TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 1

SHELL & TUBE
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 2
Introduction
q Shell & t ube heat exchangers are t he most versat ile t ype of heat
exchangers.
§ They are used in process indust ries, in convent ional and nuclear power
st at ions, st eam generat ors, et c
§ They are used in many alt ernat ive energy applicat ions including ocean,
t hermal and geot hermal.
q Shell & t ube heat exchangers provide relat ively large rat ios of heat
t ransfer area t o volume.
q They can be easily cleaned.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 3
Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
q Shell & t ube t ype heat exchangers are built of t ubes (round or rect angular
in general) mount ed in shells (cylindrical, rect angular or arbit rary shape).
q Many variat ions of t his basic t ype is available.
§ The differences lie mainly in t he det ailed feat ures of const ruct ion and provisions
f or dif f erent ial t hermal expansion bet ween t he t ubes and t he shell.
Tube
out l et
Tube
i nl et
Shel l
out l et
Shel l
i nl et
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 4
Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
U- Tube, baf f l ed, si ngl e pass
shel l & t ube heat exchanger
Two pass t ube, baf f l ed si ngl e pass
shel l & t ube heat exchanger
Two pass t ube, f l oat i ng head, baf f l ed
si ngl e pass shel l & t ube heat exchanger
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 5
Shell Types
q TEMA ( t he Tubular Exchangers
Manufact urers Associat ion) publishes
st andards defining how shell and t ube
exchangers should be built . They
def ine a naming syst em t hat is
commonly used.
q Shells are also t ypically purchased in
st andard sizes t o cont rol cost s. I nside
t he shell, baf f les ( dividers) are
inst alled t o direct t he f low around t he
t ubes, increase velocit y, and promot e
cross f low. They also help support t he
t ubes. The baf f le cut is t he rat io of t he
baffle window height t o t he shell
diamet er. Typically, baf f le cut is about
20 percent . I t ef f ect s bot h heat
t ransfer and pressure drop. Designers
also need t o specif y t he baffle spacing;
t he maximum spacing depends on how
much support t he t ubes need.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 6
Multi Shell & Tube Passes
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 7
Tube to Header Plate Connection
q Tubes are arranged in a bundl e and held
in place by header pl at e (t ube sheet ).
q The number of t ubes t hat can be placed
wit hin a shell depends on
§ Tube layout , t ube out side diamet er, pit ch,
number of passes and t he shell diamet er.
q When t he t ubes are t o close t o each
ot her, t he header plat e becomes t o weak.
q Met hods of at t aching t ubes t o t he header
plat e
Header
Pl at e
Header Pl at e
Tube
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 8
Baffle Type & Geometry
q Baffles serve t wo funct ions:
§ Support t he t ubes for st ruct ural
rigidit y, prevent ing t ube vibrat ion
and sagging
§ Di vert t he f l ow across t he bundle
t o obt ain a higher heat t ransfer
coefficient .
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 9
Segmental Cut Baffles
Baffle Type & Geomet ry
q The single and double segment al baffles are most frequent ly used. They
divert t he flow most effect ively across t he t ubes.
q The baffle spacing must be chosen wit h care.
§ Opt imal baf f le spacing is somewhere bet ween 40% - 60% of t he shell diamet er.
§ Baf f le cut of 25%-35% is usually recommended.
q The t riple segment al baffles are used
for low pressure applicat ions.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 10
Disc & Ring Baffles
Baffle Type & Geomet ry
q Disc and ring baffles are composed of alt ernat ing out er rings and
inner discs, which direct t he flow radially across t he t ube field.
§ The pot ent ial bundle-t o-shell bypass st ream is eliminat ed
§ This baffle t ype is very effect ive in pressure drop t o heat t ransfer
conversion
q Disc
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 11
Orifice Baffle
Baffle Type & Geomet ry
q I n an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows t hrough t he clearance
bet ween t ube out side diamet er and baffle-hole diamet er.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 12
Number of Tubes
q The number of t ubes in an exchanger depends on t he
§ Fluid flow rat es
§ Available pressure drop.
q The number of t ubes is select ed such t hat t he
§ Tube si de vel oci t y for wat er and similar liquids ranges from
0.9 t o 2.4 m/ s (3 t o 8 ft / sec)
§ Shel l -si de vel oci t y from 0.6 t o 1.5 m/ s (2 t o 5 ft / sec).
q The lower velocit y limit corresponds t o limit ing t he f oul i ng, and t he
upper velocit y limit corresponds t o limit ing t he rat e of er osi on.
q When sand and silt are present , t he velocit y is kept high enough t o
prevent set t ling.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 13
Tube Passes
q A pass is when liquid flows all t he way across from one end t o t he
ot her of t he exchanger. We will count shell passes and t ube passes.
§ An exchanger wit h one shell pass and t wo t ube passes is a 1-2
exchanger. Almost always, t he t ube passes will be in mult iples of t wo
( 1-2, 1-4, 2-4, et c.)
§ Odd numbers of t ube passes have more complicat ed mechanical
st resses, et c. An except ion: 1-1 exchangers are somet imes used for
vaporizers and condensers.
q A large number of t ube passes are used t o increase t he t ube side
fluid velocit y and heat t ransfer coefficient and minimize fouling.
§ This can only be done when t here is enough pumping power since t he
increased velocit y and addit ional t urns increases t he pressure drop
significant ly.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 14
Tube Passes - Continued
q The number of t ube passes depends on t he available pressure drop.
§ Higher velocit ies in t he t ube result in higher heat t ransfer coefficient s,
at t he expense of increased pressure drop.
q Therefore, if a higher pressure drop is accept able, it is desirable t o
have fewer but longer t ubes (reduced flow area and increased flow
lengt h).
§ Long t ubes are accommodat ed in a short shell exchanger by mult iple
t ube passes.
q The number of t ube passes in a shell generally range from 1 t o 10
§ The st andard design has one, t wo, or four t ube passes.
§ An odd number of passes is uncommon and may result in mechanical
and t hermal problems in fabricat ion and operat ion.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 15
Tube Materials
q Mat eri al s sel ect i on and compat ibilit y bet ween const ruct ion
mat erials and working fluids are import ant issues, in part icular wit h
regard t o corrosi on and/ or operat ion at el evat ed t emperat ures.
q Requirement for low cost , light weight , high conduct ivit y, and good
j oining charact erist ics oft en leads t o t he select ion of aluminum for
t he heat t ransfer surface.
q On t he ot her side, st ainless st eel is used for food processing or
fluids t hat require corrosion resist ance.
q I n general, one of t he select ion crit eria for exchanger mat erial
depends on t he corrosiveness of t he working fluid.
q A summary Table is provided as a reference fo rcorrosive and non-
corrosive environment s
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 16
Materials for Corrosive &
Noncorrosive Service
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 17
Tube Wall Thickness
q The wall t hickness of heat exchanger t ubes is st andardized in t erms
of Birmingham Wire Gage BWG of t he t ube.
q Small t ube diamet ers (8 t o 15mm) are preferred for great er area t o
volume densit y but are limit ed for t he purposes of cleaning.
q Large t ube diamet ers are oft en required for condensers and boilers.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 18
Tube Outside Diameter
q The most common plain t ube sizes have 15.88,19.05, and 25.40 mm
(5/ 8, ¾, 1 inche) t ube out side diamet ers.
q From t he heat t ransfer viewpoint , smaller-diamet er t ubes yield
higher heat t ransfer coefficient s and result in a more compact
exchanger.
q However, larger-diamet er t ubes are easier t o clean and more
rugged.
q The foregoing common sizes represent a compromise.
§ For mechanical cleaning, t he smallest pract ical size is 19.05 mm.
§ For chemical cleaning, smaller sizes can be used provided t hat t he
t ubes never plug complet ely.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 19
Tube Length
q Tube lengt h affect s t he cost and operat ion of heat exchangers.
§ Longer t he t ube lengt h (for any given surface area),
• Fewer t ubes are needed, requiring less complicat ed header plat e wit h f ewer
holes drilled
• Shell diamet er decreases result ing in lower cost
q Typically t ubes are employed in 8, 12, 15, and 20 foot lengt hs.
Mechanical cleaning is limit ed t o t ubes 20 ft and short er, alt hough
st andard exchangers can be built wit h t ubes up t o 40 ft .
q There are, like wit h anyt hing limit s of how long t he t ubes can be.
§ Shel l -di amet er-t o-t ube-l engt h rat i o should be
wit hin limit s of 1/ 5 t o 1/ 15
q Maximum t ube lengt h is dict at ed by
§ Archit ect ural layout s
§ Transport at ion (t o about 30m.)
• The diamet er of t he t wo boost er rocket s is dict at ed by t he smallest highway
t unnel size bet ween t he locat ion of manuf act urer and Florida. Scient ific hah!
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 20
Tube Length
Tube & Header Plat e Deformat ion
q Thermal expansion of t ubes needs
t o be t aken int o account for heat
exchangers operat ing at elevat ed
t emperat ures
q Tube elongat ion due t o t hermal
expansion causes:
§ Header plat e deformat ion
§ Shell wall def ormat ion near t he
header plat e
q Fat igue st rengt h of t he t ube,
header plat e and shell j oint needs
t o be considered when using
§ Longer t ubes
§ High operat ing t ube side
t emperat ures
§ Cyclic t hermal loads
Undeformed Header
Plat e Shape
Undef or med
Shel l Wal l
Header Pl at e
Def or mat i on
Shel l Wal l
Def or mat i on
Magni f i ed Di spl acement of a Shel l
& Tube Heat Exchanger El ement s
Under Ther mal Load
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 21
Tube Layout
q Tube layout is charact erized by t he
included angle bet ween t ubes.
§ Two st andard t ypes of t ube layout s
are t he square and t he equi l at eral
t ri angl e.
• Triangular pit ch (30
o
layout ) is bet t er for
heat t ransfer and surface area per unit
lengt h ( great est t ube densit y.)
• Square pit ch ( 45 & 90 layout s) is needed
for mechanical cleaning.
§ Not e t hat t he 30°,45° and 60° are
st aggered, and 90° is in line.
P
T
q For t he ident ical t ube pit ch and
flow rat es, t he t ube layout s in
decreasing order of shell-side heat
t ransfer coefficient and pressure
drop are: 30°,45°,60°, 90°.
Tr i angul ar
Squar e
Rot at ed Squar e
Rot at ed Tr i angl e
Tr i angul ar
P
T
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 22
Tube Layout - Continued
q The 90° l ayout will have t he lowest heat t ransfer coefficient and
t he lowest pressure drop.
q The squar e pi t ch (90° or 45°) is used when j et or mechanical
cleaning is necessary on t he shell side. I n t hat case, a minimum
cleaning lane of ¼ in. (6.35 mm) is provided.
§ The square pit ch is generally not used in t he fixed header sheet design
because cleaning is not feasible.
q The t ri angul ar pi t ch provides a more compact arrangement ,
usually result ing in smaller shell, and t he st rongest header sheet for
a specified shell-side flow area.
§ I t is preferred when t he operat ing pressure difference bet ween t he t wo
fluids is large.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 23
Tube Pitch
q The sel ect i on of t ube pi t ch is a compromise bet ween a
§ Cl ose pi t ch (small values of P
t
/ d
o
) for increased shell-side heat t ransfer
and surface compact ness, and an
§ Open pi t ch (large values of P
t
/ d
o
) for decreased shell-side plugging and
ease in shell-side cleaning.
q Tube pit ch P
T
is chosen so t hat t he pi t ch rat i o is 1.25 < P
T
/ d
o
< 1.5
§ When t he t ubes are t o close t o each ot her (P
t
/ d
o
less t han 1.25) , t he
header plat e (t ube sheet ) becomes t o weak for proper rolling of t he
t ubes and cause leaky j oint s.
q Tube layout and t ube locat ions are st andardized for indust rial heat
exchangers.
§ However, t hese are general rules of t humb and can be “ violat ed” for
cust om heat exchanger designs.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 24
Tube & Shell Exhaust Gas Cooler
A t ube and shel l exhaust gas cool er i s used on
di esel engi nes t o r educe t he NOx emi ssi ons.
A r ect angul ar cl osel y packed t ube ar r angement
i s used r esul t i ng i n a r ect angul ar shel l .
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 25
Fluid Allocation
q Tube side is preferred under t hese circumst ances:
§ Fluids which are prone t o foul
• The higher velocit ies will reduce buildup
• Mechanical cleaning is also much more pract ical f or t ubes t han f or shells.
§ Corrosive fluids are usually best in t ubes
• Tubes are cheaper t o f abricat e f rom exot ic mat erials
• This is also t rue for very high t emperat ure fluids requiring alloy const ruct ion
§ Toxic fluids t o increase cont ainment
§ St reams wit h low flow rat es t o obt ain increased velocit ies and t urbulence
§ High pressure st reams since t ubes are less expensive t o build strong
§ St reams wit h a low allowable pressure drop
q Viscous fluids go on t he shell side, since t his will usually improve t he
rat e of heat t ransfer.
§ On t he ot her hand, placing t hem on t he t ube side will usually lead t o
lower pressure drops. Judgment is needed
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 26
Basic Design Procedure
q Heat exchanger must sat isfy t he
§ Heat t ransf er requirement s ( design or
process needs)
§ Allowable pressure drop ( pumping
capacit y and cost )
q St eps in designing a heat exchanger
can be list ed as:
§ I dent ify t he problem
§ Select an heat exchanger t ype
§ Calculat e/ Select init ial design
paramet ers
§ Rat e t he init ial design
• Calculat e t hermal performance and
pressure drops for shell and t ube side
§ Evaluat e t he design
• I s performance and cost accept able?
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 27
Size of Heat Exchanger
q The i ni t i al si ze ( surf ace area) of a
heat exchanger can be est imat ed from cf lm o m o
o
T F U
q
T U
q
A
,

