Business English

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Business English Unit 1 .................................................................................................................7 Pre-Reading Tasks..........................................................................................7 Reading...........................................................................................................7 Ways with words............................................................................................8 Grammar Reference ....................................................................................12 The verb to be...........................................................................................12 The demonstrative pronoun and adjective...............................................13 Question forms.........................................................................................13 Controlled practice ......................................................................................14 Unit 2 ...............................................................................................................16 Pre-reading tasks..........................................................................................16 Reading.........................................................................................................16 Ways with words..........................................................................................18 Grammar reference ......................................................................................23 The personal pronoun...............................................................................23 Mood, tense and aspect............................................................................24 Present Simple..........................................................................................24 Present Continuous...................................................................................25 Controlled practice ......................................................................................26 Unit 3 ...............................................................................................................31 Pre-reading tasks..........................................................................................31 Reading.........................................................................................................31 Ways with words:.........................................................................................33 Grammar reference ......................................................................................39 Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English........................39 The Imperative.........................................................................................39 The possessive pronoun and the posessive adjective..............................40 Controlled practice ......................................................................................40 Unit 4 ...............................................................................................................43 Pre-reading tasks:.........................................................................................43 Reading 1......................................................................................................43 Ways with words 1.......................................................................................44 2

Business English Reading 2......................................................................................................45 Ways with words 2.......................................................................................46 Grammar Reference.....................................................................................49 Classification of nouns.............................................................................49 Number of nouns......................................................................................49 The Genitive.............................................................................................50 Controlled practice.......................................................................................51 Unit 5 ...............................................................................................................59 Pre-reading tasks..........................................................................................59 Reading.........................................................................................................59 Ways with words..........................................................................................60 Grammar Reference ....................................................................................67 Past Simple...............................................................................................67 Past Continuous........................................................................................69 Past Simple and Past Continuous.............................................................70 Expressions of quantity............................................................................70 The Adjective...........................................................................................71 The order of adjectives in a series............................................................72 Controlled practice ......................................................................................73 Unit 6................................................................................................................85 Pre-Reading Tasks........................................................................................85 Reading.........................................................................................................85 Ways with words..........................................................................................89 Grammar Reference ....................................................................................92 Present Perfect Simple.............................................................................92 Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple..................................................94 The Preposition........................................................................................94 Prepositions of time..................................................................................95 Controlled practice ......................................................................................96 Unit 7..............................................................................................................102 Pre-reading tasks........................................................................................102 Reading.......................................................................................................102 3

Business English Universitatea Ovidius Constanţa – Facultatea de Litere ..............................102 Aleea Universităţii nr. 1 Constanţa 8700.......................................................102 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................106 Present Perfect Continuous....................................................................106 Modal Verbs...........................................................................................107 Problematic prepositions of movement and place.................................108 Controlled practice ....................................................................................108 Unit 8 .............................................................................................................112 Pre-reading tasks........................................................................................112 Reading.......................................................................................................112 WAYS WITH WORDS.........................................................................113 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................113 The Cardinal Numeral............................................................................113 Past Perfect Simple................................................................................114 Past Perfect Continuous.........................................................................115 Controlled practice ....................................................................................116 Unit 9..............................................................................................................121 Pre-reading tasks........................................................................................121 Reading.......................................................................................................121 WAYS WITH WORDS.........................................................................122 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................123 Future Simple.........................................................................................123 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives...............................................124 Comparative Sentences..........................................................................126 Controlled practice ....................................................................................126 Test.................................................................................................................131 Unit 10 ...........................................................................................................134 Pre-reading task..........................................................................................134 Reading.......................................................................................................134 Ways with words........................................................................................137 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................141 Be going to Future..................................................................................141 4

Business English Future Simple or Be Going To?.............................................................142 First Conditional.....................................................................................143 Controlled practice ....................................................................................143 Unit 11............................................................................................................148 Pre-Reading Task.......................................................................................148 Reading.......................................................................................................148 Ways with words........................................................................................150 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................157 The Ordinal Numeral.............................................................................157 The Fractional Numeral.........................................................................157 The Multiplicative Numeral...................................................................158 Second Conditional................................................................................158 Controlled practice ....................................................................................159 Unit 12............................................................................................................161 Pre-reading tasks........................................................................................161 Reading.......................................................................................................161 Ways with words........................................................................................164 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................169 The Article..............................................................................................169 Third Conditional...................................................................................171 Controlled practice ....................................................................................171 Unit 13 ...........................................................................................................176 Reading.......................................................................................................176 Ways with words........................................................................................181 Grammar Reference ..................................................................................186 The Adverb.............................................................................................186 The Passive Voice .................................................................................188 Controlled practice ....................................................................................189 Unit 14 ...........................................................................................................194 Pre-reading.................................................................................................194 Reading.......................................................................................................194 Ways with words........................................................................................196 5

................208 Unit 15..........................217 The Conjunction .....................................Business English Grammar Reference ...............................................211 Pre-reading.......................................................................................226 Evaluation...........................................................222 Test.................................................................................................................213 Grammar Reference ............228 Appendix 1.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................201 The Infinitive.................................................................................................................................217 Subordinating Conjunctions.................................................................................................................................................218 Direct and indirect (reported) speech..........................................................218 Sequence of tenses.............................................211 Reading .........201 Punctuation...........205 The Participle...230 Appendix 2...........................................211 Ways with words......................................206 Controlled practice...................248 Bibliography....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................250 6 ...................................................................................................................................................................238 Appendix 3................................................................220 Controlled practice .................................................................................................................................................................217 Coordinating Conjunctions......................................................................217 Grammar Reference ......................................206 The Gerund.............

as. I came here to study because I have always been keen on economics and I really hope to learn many useful things here. a town in the West of Romania. it is very useful to speak foreign languages and on the other 7 . I come from Arad. and I can speak Spanish well and a little English. I’m studying Spanish and English. a student in Romania: My name is Mihaela Vlad and I am a student in the Faculty of Economic Sciences at “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti. I also hope that in a short time I will improve my English. on the one hand. I improved my Spanish when I went on a two-month holiday to my aunt in Spain.Business English Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Social English © The English Alphabet © The Verb to be © The Demonstrative Pronoun and the Demonstrative Adjective © Question forms •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-Reading Tasks What’s your name? How old are you? Where do you live? What do you specialise in? Reading Read the following text about Mihaela Vlad.

that people started to import English in the seventeenth century.Business English hand. As I could read in an article. due to the extension of computerized systems and software which are mostly in English. International literary. Again incredibly. Can you keep a conversation going with someone for two or three minutes? Choose a partner who you don’t know well. Work in small groups and find out things about your partner. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Spell your name in English to your deskmate. I might need it for my future job. Spell the name of Mihaela Vlad. Incredibly enough. the more opportunities I may have to read interesting materials connected to my field and to get a good job in the future. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realise that this is a relatively recent thing . with the first settlements in North America. yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. the quicker I learn it. Then find out how to spell his/her name. So. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. or imagine your partner is a stranger. Everyday English Practise saying the letters of the alphabet according to the vowel sounds: /ei/ a h j l k /i:/ b c d e g p t v /e/ f l m n s x z /ai/ i y /∂u/ o /u:/ q u w /a:/ r Ways with words 1. Then work in pairs. when English is one of the major languages in the world. scientific and economic publications are very often printed in English. 8 . 2. Today. In Romania there are lots of foreign companies where I can work if I am fluent in one or two foreign languages.

