the drawworks, rotary table
and mud pumps, I have already said that they need
a lot of power. But how much?
On a large offshore rig the total requirement for the
three components could be easily 4 500 H.P.
(Horse Power).
This is further divided up between the components
as follows:
" drawworks and rotary 3 000 H.P.
* mud pumps 1 500 H.P.
I have lumped together the drawworks and rotary
table because they are usually driven from the
same power source.
To give you an idea of what this means, a
drawworks with a 3 000 H.P. input would be
capable of lifting a load of over one million pounds
with 10 line suspension.
To provide this power, a number of different
systems have been used over the years and this is
what we will look at now.
Power Systems
In the early days of rotary drilling, steam power
was used exclusively. It is hardly ever found these
days and we can forget about it in this unit. Steam
was succeeded by internal combustion engines
using natural gas or Iiquified petroleum gas as fuel.
More recently, diesel engines have become more
popular as drilling engines and offshore these are
almost invariably used.
The rig components can be driven directly from
these engines using chains or belts to transmit
power. Most offshore rigs, however, use a
combination of diesel engines, generators and
electric motors to drive the drawworks, etc.
For now, let us concentrate on these so-called
diesel/electric systems.
On an electric rig, the drawworks, mud pumps,
etc are driven by direct current (D.C.) electric
motors. D.C. motors are used rather than
alternating current (A.C.) motors because it is not
practical to control the speed of A.C. motors.
Some older electric rigs use a complete D.C.
system. This means that the prime movers (the
diesel engines) drive D.C. generators, with the
D.C. electricity powering the motors. One
drawback of this system is that for control
purposes each motor has to be powered by its own
generator. This makes it necessary to run as
many generators as the maximum number of
motors running at anyone time.
An A.C.lD.C. system is more efficient. It uses
standard machines to generate alternating current
which is then fed into a common distribution
system. A.C. power is then drawn from this
distribution system. It has to be converted to
controlled direct current for use with conventional
D.C. motors. The devices which convert A.C. to
D.C. are called S.C.R.s which is short for Silicon
Controlled Rectifiers.
As I pointed out earlier, the generation, distribution
and use of electricity is a vast subject and is
beyond the scope of this programme. Therefore, I
don't intend to try to go any deeper into the power
systems on a rig in this unit.
2.39
._------_._--------­


cg.
Summary
In this very brief section you have seen that
modern drilling rigs require a great deal of
power to drive the various components.
You have also seen that this power
requirement can be met in a number of
ways but most common these days is the
diesel/electric system.
? 40
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Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment

I
Section 5 ... The Blowout Prevention (BOP) System
Most people associated with the oil industry have
heard the term blowout. It conjures up pictures of
a drilling rig with a column of oil shooting high
above the derrick. Although blowouts do happen
from time to time, they are relatively rare
occurrences. However, the risk of a blowout is
ever present during drilling operations. A drill crew
must always be ready to take steps to combat the
threat of such a hazard. Before we talk about the
blowout prevention system we should be clear
about what a blowout really is.
Blowouts
We could define a blowout. as being an
uncontrolled escape of oil, gas or other well fluids
to the atmosphere. It occurs when fluids under
pressure are released during the drilling operation
and which the various containment systems fail to
check.
As you will see in later units, pressure is being
exerted by fluids in the rock formations through
which a drill bit makes a hole. Normally, the
pressure being exerted by the column of drilling
fluids is sufficient to contain the formation fluid
pressures. If, however, for any reason the
pressure of the drilling fluid column drops below
that of the formation fluids, these fluids will enter
the well bore.
An influx of formation fluids is called in drillers'
terms, a kick. It is when a kick gets out of control
that a blowout occurs.
In Unit 7 we will be looking much more closely at
the subject of pressure control in a well. In this
section I just want to describe the equipment used
to contain and bring under control, a potential
blowout. i.e. the blowout prevention system.
Blowout Prevention
The escaping fluids could flow up the annulus
when drill pipe is in the hole. Or, if the drill string is
out of the hole then the fluids could simply flow
through the open hole. The blowout prevention
system must be capable of making the well safe
under any circumstances.
When the flow has been shut off, the well must be
made ready to allow drilling operations to continue.
This usually means releasing any fluids which have
entered the well bore and pumping in new mud.
[]
Test Yourself 10
What would you say were the three main
functions of the BOP system.
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You will find the answer in
Check Yourself 10 on page 2.59.
_J
2.41

I
Sub-Systems
The system which performs these functions can be
split into three sub-systems which are the:
* blowout preventer (BOP) stack
* BOP operating system
* choke and kill equipment
In this section I will take you through each of these
sub-systems. You will see a typical equipment
layout, how it is constructed and how it operates.
Once again let me emphasise that we will be
looking at equipment that you are likely to see on a
land based rig or fixed offshore platform type rig.
Although a BOP system on a floater performs
exactly the same function, there are differences in
layout, etc. We will cover this in Unit 6 when we
look at Floating Drilling in more detail.
The Blowout Preventer Stack
The BOP stack can be described as an assembly
of valves and fittings. It is designed to close the
top of a well and seal in any undesirable high
pressures should a blowout threaten during drilling
operations.
The valves themselves are known as blowout
preventers or simply BOPs. I will use this
abbreviation during the rest of this unit.
The stack is positioned beneath the rig floor
directly under the rotary table. Since it must be
capable of withstanding very high pressures it must
have a very secure base. You will see in Unit 5
that one of the casing strings provides this
foundation. For the time being, it is sufficient to
say that the bottom item in the stack is bolted
securely to a base unit.
Since a blowout could threaten at any time during
the drilling operation no one BOP could cope with
every situation. The stack therefore is built up of a
variety of BOPs each of which has a specific
function. The actual number of preventers and
their arrangement depends on the degree of
protection considered necessary. In figure 26 I
have illustrated just-one of the many possible BOP
stack arrangements
Starting at the bottom you will see a casing head.
This is the base unit on which the first BOP in the
stack is mounted. The casing head itself is
attached to the top of a string of pipe called the
surface casing. You will come across this again in
Unit 5.
annular type
bell nipple
I
BOP
) ram type
\. _ oJ BOP
J ram type
t oJ BOP
____ drilling
spool
J ram type
oJ BOP
m casing
head
Figure 26
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Types of BOP
Apart from the drilling spool and bell nipple, which I
will discuss later, all the other items are BOPs.
You will notice that they are of different types.
These are:
* Ram Type BOPs.
and
* Annular Type BOPs.
Let's look at each of these units, starting with the
ram types.
Ram Type BOPs
Ram type BOPs consist of a body which houses a
pair of rams. When these rams are retracted into
the body cavity the BOP is open. In this position a
vertical bore exists through which the drilling
equipment can pass.
The rams are connected via piston rods to pistons
acting in hydraulic cylinders. When hydraulic
pressure is applied to the pistons, the rams are
pushed towards each other. This makes the well
safe.
The rams themselves are described as either:
* pipe rams
or
* blind rams
or
* shear rams
piston
rod
Pipe rams are intended to close the top of the hole
when drill pipe is in the well. They have a
semi-circular cut out in the face of each ram and
sealing rubbers built into these faces. When a pipe
ram is operated the ram faces are pressed against
each other. This forms a pressure tight seal
around drill pipe in the hole and shuts off the
annulus.
Figure 27 shows an outline bird's eye view of a
pipe ram type BOP and indicates its operating
principle.
pipe rams
drill pipe
Figure 27
2.43


[]
Test Yourself 11
Can you think of a potential problem which may occur if there is only one set of pipe ram BOPs
in a stack.
Suggest a solution to the problem.
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Blind Rams
Supposing though there is no drill pipe in the hole
at all. It would be pointless to close a pair of pipe
rams, leaving a hole through the middle.
Blind rams can protect the well in this situation.
Blind rams have no cutout in the faces. When they
are operated a seal is made between the two ram
faces and closes off the open hole.
Shear Rams
Some BOPs are fitted with rams which are capable
of cutting the drill pipe and making a seal. These
units are called shear rams. They would of course
only be used in a dire emergency. Often, the blind
and shear action is combined in one BOP which
is then called a blind/shear ram BOP.
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 11 on page 2.59.
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Figure 28
Figure 28 shows a more detailed drawing of a ram type BOP. Take a look at this now and satisfy yourself that you can work out how the unit
operates. Your tutor will be able to help you, if necessary.
piston
piston rod
sealing
rubbers
Activity
BOP body

2.45

I
Annular Type BOPs
In any BOP stack the upper unit is an annular
type BOP. These preventers use a ring of
toughened rubber packing material to make a seal.
In its relaxed state the hole through the packing
ring is equal in diameter to the bore of the BOP
When the preventer is operated, hydraulic pressure
pushes a tapered piston upwards. This movement
squeezes the packing ring in towards the centre. ""
As the packing ring deforms it makes a seal around
most sizes and shapes of pipe in the hole.
This type of preventer will not only close around
any size of drill pipe, it will close around a kelly or
even open hole.
If you look at figure 29 you will see how an annular
preventer works.
form
piston with
internal taper
ring
,)" .." I packing
of
material
hydraulic pressure
admitted here will
push piston up and
squeeze packing to
seal
Figure 29
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Drilling Spool
There are two more items in the BOP stack which
I haven't yet mentioned. The first of these is the
drilling spool. This is a fitting placed between two
of the preventers which has a through bore at least
as large as the BOP bore. Two side outlets are
incorporated to which are connected flowlines
known as the choke and kill lines. We will look at
these shortly.
Bell Nipple
Finally, on top of the stack is mounted the bell
nipple, sometimes called the flow stack. It
consists of a piece of pipe connected by a flange to
the top of the annular BOP. It has the same bore
as the drilling spool and the BOPs and at the top it
is flared or tapered. During drilling operations the
top of the bell nipple is the top of the well bore.
When drilling tools are being lowered into the hole,
the bell shape guides them and prevents them
hanging up at this point.
A side outlet from the bell nipple diverts the
returning drilling fluid through a return flowline to
the shale shaker. A fill up line connected to the
bell nipple allows the mud in the hole to be topped
up. This has to be done when drill pipe is removed
and the mud level in the hole drops.
@3
Activity
I suggest that you look again at figure 26. Identify all the components of the BOP stack and
make sure that you know what each one does and how it works. If you are not sure how these
elements work, your tutor or a colleague should be able to help you.
J
2.47

The BOP Operating System
You have seen that BOPs, both ram and annular
,. types are actuated by hydraulic pressure. This
equipment is only of value if it can be operated
quickly and conveniently in an emergency. Also,
the preventers must be capable of being operated
if the rig power is lost.
A typical operating system which can do this would
consist of the following items:
* hydraulic oil reserve
* pump(s)
* accumulator(s)
* control console
* connecting pipework
The reservoir is simply a tank which contains a
reserve of hydraulic oil used to close (or open) the
preventers. It is part of a closed system, i.e. the oil
returns to the tank when the preventers are
re-opened.
From the tank, pumps take the fluid and develop
the pressure necessary for preventer operation.
The pumps are driven by either air or electrically
powered motors.
The BOPs must be capable of being operated even
if there is no power to drive the pumps.
Accumulators are used to store energy which can
then be used to actuate the preventers when rig
power is unavailable.
An accumulator is basically a pressure vessel. It is
divided into two compartments which are separated
by a diaphragm or a piston. The hydraulic oil
occupies one compartment whilst the other is filled
with an inert gas under pressure. Nitrogen is the
most commonly used gas.
When a control valve is opened, the pressure of
the compressed gas forces the hydraulic oil
through the connecting pipework to the preventer
piston.
The pump/accumulator units are usually designed
so that the fluid charges are automatically
maintained at the desired pressure. There should
be sufficient fluid in the accumulators to close each
preventer at least once.
The accumulators, pumps and oil reservoir are
usually built into skid mounted assemblies. These
also include piping and control valves which direct
the flow of oil to each preventer. The complete
assembly is located at some distance from the
well. In order that the driller can react quickly to
any emergency, a control console is placed close
to hand on the rig floor.
The control console contains the operating levers
for each preventer. It has a display of each BOP in
its correct position relative to the actual stack.
Each lever normally stands in a neutral position.
To actuate a BOP the driller simply moves the
lever to the close or open position. This action
directs air pressure to actuating cylinders. These
in turn operate the control valves on the main unit.
Figure 30 on the next page is a line diagram
showing the layout of a basic BOP operating
system.
2.48
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The Choke and Kill Equipment
In any BOP system there must be provision for
allowing:
* controlled release of well pressure
* pumping into the annulus when the
preventers are closed
The first of these provisions is catered for by the
choke manifolding. Figure 31 shows you the
basic layout of the choke manifold.
This consists of a connection to the side outlet of
the drilling spool fitted with one or more valves.
From there a flowline passes to a branched
manifold. At the manifold, mud flowing from the
well under pressure can be diverted through one of
a number of chokes to the pits.
The chokes are orifice valves which are used to
maintain back pressure on the well as fluid is
released. The variable orifice (opening) in the
choke is opened or closed to maintain the desired
pressure.
Connected to the side outlet of the drilling spool
opposite the choke, is the kill connection. From a
valve (or valves) at this connection a flowline leads
back to the rig mud pumps.
Having such a layout allows mud to be pumped into the annulus when preventers are closed above the
drilling spool. I will discuss the operation of the choke and kill system in much more detail when we look
at pressure control in Unit 7.
remote operated
choke
adjustable
choke
Figure 31
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Test Yourself 12
Describe in your own words a BOP stack which has 3 preventers.
Your answer should name each component and describe the function of these components.
You will find the answer in Check Yourself 12 on page 2.59.
J
2.51
~

In this unit we have looked at 5 systems
which together make up a complete drilling
installation. I have listed a number of
components from these systems. Fill in the
table to match the components to the system
they are part of. I have done the first one for
you.
Test Yourself 13
rotating system
I hOi:',ng system
[!]
circulating system
I-powe, system
bit sub v (
master bushing J 1
SCR 'v >
saver sub v F
accumulator ,i!:i
deadline anchor d
drilling spool' "l
centrifuge' -
blind ram v
brake
shale shaker v C:
swivel v
stand pipe (:
drawworks v
kelly bushing ~
generators -c/
choke v'
links \
elevator
desilter
You will find the answer in
Check Yourself 13 on page 2.60.
blowout prevention system
drawworks
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Summary
In this section we have looked at the
equipment used to contain and bring under
control a potential blowout. This equipment
is called the Blowout Prevention System.
You saw that the functions of the system can
be listed as enabling the drilling crew to:
*
close the top of the hole
*
release any fluid under controlled
conditions
*
permit the pumping of new mud into
the hole
In order to be able to perform these functions the
system consists of:
a blowout preventer stack having a
number of preventers, both ram type
and annular preventers
an operating system which enables the
driller to close and open the preventers
remotely
a choke and kill system, used to release
fluids under controlled conditions and allow
the pumping of new drilling fluid into the
well when preventers are closed
Throughout the section we have concentrated on
conventional land or production platform type of
equipment. In Unit 6 we will be looking at BOP
equipment which is used in floating drilling
applications.
We will also return to the subject of blowout
prevention equipment in Unit 7 when we will cover
pressure control in more detail.
You should now be able to go back to the Training
Target set at the beginning of this unit and check
that you can tick all of the boxes. If you have any
problems, look at the appropriate section again or
arrange a meeting with your tutor, who should be
able to help you.
2.53
Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment

Check Yourself - Answers

Check Yourself 1 Check Yourself 2
1. Yes 9. Yes 1. hard formation
2. Yes 10. No. The collars are part of the drill string 2. soft to medium formation
which itself is part of the rotating system.
3. Yes 3. soft formation
11. No. We will look at a shale shaker in
4. No. The rotary table is part of the Section 3. It is a component in the circulating
rotating system which we will look at in system.
Section 2.
12. Yes
5. Yes
6. No. This is also part of the rotating
system.
7. Yes
8. Yes
,., t: A
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Check Yourself 3
To obtain 50 OOOlbs weight on bit with fluid buoyancy factor of 0.833 will Therefore the total weight required is the weight of the drill collar + the
require: excess weight
= 60 000 + 15 000
50000 = 60 024 Ibs actual collar weight
0.833 = 75 000 Ibs
Let's say 60 000 Ibs If each joint weighs 4 410 Ibs the number of joints required
If 25% excess weight is required, this will be: = 75 000
4410
60000 x 25 = 15000 Ibs
100 = 17 joints
255
~
~
Check Yourself 4
1. False A bit sub is used to connect the
bit to the collars but it has box
connections, not pin connections
at each end.
2. True
3. False Drill collars allow just part of the
weight of the collars themselves
to be applied to the bit. This
means that the drill pipe is held
in tension.
4. False Crossover subs are used to
connect different sizes of drill
pipe or collars.
Check Yourself 5
swivel bail +
tri-cone roller +
drill collar + + drill bit
synthetic diamond insert +--­
kelly bushing •
• drill string
gooseneck +
stabilizer • :+ rotating mechanism
master bushing •
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Check Yourself 6
The words missing from the sentences are shown in bold type below.
A rotating system has three main subsystems, the drill bit, the drill string and the rotating
mechanism.
There are a number of different drill bit designs available such as drag bits, tri-cone roller bits,
diamond bits and polycrystalline diamond bits.
Under reamers and hole openers are sometimes placed above a bit to enlarge or maintain a hole
size.
In a drill string, drill collars are used to hold the string in tension and maintain weight on bit.
In a conventional rotating mechanism the rotary table turns the kelly bushing, which transmits the
rotary motion to the kelly and from there to the drill string and bit.
Drilling fluid enters the drill string via the gooseneck in the swivel.
Of the remaining words, a top drive is one of
the alternative rotating systems, a bit sub
connects the bit to the collars, and stabilizers
help to maintain a straight hole of full diameter.
A bail is simply a handle by which the swivel is
suspended from the drilling hook.
~
~
Check Yourself 7
If gas cut mud is recirculated a number of
problems may arise. These will include a
reduction in mud weight (or density), giving
rise to pressure control problems, which
you will see in Unit 7.
Also, the mud pumps will have difficulty in
dealing with mud which is gas-cut.
Check Yourself 8
The correct sequence is:
Mud pits
IT]
Stand pipe
[I]
Mud pumps
~
Kelly
~
Swivel @]
Drill pipe
o
Drill bit
~
Annulus
~
Shale shaker
~
Drill collars [!]
Rotary hose [TI
Mud conditioning equipment
~
Check Yourself 9
I'm sure that you wrote the same components
as me, i.e.
* the drawworks
* the rotary table
* the mud pumps
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Check Yourself 10
The 3 main functions of a BOP system are as follows:
* Close the top of the hole.
* Release any fluid under controlled conditions.
* Permit the pumping of new mud into the hole.
Check Yourself 11
A pair of pipe rams can only make a seal around one particular size of
pipe, ie. the diameter of the cut out in the face of the ram must match
the diameter of the pipe. If different sizes of pipe are used, the rams
must De changed for ones with the correct size of cut outs. Often more
than one set of ram type BOPs is used with different sized rams to
accommodate two different sizes of pipe.
Check Yourself 12
Your answer should have included the following.
Two of the BOPs will be ram type preventers. One would be fitted with
pipe rams to close round drill pipe in the hole, the other would be fitted with
blind / shear rams. This preventer could close the well with nothing in the
hole or in an emergency could cut the drill pipe and make a seal. The
uppermost preventer would be an annular type. This unit could close
around any size of drill pipe, a kelly or even empty hole.
Between the two ram preventers would be a drilling spool. The choke and
kill lines would be connected to the drilling spool. The choke and kill lines
allow controlled release of well pressure and permit pumping into the
annulus when the preventers are closed.
Finally on top of the stack is the bell nipple. The mud return flowline is
connected to this nipple which also has a connection for a fill up line. The
top of the bell nipple is flared to guide the drilling tools into the hole.
If you have missed any of these components, go through Section 5 again
and satisfy yourself that you are now familiar with them.
2.59

-------------------------_.....--------------------------------------------_.