·

·
§ where
• A
o
Out side t ube surface area
• q Heat dut y – heat exchange bet ween t ube and shell side
• U
o
Overall heat t ransfer coefficient
• F Correct ion f act or F= 1.0 f or cross f low heat exchanger
• ?T
m
True mean t emperat ure à ?T
m
= F ?T
lm
• ?T
l m
Log mean t emperat ure difference ( Est of t rue mean t emperat ure)
§ Correct i on Fact or F is be covered in module TFD-HE4 Log-Mean
Temperat ure Difference
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 28
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
q The overal l heat t ransf er coef f i ci ent U
o
based on t he out side
diamet er of t ubes can be est imat ed from:
§ The individual heat t ransfer coefficient s (h)
§ Shell wall, out side & inside t ube fouling resist ances (R
w
, R
f o
, R
f i
)
§ Overall surface efficiency (?
i
& ?
o
)
o o o
fo
w o
i
fi
i i i
o
o
h
R
R A
R
h A
A
U η η η η
1 1 1
+ + +

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 29
Heat Balance of
Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
q Heat load of a heat exchanger can be est imat ed from heat balance:
Tube
out l et
Tube
i nl et
Shel l
out l et
Shel l
i nl et
T
c,i
T
c,o
T
h,o
T
h,i
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
o h i h
h
p i c o c
c
p
T T c m T T c m q
, , , ,
− · − ·
& &
§ I f t hree of t he t emperat ures are given, t he fourt h can be calculat ed
using t he above equat ion.
§ The above equat ion assumes no phase change in any of t he fluids.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 30
Other TFD Modules Supporting
Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
q Overall heat t ransfer coefficient is covered in module TFD-HE01
q Log-mean t emperat ure difference is covered in module TFD-HE4
q Heat t ransfer from finned surfaces is covered in module TFD-HE11
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 31
Total Number of Tubes
q Once t he t ot al t ube out side surface area A
o
is est imat ed a cost
effect ive heat exchanger configurat ion needs t o be calculat ed.
q Number of t ubes N
t
is dependent on t ube side flow condit ions. I t
is relat ed t o t he shel l di amet er ( D
s
) , t ube l engt h ( L) and t ube
di amet er ( d
o
) t oget her wit h t he allowable pressure drop and t he
t ot al t ube side flow rat e hence t he heat t ransfer coefficient .
L N d A
t o o
π ·
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 32
Total Number of Tubes
q The t ot al number of t ubes can be predict ed as a funct ion of t he
shell diamet er by t aking t he shell circle D
s
and dividing it by t he
proj ect ed area of t he t ube layout pert aining t o a single t ube A
1
§ CTP= 0.93 One t ube pass
§ CTP= 0.90 Two t ube passes
§ CTP= 0.85 Three t ube passes
§ CL= 1.00 for 90 & 45 square pit ch
§ CL= 0.87 for 30 & 60 equilat eral t ri pit ch
CL - Tube Layout Const ant
q CTP is t he t ube count const ant which account s for t he incomplet e
coverage of t he shell diamet er by t he t ubes due t o necessary
clearances bet ween t he shell and t he out er t ube circle.
1
2
4
) (
A
D
CTP N
s
t
π
·
2
1
) (
T
P CL A ·
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 33
Shell Diameter
2
2
2
785 . 0
o
o
T
s
t
d
d
P
D
CL
CTP
N