‘………………. so you say. from films. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking 4.for my awful behaviour last night. You are late for an appointment. in real situations. A passenger on a bus complains you are standing on his foot.?’ a) Excuse me b) Pardon c) Forgive me d) Pardon me 3.Business English 3.’ 9 B without a teacher.I’m late.. TV and records. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B. in every way possible. ‘………………!’ a) Sorry b) Forgive me c) Excuse me d) Pardon me 4.’ a) Sorry/I’m sorry b) Excuse me c) Forgive me d) Pardon me 2. Here is your apology for bad behaviour: ‘…………. You fail to hear what someone says to you. ‘……………. every day possible. you say. without being told to. so you say. Social Exchanges Supply the best word or words: 1. .

You thank me for holding the door open and my response may be. You are leaving. ‘…………………. so you say.London!’ a) Welcome to b) Be welcome to c) Welcome in d) I wish you welcome to 10 . ‘………………’ a) Thank you b) No.!’ a) Adieu b) Goodbye c) Farewell 8. so you say. You answer the phone and you say. You are introduced to a stranger.’ a) It’s nothing b) c) Please d) Nothing 10. You meet a friend at the airport on arrival and you may say.!’ a) Speak b) Hello c) Enter d) Say 6. ‘……………….. ‘…………. ‘……………. thank you c) Thanks 9.?’ a) How are you b) How do you do c) What do you do 7. You are refusing food that is offered...Business English a) Please pardon me b) Please forgive me c) I beg your pardon 5. you say. ‘……………….

‘………………. thanks. Someone asks you how you are and you answer.Business English 11. ‘……………. ‘……………………’ a) Sit yourselves b) Take a seat c) Sit down d) Sit 15. ‘……………….’ a) One moment b) A moment c) One minute d) Just a minute 13..’ a) Good b) Very good c) Fine d) Very fine 12. You are attending an interview and the interviewer says. The class stands up as you enter the room and you say. Your friend is waiting for you to finish what you are doing and you say. This is what you say to a friend on January 1st: ‘……………….New Year!’ a) Lucky b) Happy c) Merry d) Good 11 .’ a) Sit yourself b) Take a seat c) Sit d) Sit you 14.

pe neaşteptate.Business English 5. on this ground = din acest motiv. on purpose = dinadins... on the basis of = pe baza.. on a sudden = brusc. on record = cunoscut. pe cale. din cauzã cã. din partea cuiva.). In the text about Mihaela Vlad. on account of = pe baza.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. Grammar Reference The verb to be Affirmative I am I’m You are You’re Interrogative am I…? are you…? 12 Negative I am not You are not I’m not You’re not / You . to turn on/ to switch on (the light. on the verge of = pe punctul de. on the first attempt = la prima încercare. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. la nesfârşit. pe de altã parte. = în numele cuiva. on trial = de probã. on principle = din principiu. the radio. on condition that = cu condiţia. Let’s learn more expressions containing the preposition on: to be on duty = a fi de serviciu. în întregime. în pragul. on the whole = în general.. etc. luând în consideraţie cã. deodatã. and so on = şi aşa mai departe. you learned the expression on the one hand . intenţionat. on the other hand which means pe de o parte . on behalf of sb.etc. on the score of = ca rezultat. on the contrary = din contrã. radioul.. on demand = la cerere.

Because I need it for my job. May. How do you come to Ploieşti? .I’m an accountant. she isn’t.Business English aren’t He is not She is not It is not We are not aren’t You are not He is She is It is We are You are He’s She’s It’s We’re You’re is he…? is she…? is it…? are we…? are you…? are they…? He’s not / He isn’t She’s not / She isn’t It’s not / It isn’t We’re not / We You’re not / You They are They’re aren’t They are not They’re not / They aren’t Form Short answer Are you a student in Management? Yes. When do you start the meeting? . I’m not.They are Victor’s. Is she an accountant? Yes. 13 .On Friday. Why are you learning English? .By train.In Spain. No. No. The demonstrative pronoun and adjective Form Reference “near” reference “distant” reference Singular this that Plural these those Question forms Look at the following question words: What do you do for a living? . I am. Whose are these papers? . 2nd. Where is Madrid? . she is. Who is your teacher of English? – Joan Smith is.

Is Canterbury a town? Yes. d. Turn these sentences into questions and answer them: e. d. Canterbury is a town. a. Eu sunt contabil. We are students. Cursurile acestea sunt ale lor.g. Monica şi Andra. acestea sunt colegele mele. Elizabeth II is the queen of England.Business English What and which can be followed by a noun. g. What time is it? What kind of chemistry do you study? Which pen do you want. noi nu suntem. Translate into English: a. My father is a doctor. El este cel mai bun student din grupa noastră. London is a town in England. c. Acela este un televizor. El este englez. You are an accountant. Acesta este un casetofon. Acelea sunt colegele tale? Nu. Ele sunt chimiste. Cine este aici? John este aici. j. i. noi suntem ingineri. How old are you? How often do you play football? Controlled practice 1. f. 14 . b. 2. the blue one or the green one? How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb. it is. Sunteţi voi economişti? Nu. El are note foarte mari. e. nu sunt. h. c. Sunt ei specialişti francezi? Nu. b. Noi suntem studenţi. Cine nu este aici? Maria nu este aici şi nici George nu este. Acestea sunt cursurile mele. e.

. John is very angry. b.. where: e.. What/ How are you today? c. using who. I want to take this notebook with me. ……. 15 . 4. What/ Which of these paintings do you like best? 6. (by) d. De ce te grãbeşti? 5. they are. get me a glass of water. Thanks.. Câţi ani ai? Douãzeci şi nouă. It’s over here.g. It’s over there./ Who from? a.. It must be his because it’s got his name on it. Are …. They haven’t got my name on them. that is an electric generator.…… an electric heater?” “No. Is . is a house. Where/ When are you going now? d. Complete the following text using the appropriate pronouns: a. Translate the following text into English: a. ….. ……. mulţumesc. is an electric heater. …. (with). Ce mai faci? Sunt bine.” e.Business English 3. what. What/Which time is the plane due to arrive? b. is John’s pencil. e. I’m going to Spain next week. (for) b. Când ai venit prima oarã în Ploieşti? Anul trecut. Ask short questions on these statements. Will you please open this box? (with) c. ……. Who/How are you? I am Mary Jones.pencils yours. c. Choose the appropriate question form in the following sentences: a.. are metals. but they belong to me. b. Please. d. is a car. I’ve just received a letter. John? Yes. c. De unde eşti? Sunt din Arad. (from) e. d. e. Those are substances.