Check Yourself 13
Your table should look like the one opposite.
hoisting system
rotating system
circulating system
power system
blowout prevention system
drawworks, links, elevator, deadline anchor, brake
swivel, kelly bushing, bit sub, master bushing, saver sub
shale shaker, stand pipe, desilter, centrifuge
generators, SCR
choke, accumulator, drilling spool, blind ram
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Designed, Produced and Published by OPITO Ltd., Petroleum Open Learning, Minerva House, Bruntland Road, Portlethen, Aberdeen AB12 4QL

Printed by Paul Matthew Print & Design, 2 Coldside Road, Dundee DD3 8DF

© OPITO 1993 (rev.2002)

ISBN 1 872041 85 X

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval or information storage system, transmitted iii any form or by any means, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.

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I~.'I I '\'1111 1IIIil I I Oilwell Drilling Technology ~ Unit 1 : Basic Concepts Contents * Training Target Introduction Section 1 . ~ ~ ~ 1"1"1"'""11 1'1"11111111'11111 i . .Drilling Personnel Check Yourself ..\ II I: 1 IJirllJ 1]'1 I ~" 1 1 ~ ' 1 I~' ' 1 III I ~ I~. Ik I~' IJ~' L~ \ 'I I '\ Ill' I I .:.1'"'1 1"11 " .LI J!llll ~J I~" " "I r'" J'"I' J""" r II .Exploration Techniques Section 3 ..21 1..". .1 . I .1111 'J'III' "~I 1 Ilu JIIIIJ JIW ~'i ~J ~J UJ JJ JJ LU JJ '1.2 1.Answers Page Visual Cues 1.Drilling Rig Types Section 4 .15 1.3 1.. ' II Jill:J J I " i" 1.5 1.1111 1I11'! ! 11 11 ]1 11: 'I I: i""' 11 1 II' iilll"II' 1 ~I I I I"I I jlllll"IlI!!!I! "lllilllll"IIIII!I I I" I"I!IIIII'II'IIII' Ilil 1"11:11"11111111111111 111111"1111.37 ~~ training targets for you to achieve by the end of the unit * * '1rt * * * [1] [\Ii III test yourself questions to see how much you understand check yourself answers to let you see if you have been thinking along the right lines activities for you to apply your new knowledge or find things out for yourself * ~ [~ summaries for you to recap on the major steps In your progress 1.33 1. II J J.Reservoirs and Reservoir Rocks Section 2 . i"" J..

II I I I. I I I ~l . 'I ! I I! 1'. When you have completed the unit you will be able to: • • * Name the two main types of sedimentary rock.1 I I. Describe the basic concepts of the drilling process. Explain the principles of three small scale survey techniques used in petroleum exploration. ' 1. We will also look briefly at the drilling process. Define the rock properties of porosity and permeability. ""~l II . Identify the types of rock structure which can form a petroleum reservoir. Tick each box when you have met the target. .1 'fl . ' '.'" I I. ~ I I.1 : "'I~lfl 'fl . I \. 'il "I I~ "~:I'~~~l'~l I II' 11 ~. List the main types of drilling rig in use and the key features of each. '1 I I" ' ll' I . I I I. I~I I. II I' ~1 . Explain in broad terms the origin of petroleum. Describe the large scale survey techniques used in petroleum exploration. D D D D D D D D D . "l'" I. design features of drilling rigs and the personnel involved in the drilling operation." ." .II \: LI P' ~'I"'~ ! I I. I.~ \1~ ~~ Training Target The aim of this unit is to give you an insight into the basic concepts and techniques used in the exploration for oil and gas. * • • • • * List the main personnel involved in the drilling operation and the functions of the drilling crew.

so does the cost but there are benefits: * the overall rate of petroleum extraction can usually be increased * long term damage to the reservoir can be minimised by avoiding points of high production at a few isolated wells.u I\j I. '1.u Unit 1 : Basic Concepts f(~ ~ Introduction Natural petroleum is contained in underground reservoirs. cirll 1"1. i'~& 'I 'il~JIU "! \'1 Ii . \:H I'. it is necessary to decide whether the amount present is sufficient to justify the expense of installing production facilities .J II I II IJ. .I I "'\. The aim is to get it from the reservoir to the surface in a safe and efficient manner.1. .I. i U u I~ I~ "I~ I .U "\ "i 'I I ilU . IJ.the most hydrocarbon. ~ .for example. So. It is worth noting here that natural petroleum is also referred to as: * petroleum oil and gas or * hydrocarbons I will be using all of these expressions from time to time. I!.IJ 1'1 1'1 /J I. in the shortest time. I I" \ l. All these different types of drilling activity ­ exploration. .Llb j!I. underground. we enter the production stage proper. and the second production. which aims to define: * the size and shape of the reservoir * how much hydrocarbon is in place there As the number of wells drilled into a reservoir increases. I r':IltJ 'iii I.1 "~. giving the ideal distribution of wells over the reservoir to achieve the best economic return for the whole operation. appraisal. Development or production drilling is now carried out. That is . a programme of appraisal drilling is planned. We are never absolutely sure whether oil or gas is present in a reservoir until we have: drilled into that reservoir * obtained a sample of the reservoir fluids at the surface * * how much of this oil and gas can actually be brought to the surface * what difficulties the operation is likely to encounter. or development .il J I: :U j: II.. how many wells or production platforms are required? There are usually a number of wells drilled into one reservoir. at the least cost. * 1.. we still believe that it is worthwhile proceeding.will use a wide range of skills contained within the area we call Drilling Technology.~J .offshore production platforms for example. Production facilities need to be designed and installed . * finding the petroleum * transporting it to the surface and processing it for the next phase The first of these stages is called exploration. we can say that drilling a well is the last step in the exploration stage.3 . If.. after carrying all this out. Once we know that hydrocarbons are there. i'l j'. There are two main stages involved in this: Therefore.

~ I Before we look into the detail of the drilling operation. I I 'I . I. I Ii ' I III. this unit on Basic Concepts provides you with some background on four related topics: * Section 1 talks about the structure of a reservoir and the types of rock which will be found there. * Section 4 considers the people who work on a drilling rig and how they relate to each other. I. 1A Iii III 'III II 'I .I ~ I I ! J I I I I I I I II " I' . I I 'I ill' . II I 'i III' I :i III: I i . I' I . It also covers some basic drilling concepts. * Section 2 examines the various exploration techniques which need to be carried through before the location of the first hole to be drilled is selected. ' I. * Section 3 looks at the different drilling rig types and indicates why a particular design is selected for a particular purpose. . III " II'.

Reservoirs and Reservoir Rocks A reservoir is not a huge underground cavern filled with fluid. in many cases.' I.IIIL II" '111'i III. .11111111111 .lJ Ii I: . * the basic geology of reservoir rocks * the types of reservoir fluid and how they got there * the structure of reservoirs . The force exerted by these further layers (known as the overburden) together with other chemical and physical changes result in the formation of typical clastic rocks such as sandstones and shales.IU j ". l d 'I' .: '.. 111111. skeletons and so forth.1111111111\ 1.gas.fragments of shells. lIil' "Ili '1'1 .il\'UI\ ' .i.) to the point where they are deposited. In this section you will find out about: Basic Geology of Reservoir Rocks Most reservoirs are made up of sedimentary rocks.JJ I . 1IIIII. . etc. water or.1111: ..111111 \ III Ii ' .'i '"11'1 1 ! ' "' '"".1111. It is actually a rock system and within the pores..1111. is stored.III" l""L . ". Biochemical rocks are formed by the accumulation of marine life remains .~ Unit 1 : Basic Concepts ~ I Section 1 . 1111 \ . coral. They are carried (by rivers. 11111.1111111"['111[ . application of pressure and other changes result in the formation of typical biochemical rocks such as limestones.. .5 . chalks and dolomites.. Further layers of rock particles (many thousands of feet thick in some cases) may be laid down on top of this sediment layer which will eventually form the reservoir.wJ4J uJJ ~ 1JiU ltuU L~ LII~ """1'"\ .lJ~ IIIu . I U I jJ I'L" I.1111 :"11. These are: * clastic (or detrital) rocks * biochemical rocks Clastic rocks are formed by the settling out and accumulation of solid particles such as sand. as many people still imagine. There are two principle types of sedimentary rock in which hydrocarbons are commonly found..11\ '"1111.\'"':' L. These particles are formed by the weathering of larger rocks.lrU L. oil.LJ I.111 ""1'1" I. U Ij.ILI .ilU I'll 'I il lilJJ 1 "llliU .iiiU i. cracks and channels of this system the reservoir fluid .'11111"1111111'\11.IIIU '1''[ L.~ 'I j) . !. I: La LJ j. Again.u i. a mixture of all three.J j.I. l" .111111.why they act as reservoirs 1.

~" /'? '~f...'Ii"''':! . 'i.'" " "'I'""H'" '-... ~.. ii/' .:"'If'" ...~!~> .. .. .~.". ."'~I II ~I I ~I ~.~~~._ ~ '.. II 1" !'~' ~ '~ ... "..~ Figure 1 shows photographs of a typical sandstone and dolomite. c' :c' • ".Uf:·..:'.. ." . ..*.. r.Jj£~:.. ."..W ~'.~ " /.-.?'~'\l'>/ ·.~ .t .} . I ~'/ ~I l/ I. .l .. ~~~:i":":'::" · ~7:~~' 1!i~ ~ ."~: .c-: r. ~~: . taken through an electron microscope and magnified many times. " ..~"............."" "" ".'"p' i.·...~'1.."'. ... "..'it..:~·:'t"' :'>~'.• . y..i"..'1( .~."""fi \ . '1~1 I 1"1 "~l "'fl I .».....-..'v.o!.'~'r .~~:/..1'1 I 1 1/ I I I. ....• {. Details of individual rock particles and pores can clearly be seen. ~ .. ~i'. I I I. ~..: :. . -» •• ." . .. ~' .. . <:. ~:~~. ".. I 'C. "'tii:1 ' .'~:. ~.~ 'i:!i> . .' .. .~' . ! .•." '.."r.' ~ \y '. . ~ · Z'(!It'~'" /IC~ . . ). "'<'.. '... _. " .l...c~":.':....':.." ..*..r . . .~'I I '~' . ~...~" •.: " .. '" .<.. (·.. ' >' ~..::. •" ." ._""."" -: " . ' Ii.> '."'.'..• '>. ." ..:.): . ." Sandstone Dolomite Figure 1 . .P"" '. '..(I ..~ i.1.." ~I I' I I .."-l.~ ..(.J~"" (~.:: .. 'i II I: .. ." . I' . . """'-""" ..... .:. ~..~~'~' A· -~..ft.' .. <../\.: ~"t. .{ {.~·..<'~''''\''A~':~:~l.~iIl~..' " . . . " .1 II II 1~1 I '~1 I.~ i'.\"~". .. '.. .. .... ..~M'-'. ..__ ..I"l j f' 1~1 1. " . '. ..'!}~ ')1\ ..r...'j I'" . ~-tl". "j!..''.. ..~: ... ~.-'" : ." r...""'. ..~'1 '''~' '...•l' ..». ' "".~~i~iiZ4.' .~.. ''l .'.» ':'!f"~~n.. ...~ . '. : t .. " .'. I.f >.'" .. .'.".'!1. " . " '"'''!J''' '" .· ·~. "j~.j..

U \ I ~.U IU ! I Iu I~ 'I!' I "I. is called the porosity of the rock. think of a container full of marbles. Between the marbles packed in the container you can see spaces. slowly. cracks and channels of this system.see figure 2) is one important guide as to how much hydrocarbon may be present. into the container of sand. Porosity The space which is available between the rock particles (known as the pore space . Now. 1'1 II/ II. These characteristics are referred to as porosity and permeability.empty yoghurt cartons or plastic cups would be ideal . 1. However. What happens? Note down here what you see. 'I..b ~ .I~. expressed as a percentage of the total rock volume.some dry sand and some water.7 . @] Actlvlty Find two empty containers . You already know that the reservoir fluids (hydrocarbons and water) will reside in the pores.. The storage capacity of our reservoir.:. !. i tl ill I.\u ~ I Properties of Reservoir Rocks We now have a reservoir rock which is perhaps thousands of feet below the surface.u I.I ". I.~. IU 'j .U j. depends on the total volume of the rock (how big the reservoir is) and its porosity. 11. Added together they form the pore space. The marbles represent individual rock particles which are greatly magnified.. U i: U' I' U lu . !ll . our main interest in the reservoir rock is knowing: • how much space is available for storage of these fluids To get a better visual impression of this.~ \'\'U '\'10 ..~. pour some of the water. I~. * how easily they will flow to the wellbore from where they can be transported to the surface. Fill one container with sand and the other with water. You will need your yoghurt cartons for the next activity. These are the pores.. "':/.tI I"~. Figure 2 The volume of pore space. then.

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I hope you saw that the water disappeared into the sand. You will recall that I explained to you what pore space was - the volume occupied by the pores, cracks and channels of the reservoir rock system. It is into this void space that our water is disappearing. Incidentally, it is worth noting that you could estimate the storage capacity of this mini-reservoir in the yoghurt carton by measuring the volume of water necessary to fill to the top of the sand.

u

Test Yourself 1

Imagine a block of sandstone as a mini-reservoir with a total rock volume of one cubic metre (or 1 000 Iitres). If the porosity of this reservoir is 18% of the total volume of the rock, what is the maximum volume of oil it could hold (in litres, say)?

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Permeability
You should now have a mental picture of how the pore space in the reservoir provides storage capacity for reservoir fluids - which can include gas, oil and water. However, it is necessary that these fluids can flow, at an economic rate, through the reservoir to the wellbore, from where they are transported to the surface. The property which allows this flow is called permeability. The pore spaces in the rock must be connected together, providing a continuous channel for fluids
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to pass through in order to reach the well. This is shown in figure 3. Permeability is a measure of how easy it is for the reservoir fluids to make this journey. The higher the permeability (expressed in units called Darcies), the easier for these fluids to flow and, other things being equal, the higher the production rate from that particular well. It is worth noting that the permeability (and therefore ease of flow) is affected not only by the type of rock but also by the nature of the fluid passing through it. Heavy oils will usually find it more difficult to move through the pores of a given rock than water.
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Reservoir Fluids
Scientists do not agree on hawaii and gas were originally formed. The most popular idea is called the organic theory. This supposes that these hydrocarbons were created from the remains of small plants and animals living mainly in the sea. Their remains would be covered up by other rock deposits washed down by rivers, sealed from the air and, over time, exposed to pressure and other changes (in much the same way as the reservoir rocks themselves). The oil and gas formed by this process, however, did not usually stay in the same place. You know from your own experience that oil floats on water. A lot of sea water was trapped with the plant and animal life and when petroleum was formed it tended to float upwards, through the water-filled pores of the rock, until it could rise no higher. (We will look at the reasons for this in the next section). The place where petroleum was first formed is
known as the source rock. The process of moving from there is called migration, and you will have guessed, the rock in which this petroleum comes to rest is called the reservoir rock. Our task is to find this petroleum reservoir.

paths taken by fluid flowing .. through the pore space

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Activity

If you can obtain some clean, coarse grit (free from mud and clay, that is) you can try this: Take your two empty yoghurt cartons saved from the first Activity. You also need the grit and a small quantity of oil (light machine oil or even cooking oil will do). Fill one container with water as before. Add about 1/4" of oil to the other container and then fill it with the grit.
Pour some of the water into the container of grit until free water is visible at the surface. Leave overnight.
When you come back to look at it, note down here what you see.

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~ r . This layer is called an impervious rock.Jl ' rI.~ ~ You should see that a film of oil becomes clearly visible on the surface. This is how natural petroleum migrates from the source rock ie. 4b and 4c illustrate various types of traps and how petroleum can accumulate under these to form the petroleum reservoir. It has floated upwards through the water which is filling the pores of the grit until it can go no higher.l .j ! . Unit 9 will look at this in more detail.1.U IIJ II j 'I j'. the rock where it was formed. / / The Structure of Reservoirs You now have a mental picture of the petroleum after it was formed...gas at the top.U "I '" I!.L \.when it encounters a rock layer which does not contain any pores and channels. II j' h 1'1 j~ j I . however..i. must have migrated from the bottom of the container to the top. The impervious rock layer must form a trap. then water as you would expect. then oil. / / / [1. This separation is.1 I u '.. u I' I" . when we decide how far into the reservoir we should drill before completing the well. otherwise the petroleum would find its way round the edges and continue its upward migration. It will stop when it is no longer able to do this .J . j. This small reservoir contains larger rock particles than you would usually find in practice but the idea is exactly the same. therefore..11 . j jj I: 'I j I I.A 'I. You will notice from these diagrams that the reservoir fluids contained within the rock pores have separated (over millions of years) into distinct layers . permeable reservoir rock ---------. ~J '1": ' . /' / // ~'- ------- »> ~- ------. Figures 4a. important. "~ j I t. It does indicate very clearly that your yoghurt-carton reservoir has both porosity (to hide the oil and water) and permeability (to allow the oil to reach the surface).tJ "'I': ' "J' "1:"\1'\ III. such as a cap rock.U I lI JJ 'IJ ':lJ I: !! I IJ L I' I: I'/'j I ~.porous. . Figure 4a 1. :/. In practice. floating upwards through rock pores and channels filled with water. the boundaries between the layers are not as sharp as in the picture.j I j I j. to the reservoir rock.I' . The impervious rock layer must be shaped in a certain way. which means not permeable. This oil. 'I.".

j'~' ~... I l~'l . f' 11' (1' .'n !'~I I I ! ~I I ~ i" .' ~~~. ~~ ~-== ~__~ s . porous.\ /J. 7 Figure 4b water porous.'ii' . Il' Il' If' I r I ~I \ ~I rl . permeable reservoir rock ~! ~~~~~~~~ . I" '1' . rl I I . /1 "~l I.I.. I I.-: . I Il' Il' . '.::£-~ ~~~------~ :':::":':"~~ ~~~.~ 4. permeable reservoir rock Figure 4c -I -1'1 \.~I' d' ~ II I 'Ii' ~ '.~' \~'I d II I I 1'1 I'/ II I / if' 1 II'f I IfI 1 . '.

. <..u '. \: \.>: i'f\ l0r'"..'/ "NO. M cap rock / y • ./ . r..~ ~." / . -<.<. ' You will find the answer in Check Yourself 2 on page 1..38. .~ I! i U II lJ i iliJ II ." j 1\ 'I IIIII J~ ~ :~ L~ I~ LU I~ '~huu I' 1\ il .~----~ ~/-~- . r II(/f . re p.' .'. -." r ~ [1] /' Test Yourself 2 Have a look at the sketch below..~. '.11\ 11.~ <. 1. '<. permeable reservoir rock rock.~./ t . pow".U !J I' 1':1 I': j ~~iIJ I Ia 'IJ j I Ii UU I'! U .- .' ""'.' . If oil migrates upwards through the porous and permeable reservoir rock then do you think that either of these structures could form an effective petroleum reservoir? /' -> ..~-..U . . .\' . It shows two subsurface geological structures. .. ~cr .d<~/ ~- OIl" .~ ~ -~.. ~~-=~ -~ ----=:-rock Impermeable ~'"---~ - porous. ../-------~· _.\ b~l Hi" ~ j . _.iU ./ •• -_.13 . lmpsrmeabl . i". G-' t. ~lJ1:.m"b".~.'/ / -c .. I Ii I' I \ II I I 111\' ... ' .) (.~ ~~ .r .~. . III i i 'I 'I: I " ...:~ i ""'" / "Il0E i C (\\.---.. '''l''. }'" ':.. ~.IJ I~ I~ !II II: iU "u ./ . .\'.t t· 1..¢. ~ And why? . == ~ ~~ =-- =-~~ . -: -: ''-~>. u· ~< OJ' Figure 5 t .*'~ ".~:~-=~-> ~ ~~~ ~~'" /AP. '~~~=--/~ ~ ~~ ~-~ ~~ w~ 'J~----~--=--=-~-~ .-/ ... I j' I Jl iii l'll'i i Ii j i "IU...