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
L N d A
t o o
π ·
( )
2
1
2
637 . 0
1
]
1

¸

·
L
d d P A
CTP
CL
D
o o T o
s
q Shell diamet er in t erms of main const ruct ional diamet ers can be
expressed as:
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 34
Rating of the Heat Exchanger Design
q Rat i ng an exchanger means t o evaluat e t he t hermo-hydraulic
performance of a f ul l y speci f i ed exchanger.
q I nput t o t he rat ing process is heat exchanger geomet ry (const ruct ional
design paramet ers), process condi t i ons (flow rat e, t emperat ure,
pressure) and mat eri al / f l ui d propert i es (densit y, t hermal conduct ivit y)
q Fi rst out put from t he rat ing process is eit her t he out let t emperat ure for
fixed t ube lengt h or t he t ube lengt h it self t o meet t he out let temperat ure
requirement .
q Second out put from t he rat ing process is t he pressure drop for bot h fluid
st reams hence t he pumping energy requirement s and size.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 35
Insufficient Thermal Rating
q I f t he out put of t he rat ing analysis is not accept able, a geomet rical
modificat ion should be made
q I f t he required amount of heat cannot be t ransferred t o sat isfy
specific out let t emperat ure, one should find a way t o increase t he
heat t ransfer coefficient or increase exchanger surface area
§ One can increase t he t ube side heat t ransfer coefficient by increasing
t he fluid velocit y - I ncrease number of t ube passes
§ One can increase t he shell side heat t ransfer coefficient by decreasing
baffle spacing and/ or baffle cut
§ One can increase t he surface area by
• I ncreasing t he heat exchanger lengt h
• I ncreasing t he shell diamet er
• Mult iple shells in series
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 36
Insufficient Pressure Drop Rating
q I f t he pressure drop on t he t ube side is great er t han t he allowable
pressure drop, t hen
§ t he number of t ube passes can be decreased or
§ t he t ube diamet er can be increased which may result t o
• decrease t he t ube lengt h – ( Same surf ace area)
• increase t he shell diamet er and t he number of t ubes
q I f t he shell side pressure drop is great er t han t he allowable pressure
drop t hen baffle spacing, t ube pit ch, and baffle cut can be increased
or one can change t he baffle t ype.
THERE I S ALWAYS A TRADE-OFF BETWEEN
THERMAL & PRESSURE DROP RATI NGS!
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 37
The Trade-Off
Bet ween Thermal Balance & Flow Loss
q Heat t ransfer and fluid frict ion losses t end t o compet e wit h one
anot her.
q The t ot al energy loss can be minimized by adj ust ing t he size of one
irreversibilit y against t he ot her .
q These adj ust ment s can be made by properly select ing physical
dimensions of t he solid part s (fins, duct s, heat exchanger surface).
q I t must be underst ood, however, t hat t he result is at best a
t hermodynamic opt imum.
§ Const raint s such as cost , size, and reliabilit y ent er int o t he
det erminat ion of t ruly opt imal designs.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 38
Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
q There are t hree rat i ng met hods t o calculat e t he shell side heat
t ransfer coefficient :
§ Kern met hod is a simplified approach suit able for shell side flow wit hout
baffles
§ Taborek met hod
§ Bel l Del aware met hod is t he most complex but accurat e way of rat ing a
heat exchanger wit h baffles
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 39
SHELL SIDE
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
WITH BAFFLES
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 40
Shell Side Heat Transfer
Baffled Flow
q When t he t ube bundl e empl oys baf f l es, t he heat t ransfer
coefficient is higher t han t he coefficient for undist urbed flow
around t ubes wit hout baffles.
q For a baffled heat exchanger
§ t he higher heat t ransfer coefficient s result from t he i ncreased
t urbul ence.
§ t he vel oci t y of f l ui d f l uct uat es because of t he const rict ed area
bet ween adj acent t ubes across t he bundle.
q Onl y part of t he f l ui d t akes t he desi red pat h t hrough t he t ube
bundle (St ream B), whereas a pot ent ially subst ant ial port ion flows
t hrough t he ‘leakage’ areas (St reams A, C, E & F)
§ However, t hese clearances are inherent t o t he manufact uring and
assembly process of shell-and-t ube exchangers, and t he flow
dist ribut ion wit hin t he exchanger must be t aken int o account .
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 41
Main & Leakage Flow Streams
Baffled Heat Exchanger
q There are five different shell side flow st reams in a baffled heat
exchanger
§ St ream A is t he leakage st ream in t he
orifice formed by t he clearance
bet ween t he baffle t ube hole and t he
t ube wall.
§ St ream B is t he main effect ive cross-
flow st ream, which can be relat ed t o
flow across ideal t ube banks.
§ St ream C is t he t ube bundle bypass st ream in t he gap bet ween t he t ube
bundle and shell wall.
§ St ream E is t he leakage st ream bet ween t he baffle edge and shell wall.
§ St ream F is t he bypass st ream in flow channel part it ions due t o omissions
of t ubes in t ube pass part it ions.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 42
Main & Leakage Flow Streams
Baffled Heat Exchanger
St r eam C
St r eam A
St r eam E
St r eam F
Pass 1 Pass 2
St r eam F happens in a
mult iple pass (1-2, 1-4)
heat exchanger
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 43
Bell Delaware Method
Heat Transfer Coefficient & Correct ion Fact ors
q I n t he Delaware met hod, t he fluid flow in t he shell is divided int o a
number of individual st reams A t hrough F as defined before.
q Each of t he above st reams int roduces a correct ion fact or t o t he
heat t ransfer correlat ion for ideal cross-flow across a bank of t ubes.
r s b l c ideal o
J J J J J h h ·
14 . 0
,
3
2

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
w s
s
s ps
s
s
s
ps i ideal
c
k
A
m
c j h
µ
µ
µ
&
§ j
i
Colburn j -f act or
§ A
s
Cross flow area at t he cent erline
of shell for one cross flow
bet ween t wo baffles
§ s St ands for shell
§ w Wall t emperat ure
§ h
ideal
heat t ransfer coefficient for pure
cross-flow in an ideal t ube bank
§ J
c
for baffle cut and spacing
§ J
l
for leakage effect s
§ J
b
bundle bypass flow C & F st reams
§ J
s
for variable baffle spacing in t he
inlet and out let sect ions
§ J
r
for adverse t emperat ure gradient
build-up
The combi ned ef f ect s of al l t hese cor r ect i on f act or s f or a r easonabl e
wel l - desi gned shel l - and- t ube heat exchanger i s of t he or der of 0.60
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 44
Bell Delaware Method
J
c
Correct ion Fact or
q J
c
is t he correct ion fact or for baffle cut and spacing. This fact or
t akes int o account t he heat t ransfer in t he window and calculat es
t he overall average heat t ransfer coefficient for t he ent ire heat
exchanger.
q I t depends on t he shell diamet er and t he baffle cut dist ance from
t he baffle t ip t o t he shell inside diamet er.
§ For a large baffle cut , t his value may decrease t o a value of 0. 53
§ it is equal t o 1.0 for a heat exchanger wit h no t ubes in t he window
§ I t may increase t o a value as high as 1.15 for small windows wit h a
high window velocit y.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 45
Bell Delaware Method
J
l
Correct ion Fact or
q J
l
is t he correlat ion fact or for baffle leakage effect s including t ube-
t o-baffle and shell-to-baffle leakage (A- and E-st reams).
q I f t he baffles are put t oo close t oget her, t hen t he fract ion of t he
flow in t he leakage st reams increases compared wit h t he cross flow.
q J
I
is a funct ion of t he
§ rat io of t ot al leakage area per baffle t o t he cross flow area bet ween
adj acent baffles
§ rat io of t he shell-to-baffle leakage area t o t he t ube-t o-baffle leakage
area.
q A t ypical value of J
l
is in t he range of 0.7 and 0.8.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 46
Bell Delaware Method
J
b
Correct ion Fact or
q J
b
is t he correct ion fact or for bundle bypassing effect s due t o t he
clearance bet ween t he out ermost t ubes and t he shell and pass
dividers (C- and F-st reams).
§ For relat ively small clearance bet ween t he out ermost t ubes and t he shell
for fixed t ube sheet const ruct ion, J
b
= 0.90.
§ For a pull-t hrough float ing head, larger clearance is required, J
b
= 0.7.
§ The sealing st rips (see figure8.14) can increase t he value of J
b
St r eam F
Pa
ss
1
Pa
ss
2
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 47
Bell Delaware Method
J
s
& J
r
Correct ion Fact ors
q J
s
is t he correct ion fact or for variable baffle spacing at t he inlet and
out let . Because of t he nozzle spacing at t he inlet and out let and t he
changes in local velocit ies, t he average heat t ransfer coefficient on
t he shell side will change.
q The J
s
value will usually be bet ween 0.85 and 1.00.
q J
r
applies if t he shell-side Reynolds number, Re
s
, is less t han 100.
§ I f Re
s
< 20, it is fully effect ive.
§ This fact or is equal t o 1.00 if Re
s
> 100.
The combi ned ef f ect of
al l t hese correct i on f act ors
f or a wel l -desi gned shel l -and-t ube heat exchanger
i s of t he order of 0.60
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 48
Bell Delaware Method
Heat Transfer Coefficient - Colburn j-fact or
q Colburn-j fact or is used in heat t ransfer in general and free and
forced convect ion calculat ions in part icular.
§ I t is equivalent t o (St .Pr
2/ 3
) where St is St ant on number
where St ant on Number is defined as
q Colburn j -fact or is a funct ion of:
§ Shel l si de Reynol ds number based on t he
out side t ube diamet er and on t he minimum cross
sect ion flow area at t he shell diamet er
§ Tube layout
§ Pit ch size
s s
s o
s
A
m d
µ
&
· Re
( )
p
p p
t
c
A
m
h
c V
h
Gc
h
S
min
max
&
· · ·
ρ
§ G is t he mass velocit y
§ A
min
is t he min f ree f low x-sec
area regardless where it occurs
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 49
Bell Delaware Method
Numerical Forms of Colburn (j) & Frict ion (f) Fact ors
q Alt hough t he ideal values of j and f are available in graphical forms,
for comput er analysis, a set of curve-fit correlat ions are obt ained in
t he following forms:
( )
2
Re
33 . 1
1
a
s
a
o T
i
d P
a j