Pay attention to the present tenses: Fournier et CIE is a medium-sized company producing for export hand-made shoes and gloves in natural materials. Mr. Yet customers are dissatisfied with the standard of the materials which seem to be too loosely woven. In order to solve their problems. Another complaint is that deliveries are not prompt. They obtained good prices for their fashionable designs. The general manager was not present due to health problems. Here is the minutes of the meeting.Business English Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © A Case Study © The Personal Pronoun © Present Simple © Present Continuous •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks Have you ever written a case study? What parts does it include? Reading Read the following case study on Fournier et CIE. they had a meeting with one of their most important clients. which makes impossible for the customers to maintain satisfactory stock levels and fulfil their sale schedules. Jacobson. Then read and translate the article on Fournier et CIE published in an economic magazine. 16 .

No longer excellent merchandise for their customers? Several weeks ago we published an incredible story of a medium-sized company producing for export hand-made shoes and gloves in natural materials which amazingly succeeded in attracting customers. Fournier et CIE experiences difficulties with their biggest customer. April. He said that his representatives relied on the high quality of the materials we sent them and they were all the more disappointed in the case because we supplied the cloth to new customers. as he showed us two different types of gloves and shoes. Mr. in the sense that the material of the summer shoes seemed to be too loosely woven and was inclined to pull out of shape. and consequently the difference in texture. we had to make our supplier understand that unless they could guarantee to deliver supplies by the dates specified in future orders. Mrs. Jacobson had been told about this two months before this change. we changed the supplier of materials. Jacobson mentioned that delivery order no.Business English Today. we would be forced to look for another supplier. yet Mr. 2002. Jacobson explained that the moment his company saw the samples of our hand-made lines. Mr. as we had to solve out problems of cloth delivery last week. we had a short meeting in order to solve the problem of delivery and the complaints concerning the standard materials. Higgins. As we couldn’t possibly allow this situation to continue. due to their excellent products. R&T Lines. Yet the quality of the standard materials was much better at that time. and he had been also sent the standard materials at that time. 3425 had a problem. he was authorized to discuss the terms of an order with us and negotiate a contract. 26. Higgins assured him of a better quality in the future. Mrs. Yet it seems that every dream is over sooner or later. Today they 17 . The problem of delivery will also be solved. our production manager explained that due to the extended needs of materials. when he approved their quality.

the representative of R&T Lines explained that his staff is dissatisfied with the standard of the materials which seem to be too loosely woven. It seems that the great boon the company had in the beginning has changed a lot nowadays. as well as lower quality. as regards = în ceea ce priveşte. Ways with words 1. I knew about the change of the supplier. In a meeting today. as Jacobson answered our questions in a very ambiguous manner: Yes. He also admitted that he had approved the standard material for order no 3425. and due to good prices they also accepted lower offers. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. as far as = întrucât. Yet. pe cât. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. they realized that they needed more suppliers of materials. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. Yet the answer is very simple: the moment Fournier et CIE extended. as long as = atât timp cât. as a rule = de regulã. according to Higgins: We had to solve out problems of cloth delivery last week. Yet it seems that indeed they are experiencing problems. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. should we really believe that? Clients are quite fed up with promises. The problem of delivery will be solved. the one in charge of production seems not to know. unfortunately. The truth is somewhere in the middle. în principiu. Probably they need a new company policy and a new board. They want facts. 18 .Business English obtained good prices for their fashionable designs. în mãsura în care. How do you translate the sentence: As we couldn’t possibly allow this situation to continue…? . How could this happen? Higgins. as this is not the only unsatisfied customers. as if/ as though = ca şi cum.

that is about all = ca. ca de exemplu. of all kinds = de toate felurile. all the better = cu atât mai bine.Business English as seen = dupã cum se vede. as when = ca atunci când. all in all = în întregime. tot aşa ca. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: How do you translate they were all the more disappointed in the case? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. 3. 2. as well as = cât şi. all at once = dintr-o datã. asta-i tot. all in good time = toate la timpul lor. How do you translate to be fed up with something? Now learn some phrasal verbs containing the particle up. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. de asemenea. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. all over = peste tot. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. it is all one to them = le este tot una. as well = deopotrivã. such as = astfel ca. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. weigh up 19 bring up . Read the following sentence again: Clients are quite fed up with promises. as soon as possible = cât de curând posibil as such = ca atare. Use your dictionary in order to translate them. first of all = înainte de toate. as shown in Table. cu totul. as yet/ so far/ up to now/ up to the present = pânã în prezent. ca în cazul în care. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Tabelul 2.

Donna. a. I’m in her ……………….Your point is interesting. We have to increase our work-rate if we are going to get the accounts finished in time. goods that are scarce are usually freely available on the ……………… market – provided you have the money to pay for them. I’d like to mention the subject of expense claims at our next meeting. light. but once she’s made up her mind she won’t listen to you. In most countries. 20 . e. c. but I’d like to discuss it later. We didn’t get many orders last quarter but now sales have improved. please? b. b. g. c. I start my new appointment next month.Business English take up (three meanings) step up phrasal verbs. at a meeting). h. books at the moment so she’s bound to say no. may I go over one or two points again. the group were given the ………………. You can argue with her until you’re ………………… in the face. After several weeks of discussions. (Chairman. 4. d. no matter what you say. if I may. If I’m going to have any chance of becoming a member of the Board. I’ll have to start playing golf. f. There’s no point in asking my boss for a day off next week. d. Choose the colour (you will need to use some words more then once) black blue brown green grey pink red white yellow draw up pick up Now replace the words in italics in the following sentences with the following a. We must consider all the possibilities before we decide which market to enter. Before preparing the contract. and could finally go ahead with the new project.