~' ~1 I ' . I ~! II .~I I~ I 11/ I'P II I I. ~I I I~1 .~I:1 " !~I' . You will have learnt that. In the next section you will learn how to find it.drilling. The petroleum reservoir will then: * consist of sedimentary rock having both porosity and permeability * lie underneath an impermeable (impervious) layer (such as a cap rock). I ! ~. in many cases into a gas layer at the top. " I I . !"~iJ l~1 I 1. I described how petroleum was first formed in the source rock and how it migrated upwards towards the reservoir. . . I ~I i 1 \ " IV I" r' 1 . an oil layer in the middle and a water layer underneath You now know what a petroleum reservoir is. ~ Summary In this section we have looked at sedimentary rocks and how they were first deposited.4'1 I . I i ~r I~ r I ' I ~l d' I" 'I . this sedimentary rock must possess two properties: porosity and permeability.'.~ I The task is now to find the petroleum reservoir. and the next section looks at some of the more common exploration techniques which are used prior to the final test . I~(I (I:' \'~I . forming a trap past which the reservoir fluids cannot leak * contain reservoir fluids which have separated. \': lr 11 1 . in order to form an effective petroleum reservoir.

Unit 1 : Basic Concepts ~ I Section 2 .iii I.i". Aerial photographic surveys are a most effective means of gaining this broad impression. You already know that these are called traps and will be familiar with the basic types. :jJ I. Figure 6 on the next page shows an aerial photograph which illustrates some of these characteristics. You will see this more clearly by looking again at figures 4a. This gives us a first clue as to where we should drill. perhaps by changes in the vegetation.large scale Here. our sedimentary basins. In other words.11 I~l ~il 'T i /' III 1 I I li'l 1'1 1 " I' i " 111 I!. will be located where old river systems have deposited large quantities of sediment into ancient seas.. we require other techniques which will pinpoint more accurately the most favourable location for drilling.H 'i I r I '. deposited from rivers and seas. If this is the case. Exploration Techniques In the previous section.lU~. Land Geologists have found that they can sometimes identify subsurface structures like faults and domes by viewing ground contours at the surface. r IlJ ~J I~J '~. However.!J "!'J IU :. Therefore. In this section. and those which are applicable over water. i.~J i U I Iii. We need to know the broad geographical areas in the world where these sedimentary rocks may be found. they believe that oil and gas were formed from plant and animal remains. - I '1'. previously. high temperatures and so on. that most scientists now accept the organic theory of petroleum production. I described how sedimentary roCKS are laid down and why the presence of these rocks would indicate the possibility of oil and gas being present. band c and noting that these subsurface shapes can. based on a wide range of other evidence. Exploration Techniques .precisely. you will find out about: Sedimentary Basins We have seen.J i .J I':1J "\'I~.small scale 1. ' I' 11'1 II I'll III I ~J i .15 .large scale * exploration techniques .u '\ '\ I '1 'l 'i I I J. They want to know where to drill the first well . covered with further layers of rock sediment and subjected to high pressures.ll.J lJ :1 I r'! ~ '1 II I. or geographical areas where large quantities of sedimentary rock are found. These areas can be very large and techniques are required to pinpoint more accurately the likely subsurface structures where oil and gas could accumulate. The locations of these seas are well known by geologists. be mirrored at ground level.J . Domes and outcrops often stand out clearly. to some extent. we must think of techniques which are suitable for land locations. * sedimentary basins * exploration techniques .. knowing that a petroleum reservoir could be contained within a sedimentary basin which may be hundreds of miles across is not much help to an oil company.

Aerial surveys are often accompanied by field surveys ."" :" " 'I ""'. but other techniques are required.'. ~ pr!" _ _ "IAUI_ _ The use of 3-dimensional photography increases the ease with which surface characteristics can be picked out from aerial photographs. "' .!I ! I "I~1 ! l. !Figure 6 1..16 Iii . Nowadays.'~I !'~I III" 1"1 I~I iV I~i 11' II' i:' Ir' 11' I~I I'" I" \~I \P \.. Sonar (reflected sound wave) surveys can be used to plot the contours of the seabed.~ I . They may be looking for the size and shape of a dome. figures 4a. while divers are sometimes employed to carry out a field survey underwater.---'~... II !. or the slope and rock type of an outcrop. Water Over water. band c demonstrate how this information might be useful in selecting a location to drill..geologists on the ground investigating in more detail some of the structures picked out from the air. photographs from orbiting satellites are increasingly used for this type of exploration work. . the same type of information is needed. Again.I i I l I \'1 \' I 1'1 IIr I I .I'll 1 11 "I 'I 'I I. ~ I '~r . in addition.

..- J . --.' '"11 "1' 1 LL "i ':' ""'I I ['IU ~u 'l..... measure differences in the pull of gravity from one underground rock layer to another...r-­ gravity meter response . t j ~~~ ~~~~ * * gravity surveys seismic surveys subsurface rock structure * magnetic surveys ~ ""'~---~"'" ~~2 ~7~...--.iU . Figure 7 shows...'. layer of dense roc~ ~==-=t-=­ . as this may well be more dense than the underlying reservoir rock.. '"""\"'.. band c again) and. how a gravity meter responds to layers of dense rock and how the results are recorded.i I j:j . A cap rock will be present in some petroleum reservoirs (look at figures 4a.ilillllllllllidlllll~'IIIIIIIIII'II:IIIII"'I'l~"II1II'll"IIIIIIIIIII~::L "IIIIIIt:l"'"111111" 1' 'll . 1.:.. ~~/~/~ "~~ Gravity Surveys Gravity surveys.. .IU '11 i'u I ~I 'I 1 1• j I i I ~ i I. = ~ ~ . <.. in simple form..-­ -­ ~ :==-----=:::.U LjJ 'I": i' I ' '.. It would be very difficult to plan an effective drilling programme if the target rock formation could be at 5 000 feet or 15 000 feet.... Dense rocks will have a higher gravitational pull.----=::­ ~"-'=-~-<=-~ Figure 7 ~'-. . They would also need some hint of the depth of any likely structure..uu LU "i '"I i" 1" !U !'I" I' . as the name suggests..:--~~ 7~~"-"'-: ~-.::~~~ . .~~ ~ ~~-=--=--=.' . explorers for oil would want some confirmation that what they saw on the surface actually indicated a trap-type structure underground. .:. a gravity survey could be a useful tool to detect it. \~ ~ Exploration Techniques ~ small scale At this stage. \i I ~i j ~ j I II I iJ \ ...jl ..17 . We will/oak at three common methods for obtaining this information: maximum gravitational pull gravity meter record -­ »> ~ --­ ~ <.

. I' I" I I I.­ ->: =-~:~~\~" -~ =--~~~ -~---~ \ \ c =~ =-~~~-~~~~ -.­ ~ charge " ~ survey truck I I I . For example: exploSiv. At the boundary of each one. 11"1111 II. part of the wave energy is " reflected back to the surface where it is picked up by sensitive instruments called geophones (on land) or hydrophones (on water).. I P 11' I . which drops a heavy weight onto the ground . I fl . On land * by explosive charge by Vibrator. \\ \ \ ----------­ ­ \ 'y'\ . I "~ I '1" . This distortion can be measured and recorded to give a picture of structures containing magnetic minerals. where a vibrating surface is kept in contact with the ground * by thumper truck.'1I'II 1' I I ~~ I 'I ~.. The shock waves themselves can be generated in a variety of ways.~i I" I~Ii'l !'~'I I ~'J . '. . . A shock wave is set off at the surface and travels down through successive rock layers.11'1 IP I~l I P I '1 1 I I ' . I~!' f ' 'I! I i: (~l I.. particularly. The presence of underground rocks containing. y' ". I I / I / / \~ / / / // / / -­ .. Figure 8a shows a seismic survey on land.~ Magnetic Surveys In this type of survey. Seismic Surveys The word seismic means relating "to earthquakes and this gives a clue to the principle of this technique. a magnetometer is used to measure the strength and direction of the local magnetic force./ / I _--­ " / / --------­ Figure 8a r 11 1 III n 'i l I "'. .. iron will distort the normal pattern of the earth's magnetic field in that area.'~ I 'I' u .­ " . ! 'I' 'I' l ! I. I 11' Il' . \ \ "".

and getting information from.j Jill '\' ' . .~"-~~~' . When the drilling site is selected and the well is actually being drilled.19 .1 I. 'I~ \. J. these rock layers. but a remarkably accurate picture can be built up of subsurface formations in terms of both shape and physical characteristics. It obviously takes a computer to analyse the large number of signals being received at the surface. In both cases.~. although they do give us some good indications of what lies below. survey vessel compressed air charge / hydrophones ~ / / Looking back over this section. ~Ij !\!.J ''I''. we find ourselves directly in contact with deeper and deeper subsurface rock formations.: I l' 'm. I will describe these opportunities for you in detail when we come to Unit 9 . 'I' . / / ""-. the shock waves travel through different types of rock at different speeds and therefore will arrive back at the surface at different times.'IJIIIJ 'I ': i I~. you will notice that all of the techniques described are carried out on or above the surface.-:=.~. I :m. ' II./­ --~~§:-~==~~=-=-===. however. I' !l' Iii..Formation Evaluation. : '1J ~ I I 'I"i 1. ~h I'. '" I III Ie I ~jil '. which offers less threat to marine life than explosives You can see this set-up in figure 8b. 'I'. This gives us new opportunities for looking at.::~-=-==:= ~ // Figure 8b 1. 1". "~.J :1.I ~ 'II 'II I r Ii' i j. !'it I j II" '" "h:1I l lh T. 'u ~ Over water * by compressed air charge.: ~~ ==-~~~~~~~=~~=.'IJ I. j: 1 'u j' lJu 'I'.

. l"" 'I I ~!I 1.'.. First. I (:1' /~II I .if l~' . . .~f I 1'1'" .'1 1'1 I \ " " I" I ' I. "I I I . You will have learnt that they can be very large and we need some other way of homing-in on the first drilling location. II 'I . l~' j :'1' 1. I . I I I .'1 1 . f' '~ I ' If li~ j {f ~.' 11' '\" . I I I. .I \~II " 1~lli . 'I. a broad survey of the area can be carried out by: * aerial photography * satellite photography * field geologists * sonar techniques land land land water Then a precise location for drilling can be chosen with the help of three techniques: * gravimetric surveys * magnetic surveys * seismic surveys measures differences in the gravitational pull of various rocks measures differences in the magnetic properties of various rocks measures differences in the speed of sound through various rocks We now know where to drill. In the next section you will look at some basic steps in the drilling operation and the rigs used to do the job. 1'1 11 1 .U 1'" 1 ' 1 II I .~ I ~ Summary In this section I described for you how sedimentary basins were originally formed.. 11' .I i' I~'I~l I (.

11 I lJ : IJ 'i i !i I~. \ \ "I '"i .11. ~ I..'I 'i '/1 : U : 11 : . I \4 I. As you will have learnt from the introduction to this unit. to drill from water. appraisal and development drilling were mentioned and each of these will influence the design of the rig to be used. '~. A particular type of rig will be chosen to meet the location and depth requirements of this exploration well. I JA ·lJ Unit '1 : Basic Concepts ~ I Section 3 . Arctic. it should now be possible to select a location to drill. ~i jj '11. land jack-up fixed platform semi­ submersible drilfship * jack-up rigs * platform rigs * semi-submersibles * drillships Figure 9 shows the typical locations in which these various rig types operate. different types of well will be drilled at different stages of the oilfield development. . jungle or desert conditions? Drilling from land or water? And so on. jJ IjJ IIJ ·jl I.11 iU I i' i j I' I .21 .1'1. In this section we will look at the main types of drilling rig designs: land rigs or. Location will also have a significant influence.~ U . Figure 9 1. r~i i U I. Exploration.Drilling Rig Types By using the appropriate exploration techniques described in the last section.n I~ u I i"l "i I~ Ih I i II II "I "i I. I 'I r 'I . I {J ' I.

I I""" 111 .'.I " ' j I I 1.'f 'il .'f! .' I ' ." I 'I' ' II.".': .:' . Before we look at the different types of rig.'.f1 j'' 1 ~"11 . 1'1 .':':.. Figure 11 1.. ..'"I \"". '.f' I" i l l I' ' :"1' I'.-' ~ c' In Unit 2 you will look at Drilling Systems and Equipment. 1 drill bit (say.''1 1"0 iiI ' ' ."' I ' " .'0 I' . This hole is drilled to a relatively §fl?ILgw depth before drilling is stopped and the drill string and bit are removed from the hole.'~I '.:' -'_'__ 1st section of .:.' . .~S· Figure 10 .. It will also comprise these five basic systems: * hoisting system * rotating system surface drill stri~g * circulating system ." I .'. I " ' .'..» '. 'hole drilled with large diameter bit .. ~<. 26" diameter) . It will become clear.1 .::': * power system * blowout prevention system I said that all drilling rigs have the same essential job . At each stage the actual hole is drilled using a drill bit.. therefore.'.. As the hole is deepened more lengths of drill pipe are added until the total depth of that stage is reached.to make a hole in the ground."1' I I ".: . " j I. I!' "II I .I \ I~..~l . II . '. I feel we should have a brief look at some basic drilling concepts. >( '. I I I.v . to make a hole in the ground.0 . A typical drill bit is shown in figure 10."." I"" I .'n I11 (' . 1 11 111 I"" I " \ I'"I I ''''1 . This will allow you to picture more clearly the various stages of the drilling operation. it must carry out the same basic function ­ Basic Drilling Concepts The drilling of any well is carried out in a number of clearly defined stages..: . whatever the rig design.? The bit is connected to the bottom of an assembly of pipes called a drill string. 1 The first section of hole is drilled using a large diameter bit (see figure 11).

.. 1 J .) 4 When the cement has set. i J..- ::JI. Figure 13 1. to:. LI i" Ll I 1" 1 I]. II II 1 u II[1 II\1 'II "\ "..ll "I rr lULl j' .' cement filled annulus ~·.23 .: r: .'­ " 1:~ ~ ~.<\ " .I 'I "'1 II. f> '.'II" . l!~ dJ ! I. (You will look at other functions of casing in more detail in Unit 5 • Casing and Cementing).) .t" ~J I~.G ·"·11. Its function is to stop the drilled hole from collapsing as it is deepened. I' I i I. To secure the casing in place and isolate the formations behind the casing. l" ! I .•"t7" ." Figure 12 2nd casing iAI sIring (13%" dia.) anriulus :. Cl .J tJ "IU j "~I I 'I' I'" I I "jill I I II . I. .' ..filled with cement 1st casing string (20" dia. the annulus is filled with a cement slurry. . j.~. '.II'~ .'1 st section' of hole _M At a pre-determined depth.' • ""11 string &.~~· 1st section of hole I " (26" dta. U III ~ - 2 Steel pipe called a casing string is lowered into the hole. . This means that there is a gap between the outside of the casing and the inside of the hole. surface .' A /"a: ".: '. This casing is also cemented in place as shown in figure 13 below.J ..ii 'JJ I 'I. drilling can continue.) cement filled annulus 111-41_ _ . ' l i s t casing 11-. drilling is once again stopped and this section of hole is lined with casing.~I I' . Figure 12 shows the status of the hole at this stage.'ii III '\" II ": ~ I I 1'l"1 I 11 "jl IjJ "III.. A drill bit which will fit inside the casing is connected to the drill string and more hole is drilled.JJ U '".~ :.~: .' .-.'. 2nd section of hole (17 1/ 2 " dia. This ring shaped space is called the annulus. 3 The diameter of the casing string is smaller than that of the drilled hole.

~ . If we tried to illustrate a 10 000 feet deep well which was 12 inches in diameter.·0 ~:.' I I'~II I !"~I .'1: 1 1''0 II "1 '1 I"'I' 111 I I I" I i"II IP i"'i! I I I 11' 1'1' I'I' II i .. then lining the hole with casing which is cemented in place. ..: 'e ~ section of hole 'dll:~cement b Ijl'..--... " ~ ... ~:.J 1'1 II 1'1 .I 1I pi .·. using a scale of 1 in 12. 'II..-cement II~~ fin~1 ca~~~.I' '1' 1 . Bear in mind.~ ~ction e : 1 of hole .·. .l .1---.­ -:111. 14 <\ I f lit" 2nd casing ..~ I --'--~--- """" This sequence of drilling. lu-l'r. continues until the total depth of the well is reached.II 1st casing' .. "il III I: '11 .:./ Figure 14 . that they will be grossly out of proportion. ~ .p II. +_~2nd f. ~t. lAlJ' : ." ~. Figure 14 shows a well drilled to its total depth.~\~ . we would require a sheet of paper the height of the Eiffel Tower! .. hole drilled to total depth (121// dia..'~I I I .~Iast section of • '.f. : .cement "r" III ~I. I'~.I I pi .' .. when you look at drawings of wells..I I'~I" I t'l (':1' n' (~I /l!1 (~111 1" 1I (III j .

\:J j.39.!~J :'h ~ I [] Bit Sizes Test Yourself 3 Below I have given you a selection of bit sizes.J /J "IIJ I JJ I uIIJ Iii i111 r r I II ~. casing sizes and hole depths which are out of order: 171/ 2 " 20" 11 500' 26" 8 1/ 2 " 133/ 8" 9500' 121/ 4 " 95/ 8" 1 500' Casing Sizes Hole Depth 7" 4500' Use this information to fill in the missing details in the drilling programme below: Drilling Programme Bit Size Stage One Casing Size Hole Depth ' 2.jJ I ." Stage Four You will find the answer in Check Yourself 3 on page 1.I: L!IU r '~J:U li\ !:'I 1\ l 'l "l: r~ : ': 'II: j I 'II: i 'i I 1'1 . 'lJ 'IU I/J I: i I 1j <II IU " i I. lS (i l Stage Two Stage Three L!"I[ ) '\. 1.Ij IjJ .25 .J IItJ f I '1'1 i. IJ \ .L Ilj.I IJJ . .H I /j ItJ I: I . .h I "II I 'Jh I " II I I' I I \. I.

1 . The rigging-up time for masts tends to be less than for conventional derricks. It also includes the time to install the power unit.11' 1.~'J !'~'I.1 1'~1 I 'I I j 1 1 /1'1 I I .'~I I j 1" \1 . 11 ' I I~' ' I". Masts For lighter work. 1'1 I" I I~l I ~l I" I" I" 1'."I I" I ". while some are telescopic. .26 \l"f . on-site from all its components./ Rigging-up time is the time it takes to assemble a mast into the vertical position.'1'. Small masts may be truck mounted. ' 11' I.'" . I I I I I'· I~l !"I' II" . Figure 15 shows a typical one. I I' I I "~ll . Masts of this type are assembled on the ground from large welded sections fastened together with pins. all the cables and the piping. cantilever masts (also known as jack-knife derricks) are common.~ I Land Rigs Land rigs vary enormously in size . They may then be raised to the vertical position by using the rig's own power unit and hoisting line. 1 'I" i" . circulate fluids and generate power. \ pin /connection .in their capacity to lift. Ij ~'I I. raising leg figure 15 1.

II." '\ I ~J '. we will regard a derrick as the framework-tower type of support usually associated with oilwell drilling. I" :jj 'I II! "IJ IIJ I: 'I'I It. Typically.j I. "lj "\ II I~J \ l'l ::lJ I.J. I I.'l. longer than for a cantilever mast.II I I I' i. I' I' . derricks are assembled on-site by bolting individual pieces together. I I~ "" '. I: I II Ih ": • ~ I!I' I. Sometimes the words are used interchangeably. I I ! (l :I! 'I ': III I': .27 . of course. Figure 16 shows a common arrangement.(J I' Ii 'U l H . The rigging-up time for this method is. We will look at the differences between masts and derricks in more detail in Unit 2.. . "'I"~ Ii 'lj 'I. j 1" "" I : I lfl f i ~ f !~: I I ". To keep things simple. .substructure Figure 16 1. IIJ \ II !' " ~ Derricks There is no really clear-cut distinction between a mast and a derrick. I.