,
_

¸
¸
·
( )
4
Re 14 . 0 1
3
a
s
a
a
+
·
( )
2
Re
33 . 1
1
b
s
b
o T
d P
b f

,
_

¸
¸
·
( )
4
Re 14 . 0 1
3
b
s
b
b
+
·
Col bur n j - f act or
Fr i ct i on f act or
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 50
SHELL SIDE
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
WITHOUT BAFFLES
SHELL-and-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 51
Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
Wit hout Baffles – Flow Along t he Tube Axis
q The heat t ransfer coefficient out side t he t ube bundle is referred t o
as t he shell-side heat t ransfer coefficient .
q I f t here are no baffles, t he flow will be along t he heat exchanger
inside t he shell. Then, t he heat t ransfer coefficient can be based on
t he equivalent diamet er, D
e
(Same as a double-pipe heat exchanger)
14 . 0 3 / 1 55 . 0
36 . 0
1
]
1

¸

1
]
1

¸

1
]
1

¸

·
w
b
p
s e e o
k
c
G D
k
D h
µ
µ
µ
µ
14 . 0
3 / 1 55 . 0
Pr Re 36 . 0
1
]
1

¸

·
w
b e o
k
D h
µ
µ
6 3
10 Re 10 2 < · < ×
µ
s e
s
G D
q D
e
Equivalent shell diamet er
q G
s
Shell side mass velocit y
q b Bulk fluid t emperat ure
q w Wall t emperat ure
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 52
Equivalent Shell Diameter - D
e
q The equivalent diamet er of t he shell is
t aken as four t imes t he net flow area as
layout on t he t ube sheet (for my pit ch
layout ) divided by t he wet t ed perimet er:
perimeter wetted
area flow free 4×
·
e
D
Rect angul ar Pi t ch
Tr i angul ar Pi t ch
o
o T
e
d
d P
D
π
π ) 4 / ( 4
2 2

·
2 /
) 8 / 3 ( 4
2 2
o
o T
e
d
d P
D
π
π −
·
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 53
Shell Side Mass Velocity - G
s
q There is no free-flow area on t he shell side by which t he shell-side
mass velocit y, G
s
, can be calculat ed.
q For t his reason, fict ional values of G
s
can be defined based on t he
bundle cross flow area at t he hypot het ical t ube row possessing t he
maximum flow area corresponding t o t he cent er of t he shell.
q Variables t hat affect t he velocit y are:
§ Shell diamet er ( D
s
) Clearance bet ween adj acent t ubes ( C) ;
Pit ch size ( PT) Baffle spacing ( B)
q The widt h of t he flow area at t he t ubes locat ed at cent er of t he shell
is (D
s
/ P
T
) C and t he lengt h of t he flow area is t aken as t he baffle
spacing, B.
§ Therefore, t he bundle cross flow area A
s
,
at t he cent er of t he shell is
q Shell side mass velocit y is
T
s
s
P
CB D
A ·
s
s
A
m
G
&
·
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 54
Shell Side Pressure Drop
q The shell-side pressure drop depends on t he number of t ubes t he
fluid passes t hrough in t he t ube bundle bet ween t he baffles as well
as t he lengt h of each crossing.
§ I f t he lengt h of a bundle is divided by four baffles, for example, all t he
fluid t ravels across t he bundle five t imes.
( )
14 . 0
2
2
1 1
w b e
s s
s
D
D
B
L
fG
p
µ µ ρ
¹
)
¹
¹
'
¹
+

,
_

¸
¸

· ∆
)} ln(Re 19 . 0 576 . 0 exp{
s
f − ·
q A correlat ion has been obt ained using
t he product of dist ance across t he
bundle, t aken as t he inside diamet er
of t he shell, Ds and t he number of
t imes t he bundle is crossed.
§ L is t he heat exchanger lengt h, B is t he
baffle spacing
q Shel l si de f ri ct i on coef f i ci ent f
includes t he ent rance and exit losses
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 55
TUBE SIDE
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICENT
&
FRICTION FACTOR
SHELL-and-TUBE HEAT EXCHAGER
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 56
Tube Side Heat Transfer Correlations
q Ext ensi ve experi ment al and t heoret i cal ef f ort s have been made t o
obt ain t he solut ions for t urbulent forced convect ion heat t ransfer and flow
frict ion problems in duct s because of t heir frequent occurrence and
applicat ion in heat t ransfer engineering.
q There are a l arge number of correl at i ons avai l abl e in t he lit erat ure for
t he fully developed (hydro-dynamically and t hermally) t urbulent flow of
single-phase Newt onian fluids in smoot h, st raight , circular duct s wit h
const ant and t emperat ure-dependent physical propert ies.
q The obj ect ive of t his sect ion is t o hi ghl i ght some of t he exi st i ng
correl at i ons t o be used in t he design of heat exchange equipment and t o
emphasi ze t he condi t i ons or l i mi t at i ons imposed on t he applicabilit y of
t hese correlat ions.
q Ext ensive effort s have been made t o obt ain empirical correlat ions t hat
represent a best -fit curve t o experiment al dat a or t o adj ust coefficient s in
t he t heoret ical equat ions t o best fit t he experiment al dat a.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 57
Flow Maldistribution & Header Design
q One of t he common assumpt ions in basic heat exchanger design
t heory is t hat fluid be dist ribut ed uniformly at t he inlet of t he
exchanger on each fluid side and t hroughout t he core.
§ However, in pract ice, flow maldist ribut ion is more common and can
significant ly reduce t he desired heat exchanger performance.
q Flow maldist ribut ion can be induced by heat exchanger
§ Geomet ry - mechanical design feat ures such as t he basic geomet ry,
manufact uring imperfect ions, and t olerances
§ Operat ing condit ions - viscosit y or densit y induced mal dist ribut ion,
mult i phase flow, and fouling phenomena
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 58
Tube-to-Tube Velocity Variation
q I n most cases, geomet ric flow
ent ry & exit condit ions t o t he
headers promot e a t ube-2-t ube
velocit y variat ion
Flow velocit y dist ribut ion over t he header
plat e bef ore t ube ent rance f or a
rect angular x-sec heat exchanger
X- sect i onal ar ea of t he i nl et
pi pe t o t he header pl at e may
be smal l er compar ed t o t he
header pl at e ar ea
90 degr ee f l ow t ur n cr eat es
non- uni f or m vel oci t y
di st r i but i on i nsi de t he t ubes
Header Plat e
q Nussel t correl at i ons present ed
i n t hi s modul e assume an
equal l y di st ri but ed f l ow
bet ween t ubes
§ Same vel oci t y i n each t ube!
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 59
Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
q Pet ukhov & Popov’s t heoret ical calculat ions for t he case of fully
developed t urbulent flow wit h const ant propert ies in a circular t ube
wit h const ant heat flux boundary condit ions fielded a correlat ion,
which was based on t he t hree-layer t urbulent boundary layer model
wit h const ant s adj ust ed t o mat ch t he experiment al dat a.
§ Pet ukhov also gave a simplified form of t his correlat ion as
( )
( ) ( ) 1 Pr 2 / 7 . 12 07 . 1
Pr Re 2 /
3 2
5 . 0
− +
·
f
f
Nu
b b
b
( )
2
28 . 3 Re ln 58 . 1