James.-letter day for my sister and her husband. Joanna was as …………………… as a berry. Don’t mention the present government in front of my father. r. q. we also got one or two ……………… elephants. Next Friday is a ………………. I’ve got too much of a ……………. as a sheet when she heard about the accident. my husband was tickled …………………. i. For some reason. The managing director’s reference to the forthcoming sales conference was a ……………. herring.. Swedish films are often synonymous with …………………. Ever since Tom got that huge order with Saudi-Arabia he’s been the boss’s ……………..-eyed boy. o. rag to a bull. p. m. She had only recently had lunch with her cousin. it’s like a …………………. streak. I’m sorry. She went as ………………. matter – so-called “dumb blondes”. He just wanted to get off the subject of this month’s poor sales figures.. it’s their 25th anniversary. j. k.. films. which is very strange as there is relatively little pornography in Sweden. l. at your asking him to judge the flower show. Although we got a lot of nice wedding presents.Business English e. I was ……………… with envy when my neighbour drove up in a brand-new Jaguar. There is a common prejudice that girls who are very beautiful must automatically be lacking in ………………. Joyce. g. h. If there was a war. I refuse to believe it unless you can show it to me in ……………. I’d be terrified of getting killed. so the news of his death came as bolt from the …………… f. 21 . and ……………! n. By the way. I don’t think I’d fight. After sunbathing for two hours every day.

but most Parisians only go …………………… h. honest people but he was always in trouble. I must remind you that this is a non-smoking office. If you want to be a successful gardener. The offer of a job sounded very good on the phone but I won’t believe it till I have it ………………… b. Sometimes it is better to tell a …………………. c. Put each of the following phrases in its correct place in the sentences below. If I happen …………………… I’m afraid it will mean dismissal. I had lost touch with Jake. f. 5. To import firearms into Britain you’ll have to fill in a lot of forms. When I saw him in his new sports car. . I’m afraid he was …………………….Business English s. and then one night he arrived at my flat right ……………………… What a surprise! 22 . of course you’ve got …………………… e. The rest of the family were respectable. There’s a lot of ………………… d. g. lie than to hurt someone’s feelings. I was…………………………. My wife always goes bright ………………… whenever she gets embarrassed. It owes a lot of money. Tourists often go to the Louvre. i. out of the blue once in a blue moon to have green fingers in the red to catch someone red-handed in black and white a black sheep green with envy red tape a. I suspect that some of you have been smoking. The firm is ……………………. t.

Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he .objects and animals Plural we you they 23 .masculine she .Business English Grammar reference The personal pronoun The nominative.feminine it .

30. etc. continually. tense and aspect Mood. never. etc. Most evenings we stay in. ever. sometimes. constantly. The Danube floats into the Black Sea. Japanese people like to travel. tense and aspect are grammatical categories of the verb. result.): I usually get up at 7. Roughly speaking. normally. • a fact which is always true (general truths and states): Wood floats on water. frequently. rarely. usually. hardly. seldom. • a fact which is true for a long time 24 . regularly. mood presents the attitude of the speaker towards an action or a state expressed by the verb. tense gives an indication of when the action happens and aspect reflects the status of action referring to duration. occasionally. often. forever.Business English The accusative/The dative. Present Simple Present Simple is used to express: • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. The Earth moves round the Sun. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Mood.

he doesn’t. Interrogative Do I work? Do you work? Does he work? Does she work? Does it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Negative I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He does not (doesn’t) work She does not (doesn’t) work It does not (doesn’t) work We do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work Present Continuous Present Continuous is used to express: • an activity happening now or around now They are watching TV in their bedroom now. I am living with my parents this week.Business English I live in Ploiesti. Does he speak French? No. She listens quietly. She works in a bank. demonstrations and stage directions: Her drawing shows two parts of a hyperbolic curve. I do. The door bell rings. Form 25 . Form Affirmative I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work Short answer Do you like spring? Yes. I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. Present Simple is used in explanations. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. • a planned future arrangement: I’m meeting them at 11 o’clock tomorrow.

c. Îmi oferăo carte de contabilitate.Business English Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). Affirmative I am working You are working He is working She is working It is working We are working You are working They are working Short answer Are you coming? Yes. dar nu mă aude. Choose the appropriate forms of the personal pronoun: a. dar pe el nu îl văd. She told me/ to me that she needed five days off. e. No. Pe ea o văd la curs. dar noi îi putem ajuta. Interrogative Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Is she working? Is it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Negative I am not working You are not (aren’t) working He is not (isn’t) working She is not (isn’t) working It is not (isn’t) working We are not (aren’t) working You are not(aren’t) working They are not (aren’t) working Controlled practice 1. El este contabil la o companie importantă. Ei nu vorbesc engleza. d. she is. I’m not. c. I think I saw him/ he in the bank yesterday. d. Îl strig pe Victor. e. b. pentru cã el are douã exemplare. I am. Have you told they/ them about your project? 26 . 2. Is she watching TV? Yes. b. she isn’t. He is studying English as he/we intends to join an American insurance company. No. I gave her/him that laptop as he needed it. Translate the following sentences into English: a.

have a post-office in front of the Centre. i. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a. I ……. 4..Business English 3.. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. It (rain) now. it here. j. h. about computers. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland.. d. b. like. do something different this year.. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest. f. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. lessons from ten to half past twelve. do We ……. English and Italian.. We …. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. up learn. I (live) in Ploiesti. It often (rain) in summer... See you soon. She (speak) French. Maria (come) from Spain this week.. learn different things. photography and tennis this week do and John ……... sir. but I (think) you (stand) on my feet... Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I …. and then there are more have lessons. g. lunch at one. The weather is good... Love. We’re at the Edinburgh Activity Centre. a have good time and at the same time we ……. but this week. But I ……. Kate 27 . People……. We ……. So it’s hard work.. get at half past eight every morning and …….. Pardon me. He (come) to see me tonight. e. here every summer come to learn more about their hobbies and interests. I (cut) two slices of bread and she (prepare) an omlette.. c. where we …….

shout angrily?. When you miss a bus or a train. admit you don’t know?. do you: A. blame someone else? b. feel guilty? e. try to do something else for them?.Business English 5. B. What do you do in these situations? a. hope they won’t notice?. B. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or continuous a. C. C. work hard as usual?. B. He (live) in London at present but he (hope) to move to Edinburgh next year. give an answer you think may be right?. B. it means you are an ambitious person. plan your future career carefully?. dream of impossible success or wealth?. When someone asks you a questions and you’re not sure of the answer. and if you chose mostly C. it means you are a pessimistic person. When you think about the future. C. do you: A. do you: A. wait happily for the next one?. worry about what will go wrong? c. C. B. When your boss or teacher is away. 6. b. C. do you: A. When you forget to do something important for a friend or a member of your family. try to change the subject? d. 28 . If you chose mostly B. do not work at all? If most of your answers are A it means you are a very optimistic person. I (hope) they (realize) what a difficult job they (undertake). do you: A. start laughing and joking?.