. I II I II. ~ Jack-Up Rigs A jack-up rig consists of a movable platform which can be jacked up and down the (usually) three supporting legs..I I~ .---------------_. (' \I !\'I I I. I. ~ 1 I" I \""'1 ~"'.'" 1 II '1' I ~I " r 'I I .' .~. I 'I' i ' :" Ii'. 50 to 350 feet Jack-ups will be floated out to location and the legs then lowered independently until they are bedded securely and the platform is level and above wave height.~i I II \ i \ \ ' I I.. . 'I ".~ II 'II 'I' I~. where the water depth is relatively shallow ­ say.r~l 1'1 1l' 'I '1' . Figure 17 'f I"J '1. I l'r" . II i I .. Figure 17 shows one of the standard designs These provide a common means of drilling in water."'i" I i"'~ I I. It is clear that their use would be restricted when there are strong currents or an unstable seabed.

The deck. li~"II~jl~' : .iJ I 10 I" '1'" I I .j . I: "I': .ujJ I ..-------------------------------------------­ ~ ~~ steel jacket­ --------­ »> Figure 18 1.0 "\ " '\' . A steel platform design is shown in figure 18. ' l j' I' "fa ". It will also support one or more drilling rigs and associated equipment.I Ii" j .~ i I . I! I'I 'I . as an example. \i I IjJ I.~I~"~' j' I! I' " j / I 'i! IIi.1J "l I. r IIJ. IJ. supported by a steel jacket in this case.I' II~J r r il IIIJ I '1I~J I "1 rJJ I)~ '1': i 'IIJ j IU '"U :. 'I" I i dl ~ Platform Rigs A platform is a fixed installation offshore from which development drilling and petroleum production is carried out.U .11 .29 .(1 lil.~ ~J i l: . carries equipment and accommodation modules and a helicopter pad. -. ".

the semi-sub (as it is often called) takes on water ballast (into the two hulls.~I .• - m& - _. This will lower the structure in the water and lower the centre of gravity... Modern semi-subs using anchors may. Semi-submersibles can move easily from one location to another either by being towed or under their own power. They are mainly used. drill in water up to 3 000 feet deep. When on location.~.~I . Some semi-subs use anchors with wire and chain to hold them on station.'.:: I '.' \ !i 'I . the deck carries equipment and accommodation modules. We will look at mooring systems in more detail in Unit 6. In this position it is shielded from the effects of rough water at the surface and achieves a high degree of stability. Semi-subs using dynamic positioning systems are capable of drilling in even deeper waters. I I." I" '\ ! ~t i II.30 \.\ !: \'\ . Its maximum operating water depth depends on the type of mooring system employed. ~f . \I \I '11 1 '1 ""1'1 I II I . and by two hulls to provide buoyancy. helipad -A semi-sub can operate in deeper water than a jack-up. Semi-Submersibles A semi-submersible is a floating drilling rig. In II 'I. II ~I . Others use dynamic positioning which is a system of computer controlled thrusters.1 I lIn \'.~ -----. p IPP'~1 \1. ~l "... ~ '-'-----.. to maintain their position.- -_. I I ". hulls _ -----­ ~~ 1.. In this case. a helicopter pad and a drilling rig. ~~~-. etc). I II '0 I~'I In L 'I II. I 'I I. a deck is supported by a tubular structure. Again. in exceptional circumstances.11 f n n I I. for exploration and appraisal drilling where this ease of movement is essential. A typical layout is shown in figure 19 below. therefore. up to 6 000 feet deep.~I .WI II II . .

as with semi-subs greater storage capacity than other rig types not as stable as semi-subs or jack-ups while drilling You plan to drill three exploration wells in the following depths of water.U H : lJ ~ ~ I . I tj l t.. t ril Figure 20 will give you an overall impression of the layout. .Ll I .efl": I S''. .1 IU I J.39. Ii I ' I i i " I' I JJ I iJ I..jj 'I· I" . .31 . I.'n . I. lJ I II I.--­ You will find the answer in Check Yourself 4 on page 1. . .J '.I " II. Their main features are: [] * 4500 feet Test Yourself 4 * * * * • the ability to drill in almost any depth of water greater mobility than semi-subs or jack-ups dynamic positioning equipment can be fitted. U {? ~ i. J i' ~ iii !I I.j "'I I j U .:1 .IJ 11. Figure 20 1.<>i'<J"' e( In bIer ~- ~.'J \ JJ I I I Jj \1 IU I.. lJ l .II I ~ . l u ~./j ~ ~I ~ I.~ derrick _ * 1 500 feet t. * 280 feet -) JV. : IJ I I 1 I I I ~ I Drillships These are ships specially built or converted for deep sea drilling.I I '. I. What type of rig would you select to drill each of these wells. (j I ." ".

I' I l' I l' '1' '1' " I.1 i'l 1. I talked about two types of land rig ­ a mast and a derrick. . platform rigs. \ I P .~"~ll '~'~ /'. I . Then we considered drilling from water and looked at jack-ups. I. P '. 1. \ . we looked at some basic drilling concepts. i '" I r"~l III:' "I II 'fl 1".'1 11' ill' \ I II /'1 iIi ': . I ! . The differences between these rig types were highlighted. The various types of drilling rig were then described. .1j 'I ' " i ~l. '1' '1' j' I.32 \'Ql . I \' II' I: II '! I II I I . We will now take a look at the personnel who operate these rigs. For now.'1 I I I i~l I. you have an overall impression.~ I [g Summary To begin with. however._ I' \ I I" I 'I l' I I.I I. j.. semi-submersibles and drillships. ' " I. I will go into these in more detail in later units.

jill . 'I'.~j JJ .otJ I Unit 1 : Basic Concepts ~ Section 4 . of course.' I. j: I 'i '[I '. and * the types of service companies involved in the drilling operation. -« t 1-toolpusher tourpusher driller asst.. driller derrickman chief mechanic rig mechanic motor man r---­ OIl f_ Ileurn engineer ling . Drilling Personnel The way in which rigs are crewed up will.~jJJ I.0 I~ I:. I 'I . I I.' II J. Ii j.J 19 ~-- ~ubsea engineering ) I r-­ --I n roughneck v fishing well servicing g roustabout responsible to ---Figure 21 liaison with 1..33 . Drilling Operations ~ Personnel operating company drilling contractor t I company rep.U . vary greatly from one situation to another.engineer site' geologist • service companies J I I __ -.tJ i'l I . j . . j: ~J . There are common features and these are the ones I wish to concentrate on.~jl~J j 'I'I .j '1 .1) company personnel * drilling contractor personnel.0 'I' tJ II j lI~iJ I.. and how they relate to each other.I.~ '1 \ '" \ . "\ h I~ I~ III I \"1"' I j ' 1 1 lij I~ I~ '1 I.JJ I' I: i' j~J IjI IJJ r "i~J1J~J . U . Figure 21 gives a typical picture of: • operating (0.

"" I'I IP \V I~' I' I I I I I 1'1 \ ~ I I \" Ir \V IV In . Toolpusher: In overall charge of rig operations. I· V I~II .. Will be in charge of a particular shift (often the night shift). Responsible for compliance with the drilling plan and for the drilling crew. Responsible to the toolpusher for implementing the drilling plan and for safety. Reports to the driller. Tourpusher: Driller: Assistant Driller: Assists the driller. Usually responsible to the driller for the operation of bulk storage equipment (for handling mud chemicals. painting. Service company personnel report to the company man. together with their main tasks and reporting links. II. . and is employed by. ~l ~I 'I~ I . He will have operating company specialists on site to assist him. etc.:~II I I" 11 ' I ! I I II I 'II I 1. In I . Reports to the tool/tourpusher. He reports to.) and for the mud flowline system.I :. assisting with the movement of materials. Reports to the driller. Reports to the driller. cleaning. the operating company which holds the licence to drill the hole. A member of the general workforce. but must liaise very closely with the drilling team.1 :. implementing the drilling plan and compliance with all safety requirements. Assistant to the toolpusher. Responsible for general rig floor activities under the direction of the driller/assistant driller.~ I The company representative on site (perhaps called the company man or drilling supervisor) ensures that the drilling programme is carried out in a safe and efficient manner. j 1I ~ I '~l i dI 1I .! ~ 'If I" i ! 'I 1 I! I 1'1 11~1 I'. Derrickman: Responsible for the storage and movement of tubulars in the derrick and monitoring the mud systems.1 I I" II'~' j'~ I I:11 i~' 1 I II I \' I 1. Reports to the roustabout foreman (not shown on figure 21). and reports to him. Members of this drilling team are listed opposite. Reports to the company representative.1 ~ :1 j l . j ~ I I ~. In charge of the drilling process and operations. Roughneck: Roustabout: i ji . Works on the rig floor. etc.

~ J I "I'll.--- .1.t. r'I~.. j' I..~J Iii il I 'I mJ r: ' .~ 'II i ! r jl Itj I.40. 'I "'1 '~J "Ii ' .I r 1. You will find the answer in Check Yourself 5 on page 1.L I I u ~ _..' \ I. .J Ii 'I.. I. I I I i I II 1. I 'IJ ! IJ L.H I'jj I. lJ . I I.. I would like you to think back over what you have learnt and list as many of the steps in the programme as you can. '.I.I I IllilI 11\ 'I ... i II l.~.H 'i"~J i lJ IH I III j'. 1..j...f. = == [1] Test Yourself 5 In this unit we have been through some of the major steps in a typical exploration programme.(. U II~J(j i'. ~ _.35 .

----------------------------------------­ Summary l!1 In this section we have looked at a typical drilling operation and described the people and activities which make it happen. I. I have listed the essential members of the drilling crew and detailed their main tasks. I 1'1 Iii' \1' 11' 1"11 . I I. I 11' IT 1'1' I'"~ I 1'1 I .I. I I 1 I. Go back to the Training Target at the beginning of this unit and check that you can tick all of the boxes.I I" I" I. read over the relevant sections again and have a chat with your tutor if necessary. I. I I I. 'T1 'I l~ . If you are unsure of anything.~ I .i~ " I'f 1'~1 " Ii' i II '~'1~' 1 I~' '~'~' I"i' 1 jil .1. You have now completed the first unit about Basic Drilling Concepts in this Drilling Technology open learning programme.'r I l.'1 l i f I'l l I'Iii I~I I ~I \ ~l I I" '1 '. r I. I have indicated how they link together into an efficient team. Finally. ! I I I I ~ I.

I' i IU .J Ii 1. I.1 . i ": I.(I ILl IU . 'I : 'Iii ! I Ij III l. I.U Ii Ii II (j "U Ii 1" 'll Unit 1 : Basic Concepts ~ Check Yourself . .37 ..' .I I . We can calculate this by multiplying total rock volume or x porosity 1 cu. I f.1 "Ii 'I'i .j II. 1.1. I .i. metre (1 000 Iitres) x 18% = 180litres Our block of sandstone. :iJ 1': 1'1 iii! '/1 . 'I 'I "IIIJ ~J ~j "\ "I I "\ ".~'~ 'I.'..HI'. II Ii. \ '.U . therefore. could hold a maximum of 180 litres of oil. '~"I ri 'I'I 'I 'i I'!I III.jj : ~j Ii II 'I I jJ I ~J I.. Answers Check Yourself 1 The maximum amount of oil which our mini-reservoir can hold is the pore volume of the reservoir.

You can see this below: ::.l !'~l I"~l I . therefore form an effective petroleum reservoir. oil has accumulated under the caprock.1 ~. In the second drawing.I II ..1!¥~~~ ~ ~'Z.. 1.1' 11' 11' 11' ~.~ Check Yourself 2 Oil has now migrated to our two possible reservoirs.'~ I II"I I 1'1' IV I" 1'1 I. This could therefore be an effective petroleum reservoir.. 'I . ..... which has prevented it migrating further.l I I' IV I I nl II Ir 1. the impervious rock layer has a break in it. . ~~~~ ...: 'II " ~: \ II t I I '~I~l III~J 111~1 11~111~1 il~1 I. ! II .. ... due to faulting.. /1 :'j In the first sketch.... and this has allowed oil to leak out and upwards.. The structure would not. I I I . .~~ ~~~~ .. [1f1 II I " I'll • l'II~II'~I'~lli~1 I I I II I. ~~~~ ~~~~~=- »-~ ~~~~ '.

I j "l ' '"IL !... a semi-submersible is likely to be used which uses either anchors or dynamic positioning systems to maintain its position. I~ '\'I! l~ '\"1.'llj! i: I "'! I ". To drill in 1 500 feet of water. '\" I U lUi ~ i 'l"i I 'i"i.1 'I!J .I I 1.1 't1 'h j u .39 .1 .iJ I.U / i j j . "1'i i ~ ~.~j I j!' {j j tf I!J : ' j u j II /(j I u . i i. I !':." ~ I~J 'ii' I ".1. Check Yourself 4 Casing Size Hole To drill in 280 feet of water a jack-up would be suitable.I'i I' ~~ Ill!.(I .U ~ I ~ Check Yourself 3 Drilling Programme Bit Size Depth Stage One Stage Two Stage Three Stage Four 26" 17 1/ 2 " 12 1/ 4 " 20" 133/ 8 " 95/ 8 " 7" 1 500' 4500' 9500' 11 500' To drill in 4 500 feet of water. I 1 '1 ' . 1. li!.J '. try working through the section again. I II ill '11". 8 1/ 2 " If your answers are not the same as these.1.l.tl I '. a dynamically positioned drillshlp is the more likely choice. as long as the seabed provided a sound footing for the jack-up legs and local currents were not too strong.

'~1 i ~1 '~. * This work will narrow the area down and allow more detailed surveys using gravitational.l 11 \'.I.1 .' '. magnetic or seismic techniques." I I I I I' II " . Over water. the drilling rig must be selected and to do that you need to answer a few more questions: . . I. .~ . The use of seismic methods is a high probability in any modern exploration programme. \". How this is done varies enormously from one country to another and is often a matter for legal experts to handle.! '.1 .how deep does the hole need to be? By consultation with geologists.~1 ~:'~1 ''I~1 \:"~1 :"1 I I I I" I I. I. an aerial or satellite survey. I . " ' 1· I 1. . The next stage which we have not talked about is how to obtain permission for all the work we intend to carry out on the project. you would know where the major sedimentary basins are located in the geographical area of interest to you. You must ensure that it is crewed up properly and all the service company personnel you require will be on hand at the correct time.are you drilling on land? ..if over water. Let drilling commence. * * Your rig is selected.' I I II ~! ' l' '" '1'.or over water? . Assuming permissions have been granted. a sonic survey may be called for.' j I . ~l Ii' !~ I \11 I ~ I I I I l' . I suggest we leave it to them.~ I ~ Check Yourself 5 The major steps in a typical exploration programme are roughly as follows: * * On the basis of this evidence you can decide where to drill. I ' ! '" j'~'l I' '~1 /. in what depth are you drilling? . l I. I '~ I I I. However. '~ . 1 . J i lin Pll I"'~.I . IV IT 11' \1' IV I.~. possibly combined with a ground survey will be carried out over land locations. .

1 .l I ".l I! II i. Page 2. .28 2.. "I I I 1..u "ul.. I tl 'I i I . ' 'I II! j I I ~..Answers 2..a I u ~j I '! "! I' "I \ '.. 'lJ I j' I' I IIJ 'LI j jj I I I ~ I j!l .54 2.tI .1 '/J I ': " I j ': (j /j I I I l.i'hg\lT~&hno logy .41 2." ~ €ontents .The Hoisting System S~l<. "L I..8.. I I u IlJ I.U . " 'I I : j !J I.ll 'I" " ....ne Circulating System 2. I tl " :.38 * * Section 5 .\J I II ! .ll I'... I I.2 2. . I'.7.3 2.i.' " jl I" /.Hon 3 . II' IIJ .4 2..: J.The Blowout Prevention (BOP) System Check Yourself .~~<':.T.12 Training Target Introduction Section 1 .I " 'I' 'I 'Ii ": .Jlweli!!i[)t:HI.·.

~I IT 11' /1' {!' I~I (1.I 11' 11' 11' 11' I:' (1' 11' 11.' 11' 11' 11' 11' 11' [1' i.f! tli!il\ ~ * Training Target When you have completed this unit. you will be able to: List the five basic drilling rig systems. D * * Explain the function of the components identified.1 1 .~ r. Tick each box when you have met the target. D D * Outline the relationship of each system in the overall drilling process. D Describe in simple terms the construction of the components. Identify the components of each of the five systems. l' 1. D D * * Summarise how each system operates.' !~I I~ 1 11' i1 11 I' il' I~.' 1 11' I" !:' .

This system.1. '~'I Ii. We will be looking at specialised floating drilling rig systems and equipment in Unit 6.I. We will look at the individual components in the system and see how they contribute to the overall drilling process. IJ.u I. IJ • I.'.. floaters (semi-subs and drillships) have some special equipment which is not found on land installations." IJ " ~J ~ . I. '.~ I': . we will gradually build up the complete picture of the drilling installation which you see in figure 1.lj it. j j'. I... In this unit we will concentrate on conventional equipment such as you would find on power a land rig or on a fixed platform offshore. Although the equipment is basically the same on all rigs. It is the: * blowout prevention system drill collars Figure 1 drill bit 2. I " Jl I... . although not essential to the drilling process. As we go through the unit system by system."1' ! IJ I /J JJ I "I "i "~ ". I I I 'i' . Figure 1 shows a simplified line drawing of a typical rig with its systems and components. !~'. Ii.J i l~.J I. I. j . It doesn't matter what type of rig you think about.. F"i crown block • ~ Introduction You saw in the first unit of this programme that there are a number of different types of drilling rigs in common use. is critical for rig safety. the rig has a number of components which can be grouped together in four basic systems. Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment I l'. J) "J 'i ". 1. drilling hook * hoisting system unit * rotating system * circulating system power system BOPs -I I If-7-. j I j. I I..~. i' i I I'! I I .. jl .~. there is a further system which must be considered in any discussion of rig components. to make a hole in the ground In order to perform this function safely and efficiently.3 . IJ I: I'. . I. it has one function only: In this unit we will go through each of the systems listed. 1" !jj I i ' l . These systems are the: ) - II I travelling block fl" \I! . * mud conditioning equipment In addition to the four I have listed above.

This height is measured from the rig floor.' 1~..'~' ~ . to over 150 feet on some large offshore installations."1~ III I!11. i.The Hoisting System As you will shortly see. The Hoisting System Components * * derrick drawworks drilling line crown block travelling assembly (travelling block and hook) * * * rig floor .I ".1 I .u ~ll II I '1'1 '1'1 '~! "11 f".l1 'I Ii 11' 1V pi 11 1 1 1 11 1 I.v" '" "Fl 1.r . holes are drilled with long lengths of pipe . Derrick heights vary from around 90 feet on small land rigs. The Derrick The derrick is the tall. This derrick is the first component in the hoisting system. the boom of the crane is fixed in the vertical position and is called the derrick (or mast).substructure Figure 2 ~tt "' 1 1 I 11' .1 'I II I . 1) "I 'I '1 "I 1'1' "\ :' I. This considerable weight has to be suspended in the hole. The supporting legs are joined together with steel cross bracings which stiffen the structure and give the necessary load bearing strength.! I II 1' 1 rl1 r1! . A hoisting system accomplishes this task. This base is known as the substructure and the top of this substructure is the drilling rig floor.with a drill bit at the end . .'"~' ~. On a drilling rig..I ' II . it is necessary from time to time to pull all the drill pipe out of the hole.If you think about it. however. Let's list all the components in the system and then look at each of them in turn. The height of the derrick does not affect its load bearing capacity but will limit the length of drill pipe sections which may be removed.Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment ~ water table ~ I Section 1 . The top of the derrick must be high enough above the rig floor for the pipe sections to be taken out of the hole and temporarily stored within the rig structure. . 1 11 I.' 1'1 'I I I I I 'i ~ "I I 1. raised and lowered.""l 'r'''~1 ~ I'~ I . 111 "1 ~11 fill "I' I f:l! rv l. . I 'I' I . towerlike structure which most people think of as an Oil Rig. I f1! p. As you will see later. A iL/'l ..'I I I ~"l' j"'~' ~ 'f' I. the hoisting system performs the same function as a crane. Figure 2 shows a simplified drawing of a derrick.which in a deep hole can weigh two hundred tons or more. Ft:dJEl:sE--finger board A standard (pyramid shaped) derrick consists of four steel supporting legs standing on a square base.