− ·
b
f Where t he frict ion fact or f is defined as:
q This equat ion predict s result s in t he range of
§ 10
4
< Re < 5x10
6
& 0.5 < Pr < 200 wit h 6% error
§ 10
4
< Re < 5x10
6
& 0.5 < Pr < 2000 wit h 10% error
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 60
Tube Side Pressure Drop
q The t ube-si de pressure drop can be calculat ed by knowing t he
§ Number of t ube passes, N
p
§ Lengt h of t he heat exchanger, L
§ Mean fluid velocit y inside t he t ube, u
m
2
2
1
4
m
i
p
t
u
d
LN
f p ρ × · ∆
ρ 2
4
2
tube
i
p
t
G
d
LN
f p × · ∆
q The change of direct ion in t he passes int roduces
an addit ional pressure drop, ?P
r
due t o sudden
expansions and cont ract ions t hat t he t ube fluid
experiences during a ret urn
§ This is account ed wit h four velocit y heads per pass
q Tot al pressure drop t han becomes
2
2
1
4
m r r
u N p ρ × · ∆
2
2
1
4 4
m p
i
p
total
u N
d
LN
f p ρ ×
1
]
1

¸

+ · ∆
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 61
Roadmap To Increase Heat Transfer
q I ncrease heat t ransfer coefficent
§ Tube Side
• I ncrease number of t ubes
• Decrease t ube out side diamet er
§ Shell Side
• Decrease t he baf f le spacing
• Decrease baffle cut
q I ncrease surface area
§ I ncrease t ube lengt h
§ I ncrease shell diamet er à increased number of t ubes
§ Employ mult iple shells in series or parallel
q I ncrease LMTD correct ion fact or and heat exchanger effect iveness
§ Use count erflow configurat ion
§ Use mult iple shell configurat ion
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 62
Roadmap To Reduce Pressure Drop
q Tube side
§ Decrease number of t ube passes
§ I ncrease t ube diamet er
§ Decrease t ube lengt h and increase shell diamet er and number of t ubes
q Shell side
§ I ncrease t he baffle cut
§ I ncrease t he baffle spacing
§ I ncrease t ube pit ch
§ Use double or t riple segment al baffles
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 63
References
q Fundament als of Heat Exchanger Design
Ramesh K. Shah & Dusan Sekulic
John Wiley & Sons, 2003
q Compact Heat Exchangers, 3
rd
Edit ion
W.M. Kays & A.L. London
q Heat Exchangers, Select ion Rat ing & Design
Sadik Kakac & Hongt an Liu
CRC Press, 2
nd
Edit ion, 2002
q Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Design Soft ware for Educat ional
Applicat ions. I nt . J. Engng. Ed. Vol. 14, No. 3, p 217-224, 1998
K.C. Leong, K.C. Toh, Y.C. Leong
q Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Dat a Book
www.wolverine.com
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 64
APPENDIX
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 65
Dimensional Data For Commercial Tubing
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 66
Dimensional Data For Commercial Tubing

Introduction
q

Shell & tube heat exchangers are the most versatile type of heat exchangers.

§ They are used in process industries, in conventional and nuclear power
stations, steam generators, etc

§ They are used in many alternative energy applications including ocean,
thermal and geothermal.
q

Shell & tube heat exchangers provide relatively large ratios of heat transfer area to volume. They can be easily cleaned.

q

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

2

Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
q

Shell & tube type heat exchangers are built of tubes (round or rectangular in general) mounted in shells (cylindrical, rectangular or arbitrary shape). Many variations of this basic type is available.

q

§ The differences lie mainly in the detailed features of construction and provisions
for differential thermal expansion between the tubes and the shell.

Shell inlet

Tube inlet

Tube outlet

Shell outlet

TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design

3

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 4 . single pass shell & tube heat exchanger Two pass tube. floating head. baffled. baffled single pass shell & tube heat exchanger Two pass tube.Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers U-Tube. baffled single pass shell & tube heat exchanger TFD-HE13 .

baffles (dividers) are installed to direct the flow around the tubes. Inside the shell. Shells are also typically purchased in standard sizes to control costs. the maximum spacing depends on how much support the tubes need. increase velocity. They also help support the tubes. It effects both heat transfer and pressure drop. and promote cross flow. Typically. The baffle cut is the ratio of the baffle window height to the shell diameter. They define a naming system that is commonly used. 5 TFD-HE13 . Designers also need to specify the baffle spacing.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design . baffle cut is about 20 percent.Shell Types q q TEMA (the Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association) publishes standards defining how shell and tube exchangers should be built.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 6 .Multi Shell & Tube Passes TFD-HE13 .

Methods of attaching tubes to the header plate q Header Plate Tube TFD-HE13 . tube outside diameter. the header plate becomes to weak. number of passes and the shell diameter.Tube to Header Plate Connection q Tubes are arranged in a bundle and held in place by header plate (tube sheet). pitch. q When the tubes are to close to each other. The number of tubes that can be placed within a shell depends on Header Plate q § Tube layout.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 7 .

Baffle Type & Geometry q Baffles serve two functions: § Support the tubes for structural rigidity. TFD-HE13 . preventing tube vibration and sagging § Divert the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher heat transfer coefficient.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 8 .

q The triple segmental baffles are used for low pressure applications.60% of the shell diameter. TFD-HE13 . They divert the flow most effectively across the tubes. q § Optimal baffle spacing is somewhere between 40% . The baffle spacing must be chosen with care. § Baffle cut of 25%-35% is usually recommended.Segmental Cut Baffles Baffle Type & Geometry q The single and double segmental baffles are most frequently used.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 9 .

§ The potential bundle-to-shell bypass stream is eliminated § This baffle type is very effective in pressure drop to heat transfer conversion q Disc TFD-HE13 . which direct the flow radially across the tube field.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 10 .Disc & Ring Baffles Baffle Type & Geometry q Disc and ring baffles are composed of alternating outer rings and inner discs.

TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 11 .Orifice Baffle Baffle Type & Geometry q In an orifice baffle shell-side-fluid flows through the clearance between tube outside diameter and baffle-hole diameter.

q TFD-HE13 . the velocity is kept high enough to prevent settling.Number of Tubes q The number of tubes in an exchanger depends on the § Fluid flow rates § Available pressure drop. and the upper velocity limit corresponds to limiting the rate of erosion.5 m/s (2 to 5 ft/sec).6 to 1. q The lower velocity limit corresponds to limiting the fouling. q The number of tubes is selected such that the § Tube side velocity for water and similar liquids ranges from 0.9 to 2.4 m/s (3 to 8 ft/sec) § Shell-side velocity from 0. When sand and silt are present.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 12 .

q A large number of tube passes are used to increase the tube side fluid velocity and heat transfer coefficient and minimize fouling.Tube Passes q A pass is when liquid flows all the way across from one end to the other of the exchanger. Almost always. We will count shell passes and tube passes. the tube passes will be in multiples of two (1-2. etc. 1-4. § This can only be done when there is enough pumping power since the increased velocity and additional turns increases the pressure drop significantly. TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 13 . § An exchanger with one shell pass and two tube passes is a 1-2 exchanger. etc. An exception: 1-1 exchangers are sometimes used for vaporizers and condensers.) § Odd numbers of tube passes have more complicated mechanical stresses. 2-4.

or four tube passes. q Therefore. q The number of tube passes in a shell generally range from 1 to 10 § The standard design has one. § Higher velocities in the tube result in higher heat transfer coefficients. TFD-HE13 .Tube Passes . at the expense of increased pressure drop.Continued q The number of tube passes depends on the available pressure drop.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 14 . § An odd number of passes is uncommon and may result in mechanical and thermal problems in fabrication and operation. if a higher pressure drop is acceptable. it is desirable to have fewer but longer tubes (reduced flow area and increased flow length). § Long tubes are accommodated in a short shell exchanger by multiple tube passes. two.

and good joining characteristics often leads to the selection of aluminum for the heat transfer surface. one of the selection criteria for exchanger material depends on the corrosiveness of the working fluid.Tube Materials q Materials selection and compatibility between construction materials and working fluids are important issues. In general.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 15 . high conductivity. Requirement for low cost. light weight. in particular with regard to corrosion and/or operation at elevated temperatures. A summary Table is provided as a reference fo rcorrosive and noncorrosive environments q q q q TFD-HE13 . stainless steel is used for food processing or fluids that require corrosion resistance. On the other side.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 16 .Materials for Corrosive & Noncorrosive Service TFD-HE13 .