Now he (learn) an eighth. He already (speak) seven foreign languages. Mary (sleep) in the sitting room this week because her bedroom (be) redecorated.00 p.” k. We’ll burn down one day. l. My dog always (bark) at the postman. Daddy (leave) always lighted cigarettes all over the house. but this month he (work) late. p. First you (take) the photos and (sort) them into categories. My husband usually (leave) his office at 3. o. They (clean up) the whole town in preparation for the summer. d. Professor Brown (be) the perfect linguist. He (study) for an examination now. But look at that! For once. t. They left for London an hour ago. r. Then you (file) them according to subject. He (walk) very slowly because the bottle he (carry) (hold) nitroglycerine and nitro-glycerine (explode) if it (be) shaken. Jack often (go) to the theatre but his wife (not go) very often. The path (lead) to the big house that you (see) on the hill. f. He (like) all sorts of plays. v. j. he (be) friendly to the poor man. The teacher (say) that you usually (make) a lot of mistakes. s. q. they (come) back next week. She (prefer) comedies. Mike and Jack (spend) a fortnight at the seaside. n.m..Business English c. Let me explain what you have to do. Mary (leave) for London in a fortnight. Who (talk) to the pretty girl in the blue dress? e. My son (work) very hard. h. I (wonder) whether they (travel) by airplane or by train. g. “You (hear) anything?” “I (listen) hard but I can’t hear anything. m. i. 29 . Mr Green always (get up) early. Anybody who (look) at his passenger while he (drive) is a danger on the roads.

Dear Jane. b. c. They (argue). 30 . I (think) you (do) the right thing. Translate into English: a. Noi nu învăţăm decât vinerea. y. but I (doubt) whether your boss really (know) his job from what you (tell) me. x. Nu cred că te pot ajuta. dar astăzi fac o excepţie. The play is set in London in 1890. When the curtain (go) up.Business English w. sorry to hear about your problem at work. The electricians (rewire) the system and the carpenter (build) us some new bookshelves. Mama gustă ciorba să vadă dacă mai e nevoie de sare. The house is a mess because we’ve got the workmen in. sâmbăta şi duminica. e. The action (take) place in Mary’s living-room. d. Nu beau cafea de obicei. 7. the hero and heroine (sit) down. El merge cu autobuzul la şcoală în fiecare zi. The plumber (put) in a new bath.

English Language and Literature Accountancy and Administration Informatics Primary School.Business English Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © A presentation of the distance learning department © Verbs which do not take a Continuous Aspect in English © The Imperative © The possessive pronoun and adjective •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks How did you hear about the distance learning department? Why have you chosen this specialisation? Reading Read the following presentation which was part of a project by which our university inaugurated courses within the distance learning department.Teachers: English/French 31 . Pay attention to the aspect of the verbs (simple/ continuous aspect). Translate the text into Romanian: The specialisations in the Distance-Learning Department within PetroleumGas university of Ploiesti are: • • • • • • • • Economic engineering in the mechanical field Fiability of Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Drilling-Production and Reservoir Engineering Engineering of Environment Protection and Chemical and Petrochemical Industry Petroleum Technology and Petrochemistry Romanian Language and Literature.

Teachers: English/French. as a result of the grant CNFIS 39691/2000. Within our university we could say that we have experience in such programmes due to the fact that we had a project Leonardo da Vinci. This will allow us to start such a project in autumn. At the same time on the web www. Nantes. France.2000. evening courses) • • persons who want to specialise in very important fields such as accountancy.ttr. At the same time 32 . informatics. yet the daily work programme and the distance from the only petroleum-gas university in Romania does not allow them to enroll in a training programme (day courses. must attend the specialisation Primary School. in order to compete with the new undergraduate educational system. video-conference systems Part of the course-books for our future students is already on magnetic support.com (within the project of distance-learning trainers’ training) we elaborated a course on informatics and communicational technologies which are necessary in the training process as well as a course on pedagogical strategies which may be adapted to such distance-learning. 1214/07. Some books which were previously published were up-dated last year. In the beginning the Distance-Learning Department will make use of the resources offered by the new IT Centre (developed within the project 76/1999) which offers internet access. There is a legal basis on distance learning organization and functioning: Romanian Government Decision no. foreign languages primary school-teachers who. in which we worked with our colleagues from Minho University from Portugal.Business English For the above-mentioned specialisations we identified three categories of potential candidates: • persons who want to improve their knowledge in the field of petroleum industry and refining.lc.12. A Plei@d Programme has been recently elaborated by a university from CNAM. compatible with the European system.

. office. with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. salary. department. with a view of = în scopul de a.... In the sentences below..... I sent in my . You have to be well-dressed and punctual to succeed in a/an . Not all the words are possible: a. Ways with words: 1. desk.. application..E. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. with an eye to = urmãrind. receives a month’s salary.. The manager told me he couldn’t wait as he had .... Not many people enjoy sitting at a/an . to the address given in the advertisement. wages. standards which may be fulfilled by our department. 2. My first . was helping in a shop at weekends. In our company every .. interview.... job. to do.. They told me I lacked . b. work. You could . Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. cu privire la... When I applied for this position. over 2. referitor....... resignation. d. fãrã a pierde din vedere. c. j. Before I left that oil company. gain. in which we worked with our colleagues from Minho University again... i.. employee...... f. h. g..Business English the standards for Authorizing the functioning of distance learning are elaborated by C. use one suitable word from the list that follows. Read the sentence We had a project Leonardo da Vinci.. I handed in my .. earn. with reason = pe drept.000 a month as a sales representative in this company. diploma. as I had never had that kind of job before. pe bunã dreptate... employer. experiences.... reference.. I asked my previous boss for a . qualifications.. gain. all day long..... 33 .N. e.AA (National Council of Authorizing and Academic Assessment). applicant..

that much = cam atât. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. e. Our advertising is beginning to look very dated. c. We try to use up-to-date methods in our Production Department. to do away with = a înlãtura. Computer sales people have to constantly up-date their knowledge. To date. sã. din aceastã cauzã. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. in order that = pentru ca. In the first sentence it introduces a direct object clause and in the other it introduces a relative clause. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea. a termina cu. 3. They are using out-dated plant and machinery to manufacture their 34 . Our problems date from the time we lost that Russian contract. we haven’t received a single order for our new product. d. 4. Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. a. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat. like that (just like that) = aşa. for all that = cu toate acestea. that is to say = adicã. As you can see these are two meaning of the word that. f. Read the following sentence again: Some books which were previously published were up-dated last year. How do you translate to up-date? Now explain the meaning of the words and phrases in italics in the following sentences.Business English as with = la fel ca şi. Look at the following sentences belonging to this unit: Within our university we could say that we have experience in such programmes due to the fact that we had a project Leonardo da Vinci. together with = împreunã cu. b.