5 __----­ . 1 > . !. ~ I You will see that there are two platforms incorporated in the structure. .4 \jJ .. . )j '" I' . - ~:\\ I A mast performs the same function as the derrick but is usually much lighter in construction. You will recall at the start of this section I made reference to a derrick or mast. These are labelled: * the water table the finger board (also called the monkey board) * The water table is a working platform at the top of the derrick which enables maintenance to be carried out on the equipment there. j jJ i1 i JJ ' I . mast rigged down mast erected Figure 3 2."1" . Figure 3 shows a simplified drawing of a mast.IJ ( ih I \ I I i. ~ . i .-<\i. I .. r" The finger board is another working platform which is located approximately 90 feet high in the derrick. H \ I lJ 1.JJ " IJ i i ! I 'I .::~ . jJ _1J I -i. It is used on land drilling operations and is capable of being transported between locations as a complete unit or in a couple of sections. I U I !j I 1.I Jj I Jj I.I jJ I ~J I jJ r'l.JJ I JJ '" I. f. JJ .J 'I 1J L i J j~ 11 . This is where one of the rig crew (the derrickman) works when drill pipe is being pulled from the hole.

secondary spool driller's console (workstation) I main drum /--"j Figure 4 Ll ~) i~ 'i r i~ f I!I~ . A hook is fixed at the lower end of the pulley system. Since the drill pipe is connected to the moving pulley. rn f 1\ G I'"fl III ~ I 111~1 I' 1"1f] til. How it Works Its principle feature is a spool. it is not used much these days. The drawworks usually has a second spool. rII~ j t1"1 !1111 I I I. when the operator. or drum. I . We will also look at some alternative equipment used in these operations. The wire from this spool passes over a single pulley and can be used for running tools into and out of the hole. . the winch of the crane is equivalent to the drawworks of a drilling rig hoisting system. . which can be rotated using power from the rig power system. Independent wireline units are used for this purpose. The sand reel is sometimes called a coring reel. 1 . ~ r\ . however. r"1 I ill~ I 'I fl' I (If"l I I ' r ~l 'I I.I I~ \1. As with the winch of a crane.I " II.~ I Drawworks If we continue our analogy of a crane and hoisting system. fitted behind the main drum. If the drum is allowed to rotate in the other direction the hook will descend. known as a sand reel. Wireline (drilling line) is reeled onto the drum and from there passes through a system of pulleys (crown and travelling blocks). You will see in Unit 3 how these operations are actually carried out. I' l. in this case the driller. pulled down by the suspended load. the drilling line is reeled onto the drum raising the movable pulley and hook. The drawworks is located in the middle of the back edge of the rig floor. !k~l 'I' II' II ! '. rotates the drum in one direction. The main purpose of this piece of equipment is to lift pipe out of and lower it back into the hole. These are used together with large spanners or tongs to make or break the threaded connections between individual joints or pipe. Incorporated into the drawworks are the catheads. ~ ~))S$$%§%%\~ (sand reel) '. the pipe can be raised or lowered.'~1 1 1 I I I ' 11 1~ II 11~1 l'~ I I' l~l I ' 1"~1 I ' ~I 1 1 1'1 11 I • I 1 1 1 1 1'1 IT 1 !~I I "' .

This allows the driller to control the tremendous load of the drill pipe or casing suspended from the pulley system.1 ' It " !"t 'I 'I II j .. brake bands over brake drums brake handle-­ Figure 5 2. electrically operated. I' ! \ 'dol I U I /J I IJ I 'I "'I 'I /J ._ I i j I Ii . There are at least two brake systems on most rigs. i" 1 1 III '. I'! I J I I I I'i i .1 "~J""L I. . i. 'U ~ The Brake System ~ Activity Look again at figure 4 and identify the main drum and catheads of the drawworks. j i j I I' j: .J"f' 1.' j: it. . jI '" .1 . The bands are connected to a large brake handle located at the side of the drawworks. 'I i II 'I I. ~ !. This is operated by the driller to halt the descent of a loaded pulley system. Make sure that you understand how this system works. Your tutor should be able to help you if you are unsure. This auxiliary brake is used to control the rate of descent of the load. 1111 'i "'\ '"I "I' . The other brake is either hydraulic or.1.J I"~. Figure 5 shows the friction type brake mechanism. It helps to reduce the wear on the primary friction system."I"..JJ i I.(1 t.1 tl Lt tai. One is a mechanical friction device which uses two bands passing over brake drums. more commonly these days.)J .j I ' I'I .7 . An important feature of the drawworks is the brake system.J ri . 1 11.I: '. j J. I j II Jj ~.. !.'~.1.

"I 1"'1' "'. I I I I I 1 . high and low speed gears together with a foot operated throttle. .. This fixed multi-sheaved assembly is located at the top of the derrick and is surrounded by the working platform which you will remember we called the water table. Look again at figure 4 and note the driller's workstation by the brake handle. We will look at most of this equipment when we consider the drilling operations in the next unit.' ~I".tl .' "'~'. The Drilling line.~I I"'~I 1'1 1"'1 . allow a wide range of hoisting speeds to be used. From the drum of the drawworks the line passes over one of the pulleys (sheaves) of the crown block which you can see in figure 6.I I 1'1 I. The sheaves themselves are up to 5 feet in diameter and are free to rotate on heavy duty bearings. The drilling line is a multistrand wire rope which is secured to the drum of the drawworks. Its diameter varies according to the type and size of rig. A clutch. I ' I 1.r i'~1 I I I. =jl I= := = = ~rilling line J • J • ~ I ­ ~ 1­ II :) o ~ o ~ .l . II" I.. I I .'~I I'~' . I j" I I. \" I ~l I l' 'I 11 1 I'l l 1"'1 1"'1 I"~I ! I'" i' ~. I I I'~I 'I II r. .I~' ill~1 . but on a large semi-submersible it might be as much as 13/ 4 " in diameter. Instruments give him indications of the status of equipment and machinery." I'" :.~ I Gear System An integral part of the drawworks is the gear (transmission) system.1 ~ ~ ~ ~ Figure 6 " n ~ l ~l /1' i. and operating controls are all within easy reach of the driller. From this position he must be able to control the rig and oversee the activities of his drilling crew. Crown Block and Travelling Assembly The last three items in our list of hoisting system components together make up the pulley system which I have referred to on a number of occasions already. I I . ~ crown block sheaves Control The driller's workstation is at the brake handle of the drawworks.

(If a line has moved a one ton load a distance of one mile..: I~I I~I i 1.. Figure 8 2. ten or twelve line suspension.. I will explain how the elevator is used in the next unit.. jJ ~.9 deadline anchor crown block drilling line travelling block drilling hook ears ~..4' /4J ' I'· ~~ I' . I '" I. I . The hook may be integral with the travelling block or may be removable. The links support an item of equipment called an elevator which is used when all the pipe is being pulled from the well. Connected to the bottom of the travelling block is the drilling hook and these two items comprise the travelling assembly. sometimes called the deadline anchor..--.~. After making its final pass over the crown block the drilling line goes down to the base of the rig where it is clamped on a drilling line anchor. ~J' ~J \ I 'l " I 4j l: 'II ! Ij IJ ' 'I I "I' "I " ' l ' JJ 'Jj Jj I JJ I' i i! I! 'I· I Jj IJ. _ _ From the crown block the drilling line passes to and round a sheave contained within a moving set of sheaves known as the travelling block.. jJ I.J I'~J " I . I e _ ' ' ' ' ' .t_ . The drilling line is not terminated at the deadline anchor but continues on to a reel of spare line..J !~.'I ". Figure 8 shows the hoisting system in simplified form. A careful record is kept of the work done by the line.. After a pre-determined number of ton-miles have been recorded. The number of passes the drilling line makes between crown and travelling blocks give an eight.. .......~JJ. Figure 7 shows a travelling assembly. A corresponding length of wire is then cut off at the drawworks end of the line... This means that the anchor is slackened and fresh line is slipped into the system from the spare line spool. The drilling line then passes over another sheave on the crown block and down again to the travelling block.... JJ . it has received one ton-mile of usage).. Note the two ears on the hook... This is measured in units of ton-miles... . Figure 7 . '". the line is slipped and cut../Ar.J Q.. JJ !Jj I :"1 I! 4J '~.4' I".. I... Two forged steel rods called links can be attached to the ears.. I· I.''''1" .. Take a look at this now.

4.54. CJ 0 LJ 0 D D 0 0 lJ [J 0 D D 0 D D 10. 7.~ I [] 2. j" I":' . Drawworks Test Yourself 1 In the following list of components some are part of the hoisting system and some are not. 5. I I I I I I I I I . l~' I~I~ ~.'11 III j'1' !I I I I I11'1 I ' I . 111 . Drawworks Drum D U D D U D D U You will find the answer in Check Yourself 1 on page 2. : . Shale Shaker 12. 8. Tick either yes or no in the boxes provided. 1I:~.'H .I I Il' 111 'I 'I. Drilling Collars 11. ' '~ . I I .I"1111 I ! .' I". nl . ') 1 () ". Drilling Line Rotary Table Derrick Drill Bit Crown Block Deadline Anchor Drilling Hook 6. 9. Yes 1. Travelling Block No 3.! I I I I I""I I I I'll 1"1 I I'll 'I 11I1 I I 1'1 1'1'1''''1 I I I' ' .' I . I I I l 1 1 ~11 pi 'ill 1"1I1 1'1. I. 1.TI' ~"'.

The line is then clamped by the dead line anchor at the base of the derrick. J.III ".': ' 1 1" I I'I" "I"! I.11 . l 'I" I" 1~ i.«. '. forming the travelling assembly. JJ JJ iJ " JJ I : I JJ I.Jjj. \~. I.. The driller lifts the drill pipe or other load by engaging a clutch and spooling line onto the drawworks drum. '\ . ~ ~ Summary The drilling line is attached to the main drum of the drawworks and from there it passes to the top of the derrick. Jj ~. In this section we have looked at the components of a drilling rig hoisting system. . t • ~ I 'j. 'oJ. The load is lowered by releasing the brake on the drawworks drum.J I·IJ I .Ij ~ J. with the derrick representing the crane's boom in the vertical position. ten or twelve line suspension. iii . . JJ I i I iJ .~. !II. j. I.IJJ h 'I I Ll. It then makes a number of passes between the crown block and travelling block below. oJ. i J.. . You saw that the drilling hook is attached to the underside of the travelling block. You saw that the components are: " the derrick the drawworks the drilling line the crown block the travelling assembly * * * * 2. to give an eight.JJ 'I iJJ I~J I'.I J. "I JJ I I)J I i" ' I JJ I I i iJ '. J. In the next section we will be looking at the equipment used to apply weight to and rotate the drilling bit. We likened this whole system to that of a crane. While working through this section you have learned what the function of the hoisting system is and the individual components which make up this system.I I" :. allowing the load to pull the travelling assembly down.

some type of cutting tool has to be rotated whilst weight is applied to make the hole. Since one bit would not be suitable for these widely differing conditions.I I I " I'l I i' 11' ' I1' I 11' IV IV IV III I'l' I'l' III I II IliP I I ... I will first of all describe what we could call the conventional system. I". there are a number of different designs available. as figure 9. 1. They can be broadly classified into the following categories: Drag Bits A drag bit is very rarely seen these days.:> H'/ . tj\ : \ L~ " :.Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment ~ Section 2 . * * * drill bit drill string rotating mechanism * * * * drag bits tri-cone roller bits diamond bits polycrystalline diamond bits The actual transmission of the rotating action to the drill bit can be carried out in a number of ways. At the end of this section we will look at some alternative rotating mechanisms. \' " .'I I I I . i. I~' ~ I.' 1 i~' .' I' r1' I'II~' i'~l I" I 1'1' I'" I" . the rotating system. In oilwell drilling operations the cutting tool is the drill bit and in this section we will look at the equipment used to turn the bit.." I. It must be capable of making hole in rocks which vary from very soft clay-like material to extremely hard granites. I don't intend to say any more about drag bits but I have included an illustration of one.. A rotating system can be thought of as having three main sub-systems: The Drill Bit The drill bit is probably the most critical item of a drilling operation.I I P . steel or other material. I" 1 j'" I. I.. Figure 9 1"~1 \ I jl" ~. I 1 r.The Rotating System Just like any drilling operation whether it be in wood. It was one of the earliest types of bit and it cuts by the shovelling action of blades on the formation.~I...e.

.lJ ! ~ i. Figure 11 shows a diamond bit.1 'i I J. i I I \: I J. For soft formations the teeth are long and widely spaced. They drill by the scraping action of the diamonds which protrude from a metal matrix.J. Figure 10 shows a typical tri-cone roller bit.j I)~ i" 'l.J. 1. I "" !4/ i I " ./jj I' i /1 'I I'. I. I. This is more suitable for hard formations. A large variety of designs are available to cope with the different formations encountered. This gives a digging or gouging action. (0 Figure 10 Figure 11 2. It exits the bit through holes called jet nozzles. Short stubby teeth which are closer together provide a chipping or crushing action. ..1 j :1 I I. The cones incorporate the cutting structure. the size and setting of the diamonds. This consists of teeth cut into the cone. " J "Ii 1.41 I '4'~I. or inserts pressed into holes in the cone surface.I.J ).~'~IJIJ'JI I: I..13 . The design of diamond bits varies greatly in the shape of the body. !JJ I '~ ".JI ~ I Tri-cone Roller Bits Tri-cone roller bits are the most commonly used drill bits at present.' '" J "j J " I J' '"I "l. I "I. Drilling fluid helps to lubricate the bit and carry away cuttings from the bottom of the hole. As the name suggests. The nozzles are replaceable so that the orifice size can be altered to match the fluid pressure and volume requirements. let's look at a typical bit arrangement. '.. ' Diamond Bits Diamond bits use industrial diamonds as their cutting structure. this type of bit has three cones which are free to roll on bearings.jJ I) I JI i .~ I r 'I': J. jet nozzle I /.

54. I " I"~ I'.\ 2.e-\1. II' 1 I. polycrystalline diamond bits have found a lot of favour. Decide if the bit described is more suitable for a soft. A bit with a hard faced steel body and synthetic diamond cutters inserted.~ Polycrystalline Diamond Bits Recently. {I!\k. it shears the rock rather like the action of a lathe. Replaceable nozzles are fitted in the body of the bit. When used under the right conditions.t cutters of synthetic diamonds You will find the answers in Check Yourself 2 on page 2. f-te'll. I I I. !i I" I. I I II I I "~I II I 111 I 11 I'" I" \ r "~I ~ . \' I" 1'1 i"~1 :"" II I I. In general this also means longer bit life with a consequent reduction in overall drilling times.£.' ·'1' 1'1"~~ ' '1'" I.U W 1 · 3. As each polycrystalline cutter rotates on a different path from its neighbour. 1'1' i'" I. [1] Test Yourself 2 The following 3 sentences describe different drilling bits. polycrystalline diamond bits have greatly improved penetration rates whilst reducing operating weight on the bit. medium or hard formation. The drilling action of the bit is a shearing one. A tri-cone bit with short cutting inserts which are close together." II. The cutters are discs of synthetic diamond and are arranged in rows spiralling outwards and upwards from the bit centre to the outside which you can see in figure 12. Drilling fluid flows round the bit and past flow channels cut in the bit's body.' I l.'1' I V I" 1'1"1' 11'1'1' I. ~f. I. These bits consist of a hard faced steel body in which are inserted cutters. Figure 12 " • A I II :1.U I P I"~l I"" 1.'~. SCFl- {<. This means that the bit is more suitable for soft to medium non-brittle formations. A bit with three rollers where each roller has long widely spaced teeth cut into it."~ II' 1 II" 1 ~. 1. ~ I" i I" . !I.

I I Ji II .15 . These are under-reamers and hole openers.4.J .!. are placed immediately above a bit to enlarge or maintain the hole size. ). Both these tools perform similar functions but the cones of the under-reamer are mounted on collapsible arms.~ i J. 1" i JJ JJ I'J.ll . j. i I j. collapsible arms Figure 13 2. we should look at other special purpose drilling tools. I "I" I Jj I JJ I "I '.i 1"4/ j'~I '. I.i I' . These tools. i~'j I~i I~i j ~'i IJi 'Jj . When no fluid is being circulated the arms retract allowing the tool to pass through a smaller section of hole. when used. The arms are extended during the drilling operation by the pressure of drilling fluid circulating through the tool. ~ 'I ij "~' I IJ 'Ij ~ I I. ~.. hole-opener I have shown examples of these tools in figure 13. the cutting action is by rotating cones (as with the tri-cone bit) which protrude out from the central stem. Remember that hole size was discussed in Unit 1. " I.'I' IJ .I . 'I I I Jj j Ii Ii ~.1J I. j I ~.lJ "I '" :Jj ~ I -------Other Drilling Tools Before we leave the subject of bits. under-reamer In the tools illustrated.II .

The diameter varies but some frequently used pipe diameters are 4 '/2'" 5" and 5 1/z". These dimensions are always measured on the outside diameter. . The bottom hole assembly consists of a number of items placed just above the bit.1 . but first let's concentrate on the drill pipe.'" I . the box end always points up so that the pin can be stabbed into it.1 !.~l ('.1 I "I I '~ I I ".'" !~l .~I . extra lengths of drill pipe are added to the drill string as required. ' '~i I "1 1'1' I Ii" I' I' '~I j'~ 1. a conduit to convey drilling fluid to the bottom of the hole and a tool to run in and pullout the bottom hole assembly and bit. Figure 14 shows a length of drill pipe. . Individual joints of drill pipe are about 32 feet long on average. pin end ."1 I l"~ . and you will probably see the term tubing string. We will look at this shortly. The drill string is made up of lengths of drill pipe.16 * l~l l~j I~j I~I i~l . In Unit 6we will be looking at casing strings. ~ As the hole is deepened. I~' !."'~ I 1 ' 1"1 I I'" 1"1 I'~l ~.~. plus the bottom hole assembly. The threads themselves have a round profile with a pronounced taper for ease of connection and disconnection. I'" I. It is used as: * * a shaft to rotate the bit. In this context a string consists of a number of individual lengths of pipe joined together. I 1"" I . 2. Drill Pipe Drill pipe is tubular steel pipe with threaded end connections called tool joints.• The Drill String During this programme you will come across a number of strings. The drill string is one. box end :':":/:'. I I~I II I: . the other is female and is referred to as the box end. One end of the pipe is a male thread usually called the pin end.~. Figure 14 The tool joints are screw threads used to join two lengths of pipe together. When drill pipe is being connected.

supported on the hook of the travelling assembly.J I • t 1J.I I.j I Ii" : i J.I. ~ . i. . It is usual practice to have 10 to 30 percent excess drill collar weight over the amount applied to the bit. The maintenance of hole direction in a vertical hole relies on the pendulum effect of the drill string. 1 ' II II I. * provide the necessary weight to the bit hold the drill string in tension help maintain hole direction Let's consider these tasks.j I "i. I LJ It. I' l It ~J . drill string in tension whole of drill string in compression * * stabilizers various subs Drill collars Drill collars are basically heavier weight drill pipes. ! ~ 'I' II'. A string of drill collars has several tasks to perform. part of weight of drill collars on bit with lower portion of collars in compression Figure 15 2.17 . Ii J. In figure 15 I have shown how the drill collars keep the drill pipe in tension and provide weight to the bit for drilling..i. The upper portion plus the entire drill pipe section remains in tension. The number of drill collars required will depend on the weight on the bit necessary for optimum drilling rate under prevailing conditions. They have larger outside diameters (up to 10") and smaller inside diameters. In this way the lower portion of the collars is in compression with its weight resting on the bit. Having heavy drill collars increases the pendulum effect and strengthens the tendency for the drill string to remain vertical.I Ai !~ II ' J. ' !' ~J i'J~ I jJ . 1 I I I IJ I I IJ I /J . with the danger that the pipe might break (twist off). . These are: drill collars Having a string of heavy drill collars enables just part of the weight of the collars to be applied to the bit.J . This means the string would buckle and twist. This effect is the tendency of the drill string to hang in a vertical position due to the force of gravity. the whole drill string would be in compression. You may think the drill pipe can provide the weight on the bit and hold the string tension. jJ Jj I .I IJ II. .I IJ II~j I )J I JJ . II J. 11'\i I~J . Imagine a hole being drilled which is several thousand feet deep.i I ~ I Bottom Hole Assembly The bottom hole assembly consists of a number of pieces of equipment which are placed just above the bit. If the weight of the drill string was allowed to rest on the bit.e.