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 17 . Large tube diameters are often required for condensers and boilers. q q TFD-HE13 .Tube Wall Thickness q The wall thickness of heat exchanger tubes is standardized in terms of Birmingham Wire Gage BWG of the tube. Small tube diameters (8 to 15mm) are preferred for greater area to volume density but are limited for the purposes of cleaning.

The foregoing common sizes represent a compromise.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 18 .05 mm. larger-diameter tubes are easier to clean and more rugged.Tube Outside Diameter q The most common plain tube sizes have 15. q q q § For mechanical cleaning. § For chemical cleaning.40 mm (5/8.88.05. From the heat transfer viewpoint. ¾. 1 inche) tube outside diameters. TFD-HE13 . smaller sizes can be used provided that the tubes never plug completely. and 25. the smallest practical size is 19. smaller-diameter tubes yield higher heat transfer coefficients and result in a more compact exchanger. However.19.

§ Shell-diameter-to-tube-length ratio should be within limits of 1/5 to 1/15 q Maximum tube length is dictated by § Architectural layouts § Transportation (to about 30m. like with anything limits of how long the tubes can be.) • The diameter of the two booster rockets is dictated by the smallest highway TFD-HE13 . although standard exchangers can be built with tubes up to 40 ft. There are.Tube Length q Tube length affects the cost and operation of heat exchangers.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design tunnel size between the location of manufacturer and Florida. Mechanical cleaning is limited to tubes 20 ft and shorter. requiring less complicated header plate with fewer holes drilled • Shell diameter decreases resulting in lower cost q q Typically tubes are employed in 8. and 20 foot lengths. § Longer the tube length (for any given surface area). 15. Scientific hah! 19 . • Fewer tubes are needed. 12.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design Header Plate Deformation Undeformed Header Plate Shape 20 . header plate and shell joint needs to be considered when using § Longer tubes § High operating tube side temperatures § Cyclic thermal loads TFD-HE13 .Tube & Header Plate Deformation q Tube Length q Thermal expansion of tubes needs to be taken into account for heat exchangers operating at elevated temperatures Tube elongation due to thermal expansion causes: Magnified Displacement of a Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Elements Under Thermal Load Undeformed Shell Wall Shell Wall Deformation § Header plate deformation § Shell wall deformation near the header plate q Fatigue strength of the tube.

Triangular 21 TFD-HE13 .45°. • Triangular pitch (30o layout) is better for PT PT heat transfer and surface area per unit length (greatest tube density. and 90° is in line.Tube Layout q Tube layout is characterized by the included angle between tubes.60°. Triangular Rotated Square § Two standard types of tube layouts are the square and the equilateral triangle.) for mechanical cleaning. 90°. • Square pitch (45 & 90 layouts) is needed § Note that the 30°. the tube layouts in decreasing order of shell-side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are: 30°.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design . q Square Rotated Triangle For the identical tube pitch and flow rates.45° and 60° are staggered.

The square pitch (90° or 45°) is used when jet or mechanical cleaning is necessary on the shell side.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 22 .35 mm) is provided. and the strongest header sheet for a specified shell-side flow area. q The triangular pitch provides a more compact arrangement.Continued q The 90° layout will have the lowest heat transfer coefficient and the lowest pressure drop. In that case. § It is preferred when the operating pressure difference between the two fluids is large. (6. usually resulting in smaller shell. q § The square pitch is generally not used in the fixed header sheet design because cleaning is not feasible. TFD-HE13 . a minimum cleaning lane of ¼ in.Tube Layout .

25 < PT/do < 1. § Open pitch (large values of Pt/ do) for decreased shell-side plugging and q Tube pitch PT is chosen so that the pitch ratio is 1.Tube Pitch q The selection of tube pitch is a compromise between a § Close pitch (small values of Pt/do) for increased shell-side heat transfer and surface compactness. TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 23 .25) . § However. the header plate (tube sheet) becomes to weak for proper rolling of the tubes and cause leaky joints. these are general rules of thumb and can be “violated” for custom heat exchanger designs. and an ease in shell-side cleaning.5 § When the tubes are to close to each other (Pt/do less than 1. q Tube layout and tube locations are standardized for industrial heat exchangers.

Tube & Shell Exhaust Gas Cooler

A tube and shell exhaust gas cooler is used on diesel engines to reduce the NOx emissions. A rectangular closely packed tube arrangement is used resulting in a rectangular shell.
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 24

Fluid Allocation
q

Tube side is preferred under these circumstances:

§ Fluids which are prone to foul
• The higher velocities will reduce buildup • Mechanical cleaning is also much more practical for tubes than for shells.

§ Corrosive fluids are usually best in tubes
• Tubes are cheaper to fabricate from exotic materials • This is also true for very high temperature fluids requiring alloy construction

§ § § §
q

Toxic fluids to increase containment Streams with low flow rates to obtain increased velocities and turbulence High pressure streams since tubes are less expensive to build strong Streams with a low allowable pressure drop

Viscous fluids go on the shell side, since this will usually improve the rate of heat transfer.

§ On the other hand, placing them on the tube side will usually lead to
lower pressure drops. Judgment is needed
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 25

Basic Design Procedure
q

Heat exchanger must satisfy the

§ Heat transfer requirements (design or
process needs)

§ Allowable pressure drop (pumping
capacity and cost)
q

Steps in designing a heat exchanger can be listed as:

§ Identify the problem § Select an heat exchanger type § Calculate/Select initial design
parameters

§ Rate the initial design
• Calculate thermal performance and

pressure drops for shell and tube side

§ Evaluate the design
• Is performance and cost acceptable?
TFD-HE13 - Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 26

cf § where • Ao • q • Uo • F • ? Tm • ? Tlm Outside tube surface area Heat duty – heat exchange between tube and shell side Overall heat transfer coefficient Correction factor F=1.0 for cross flow heat exchanger True mean temperature à ? Tm = F ? Tlm Log mean temperature difference (Est of true mean temperature) § Correction Factor F is be covered in module TFD-HE4 Log-Mean Temperature Difference TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 27 .Size of Heat Exchanger q The initial size (surface area) of a heat exchanger can be estimated from Ao = q q = U o ∆Tm U o F∆Tlm .

Rfi) § Overall surface efficiency (? i & ? o) R fi  R fo 1 Ao  1 1   + Ao Rw + = + + U o Ai  ηi hi η i  η o η o ho   TFD-HE13 . outside & inside tube fouling resistances (Rw. Rfo.Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient q The overall heat transfer coefficient Uo based on the outside diameter of tubes can be estimated from: § The individual heat transfer coefficients (h) § Shell wall.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 28 .

o Shell outlet Th.i Shell inlet Tube inlet Tube outlet Th.o 29 . the fourth can be calculated using the above equation.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design Tc.i ) = (mc p )h (Th .o − Tc . § The above equation assumes no phase change in any of the fluids.i TFD-HE13 . Tc.Heat Balance of Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger q Heat load of a heat exchanger can be estimated from heat balance: & & q = (mc p )c (Tc .i − Th .o ) § If three of the temperatures are given.

Other TFD Modules Supporting Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers q q q Overall heat transfer coefficient is covered in module TFD-HE01 Log-mean temperature difference is covered in module TFD-HE4 Heat transfer from finned surfaces is covered in module TFD-HE11 TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 30 .

q Ao = πd o N t L TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 31 . tube length (L) and tube diameter (do) together with the allowable pressure drop and the total tube side flow rate hence the heat transfer coefficient.Total Number of Tubes q Once the total tube outside surface area Ao is estimated a cost effective heat exchanger configuration needs to be calculated. Number of tubes Nt is dependent on tube side flow conditions. It is related to the shell diameter (Ds).