To be a good manager. Her main quality is her ……………… . c. my boss ………………… me that I had a 35 . 5. you need many ……………… . Performance appraisals help to ………………… that promising staff are not overlooked for promotion. The ………………… workers in our company are the lowest paid because they need no training for their jobs. c. by top management. ……………………… is almost 8% in my country — that’s far too high.. 3 skill a. d. At my interview. The ……………… workers in the Production Department are well paid. b. b. The Personnel Director is an outspoken……………… of our reorganization. The Chairman was………………… at avoiding answering awkward questions. My assistant is someone who can be ……………… on. d. I thought her……………… were unfair and not based on fact. He’s fairly old and hasn’t had a job for years. b. c.Business English products. The………………… are entitled to various social security payments. 4 employ a. b. Word building Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in italics. He is a very reliable worker. 2 criticise a. b. The report has been received very……………. I’d say he’s virtually ……………… 5 sure a. Most …………………in an organisation can benefit from training. 1 rely a. c.

c. high technology firms must constantly ………………… or else their products become out of date. control. To stay competitive. you lose a degree of ………………… deal of ……………… over certain functions. 6. . When you delegate authority in a business. function. initiative a. Being a currency dealer in a bank. I am still……………. autonomy. Due to our order. b. Complete the following sentences with suitable forms of the words from the list below. authority. delegation.they rarely have to consult Head Office. c. we lost the . innovative.whether to leave my present job but I must make up my mind soon. delegate. she has to make quick decisions and be very ……………… at all times. ………………we wasted time and lost the ………………… to get certain supplies.Business English bright future in the company. c. Because of a production hold-up. b. we are ………………… to provide the product. subsidiaries are given a great innovate. 36 e. Managers who like power find it difficult to ……………… responsibility. 7 decision a. 6 able a. d. authorize. This young trainee has considerable …………………… b. Because we were contract. ………………… you agree she’s one of the high fliers in the department. c.. In many department store groups. In some multinational organisations. buying and finance are two ……………… which are handled by Head Office.

The ……………of our shop is putting up the rent.Business English f. 13. not the owner. never mind a word 37 n) police o) policeman m) owner k) mechanic l) medicine j) manager h) engineer i) job g) doctor e) college f) conductor b) chauffeur c) chef d) colleague a) boss . Wilks is the …………of this shop.. 1. Firms often make the mistake of not concentrating enough on marketing ………………… g... Mrs. …………. Nancy has started a new…………. If you want to know the way. Brenda was a university …………. His …………. 6.designs bridges or roads. He has a car with a uniformed …………… 10. 11.of your company? 12. 3. An …………. I work in a garage as a car ……………… 4. Supply the most suitable words from the list on the right. the General Manager is ………………… to spend up to £1. 7. h. There had been a burglary.. so we called the ………… 15. at the age of 36. I like my staff to make decisions for themselves. Who’s the …………of the Boston Symphony Orchestra? 8.. ask a …………. at school has given him a good report. 16. In our factory. but they seem afraid to show any ………………… . 7.000 a month on repairs and maintenance. 2. 14. 5. I went into business after I left …………. 9.. What’s the name of the ………. The quality of the food in a restaurant depends on its…….is hard to find nowadays. I can’t use a ………….

Has the nurse given you your …………… 19. The person in charge of a business is informally known as the ……………… a) chef a) guide a) cook b) chief b) leader b) cooker c) boss c) motorist d) driver e) conductor 2. 17. A person who studies the origins of the universe is a ……………… a) physician a) physician ……………… a) client b) customer c) patient d) guest 10. Gordon is a …………at the local hospital. The person who is in charge of a car is the ……………… 3. A person who works in an office is an ……………… a) officer b) office worker 5. If serve people who come into a shop. If you are one of the people waiting to be served in a shop you are a t) work p) professor q) teacher r) typist s) typewriter 38 . Smithers is a …………of mine at the office. 18. A woman who looks after other people’s children is a ……………… a) nanny b) nurse 6.Business English processor. 8. Supply the best word or words: 1. A person who prepares food is a ……………… 4. you are ……………… a) an official b) a shop assistant c) a bank clerk b) physicist b) physicist c) physics c) medicine 8. 20. The person who is in charge of a restaurant is the ……………… a) patron b) manager 7. Another word for ‘doctor’ is …………… 9. It’s useful to be a good …………if you use a computer.

Business English

Grammar reference
Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect in English
There are verbs in English which generally are not used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see, hear, smell, taste, notice, recognize, etc. I smell gas. • verbs of thinking: think, realize, know, understand, suppose, expect, remember, forget, mind, etc. I don’t remember your name. • verbs of having and being: have, own, owe, belong to, possess, be, contain, matter, hold, etc. The house belongs to my mother. I have a very good lathe. • verbs of emotion: love, hate, like, dislike, refuse, want, wish, forgive, etc. I hate people calling me late at night. He wants to buy a new tool.

The Imperative
The imperative is a mood which expresses an order, a command, a wish, a greeting, a piece of advice, a threat: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Let’s go! Form The imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. Affirmative Get ready! Start working! Negative Don’t get ready! Don’t start working! 39

Business English

The possessive pronoun and the posessive adjective
The possessive pronoun. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular mine yours his hers its The possesive adjective. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular my your his her its Plural our your their Plural ours yours theirs

Controlled practice
1. Translate into English: a. Aceastã sticlã conţine apă minerală. b. Creionul Rotring este al Mariei. c. Urãsc sã mi se cearã sã fac o lucrare de azi pe mâine. d. Ea are doar un curs de statistică şi două de finanţe. e. Acest curs conţine 14 capitole. 2. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. I’m thinking/ I think of you. b. She smells/ is smelling gas. c. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. d. We have/ are having dinner now. e. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now. 40

Business English 3. Translate the following into English: a. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b. Vino, te rog, la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de statisticã. c. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator, pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã-l folosesc şi eu. e. Luaţi loc, vã rog, doamnã! f. Nu pleca, pentru că nu am terminat proiectul! g. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. h. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc, pentru că o faci degeaba. i. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. j. Grăbeşte-te, mai ai doar cinci minute!

4. Make the following sentences negative: a. Come here! b. Get ready as we are in a hurry! c. Be on time, because English people are never late. d. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow. e. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. 5. Choose the appropriate possessive pronouns or adjectives: a. My/ mine father’s car is new. Mine/my is very old and ugly. b. We have been looking for these magazines. Someone took them from your/our room. They belong to us. We’re using the pictures for a project of ours/yours. c. There are five billion people in our/his world and they live in all different corners of it. d. This is her/hers car. She bought it two months ago. e. My results are better than yours/your. f. Is that book yours/your as I think I saw you when you lent it to your/yours friend, Tom.

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Business English g. I don’t think this is one of Emma’s pens. I know she has lost her/hers calculator, but I haven’t heard her say she has lost a pen . What do you think? h. My/mine speciality is accountancy. i. After we have acquired some knowledge about the oil industry and the kind of work that is involved, we will prove ours/our knowledge later. j. Your/yours article on world economy is a good one.

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Business English

Unit 4
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn:

© Writing a CV © Writing a letter of application © Classification of Nouns © Number of Nouns © The Genitive
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pre-reading tasks:
What information should your CV contain? What information should your letter of application contain?