Jt' ett-Lt elL. I~J ! I ~ j~1 . This helps to prevent failure at the cross-over point. K CtT '):& '2<. These collars weigh 4 410 Ibs per joint. Joints of this pipe are placed between normal drill pipe and the drill collars.e lac L1. \ Cvl\. I~I ! I~I I I~I .x.bc. () l-L{ D.833 which means that only 83.I "~I II~I lilt! : I'~I I I I "~I I I~I II ' '~.~) W~iC?\vi "l.1 I" I~' I ! I II'~ I I'~ I .. 'I '. l\'~ Jl You will find the answer in Check Yourself 3 on page 2.(). I should mention heavier weight drill pipe. :-rVl Nt \LDL~lrea 1~ . J t."t\k.I't! 11'1 . DOD lh~- l~.{ lD k. fOCt.(X:C) 0 e.ucO Lh. ~ -.z ts ..[..(IJuv'-I­ :: SC.. " l! ! I' . . [!] Test Yourself 3 For a particular section of hole. Go.O cee llo. I1 I ' '~ 1 II " .{l{ll/ l''.V'll. I " I I.y f.'tI !I.. ~ . t- .V\l~i. <Ci.. Drill collars of 8" diameter with a 3" bore are being used.I!. I . 1"_' 11' I "~1 'I I"~ I 1'1 1 "1 r. They act as a cross-over between the rigid drill collars and the flexible drill pipe.3% of the actual collar weight is available as weight on bit..~ I Heavy Weight Drill Pipe (HWDP) Before we leave the subject of drill pipe. how many drill collars are required in this bottom hole assembly? tftctvC\tl Ccllcl(2.' I I !I I '1 '1 '1 l ~I ~I ':'~1 ""1 II~I 'I \.t. (}. If 25% excess drill collar weight over weight on bit is used.55. -L 'I r:r JCii1{p foe i /. c-lJt:((~* Of . the optimum weight on bit should be 50 000 Ibs.ctD Ih(' .. The drilling fluid in the hole has a buoyancy factor of 0.

1 I i". I.*j ~'I' I. They are located between the collars and also help to maintain a straight hole by keeping the collars centralized.l I I ~. I " I " ... The fins may be aluminium or rubber but more often are steel with tungsten carbide inserts on the edge.iJ 'I I.II I..I I I' . i. Subs Subs in the drilling industry.J I ..~ . . the word sub refers to any short length of pipe. by a scraping action. spiral ribs Shock sub- •• •• . I I' I I !~J4j '. I.. I Jj . one with straight ribs and one with spiral ribs.4' ". So the bottom hole assembly is the current arrangement of tools incorporated into the collar section of the drill string. It connects the bit to the drill collars and ensures that the collars and drill pipe are always run with the pin end facing down.19 . ..~ I i. 'I I' I' J" I. Bit sub - this is a short sub with a box on each end.~i.~I I~. I. and possibly other specialised drilling tools. '1i:j J.. "IJ '.0 .~i~'~' I I I i I I ".I. Crossover subs . ~ I l. ".' IJ . Also. straight ribs a shock sub may be placed just above the bit. It has a steel spring or rubber packing to absorb the impact of the bit bouncing on hard formation . ~. Figure 16 shows two stabilizers. •• •• •• •• •• . ~t' ~ Stabilizers Stabilizers are short lengths of pipe with fins or ribs which are the same size across as the bit diameter or slightly less. i i I I I~J IJ" ! ~j . ). Figure 16 2..~i '~..1 I" .J. ! ~ ~j4j ! J. collar and so on which has a specific function. they maintain a full hole diameter.are designed with different threaded ends to enable different sizes or types of drill pipe or collar to be connected together. It may consist of any arrangement of the items mentioned above.

it has a pin connection at each end. " I I'~ 1'1' I'll 1'10 I I I. Irl~ I j I' I I i'i~ I 'I III' I I I I ! I Illn I IIUI~ I I' I ! I. Ii I 'Ill I I I !. . IIII~ I .'~ "i~.1 I ~. True False 1. i '~ ~ I '~ . / 1 I I ".hole direction in a vertical hole.. Crossover subs are used to connect the bit to the drill pipe. I I . Stabilizers help maintain the. . A bit sub is used to connect the drill bit to the drill collars. 'i! 1 ''1' I'~I I I I I'" 1'1"I I I I "~I I "'1 I! 'l'~. D 3.56. • I ~ I IIIU II I I 'fl II I I'~ I .'~ I ~ I1 I1II I I'i~ I I I I. lJ D ~ 4. D c:J ~ 2. Tick which of these statements are true or false. rn You will find the answer in Check Yourself 4 on page 2. Drill collars allow all the weight of the drill string to be applied to the bit.~ I [!] Test Yourself 4 The following statements relate to components in a bottom hole assembly. II~I I Iii I.

ll.t ! II.)~ i. I ' I l .21 --- .lj.. In fact. In a conventional system the rotating mechanism consists of the following components: kelly and kelly bushing * * swivel rotary table and master bushing kelly Kelly and Kelly Bushing During normal drilling operations. a small sub called the saver sub Is placed between the drill pipe and the kelly.I j .'" u u R I. ! . I II. i.: ~ (I ~ ~1"'l:. Look now at figure 17 which shows a kelly with its kelly bushing attached.lJ.:J I J.lj:l~-1 ~ The Rotating Mechanism This is the last sub-section in our rotating system.lj.'. This helps to prevent wear on the threads of the kelly which is screwed on and off more than any other joint in the whole string. ! II " J ~ ~l ~ .IJ '.IJ Ii :.l~.J : i.lJ.1 . i ! " . At each end the kelly has a round shape of the same diameter as the tool joint of the drill pipe or saver sub. You will see wily this is so in Unit 3.lj.J . I " !. " Jj I I .IJ '~ . kelly bushing Figure 17 2. the top of the drill string screws into a square or hexagonal sectioned pipe called the kelly.j . II I.~ r I . The kelly is a hollow forged steel rod approximately 40 feet in length. It's outer cross section is either square or hexagonal in shape over the greater part of it's length.

22 ill 1'" I I I. figure 18 2. 1"\. I . The pressure of the fluid at this point can be very high. from the hook of the travelling block.I '''U II "1'1 Ii II '''W I "II~ I :"'III "I~ I ''''U I ' II ' I II I " "'I~ I ' '1'111 1 1 '''~. The inlet is referred to as the gooseneck because of its shape. The hook does not rotate but the kelly does. This means that very heavy duty bearings are incorporated into its body.I I I ' ' "'1:1 I ! 'I~l 'I'. The swivel has to be capable of supporting the total weight of the drill string whilst the lower part rotates. is the kelly bushing. Rollers are fitted to ensure that the kelly can move freely through the bushing even when the bushing is turning. In the next section of this unit we will be looking at the drilling fluid circulating system. Figure 18 shows a swivel. For now we will just look at the way the rotary table turns the kelly.~ Connected to the kelly but free to slide up and down over its whole length. At the top of the kelly is fitted a valve called a kelly cock. or bail. 1'1 • I I I In . This piece of equipment has an internal profile the same as the outside of the kelly. We will look further at this item in the final section of this unit. This can be closed to prevent any backflow of drilling fluid up the drill string. The bottom of the kelly bushing has four drive pins or a square section which locate in corresponding holes in the rotary table bushing. The rotary table has two main functions: * to rotate the kelly and hence the drill string to support the weight of the drill string when it is not supported by the hoisting system The Swivel The kelly assembly is permanently attached to a swivel. Rotary Table and Master Bushing These are the final items in our rotating mechanism. We will come back to the rotary table shortly. * The second function we will be covering in detail when we look at drilling operations in the next unit.1' II ! 11' I I 1'1' ir' ''I I'P 1 I II' I ' 'Il I I I II I I 'II 11' I ' 1 1 11 I.n n I I . so the swivel has high pressure seals built into it. During drilling operations the swivel is suspended by a handle. You will see that the fluid enters the drill string through the swivel. "'I r "~I I . The swivel therefore has two sections. one rotating and one non-rotating. I 'I H I .

' " JJ I J . Ii I: .~J ~. It is into the master bushing that the drive pins of the kelly bushing fit.I i . "..1~ '. Ii.'" j 'I ~.' I. holes for drive pins of~ kelly bushing -- rotary table Figure 19 2. 1. This one is called the-master bushing. I. r J 'I . older units may be rotated by a drive mechanism consisting of a drive sprocket and chain. So.. Ii. It is capable of being rotated from an electric motor connected to the rotary table by a shaft. 'J~ 1. I. the master bushing transmits the rotary motion to the kelly bushing which in turn spins the kelly and drill string. The drive sprocket is part of the drawworks. JJ I 'I Jj ~ Rotary Table The table itself consists basically of a disc which is located in the middle of the drilling rig floor.j'.~.1 1 I ! 'jj I '. when the rotary table is spun. master bushing Alternatively. Figure 19 shows the rotary table and master bushing.~ ~..' I ! I"~. I .23 .~I i 'II. I' I lj j~ Ij '. .II ! '11 'l~ I ~' '~I '~I 'I' I f~ ~ 4. It also shows the relationship between them and the kelly.1.' I " .J "J . "'. Master Bushing In the centre of the rotary table is a hole which accommodates a further bushing.

'iU I I II!' I I I illli! Illn I I I 11'f' I. I have done the first one for you. drill string gooseneck . drill bit . •" I I n .'I I I I I'lli I I liP In I I 'll 1'1 . I I. swivel bail .. I"fl ' .-..-~_.. I I I I 'II II I'll I IV III I II 11 ..~ [] Test Yourself 5 Match the items on the left with the correct section of the rotating system on the right by drawing connecting lines... I I 'fj I \' ' :'11 Iii i I I 'If. t I I I I I I U . I I~ . . lin I III II ii' IIiU j.56. 'I I 'I ~ ·'I~ .1 jIII~ I ' III! I I I 'I j'( II Iii' Ili~ ~ .. You will find the answer in Check Yourself 5 on page 2.­ master bushing .-. stabilizer . I II I "I~ . tri-cone roller drill collar synthetic diamond insert kelly bushing +----­ +--__ +----~ .

I' I.) I ~. The system provides the rotating power of the rotary table up in the derrick.25 .. it rotates the-whole drill string. although their use is not limited to this application.I.J Iii "\ ") Ii jJ "j iiiJ I. when drilling fluid is being circulated.J 'I'! 'IJ '\ i I . making a total length of ± 100 feet. J. jl j ~j !. "J I. Using a top drive unit enables drilling to be carried out using stands of drill pipe. 2.~ I . A drive shaft is connected from the motor to the bit so. ! II II I. ""J i. We can do that now. kelly bushing and rotary table are by far the most common method used to turn the drill bit.J. !J~ I. I I . two other systems are sometimes used.1 11 ~ I II Ijl'l r'.j' ~ Other Types Of Rotating Mechanism At the start of this section I said that we would look at some alternative rotating mechanisms. This reduces the number of connections to be made during drilling.. the motor or turbine is rotated and so is the bit. . Unlike the downhole motor however.~ i I: I ~ i I j' " I . We will be looking at directional drilling in Unit 8 where I will go a little deeper into the operation of the downhole motor and turbine. I H u~. . A stand consists of three joints of pipe connected together.I. Drilling fluid being pumped down the drill string provides the energy to drive the motor or turbine. . downhole motors and turbines top drive systems * 'Downhole Motors and Downhole Turbines These are tools which allow the drill bit to be rotated without rotating the whole drill string.j" JI \ I!I I.jJ. kelly and kelly bushing. I J. It turns the drill pipe from an electric motor assembly which is connected to the rig's conventional swivel. Top Drive System This is used instead of the rotary table. Although the kelly. These are: * These tools are used extensively in directional drilling operations.1/. . I.. !.

whiIC h t ransrnits t he rotary motion tot h .. ~l I.. .· ..v. -.......~.. bail gooseneck drill collars top drive tri-cone roller bits kelly bushing under reamers drill string You will find the answer in Check Yourself 6 on page 2. II • ...\.. :..:.l. . . . . II 2020 11. d [ .. Via the (2..~!.57....'l' t I '1' I' II I I I I " Iii .'..>... .. {.. ..... In a convl3nt rona I rota t'Ing mec hani arusm t he rotary tabl e t urns t h e :..·_----------------­ ~ [1] Test Yourself 6 (frill U(iiNc.' •• .. Read through the following sentences and fill in the missing words from the list below. A rotating system has tree main su bsystems. I 1111 I'" I "' I II: I. I' Inan' Istnng. (( · i.. e Dnlling flUid enters the dnll stnng Choose the missing words from: kelly bit sub stabilizers ..~~ .. So.. \) f\~tr I.) r.:.. · h ..III"!:' (( J. h drill It...\. ....C ..::.1. '11 III III '1 I'1 ' " 'll '. tensi In ension and main t atn weiq t on b' It... : \0\-('1" : In the swivel. . Hi. It a i' ('./\ :c.-:.. diamond bits and polycrystalline diamond bits. ". ten bl t he There are a number of different drill bit designs available such as drag bits... () II (. I' ' Ii " ' ... ( II( )..'> . I II .. ~ "If' '.. . and t he rotating mec h ' arusrn...I! . ioh are use d to h0 Id t he stri nng . I II..'.. ..' (\(.' .. an d h i ' a e openers are sometimes pIace d abave a bi to en Iarge or maintain a he size. ..: . II I ~I I -...: and from there to the drill stnng and biIt......'.

-1. In the next section we will move on to the circulating system and you will see how drilling fluids are pumped and conditioned. 2. j~~ IJ. At the end of the section we had a brief look at a couple of alternative methods of rotating the bit. We looked at the drill string next and I explained the function and construction of drill pipe and the components of the bottom hole assembly.41 ~ I ~ Summary In this section we have been looking at the equipment used to actually drill a hole.J "I ~J i I :Ji II 'l. We looked at the way this system operates to transmit a rotary motion from the rotary table through to the drill bit. IJ.I I JJ ! ..J I'! :. from a simple drag bit to sophisticated polycrystalline diamond bits.I I I JJ I I IJl In J. I pointed out that there are a number of ways of turning a bit but the most common system utilised a swivel. Finally.:J ' II~J '11:.. which is called the drill bit.J I. I " lL. must be capable of making hole in a variety of different rocks. . To do this. bushing and rotary table. kelly. several types of bit are available. :. ~ u.j j. I'JJ I' :. '1" I .I J. . .. This consisted of a cutting tool.j. I J. we considered the rotating mechanism.r .I J~ t • j.. equipment to apply weight to the tool and equipment to rotate the tool. i". II ~_ . You saw that the cutting tool.J.27 .1. 1 .1 I . "J ~ I 1'1 "I". !. ~. I I. I IJ .J J I J'.I" 'I .

In this section we will look at the equipment used to pump the mud and condition it at the surface. 1 I rr r.The Circulating System On a number of occasions already. an annular space is left around the drill string as drilling progresses. In other words the circulating system: * * mud pits mud pumps standpipe and rotary hose swivel shale shaker mud conditioning equipment * * * * Figure 20 on the next page shows the complete circulating system.'I'~ . '1 I:~ i 'I I ji 'I ~ I 1 . I have mentioned the term drilling fluid. 'I" I I ~.1 rr 1 I ~. Nowadays much more is expected of this fluid as you will see in Unit 4. This term in fact covers a range of liquids (and sometimes gases) which perform a number of functions during the drilling operation. At the surface.l I! I '~l I 1 1 '1 1 III I '~' ~"ill ~ I I'! I 'Iiil ~ . I I I I 'II "f! III I 1:'1 11 rill Illi~ r II IfI ". . . the primary function of the drilling fluid was to clean. I I I 11 il' 1 11'1 ~ '1 ~ I . mud is continuously pumped down through the drill string. III . cool and lubricate the bit and to carry cuttings from the hole. . and out of the jet nozzles in the bit. When drilling is in progress. ~.Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment • I have listed below the individual components of the circulating system: ~ Section 3 . The drilling fluid is more commonly called drilling mud or simply mud and I will use this term during the rest of the section. I 1 'I ' '. The mud returns to the surface through this annulus carrying with it the cuttings from the bottom of the hole."~I III! ~ . The mud is further cleaned as necessary and then pumped back down the hole again. the cuttings are sieved from the mud. lilrl II 'I 'I 11'!tl . Since the diameter of the bit is larger than that of the drill string. Initially. without saying much more about it.