00 § CL=0.Tube Layout Constant § CL=1.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 32 .87 for 90 & 45 square pitch for 30 & 60 equilateral tri pitch TFD-HE13 .93 § CTP=0.90 § CTP=0. § CTP=0.85 One tube pass Two tube passes Three tube passes CL .Total Number of Tubes q The total number of tubes can be predicted as a function of the shell diameter by taking the shell circle Ds and dividing it by the projected area of the tube layout pertaining to a single tube A1 πDs2 N t = (CTP) 4 A1 q A1 = (CL) PT2 CTP is the tube count constant which accounts for the incomplete coverage of the shell diameter by the tubes due to necessary clearances between the shell and the outer tube circle.

637   CTP  L  2 1 2 Ao = πd o N t L TFD-HE13 .785  CL   P  2 2   T  do d   o CL  Ao (PT d o ) d o  Ds = 0.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 33 .Shell Diameter q Shell diameter in terms of main constructional diameters can be expressed as: 2  CTP  Ds N t = 0.

temperature.Rating of the Heat Exchanger Design q Rating an exchanger means to evaluate the thermo-hydraulic performance of a fully specified exchanger.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 34 . q q q TFD-HE13 . thermal conductivity) First output from the rating process is either the outlet temperature for fixed tube length or the tube length itself to meet the outlet temperature requirement. Input to the rating process is heat exchanger geometry (constructional design parameters). process conditions (flow rate. pressure) and material/fluid properties (density. Second output from the rating process is the pressure drop for both fluid streams hence the pumping energy requirements and size.

one should find a way to increase the heat transfer coefficient or increase exchanger surface area q § One can increase the tube side heat transfer coefficient by increasing the fluid velocity .Increase number of tube passes § One can increase the shell side heat transfer coefficient by decreasing baffle spacing and/or baffle cut § One can increase the surface area by • Increasing the heat exchanger length • Increasing the shell diameter • Multiple shells in series TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 35 .Insufficient Thermal Rating q If the output of the rating analysis is not acceptable. a geometrical modification should be made If the required amount of heat cannot be transferred to satisfy specific outlet temperature.

Insufficient Pressure Drop Rating q If the pressure drop on the tube side is greater than the allowable pressure drop. and baffle cut can be increased or one can change the baffle type. then § the number of tube passes can be decreased or § the tube diameter can be increased which may result to • decrease the tube length – (Same surface area) • increase the shell diameter and the number of tubes q If the shell side pressure drop is greater than the allowable pressure drop then baffle spacing. tube pitch.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 36 . THERE IS ALWAYS A TRADE-OFF BETWEEN THERMAL & PRESSURE DROP RATINGS! TFD-HE13 .

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 37 . These adjustments can be made by properly selecting physical dimensions of the solid parts (fins. TFD-HE13 . q q q § Constraints such as cost.The Trade-Off Between Thermal Balance & Flow Loss q Heat transfer and fluid friction losses tend to compete with one another. and reliability enter into the determination of truly optimal designs. The total energy loss can be minimized by adjusting the size of one irreversibility against the other . that the result is at best a thermodynamic optimum. however. size. heat exchanger surface). It must be understood. ducts.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 38 .Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient q There are three rating methods to calculate the shell side heat transfer coefficient: § Kern method is a simplified approach suitable for shell side flow without baffles § Taborek method § Bell Delaware method is the most complex but accurate way of rating a heat exchanger with baffles TFD-HE13 .

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 39 .SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT WITH BAFFLES TFD-HE13 .

whereas a potentially substantial portion flows through the ‘leakage’ areas (Streams A.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 40 . E & F) § However. C. § the velocity of fluid fluctuates because of the constricted area between adjacent tubes across the bundle. For a baffled heat exchanger q § the higher heat transfer coefficients result from the increased turbulence. and the flow distribution within the exchanger must be taken into account. the heat transfer coefficient is higher than the coefficient for undisturbed flow around tubes without baffles. TFD-HE13 . q Only part of the fluid takes the desired path through the tube bundle (Stream B).Shell Side Heat Transfer Baffled Flow q When the tube bundle employs baffles. these clearances are inherent to the manufacturing and assembly process of shell-and-tube exchangers.

§ Stream F is the bypass stream in flow channel partitions due to omissions of tubes in tube pass partitions. which can be related to flow across ideal tube banks. § Stream E is the leakage stream between the baffle edge and shell wall.Main & Leakage Flow Streams Baffled Heat Exchanger q There are five different shell side flow streams in a baffled heat exchanger § Stream A is the leakage stream in the orifice formed by the clearance between the baffle tube hole and the tube wall. § Stream B is the main effective crossflow stream. TFD-HE13 . § Stream C is the tube bundle bypass stream in the gap between the tube bundle and shell wall.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 41 .

1-4) heat exchanger Stream C TFD-HE13 .Main & Leakage Flow Streams Baffled Heat Exchanger Pass 2 Pass 1 Stream A Stream E Stream F Stream F happens in a multiple pass (1-2.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 42 .

Heat Transfer Coefficient & Correction Factors q Bell Delaware Method In the Delaware method.14  ms  k s  3  µ s  &     ho = hideal J c J l J b J s J r hideal = ji c ps    A  c µ   µ   s  ps s   s . Each of the above streams introduces a correction factor to the heat transfer correlation for ideal cross-flow across a bank of tubes. the fluid flow in the shell is divided into a number of individual streams A through F as defined before. 2 0.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design .w  § § § § § q hideal Jc Jl Jb Js Jr heat transfer coefficient for pure cross-flow in an ideal tube bank for baffle cut and spacing for leakage effects bundle bypass flow C & F streams for variable baffle spacing in the inlet and outlet sections § § ji As Colburn j-factor Cross flow area at the centerline of shell for one cross flow between two baffles Stands for shell Wall temperature § § s w § for adverse temperature gradient build-up The combined effects of all these correction factors for a reasonable well-designed shell-and-tube heat exchanger is of the order of 0.60 43 TFD-HE13 .

It depends on the shell diameter and the baffle cut distance from the baffle tip to the shell inside diameter. TFD-HE13 . q § For a large baffle cut.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 44 . this value may decrease to a value of 0.15 for small windows with a high window velocity.53 § it is equal to 1. This factor takes into account the heat transfer in the window and calculates the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the entire heat exchanger.Bell Delaware Method Jc Correction Factor q Jc is the correction factor for baffle cut and spacing.0 for a heat exchanger with no tubes in the window § It may increase to a value as high as 1.

and E-streams).Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 45 .Bell Delaware Method Jl Correction Factor q Jl is the correlation factor for baffle leakage effects including tubeto-baffle and shell-to-baffle leakage (A.7 and 0. then the fraction of the flow in the leakage streams increases compared with the cross flow. TFD-HE13 . q A typical value of Jl is in the range of 0.8. If the baffles are put too close together. JI is a function of the q q § ratio of total leakage area per baffle to the cross flow area between adjacent baffles § ratio of the shell-to-baffle leakage area to the tube-to-baffle leakage area.

Jb = 0.7. Jb = 0.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 46 .14) can increase the value of Jb Stream F Pa ss 2 Pa ss 1 TFD-HE13 .and F-streams). larger clearance is required.90. § For a pull-through floating head.Bell Delaware Method Jb Correction Factor q Jb is the correction factor for bundle bypassing effects due to the clearance between the outermost tubes and the shell and pass dividers (C. § The sealing strips (see figure8. § For relatively small clearance between the outermost tubes and the shell for fixed tube sheet construction.

is less than 100.60 TFD-HE13 . § This factor is equal to 1.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 47 . the average heat transfer coefficient on the shell side will change. q q § If Res < 20.Bell Delaware Method Js & Jr Correction Factors q Js is the correction factor for variable baffle spacing at the inlet and outlet. Because of the nozzle spacing at the inlet and outlet and the changes in local velocities.00. The Js value will usually be between 0. The combined effect of all these correction factors for a well-designed shell-and-tube heat exchanger is of the order of 0. Jr applies if the shell-side Reynolds number. Res.85 and 1. it is fully effective.00 if Res> 100.