Reading 1
Read the following CV. Can you find any improvements? Work with your mates and report your findings to the rest of the class: CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Mihaela Vlad Address: 23 Bvd. Bucureşti Ploieşti 2000 Prahova Telephone: 044165342 Date of birth: 1 January 1974 Nationality: Romanian Languages: Fluent English; Conversational French

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44 . as they may show that you are suitable for that job. Windows 2000. etc.Faculty of Economic Sciences “A” levels: Mathematics. they will surely test you. Math-Lab. Ways with words 1 1. b. If they really want to find out about your language skills. c.assistant INTERESTS: cinema.”Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti. Your name is obviously important. Bold is used selectively. reading REFERENCES: available on request. as you had the best degrees in those objects which are of major importance for your future job. For the Work History section. Lotus 1-2-3. d. it is vital to highlight your student activities. Math-Cad. very well.CNAM Paris 1995-2000: “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti. theatre. conversational and fluent are the only words to use about them. The “A” levels are important. Don’t use qualifications such as well. Economy WORK HISTORY Sept. EDUCATION 2000-2002: Master of Business and Administration . 2001: accountant at GPS Arad Summer 1999-Summer 2000: college position: required to prepare accounts Summer 1998: Bucharest Chemical Services . When you state the languages you can speak. Education and qualifications should be listed together. 2000-Sept. Here are some pieces of advice for you when you write your CV: a. so you should make sure it stands out.Business English Computer literacy: Wordperfect.

Vlad I am writing to apply for the position of chief accountant that you advertised in Bursa on 5 October 2001. I graduated from “Petroleum-Gas” University of Ploieşti last year. You should mention references only if they are very impressive.developed through working in a team environment in my current role and through a number of holiday positions when I was a student. As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae.Business English e. Skim through the letter and see what information the applicant is conveying about himself: 23 Bvd Bucureşti Ploieşti 200 Prahova Mr A. Accounting skills . I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add value to your organization: Organizational skills . Interpersonal skills . and then I have had a successful year working in a scientific environment with GPS Arad.developed in my role as university officer where I prepared annual reports and accounts and I was responsible for a budget of 1. D.: chief accountant vacancy . I have a keen interest in accountancy and would appreciate the opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am good match for your requirements. Don’t make up a list of names and addresses in your reference section.000. A. Vlad Personnel Manager Petrom Bucureşti Dear Mr. 45 Ref.000.000 lei per annum.developed in my current job with GPS Arad. as I believe it offers the career challenge which I am seeking. Reading 2 Here is the letter of application Mihaela Vlad has written. D.

Here are some lines from different letters of application of several candidates for this job./ I always make the best decisions in my office. I feel sure my studies recommend me for this job. I can make decisions when it is really necessary and I am very responsive. d./ I hope I am right for this sort of work. as I am a reliable person./ I can maintain friendly relationships with people./ I know this type of work. Mihaela Vlad Ways with words 2 1. What do you think is wrong with some of the sentences listed below? a. human resources and equipment 46 ./ I am a friendly and tactful person. Here is an advertisement which was published in Bursa on 4 April 2001. Choose the most appropriate and convincing sentence in each group. Look at it and write your CV. I am familiar with this type of work. Romanian-Canadian company providing expertise. 2.Business English I look forward to hearing from you./ I have a genuine interest in this kind of work. c. Then write the letter to cover your CV applying for the vacancy: CONSTRUCT Ltd./ I am sure I am the most suitable person for this job. I am well-liked by everybody and I am very convincing./ I am totally knowledgeable about this type of work. e./ I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary. b. I am quite interested in this kind of work./ I am extremely interested in this type of work. Yours sincerely.

conclusive c. Piaţa Romanã. a. or company management. satisfied offer no challenge. e. responsible organisation. popular to pay bonuses. A worker who feels………………….g. Vocabulary building An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. generally receive extra – pay. Applicants should be fluent in English and French. for example Managers become……………………… if they fail Since the report was so………………… no ………………… behaviour by staff can be costly to an recommendations were made.. in his job will People who work ………………… hours.Business English for the construction industry requires Human Resource Officers Applications are accepted from recent graduates of Sociology or Business Studies with some background in income tax laws and computer literacy. the opposite of old is young. d. 13. 3. social No manager likes a subordinate to be…………………… . secure g. at night-time. Human Resources Manager. Applicants should be willing to work in teams and should be able to meet deadlines. the opposite of short is long. Bucharest. Please enclose a current CV and your letter of application addressed to Mr Ion Pop. Workers become……………………… if their jobs probably not be committed to the firm he works for. b. respect f. Construct (Romania) Ltd. e. For example. Complete the following sentences with words opposite in meaning to the words in italics. interesting He does not like his job because it is uninteresting. 47 .

was only $10000 a year. Word sets. c.…. saving and investing money... 6. When Mr Michael retired he received a . In this way you may create a word set which may include among other words: day. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: 48 . Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. Now it’s at least four times that.…. b.. 5. having a personal bank account. Try to think of the word time. efficient Nowadays. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . d.…………. Pierre is very worried because he is in ……….……... it is not easy to get rid of an employee who is …………………… 4.. year. The first shop he opened was a big SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. d.. Many people would rather work …………. When she started with the company her …………. Now think of words connected to time.. century. b. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. c.Business English h.. e.………… of $300 a month. e.. month. year. The management said salaries had INCREASED.…. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a. etc. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had ..than FULL-TIME.. position. Nobody will lend him any money.. Complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money..

We cannot count sugar. We can count them. a deposit account. to cash a cheque. The weather is fine. These cups are full. twenty cars. four girls. to earn 15% interest. a building society. a current account. the Stock Market. to put money in. Grammar Reference Classification of nouns Countable nouns a girl a man a tool a cup an apple a guitar a pound a car Uncountable nouns water sugar milk music weather money oil/ petroleum coal a well gas We can say two cups. water or oil. Number of nouns Form Variable nouns form the plural in the following way: • -s is added to the singular: 49 . to buy shares in a company. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. ten pounds. a monthly statement.Business English -to withdraw money. a cheque card. The coal has a good quality. a mortgage.

tooth-teeth. stratum-strata. nouns ending in -o: bus-buses. foot-feet. city-cities. used with neuter nouns: the tower of London. the spaceship’s crew. The Genitive The analytical genitive is used with the preposition of. tool-tools • -es is added to the singular nouns ending in -s. The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • • nouns denoting persons or other beings: nouns denoting measurement. a pound’s worth of pears the governement’s decisions. -ch. value: collective nouns: geographical names. box-boxes. phenomenon-phenomena. vehicles.Business English books-books. nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant (-y changes to i). larva-larvae. mouse-mice. etc. the cover of the book. the colour of oil. match-matches. -x. space. 50 . yesterday’s newspaper. woman-women. louse-lice. brush-brushes. etc. -z. datum-data. potatopotatoes (But: photo-photos) • -(e)s is added to nouns ending in -f(e) (which changes to -v): knife-knives. my parents’ advice a two months’ practice. criterion-criteria. natural phenomena. child-children. the Parliament’s laws England’s mountains. quantity. time. etc.: John’s lecture. ox-oxen Foreign plurals stimulus-stimuli. basis-bases. -sh. goose-geese. the afternoon’s heat. leaf-leaves. shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs) Irregular plural nouns: man-men.