This is used to add chemicals to the mud when its weight and consistency needs to be changed.I " I I l' '~. i. "j"~1 'I ~ I stand pipe .I . 1.. and return it up the annulus to the settling pit.29 .J ".r-. The end tank from which the pumps take their suction is known as the active pit.suction line Mud Pumps At the heart of the circulating system are the mud pumps..1 I I J I. The valves are opened periodically to dump the accumulated solids. A mud mixing hopper is located by the active pit. The underside of this tank is usually sloped. This is known as the settling pit or sand trap. Between the active pit and the settling pit are other tanks in which mud is stored and conditioned.. to the bit. I~. ..J II I I :'~ 11)1' 'I IJ~ j '. Figure 20 return flow line 2. Iii. J.J--------------------------------------­ I . gravitate towards valves.:1' I! I.' I1'~ I~.I I~ 1 j ~ .swivel Mud Pits mud pumps rotary hose I kelly mud mixing hopper \ These are simply a series of interconnected tanks in which the mud is initially prepared and stored.j' ")I 'I" IIJ 'i' I. --. 'I j 1).jt i11 I !. Their function is to circulate the mud under pressure from the active pit.1 I II. '. We will look at the conditioning equipment shortly. This means that any solid particles which settle to the bottom.1 '". through the drill string. I~" I~".. . i ~. 1 1 . j ~I Ij. At the other end of the line of tanks is the pit which receives the mud as it flows from the hole.1 L Ij ! i..l .:J ~ 'i l'J "".

because it is double acting. '. r: • t :." ••• '­ :~ :. A triplex pump has three cylinders with each cylinder having only one suction and one discharge valve...I' f '1 I.1 suction r:. Af?-.~ I!.• " ~: OJ. " . The pumps are either: * duplex. double-acting or * triplex. f: t A duplex pump has two cylinders.. n . As the piston moves through the cylinder it is discharging mud in front at the same time as mud is filling the cylinder behind..~ I action of a double acting pump discharge discharge There are usually two pumps on a drilling rig.r~ ..1 I'. ' :fi I ! I 1 1I I '1..~.: '. I I 111'1 "I\'~ ifI I' I I 'I I I I I I~I'I ! .. action of a single acting pump discharge . ~" I. .. I ' i'. . . i " .• '_".I I : "I~I j I. . They are always of the positive displacement type. Each cylinder has two suction and two discharge valves. In other words plunger pumps rather like a bicycle pump.i' '.il t .: .:. .::. Figure 21 shows the pump action for each type.. . I" I '~./'"' t Figure 21 '~1 l'~ I I"~ I ~ 1111 I .1 il l'ill. Iii I ~ I 11 1 I ~! \ '11 I'~I I'll "" ... .'.. single-acting suction suction +={: Ao. In a duplex pump however. For one complete cycle of each piston a triplex pump discharges one cylinder full of mud. '. -... The cylinder is filled as the piston moves back and is discharged as the piston moves forward.[1 I .".! f IIli.~ .' . . ' I I II !I II! 11"'11' j . ~ "'.. I ~j I I I '\j I I I .. I'~ :. . two cylinder volumes are discharged for every cycle of each piston.

standpipe and rotary hose in the circulating system.. The pumps discharge mud to a manifold. ! d !' I' d I' .31 . On its return journey from the bottom of the hole. If you look back to figure 20...4 . Shale Shaker Before looking at this item. I) I'~ I'. 2. From the top of the standpipe the mud is passed to the swivel. The rotary hose provides this flexible link. Mud returning from the hole flows through a pipe and passes over the screen. II I I 1.1 "i ". During normal drilling operations the swivel will be slowly moving down while the standpipe is of course stationary.J I.. In my list of the components of the circulating system the swivel came next.1 ~ Standpipe and Rotary Hose After leaving the pumps the mud is piped to the gooseneck of the swivel. From there it is going to return to the surface via the annulus and flow into the settling pit.(I i ~I I' Id Id III "tl ! 1.I. wire mesh screen which is made to vibrate. we will move on to the following component.J ""~ J I i J J I. This means that the connection between the two must be flexible. It consists of a sloping. These must be removed in special desanders or desilters.j ''''~ 'l'"'~ "II i IJ j! '''~ II I "J I ".. as I have already described the swivel as part of the rotating mechanism.1. The extension of the piping in the derrick consists of a vertical pipe firmly clamped to the derrick.1 ! ~. the hollow drill pipe and collars and out through the jet nozzles in the bit. However. It is travelling down through the hollow kelly. the mud will be carrying rock particles cut by the bit. an assembly of pipes and valves which permits isolation of pumps for maintenance and repair. This pipework must be capable of handling large volumes of mud under high pressure but keep pressure losses to a minimum. these cuttings must be removed by the shale shaker. The pipe is known as the standpipe.J .4 l i. Before the mud can be pumped back down the hole. the shale shaker. Figure 22 The shale shaker which is shown in figure 22 is mounted above and at the rear end of the settling pit. you can see the relationship between the pumps. "1'1 ".! d '" i il .:.Jl !... 'I'J'j"i "J "J ".. Fine particles of sand and silt however will pass through the shale shaker. think again about the path of the mud after the swivel. JJ I. We will look at some of this equipment now in the final part of this circulating system section.• I i 'I I. the standpipe and the rotary hose. The liquid mud falls through the screen and into the settling tank. Larger particles are trapped on the screen from where they are shaken to the bottom edge to be collected for disposal. The connecting pipework consists of high pressure piping from the pump.

The liquid moves inwards and upwards as a spiralling vortex. If you look at figure 23 you will see this action illustrated. ~I . may have to be removed.e.~ I'. .~ Mud Conditioning Equipment The properties of the mud must be very carefully controlled in order that it can do its job properly.1 I I I d I II1 I I I 11 1 1 11 i V I I 'II '~ .1 I. . whilst' the liquid overflows from the top. Mud is pumped into the hydrocyclone via a tangentially fitted inlet. Unwanted substances such as sand and silt.'i'"1 11 1 I. Hydrocyclones are used as desanders and desilters. 11 I. ~I j I I' U ·iB I I II'. This causes the mud to whirl round the cone shaped vessel creating high centrifugal forces. Chemicals may be added as we have seen already. I ' I d i I I I iiI i I U "i. II !fl' n . t n ~ I~I' I solids outlet Figure 23 "1111 . i. I. The solids. . or sometimes gas."\1'1 • I'' I l' II I. . " I'. I I' I "11(1 \. sand or silt are discharged from the variable opening at the bottom of the unit.'I I I I 1'1 I I I . I . The suspended solids are driven towards the wall of the hydrocyclone and downwards in an accelerating spiral.

Figure 24 shows one of these units.: 11 I L I ~ Another type of separation unit used for mud conditioning is the centrifuge. inlet ~ ~ clay Iiquid~~~ discharge . " I'i I' .I. ~. I d II .. "I l.~ coarse solid discharge Figure 24 2. Inside is a screw conveyor which moves the coarse particles towards the discharge.01 .1.:1' I I.33 . 'I". .j I. Ii. j' I': H " '". high pressure low volume gas accumulations may be encountered whilst drilling.I! I . .'.:.1 ~. This gas can enter the mud causing it to become gas cut..I I' I.~ i I' : .~ .. ~~ .~ I . " I : II..I i. I I" . I I j" .J'~ "I"" ..'j . . . I . I~ .I' ~ t t II oJ . '. '.. t LI I.'~ 1111. I. It consists of a rotating cone shaped drum which spins at a high speed.J I .4 I) I. This is used for salvaging materials which are to be kept in the mud system.'~ 'I : . . " . From time to time. " 1.

Two types of degasser units are provided to separate gas from drilling mud.

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Test Yourself 7

mud gas separators vacuum degassers

Think of two possible problems which may result from the mud becoming gas cut.

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The first of these units usually consists of a vertical vessel through which the gas cut mud can be circulated. Gas is released from the mud in the separator and is led away to be disposed of through a flare. The gas free mud can then be returned to the pits. This type of unit is suitable for handling high pressure gas and mud which flows from a well when a kick takes place.

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Vacuum degassers are more commonly used to separate entrained gas. This can be seen as foam bubbles on top of the mud in the pits.

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This type of degasser is a horizontal barrel which is located above a mud tank from which it takes the mud. The mud enters the vessel and overflows from a tray down a pair of inclined plates. A vacuum is created in the vessel which helps to release gas from the mud. The gas is withdrawn by the vacuum pump and vented to a safe place. The conditioned mud flows from the bottom of the degasser to be returned to the mud pits. If you look at figure 25 you will see how the mud flows through one of these units.

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Test Yourself 8

When drilling mud is being circulated it is taken from the active tank or pit and finally returns to the tank. In between, the mud passes a series of pieces of equipment. Number the following items in their correct sequence in the circulating path. I have done the first one for you. Piece of Equipment Sequence

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l" I. the shale shaker.~ ~. In the next section we will look at the system which provides the power necessary to operate the equipment.. Finally.. After cuttings have been removed at the shaker. It returns to the surface up the annulus where it flows over a vibrating screen. the mud flows back into the active pit to be picked up by the pumps once more.. :4 I' :.i I .. In the three sections we have looked at up to now we have covered the major items of equipment used to drill a hole.1 j 1 1 Id " i: *1 II Iil 1 llf . H I 4. etc.. You saw that the individual components of the system consisted of: * mud pits mud pumps * * standpipe and rotary hose swivel shale shaker * mud conditioning equipment 2.d I' "II I 'II ~ .:~ .1 j '.:. 'i II 1 'I : IIi .III II .37 .. !I~ II I 'J Ij II " 'I . it . silt and gas. / ~ I ~ Summary I explained that the pumps take the mud from the pits and pass it to the swivel via the standpipe and rotary hose..~ "'~ I II II I j' III' III~ 'I : .11 i'l .J "I' 'I' :.11 • II.I I Illi.t I I' 1. drill pipe and collars and jets out through nozzles in the bit. In this section we have concentrated on the equipment used to circulate drilling fluid (mud) through the drill string and back to the surface. mud conditioning equipment is used to remove sand... I I .*1 "..1 I JI I)I 1'1 I I I 1 I 'l' 1.. The mud flows down through the hollow kelly.

lil i' t !. "I ~ . air compressors and so on. we are looking at a considerable power demand. large volumes of mud at high pressures have to be pumped and the whole drill string has to be turned. You will find the answer in Check Yourself 9 on page 2. II~ I! III~III I I ~. The workings of different types of engines and electrical power generators are also beyond the scope of this unit. \ ~ * ~ ~'\ S * ) :v' !~ I . I I'll i'\ll ' ! ~. I II . I I . On a jack-up rig.I "I I I "11111' il(II' \ ""II' ' j"I. []] /i Test Yourself 9 Think about the systems we have covered. il~f I"fI I I r I • . I I i I. " • i.38 I I : fl !I I "I'I \I I I I lip I. During drilling. mud conditioning equipment. On a semi-submersible rig power is required for the ballasting system. I "1111 ' III~ I' II I. etc. 2. such as the shale shaker. . and write down the three major components that would require some kind of driving mechanism. I I" "111'11 I I' . ! II~ I' I' I I II!~ I' I I""~ I I. I I . In addition to that required for the operations. . Ii II. 'V : ~ I ql I I I I "11 I I !. During this section we will look at power requirements and types of power systems. In this section we are going to restrict ourselves to a discussion of the actual rig power requirements. electrical power is needed for heating and ventilation. We will just look at the subject in fairly general terms.58. III~ II f I I. This requires a great deal of power but power is also required for other machinery and equipment of the rig. power is required for operating the jacking equipment.The Power System A number of the items of drilling equipment which we have looked at up to now require to be driven in some way. cooking.Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment ~ I Section 4 . great weights have to be lifted. Altogether.

rotary table and mud pumps.. i . diesel engines have become more popular as drilling engines and offshore these are almost invariably used. are called S. 'Ill' ~ I Iii Ii' I "I ". j' I.:.C. I.s which is short for Silicon Controlled Rectifiers. system is more efficient. It uses standard machines to generate alternating current which is then fed into a common distribution system. Steam was succeeded by internal combustion engines using natural gas or Iiquified petroleum gas as fuel.. motors. however.C. the generation. Some older electric rigs use a complete D.P.I' '" J '~'. 'II~ I "J I I "lId "'~ i .lD. Most offshore rigs. power is then drawn from this distribution system.C. mud pumps 1 500 H. .~ I' "'~ \'.R. I'. motors are used rather than alternating current (A. To give you an idea of what this means.P. The rig components can be driven directly from these engines using chains or belts to transmit power. input would be capable of lifting a load of over one million pounds with 10 line suspension. system. More recently. One drawback of this system is that for control purposes each motor has to be powered by its own generator. .C. But how much? On a large offshore rig the total requirement for the three components could be easily 4 500 H..!". electricity powering the motors.C. * I have lumped together the drawworks and rotary table because they are usually driven from the same power source. 'il'l !l. 2.. to D. . Therefore.P. '. distribution and use of electricity is a vast subject and is beyond the scope of this programme.C.~' . For now. .". a number of different systems have been used over the years and this is what we will look at now. 1 :. with the D.C. etc.. (Horse Power). use a combination of diesel engines.'. generators and electric motors to drive the drawworks." ! j j ~ Power Requirements Thinking again about the drawworks.. steam power was used exclusively. This means that the prime movers (the diesel engines) drive D. ~". I Jj .C. A. This makes it necessary to run as many generators as the maximum number of motors running at anyone time. i ~I !4j 4j 1 14'~ l. To provide this power. I don't intend to try to go any deeper into the power systems on a rig in this unit. generators. It is hardly ever found these days and we can forget about it in this unit. This is further divided up between the components as follows: " Power Systems In the early days of rotary drilling..1 I I I I i.~~ I. j' II ". On an electric rig. mud pumps. I . drawworks and rotary 3 000 H.'.C.C. An A.) motors because it is not practical to control the speed of A. It has to be converted to controlled direct current for use with conventional D.j I. D.39 . I". etc are driven by direct current (D. the drawworks.C. "~ I . As I pointed out earlier. a drawworks with a 3 000 H.P.J I. 'I ' I '".. The devices which convert A.C.~ !.) electric motors.C. I have already said that they need a lot of power. motors. let us concentrate on these so-called diesel/electric systems.C.

..1'11 1 ~ \"'d I'I"'~ 'I . II ~ 1. ! \1 II ' U . ' I ' pI.H. . I \ .'Ii I I ._------_.."~ I IIII~II I I 1.I I~II II I. .' I. IP II. You have also seen that this power requirement can be met in a number of ways but most common these days is the diesel/electric system.1 I' I I~ I I~I I I~ . ! !i Ill."~II . I I 'Ii ill 1'111111111'\11 'I Ii ' I " i' II'" . . I 1i III " .U II I. In. . ? 40 "\'11' I ~11111 !.1111 .-----------------"-~=-------. 1 "\f I._--------­ ~ cg.IH 'I ! ! ' I I' . I.1 1 . Summary In this very brief section you have seen that modern drilling rigs require a great deal of power to drive the various components.

~ t.. I. the blowout prevention system.~ .e. II. I II'" . I"~ I'J I.'::" \-j~. Before we talk about the blowout prevention system we should be clear about what a blowout really is.' \-. II II~ I . If. Or.. "1" II . Normally. ..~ I . 1" !tj I. gas or other well fluids to the atmosphere.. a kick.~ I.I I' ". In Unit 7 we will be looking much more closely at the subject of pressure control in a well. Blowout Prevention The escaping fluids could flow up the annulus when drill pipe is in the hole. .. the pressure being exerted by the column of drilling fluids is sufficient to contain the formation fluid pressures. however. I.59. e You will find the answer in Check Yourself 10 on page 2. . the risk of a blowout is ever present during drilling operations. !I.\ /'f v' i" I'. An influx of formation fluids is called in drillers' terms. . _J 2. f r. as being an uncontrolled escape of oil.i)i\. The Blowout Prevention (BOP) System Most people associated with the oil industry have heard the term blowout. ~'j ~ I I Ij II j Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment Section 5 . '* V .J I~ i.:. A drill crew must always be ready to take steps to combat the threat of such a hazard. if the drill string is out of the hole then the fluids could simply flow through the open hole.f" '\. pressure is being exerted by fluids in the rock formations through which a drill bit makes a hole.I'i '.. ~ r j: .. 'i " II. It is when a kick gets out of control that a blowout occurs. It occurs when fluids under pressure are released during the drilling operation and which the various containment systems fail to check. these fluids will enter the well bore. When the flow has been shut off. j.1 1/. the well must be made ready to allow drilling operations to continue. The blowout prevention system must be capable of making the well safe under any circumstances. 'I '.. ii. [] * (1\0\( Test Yourself 10 What would you say were the three main functions of the BOP system. However. Blowouts We could define a blowout. This usually means releasing any fluids which have entered the well bore and pumping in new mud. a potential blowout.~ j' I.. . (}.~ . Although blowouts do happen from time to time.~ '. . As you will see in later units.41 . I i~-h) ~'. " I" ."1 "1" . '. It conjures up pictures of a drilling rig with a column of oil shooting high above the derrick. for any reason the pressure of the drilling fluid column drops below that of the formation fluids. they are relatively rare occurrences.. i.. In this section I just want to describe the equipment used to contain and bring under control.

/ ~. II I' I' ! I I I1 I II I 11 . _ oJ ram type In this section I will take you through each of these sub-systems.:.~ I Sub-Systems The system which performs these functions can be split into three sub-systems which are the: The valves themselves are known as blowout preventers or simply BOPs. In figure 26 I have illustrated just-one of the many possible BOP stack arrangements Starting at the bottom you will see a casing head. The stack is positioned beneath the rig floor directly under the rotary table.111' j ! I' . I bell nipple * * * blowout preventer (BOP) stack BOP operating system choke and kill equipment annular type BOP ) \.I . . I I I 'I 'I II I' 'II i II I 11 I'l i i "'~ I i'~ i I iliiI I' 'iI I'II~ I I'll 1 '~ . etc. Since it must be capable of withstanding very high pressures it must have a very secure base.\ I I . You will see a typical equipment layout. You will come across this again in Unit 5. there are differences in layout.I I I' "I~II II . ~. I ~. I I"'~ r II I I . Since a blowout could threaten at any time during the drilling operation no one BOP could cope with every situation. m Figure 26 i'. It is designed to close the top of a well and seal in any undesirable high pressures should a blowout threaten during drilling operations. 1111~ I II l. BOP J t oJ ram type BOP _ _ _ _ drilling spool J ~ oJ ram type BOP casing head The Blowout Preventer Stack The BOP stack can be described as an assembly of valves and fittings. You will see in Unit 5 that one of the casing strings provides this foundation.'1111 I . The casing head itself is attached to the top of a string of pipe called the surface casing. For the time being. li~i I'I. II. We will cover this in Unit 6 when we look at Floating Drilling in more detail. The actual number of preventers and their arrangement depends on the degree of protection considered necessary. i'~..I I . I will use this abbreviation during the rest of this unit. 'I ' "ii I'I~ I ! I 'I . it is sufficient to say that the bottom item in the stack is bolted securely to a base unit. I ' I '~Il 1 I '1'11.~ I / I "1\11 I . Once again let me emphasise that we will be looking at equipment that you are likely to see on a land based rig or fixed offshore platform type rig. I I'II~. j" I I II:' 'I I i "111' I I'~II '. how it is constructed and how it operates.lli. Although a BOP system on a floater performs exactly the same function. The stack therefore is built up of a variety of BOPs each of which has a specific function. This is the base unit on which the first BOP in the stack is mounted.

and * Annular Type BOPs. i: ... This forms a pressure tight seal around drill pipe in the hole and shuts off the annulus. You will notice that they are of different types. pipe rams * Ram Type BOPs..~ . 'I' !Jj I•• I" IJJ IJJ I J• III I . . They have a semi-circular cut out in the face of each ram and sealing rubbers built into these faces. which I will discuss later.. The rams are connected via piston rods to pistons acting in hydraulic cylinders. starting with the ram types. II I . .. In this position a vertical bore exists through which the drilling equipment can pass.I.~ ".I' .~ . Figure 27 shows an outline bird's eye view of a pipe ram type BOP and indicates its operating principle. I .~ .• I.'1 I II 'II • I' 'Ii .1" I' III I '" I"j j 't. Let's look at each of these units. These are: The rams themselves are described as either: * or * pipe rams blind rams shear rams or * Pipe rams are intended to close the top of the hole when drill pipe is in the well.~ I j ""I I '. II~ . all the other items are BOPs. the rams are pushed towards each other. '1 "I I.I i ~ Types of BOP Apart from the drilling spool and bell nipple. I .~ i . I' :~ Ii 'I . '.f '. This makes the well safe.' I I " 1"'. When hydraulic pressure is applied to the pistons. When a pipe ram is operated the ram faces are pressed against each other. piston rod drill pipe Figure 27 2.43 . When these rams are retracted into the body cavity the BOP is open. Ram Type BOPs Ram type BOPs consist of a body which houses a pair of rams.1 .1 !.