Bell Delaware Method Heat Transfer Coefficient .Colburn j-factor q Colburn-j factor is used in heat transfer in general and free and forced convection calculations in particular.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 48 .Pr2/3) where St is Stanton number where Stanton Number is defined as h h h St = = = & m Gc p (ρVmax )c p cp Amin q § G is the mass velocity § Amin is the min free flow x-sec area regardless where it occurs Colburn j-factor is a function of: § Shell side Reynolds number based on the outside tube diameter and on the minimum cross section flow area at the shell diameter & d o ms Re s = µ s As § Tube layout § Pitch size TFD-HE13 . § It is equivalent to (St.

a set of curve-fit correlations are obtained in the following forms: Colburn j-factor  1.Numerical Forms of Colburn (j) & Friction (f) Factors q Bell Delaware Method Although the ideal values of j and f are available in graphical forms.14(Re s ) 4 49 TFD-HE13 .33   (Re s )a2 ji = a1  P d   T o a3 a= a 1 + 0.14(Re s ) 4 Friction factor a  1. for computer analysis.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design .33   (Re s )b2 f = b1  P d   T o b b= b3 b 1 + 0.

SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT WITHOUT BAFFLES SHELL-and-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 50 .

36 Re 0.14 q q 2 ×103 < Re s = TFD-HE13 .55 1/ 3 0.55 Pr 1/ 3  b  k  µw  D G  ho De = 0.Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient Without Baffles – Flow Along the Tube Axis q The heat transfer coefficient outside the tube bundle is referred to as the shell-side heat transfer coefficient.14 q q De Gs b w Equivalent shell diameter Shell side mass velocity Bulk fluid temperature Wall temperature  c p µ   µb      k   µw   DeGs < 106 µ 0. De (Same as a double-pipe heat exchanger) q µ  ho De = 0.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 51 .36 e s  k  µ  0. the flow will be along the heat exchanger inside the shell. Then. the heat transfer coefficient can be based on the equivalent diameter. If there are no baffles.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 52 .De q The equivalent diameter of the shell is taken as four times the net flow area as layout on the tube sheet (for my pitch layout) divided by the wetted perimeter: Rectangular Pitch 2 4( PT2 − πd o / 4) De = πd o De = 4× free flow area wetted perimeter Triangular Pitch 2 4( PT2 3 − πd o / 8) De = πd o / 2 TFD-HE13 .Equivalent Shell Diameter .

B. Gs.Shell Side Mass Velocity . Baffle spacing (B) The width of the flow area at the tubes located at center of the shell is (Ds/PT) C and the length of the flow area is taken as the baffle spacing. For this reason. can be calculated. the bundle cross flow area As. § Therefore. Variables that affect the velocity are: § Shell diameter (Ds) Pitch size (PT) q Clearance between adjacent tubes (C).Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design . at the center of the shell is As = Ds CB PT q Shell side mass velocity is Gs = & m As 53 TFD-HE13 .Gs q q q There is no free-flow area on the shell side by which the shell-side mass velocity. fictional values of Gs can be defined based on the bundle cross flow area at the hypothetical tube row possessing the maximum flow area corresponding to the center of the shell.

Shell Side Pressure Drop q The shell-side pressure drop depends on the number of tubes the fluid passes through in the tube bundle between the baffles as well as the length of each crossing. for example. all the fluid travels across the bundle five times. taken as the inside diameter of the shell.576 − 0. B is the baffle spacing  L   fGs2  − 1 + 1 Ds  B   ∆p s = 0. q A correlation has been obtained using the product of distance across the bundle.14 2 ρDe (µb µ w ) q Shell side friction coefficient f includes the entrance and exit losses f = exp{0. § L is the heat exchanger length.19 ln(Re s )} 54 TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design . § If the length of a bundle is divided by four baffles. Ds and the number of times the bundle is crossed.

TUBE SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICENT & FRICTION FACTOR SHELL-and-TUBE HEAT EXCHAGER TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 55 .

56 q q q TFD-HE13 . circular ducts with constant and temperature-dependent physical properties. There are a large number of correlations available in the literature for the fully developed (hydro-dynamically and thermally) turbulent flow of single-phase Newtonian fluids in smooth. The objective of this section is to highlight some of the existing correlations to be used in the design of heat exchange equipment and to emphasize the conditions or limitations imposed on the applicability of these correlations.Tube Side Heat Transfer Correlations q Extensive experimental and theoretical efforts have been made to obtain the solutions for turbulent forced convection heat transfer and flow friction problems in ducts because of their frequent occurrence and application in heat transfer engineering.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design . straight. Extensive efforts have been made to obtain empirical correlations that represent a best-fit curve to experimental data or to adjust coefficients in the theoretical equations to best fit the experimental data.

and fouling phenomena TFD-HE13 .mechanical design features such as the basic geometry.viscosity or density induced mal distribution.Flow Maldistribution & Header Design q One of the common assumptions in basic heat exchanger design theory is that fluid be distributed uniformly at the inlet of the exchanger on each fluid side and throughout the core. flow maldistribution is more common and can significantly reduce the desired heat exchanger performance. in practice. manufacturing imperfections. § However. multi phase flow. q Flow maldistribution can be induced by heat exchanger § Geometry . and tolerances § Operating conditions .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 57 .

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design § Same velocity in each tube! 58 .Tube-to-Tube Velocity Variation q In most cases. geometric flow entry & exit conditions to the headers promote a tube-2-tube velocity variation Flow velocity distribution over the header plate before tube entrance for a rectangular x-sec heat exchanger X-sectional area of the inlet pipe to the header plate may be smaller compared to the header plate area Header Plate q 90 degree flow turn creates non-uniform velocity distribution inside the tubes Nusselt correlations presented in this module assume an equally distributed flow between tubes TFD-HE13 .

Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient q Petukhov & Popov’s theoretical calculations for the case of fully developed turbulent flow with constant properties in a circular tube with constant heat flux boundary conditions fielded a correlation.5 1.5 < Pr < 200 with 6% error § 104 < Re < 5x106 & 0.5 < Pr < 2000 with 10% error TFD-HE13 . which was based on the three-layer turbulent boundary layer model with constants adjusted to match the experimental data.28 ) −2 Where the friction factor f is defined as: q This equation predicts results in the range of § 104 < Re < 5x106 & 0.7( f / 2) (Pr 2 3 − 1) f = (1.07 + 12. § Petukhov also gave a simplified form of this correlation as Nub = ( f / 2 ) Re b Prb 0.58 ln Re b − 3.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 59 .

? Pr due to sudden 2 expansions and contractions that the tube fluid ∆p r = 4 N r × 1 ρ u m 2 experiences during a return § This is accounted with four velocity heads per pass q Total pressure drop than becomes  LN p  2 ∆ptotal = 4 f + 4 N p  × 1 ρum 2 di   60 TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design .Tube Side Pressure Drop q The tube-side pressure drop can be calculated by knowing the § Number of tube passes. um ∆pt = 4 f q LN p di × 1 ρu 2 2 m 2 Gtube ∆pt = 4 f × di 2ρ LN p The change of direction in the passes introduces an additional pressure drop. L § Mean fluid velocity inside the tube. Np § Length of the heat exchanger.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 61 .Roadmap To Increase Heat Transfer q Increase heat transfer coefficent § Tube Side • Increase number of tubes • Decrease tube outside diameter § Shell Side • Decrease the baffle spacing • Decrease baffle cut q Increase surface area § Increase tube length § Increase shell diameter à increased number of tubes § Employ multiple shells in series or parallel q Increase LMTD correction factor and heat exchanger effectiveness § Use counterflow configuration § Use multiple shell configuration TFD-HE13 .

Roadmap To Reduce Pressure Drop q Tube side § Decrease number of tube passes § Increase tube diameter § Decrease tube length and increase shell diameter and number of tubes q Shell side § § § § Increase the baffle cut Increase the baffle spacing Increase tube pitch Use double or triple segmental baffles TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 62 .

com 63 q q q q TFD-HE13 .C. Leong.Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design . Toh.L.wolverine.References q Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design Ramesh K. Kays & A. Leong Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data Book www. Shah & Dusan Sekulic John Wiley & Sons.C. 3. K.C. 14. London Heat Exchangers. J. 3rd Edition W. Ed.M. No. Vol. 2nd Edition. Int. 2002 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Design Software for Educational Applications. 1998 K. Selection Rating & Design Sadik Kakac & Hongtan Liu CRC Press. 2003 Compact Heat Exchangers. Engng. Y. p 217-224.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 64 .APPENDIX TFD-HE13 .

Dimensional Data For Commercial Tubing TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 65 .

Dimensional Data For Commercial Tubing TFD-HE13 .Shell & Tube Heat Exchager Design 66 .

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