. \~\~\ t'.. the blind and shear action is combined in one BOP which is then called a blind/shear ram BOP. I I ! I I I! I I. I I I'illll~ II I . Blind rams have no cutout in the faces. ~) F Shear Rams o \ ".11111 I ! I!I~11 li~ I '~ I III'. These units are called shear rams. When they are operated a seal is made between the two ram faces and closes off the open hole. I . ~ You will find the answer in Check Yourself 11 on page 2.11111!I. .\ t. '\ " I (t ! ~ '. Often. .'.59. leaving a hole through the middle.. Blind rams can protect the well in this situation.~ : I ~ '1IIilili . J)1t b\ ~-f~ '''t:' {" '.. Suggest a solution to the problem. ~ I l I" "'ll I ! ' 'III'~ III.• Blind Rams ~ [] )( ct i' tf . '11111 rr ~ I"i\ r l"~.n I' "'" ('or' Co ~: f s- I.l l i f II I I I ~ .'1 I"" I I "~ l 'H I I . (i r: . ~ 'I.. .lI"' lill'l .~ i \1I1~ I I'!ll i '~ I 1.(V t F e 1) ri t{{ r l'C\ 1/\1 r <.. . '".'" .~ .~. .. I: i eif " ~. Some BOPs are fitted with rams which are capable of cutting the drill pipe and making a seal. They would of course only be used in a dire emergency.i\ I II I I1 1 I'. Test Yourself 11 Supposing though there is no drill pipe in the hole at all... Can you think of a potential problem which may occur if there is only one set of pipe ram BOPs in a stack. It would be pointless to close a pair of pipe rams. I Ilil j . it ~.Ilil:1 il"III I I I lllii~i I ' lillill ' j I I..

J I II. II~".. . ~. .I j i :"'~ I' I' " :". II IJ I ~ I -. .I 4. .'I . Ill! I I ".ft .I I' ' : . . jj I IJ 'I'J .:~ ''I. piston rod piston sealing rubbers BOP body Figure 28 2. I'.". I .. v_.45 . i'" I4. II IH . Take a look at this now and satisfy yourself that you can work out how the unit operates.. Your tutor will be able to help you. . " 'i ': 'I.lj ij~ I I"Il I4. .1 I'(~ I(.' II lit" I:.. ._ _ ~ Activity Figure 28 shows a more detailed drawing of a ram type BOP.'J I'll iL~ 1I1~ 'i ". .. if necessary.i . " .I' 'I " . 'j I I..I I~ I'~"I I.(.

piston with internal taper hydraulic pressure admitted here will push piston up and squeeze packing to form seal Figure 29 f" ill (11. . hydraulic pressure pushes a tapered piston upwards.'% ~. This movement squeezes the packing ring in towards the centre." I ring of packing material This type of preventer will not only close around any size of drill pipe.liiii! 'I I I lin .~ I Annular Type BOPs In any BOP stack the upper unit is an annular type BOP. I III i I 11 IU I ! I' "11' .. If you look at figure 29 you will see how an annular preventer works.1 III 1. "" As the packing ring deforms it makes a seal around most sizes and shapes of pipe in the hole. ~. it will close around a kelly or even open hole.'ii' Iii ~ II .: 1 '. In its relaxed state the hole through the packing ring is equal in diameter to the bore of the BOP When the preventer is operated.Ii~ I I I 'll I q~ I ii.I ~ ili I l ') jllil I i 1':1 . I t'l!11 J 1 I r I j 'iI~1 f I' IH I I r 1"lillll~ I . I' I ~I '1'1.I I.)" . These preventers use a ring of toughened rubber packing material to make a seal.111'1 \' ~ i '"!I i i 'fl ' I I !li t I 'I' 'I '"11' I " " ! I 'Ii ~ Ii' .

A fill up line connected to the bell nipple allows the mud in the hole to be topped up.1 I '. 'J . ~ I -----------------------------------------------------------Drilling Spool There are two more items in the BOP stack which I haven't yet mentioned.~ I i' I! . '".I j r~.47 . the bell shape guides them and prevents them hanging up at this point.I I' :.' . 11 "1 : II' 'l'. '"I j '"I I1. Bell Nipple Finally.. It has the same bore as the drilling spool and the BOPs and at the top it is flared or tapered. Two side outlets are incorporated to which are connected flowlines known as the choke and kill lines.~ "I'. L .J ~. When drilling tools are being lowered into the hole.~"I : ~. We will look at these shortly.' I' I..I. on top of the stack is mounted the bell nipple. '. This is a fitting placed between two of the preventers which has a through bore at least as large as the BOP bore.. I .' I. The first of these is the drilling spool. "' 'l'i . It consists of a piece of pipe connected by a flange to the top of the annular BOP.: f l. ' ! . I. I' ... If you are not sure how these elements work.I II! j: " I " I: j: " d . During drilling operations the top of the bell nipple is the top of the well bore. Identify all the components of the BOP stack and make sure that you know what each one does and how it works.1 j "l. A side outlet from the bell nipple diverts the returning drilling fluid through a return flowline to the shale shaker. @3 Activity I suggest that you look again at figure 26."~ .' I.f' ~ 'J I..i .. J 2.l4 jl . sometimes called the flow stack.... .: J ~ I . your tutor or a colleague should be able to help you. This has to be done when drill pipe is removed and the mud level in the hole drops. '"I I" I '".~ jl ". J I' I Ii'." .

It has a display of each BOP in its correct position relative to the actual stack. pumps take the fluid and develop the pressure necessary for preventer operation. When a control valve is opened.II I Ii. There should be sufficient fluid in the accumulators to close each preventer at least once. 'JIII~ I jill 1I . Also. the pressure of the compressed gas forces the hydraulic oil through the connecting pipework to the preventer piston.'Ill I . The pumps are driven by either air or electrically powered motors. both ram and annular types are actuated by hydraulic pressure. Nitrogen is the most commonly used gas.l /1 I' I' ')1 I i 1 j "111 " II I I' I 1. A typical operating system which can do this would consist of the following items: . a control console is placed close to hand on the rig floor. The control console contains the operating levers for each preventer. pumps and oil reservoir are usually built into skid mounted assemblies. I i'll.1iII I I . II H I .e.1 . From the tank. 2. the preventers must be capable of being operated if the rig power is lost. Figure 30 on the next page is a line diagram showing the layout of a basic BOP operating system. The complete assembly is located at some distance from the well. I . These also include piping and control valves which direct the flow of oil to each preventer. In order that the driller can react quickly to any emergency.111. Each lever normally stands in a neutral position. * * hydraulic oil reserve pump(s) accumulator(s) control console connecting pipework * * * An accumulator is basically a pressure vessel. This action directs air pressure to actuating cylinders. It is part of a closed system. Accumulators are used to store energy which can then be used to actuate the preventers when rig power is unavailable.~ The BOP Operating System You have seen that BOPs. I:. To actuate a BOP the driller simply moves the lever to the close or open position.1 ~ II i II I' I f ' '1111 I II I" ~ i I . I. This equipment is only of value if it can be operated quickly and conveniently in an emergency. the oil returns to the tank when the preventers are re-opened. i. These in turn operate the control valves on the main unit. It is divided into two compartments which are separated by a diaphragm or a piston.l 1""11 II! I" I j'II.1 1 I 1'\1 I ill'l~ I I i I .48 )" n I I' 'i U I' II ~1 'I I I .. The reservoir is simply a tank which contains a reserve of hydraulic oil used to close (or open) the preventers. The accumulators.11111 '1'111 I II I ' '~. The pump/accumulator units are usually designed so that the fluid charges are automatically maintained at the desired pressure. The BOPs must be capable of being operated even if there is no power to drive the pumps. The hydraulic oil occupies one compartment whilst the other is filled with an inert gas under pressure.

. ­ - .. :< -- e... (f) CD <tl ~.' ro ° 3 o (f) CD lJ 0". CD lJ::J ::J o[ c: Qf --...

I I.~ I" !I ~ I HI I. I. ~ 1 1 '\' ~ 'I 'I' ~ 1 : II ij: I' I II'~' . I j. From a valve (or valves) at this connection a flowline leads back to the rig mud pumps. I 'n I I1I 'I I II I'. i I . At the manifold. This consists of a connection to the side outlet of the drilling spool fitted with one or more valves. I"'~':I . I I . I ' 1.. The chokes are orifice valves which are used to maintain back pressure on the well as fluid is released. I will discuss the operation of the choke and kill system in much more detail when we look at pressure control in Unit 7. From there a flowline passes to a branched manifold. Figure 31 shows you the basic layout of the choke manifold.i~ J I I. mud flowing from the well under pressure can be diverted through one of a number of chokes to the pits.. I I~ I "II . ' III I. ! I I "" I II "II!I'~ I "llli I..11'1. is the kill connection.I I . The variable orifice (opening) in the choke is opened or closed to maintain the desired pressure. ~ .~ The Choke and Kill Equipment In any BOP system there must be provision for allowing: Having such a layout allows mud to be pumped into the annulus when preventers are closed above the drilling spool.I I ~! . ~i ~ \ I Iii I .. 1""'1 1 j '1111' " 'il!'1 I. 'I II I II I I 'II II I.if II . Connected to the side outlet of the drilling spool opposite the choke. adjustable choke Figure 31 rn ~ I .' ('I. I. remote operated choke * controlled release of well pressure * pumping into the annulus when the preventers are closed The first of these provisions is catered for by the choke manifolding.1 I !11!1 I.

j I l' I' :..51 . I~ 1.1: .4 t. j II' I I' .4 _.~. j' I .. I . You will find the answer in Check Yourself 12 on page 2. '4 .1.~' rr 'I' .J. I I II •".. J 2.4 I J J I :J j' "~' Ill.I t 1 I. Jj II ~ j I I j I 'l J ~ Ii I J1 I J:J ! U !I II :\ Jj ~ I [!J Test Yourself 12 Describe in your own words a BOP stack which has 3 preventers. Your answer should name each component and describe the function of these components.59.

' I I' I I 'II .i!:i deadline anchor drilling spool' "l centrifuge' blind ram v brake > i' qC:.ng system drawworks li .A. :1'. 'i '11'1" '\1 1 . ! 1 .52 ~ •r j"~ I I .t--'. I have done the first one for you. i' !E\.i..rrl rirf ! r{{ S"\ to' .60. shale shaker v swivel v stand pipe (: drawworks v kelly bushing ~ generators -c/ choke v' links \ elevator desilter C: bit sub v ( master bushing J I hOi:'. 'I.'H .~ • [!] Test Yourself 13 In this unit we have looked at 5 systems which together make up a complete drilling installation.1' i ' "I\! \ . Fill in the table to match the components to the system they are part of.1 I i "1'1 .1 '11'1 ~ ~ ~ I I' II (. II' Ii I! j i~ II II ! I. rotating system I(AJ1 \f t'l ( If KeIll) Io'Jrdi ~'\' i' I'v ..p! I r Br (II( . system { 1) I J{r. ( circulating system d \)f'/\ f'f { ('.'. (J'". jill' I .II ' fl' I I I ' li!)I'.. I I 'I . / I-powe. ! 2. i: I I .. " I li'l I l.'q :: b _ .' .h)(' c\rt! 1 r blowout prevention system You will find the answer in Check Yourself 13 on page 2. (." 1 SCR 'v saver sub v F accumulator . .I' I "I I. ~ Ii I "Iii I I ~ . ~lli I. ~I II: 1'1 I ' 'I '1 1 11 1 'I I 1 . I have listed a number of components from these systems.

This equipment is called the Blowout Prevention System.1 . You saw that the functions of the system can be listed as enabling the drilling crew to: * * close the top of the hole release any fluid under controlled conditions * permit the pumping of new mud into the hole 2..j ~ I J I II J' j ~ I =: Db __ ~ Summary In order to be able to perform these functions the system consists of: a blowout preventer stack having a number of preventers.j l. If you have any problems. You should now be able to go back to the Training Target set at the beginning of this unit and check that you can tick all of the boxes.'j ~ .53 . In this section we have looked at the equipment used to contain and bring under control a potential blowout. used to release fluids under controlled conditions and allow the pumping of new drilling fluid into the well when preventers are closed Throughout the section we have concentrated on conventional land or production platform type of equipment. look at the appropriate section again or arrange a meeting with your tutor.I ~ ~ . In Unit 6 we will be looking at BOP equipment which is used in floating drilling applications.d J L.J I .-J J l _J ~ '. .J I I . .1 ~_ U ~ j ~ ~ . ..-J ..J J .J l ~d ~. who should be able to help you.~ ~ ~ -~ ~ ~ ~ _J ~ I ~ . both ram type and annular preventers an operating system which enables the driller to close and open the preventers remotely a choke and kill system.. -..d ! d ! I_1 .J ~. We will also return to the subject of blowout prevention equipment in Unit 7 when we will cover pressure control in more detail.

. No. The rotary table is part of the rotating system which we will look at in Section 2. Yes 10. ~ I"I~' . It is a component in the circulating system. Yes 6. 5. The collars are part of the drill string which itself is part of the rotating system.i II1I I ' I ' 'I I III \ I .~ I I. No.I I I' I 'I I I1I1I1I I 'Iii I' I III 'il'll 1111 :1 'II . We will look at a shale shaker in Section 3.Answers ~ Check Yourself 1 1. hard formation 2. i . No. No.rliln. soft to medium formation 3. Yes 11. 7. II I I . . Yes 8. Yes 2. Check Yourself 2 1. This is also part of the rotating system.I . I'Ii I I I '~~ . . ~I I '. Yes 3. soft formation ..I Ii I .I I' ' ' '~IIII'IIIii I ' "I I II .. I j 11~lj I·II~ "I ~ i . I II'l . Yes 9. 12. i i 1 " II . t: A .11 . Yes 4.II I' I I ~' I .ql.Unit 2 : Drilling Systems and Equipment ~ Check Yourself .

_J ~ J ~ . .833 will require: Therefore the total weight required is the weight of the drill collar + the excess weight = 60 000 + 15 000 75 000 Ibs 50000 = 60 024 Ibs actual collar weight = 0. I . I IJ I J ! . this will be: 60000 x 25 = 15000 Ibs 100 If each joint weighs 4 410 Ibs the number of joints required = 75 000 4410 17 joints = 255 .A .J i I . j "J h.~~ L1 L~ ~ !I J.' J i 1.j Ii: J !. A j ~ .. !.~ ~ J J llJ ~clJ ~ '1_1 I ! . I J.Jj j ~ I ~ Check Yourself 3 To obtain 50 OOOlbs weight on bit with fluid buoyancy factor of 0...I J '.)J I.833 Let's say 60 000 Ibs If 25% excess weight is required. II 'I 'I I J -~ \ I I 1 .

1IIIIili " I 111II I ' "II' J . I "I "~' 't . + + + + drill bit 2..1111 I 111111' I !I '1111 I . I II I I " I 111I I 1 II' I I '1111 I ~ I ' ~."111 ~ r I II I ' I 11I1 II 1:I ~' 1 1 11 1 I11I1 . .'i'lll I I 1'1 1 1 1'111 I. True +--­ • drill string 3. Crossover subs are used to connect different sizes of drill pipe or collars. not pin connections at each end. False Check Yourself 5 swivel bail tri-cone roller drill collar synthetic diamond insert A bit sub is used to connect the bit to the collars but it has box connections. False ? !'if) ~j " 1. kelly bushing • gooseneck + :+ rotating mechanism stabilizer • master bushing • 4.. I .~ ~ Check Yourself 4 1. I II"~ i I"Ill I i I '~ I IIV \"~ . . . This means that the drill pipe is held in tension.'I \' I I 1IIII I ':I I i .111 ' 'I I . I I I~ "111 I I I 11'11 I I'1III I ~' 'Ill II . False Drill collars allow just part of the weight of the collars themselves to be applied to the bit.

i~ I: I ~ I !~ I I l 'I I j "I~ ill~ . . and stabilizers help to maintain a straight hole of full diameter..~ "i" ~ 'II I~ j . diamond bits and polycrystalline diamond bits. j I 11. In a drill string.j I. "'~ I "~ I. Under reamers and hole openers are sometimes placed above a bit to enlarge or maintain a hole size. a bit sub connects the bit to the collars. In a conventional rotating mechanism the rotary table turns the kelly bushing. tri-cone roller bits. • I I "". A bail is simply a handle by which the swivel is suspended from the drilling hook. Of the remaining words.ill. drill collars are used to hold the string in tension and maintain weight on bit.I! ~ Check Yourself 6 The words missing from the sentences are shown in bold type below. A rotating system has three main subsystems.A .II . '.~ 11'1 I "~ ~ III II . the drill bit.~ Il~ II' I I~ ". Drilling fluid enters the drill string via the gooseneck in the swivel. I. the drill string and the rotating mechanism. a top drive is one of the alternative rotating systems.~ I' I.I' ~ IJI. There are a number of different drill bit designs available such as drag bits. "'I~ I ' II~ I '''~ I "":~ I j "'~ I I 'I'~ i "'~ I I. which transmits the rotary motion to the kelly and from there to the drill string and bit. II~ I.

". i.~ ~ Check Yourself 7 If gas cut mud is recirculated a number of problems may arise. I.'H . which you will see in Unit 7. ~ I' I "'1111 I 1. I ~'II j I I I' II I . I I ~' II: I ~ .e.'I I . .I j II . giving rise to pressure control problems.'1111 I I I I I "II I. ~ I "I ~ . II I I Ii I Ii 1 . I I: . the mud pumps will have difficulty in dealing with mud which is gas-cut. Check Yourself 8 The correct sequence is: Mud pits Stand pipe Mud pumps Kelly Swivel Drill pipe Drill bit Annulus Shale shaker Drill collars Rotary hose Mud conditioning equipment Check Yourself 9 IT] [I] ~ I'm sure that you wrote the same components as me.I~ I I I I I . 'I \ : II I ' . I I i '~ I. 'II I I. * * * the drawworks the rotary table the mud pumps ~ o [!] [TI ~ @] ~ ~ ~ i" : r/ I IJ I! -. These will include a reduction in mud weight (or density). Also. I I: I : ~ 1 . '~ 1". 'III 1"1. I I I I I l~l .1 II!'I~I I'. 'I I i I. 'l I .'I ~I "III J . I .

Release any fluid under controlled conditions. Finally on top of the stack is the bell nipple. Often more than one set of ram type BOPs is used with different sized rams to accommodate two different sizes of pipe.L11 I <~ l "'~ l !J j . the diameter of the cut out in the face of the ram must match the diameter of the pipe.59 . the other would be fitted with blind / shear rams.. go through Section 5 again and satisfy yourself that you are now familiar with them. * * Check Yourself 11 A pair of pipe rams can only make a seal around one particular size of pipe. Two of the BOPs will be ram type preventers.•• !~ I I~ UI ~ ••• J . 'I I • J J ~ ~ Check Yourself 10 The 3 main functions of a BOP system are as follows: * Check Yourself 12 Your answer should have included the following. This preventer could close the well with nothing in the hole or in an emergency could cut the drill pipe and make a seal. The uppermost preventer would be an annular type. The choke and kill lines would be connected to the drilling spool. The mud return flowline is connected to this nipple which also has a connection for a fill up line. The top of the bell nipple is flared to guide the drilling tools into the hole. ie. Permit the pumping of new mud into the hole. Close the top of the hole.01 j J~ I : . One would be fitted with pipe rams to close round drill pipe in the hole. 2.. This unit could close around any size of drill pipe.l j I J . If you have missed any of these components. Between the two ram preventers would be a drilling spool. If different sizes of pipe are used. the rams must De changed for ones with the correct size of cut outs. The choke and kill lines allow controlled release of well pressure and permit pumping into the annulus when the preventers are closed. a kelly or even empty hole.

I. drilling spool.~. i (.~ -------------------------_ --------------------------------------------_..1'1111 I 1'1"11'1 I I.iI J I ' I .'i II. .'II ' 'III I1II "i' . ".~.. saver sub I circulating system shale shaker. 1II. II' j 1 '1 1 I!II I II n I I.1 'ill. SCR blowout prevention system choke. deadline anchor.. kelly bushing. centrifuge power system generators.i~'/ 11~1 i I~l I ·11 'I ' : I~ I . master bushing. blind ram I I Il . links.'11. ~ Check Yourself 13 Your table should look like the one opposite. I Ii .. stand pipe. II!I :1' r: il'll II i"" I "II "I . accumulator. I '. elevator.'~' ! I~' ! "n lill I "n ! I' "~1 '1. brake rotating system swivel. desilter. hoisting system drawworks.. bit sub.

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