creative scientists. but the information that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town. 2. (This/These) news (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Johnson yesterday. Their owners have no trouble coming up with………………… (2) products but they often can’t build on their early success. 51 right venture planning delegate personnel drawback innovative . and 2. The Johnson company (has/have) been in existence for 100 years and (is/are) famous for its (product/products). Research shows that many of these firms are …………………… (1) by talented. Complete the following passage with the correct form of the words in the box below. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. Mr Johnson spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Johnson headquarters at Edinburgh. Complete this newspaper article. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Johnson Factory for Milchester The Johnson Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. Mr Johnson will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be. The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Johnson (trouser/ trousers)” and “Johnson (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known.Business English Controlled practice 1. strategy finance expertise trust skill set up segment The problems of small high-tech firms have attracted a lot of attention recently.

(3).especially financial and marketing ones . using the suitable forms of the words given below. The high-tech firm can get round some of these problems by developing a specialist image. Complete the following passage. Another mistake they make is to underprice their products so that they have no …………………… (6) for future development. Once the firms begin to grow. bright ideas ……………………(13) capital and technology . Customers then start seeking out the firm.are also vital. The only ………………… (10) is that it may take some time before customers accept the firm’s new technology. they are unable to develop the ……………………(4) which are necessary for their company’s growth.Business English One reason for this is that they don’t have much management ………………. If a high-tech firm needs money very badly.. so its marketing costs are reduced. It will offer that company exclusive ………………… (12) to its technology. Enthusiasm. They are in a rush to develop products. 3. When they do try to sell their products. Lack of financial ………………… (7) is a major weakness of such companies. Basic management…………………. As soon as the high-tech business has reached a certain size. they spend too much time trying to gain the………………… (5) of potential customers. achieve reach report feedback 52 objective are not enough to ensure success. Therefore. It is difficult for the high-tech firm to attract the right………………… (8) because it cannot offer the same job security as a large organisation. (14) . and don’t think enough about how to market them. The founder of the firm can then…………………(11) responsibility for activities like marketing and finance. it may arrange a link-up with a larger company. it will be a good idea to bring in professional management. their owners underestimate the future costs of developing and marketing new products. It can aim at a particular …………………… (9) of the market.

CONFIDENCE b. But if I ever……………………… (9) her position. My cousin is somebody I can really trust. the Government will make a decision. (5) from me? I thought that was one of the main …………………(6) of the interview. it’s vital to listen to employees. so that the meaning stays the same: a. However. I suppose I should have been grateful to her. I did just that. Rewrite the following sentences. FORWARD f. Translate into English: 53 . At this …………………… (8) of my career.Business English progress performance role stage view My boss called me into his office to discuss my …………………… (1) during the last six months. POINT e. I shall handle these interviews differently. It was proposed that a new church should be built. She made it clear that she was going to give me a good……………………… (4). BEING d. Why didn’t she get some …………………. Our manager want us to call him „Sir”. one thing bothered me. Her answer took the audienc by surprise. Since my …………………(7) was obviously to sit quietly and say nothing. ABACK h. I wondered why she didn’t ask me what I felt about the job. In my……………………(10). 4. She said that I had made good ………………………(2) and had had no difficulty in …………………… (3) my goals. Once the results of the experiment are made public. ADDRESSED 5. OPEN g. HEART c. so temporarily you will have to share one with John. He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been canceled. Your office is being redecorated at the moment. I can recite Eminescu’s poems from memory. using the word in capital letters. I can’t afford to upset my boss.

Părinţii prietenei mele sunt plecaţi în Canada. ADVICE e. Nu ştiu dacă vom avea bani să cumpărăm şi mobila pe care ne-o dorim (două dulapuri şi trei fotolii). Choosing this course is entirely voluntary. from mine. ARGUE f. as we are rather short on money. k. La începutul secolului XX. nu erau foarte erau multe studente în colegii. Inventatorul televiziunii prin cablu a fost un om bogat. COURAGE b. e. Fulgerul a fost urmat de un tunet asurzitor. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de economie. El foloseşte multe coli pentru a scrie un CV. i. l. c. There is no …………….Business English a. COMPEL 54 . A cumpărat un buchet de flori care a costat 200.. g. f. d. 6. And. două ciocolate şi trei săpunuri. Ne întrebăm dacă vom putea procesa atâtea informaţii. Mi-e teamă că ea are speranţe mai mari decât ar trebui. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în acest domeniu al cunoaşterii. we’ll decide in favour of it. Aş vrea să cumpăr trei pâini.. it is ……………… not to travel to Paris. b.000 lei. n. whatsoever. DIFFERENCE d. Your solution seems to be the most ………………. ECONOMY c. Until you have solved your health problems. o. His opinion is ……………. They tried to ……………. him to participate in that contest. Fill each space in the sentence with the correct form of the word in capitals print about it: a. Cunoştinţele de engleză sunt foarte vagi. m. I can’t put up with his coleric attitude. All the time he proved to be very ………………. h. j. Sfatul pe care mi l-ai dat m-a ajutat foarte mult. Nu am primit nişte ştiri foarte îmbucurătoare. We seem never to agree on this issue.

. (tomato. FRIEND k.. (hero. hit the island with tremendous force.(tornado. There are hundreds of . volcano. halo) h. Winter fodder for cattle is kept in . STABLE j. over my idea and threw themselves into creating the data basis... They really …………. IMITATE n. to show their disgust. The opera company was advertising for . soprano. ENTHUSIASM i.. hobo... cuckoo) e.. piano. albino) g. piano) f.. This is the PM’s …………… RESIDE l... (potato. came back.... (hero.. photo. along the Mediterranean coast. The ship was sunk by well-aimed .. cargo. I think I know her sentences by heart now. kilo) of ....(hero. (portfolio. They threw rotten . the balloon they had to throw away their luggage. Supply the blanks with suitable nouns from those in brackets. dynamo) c. soprano. He was bitten by . The .. (tomato. Use the plural forms: a.Business English g.. DEAD m.. silo) d. He threw a stone at the rock and ... In childhood she was ……………… by Mira who helped her a lot... How many.. It’s very ……………... (piano.... casino.. REPEAT h. and got malaria. echo) b.. Everytime he starts speaking about her scientific research he keeps on speaking about modernism... His disappearance is ………… EXPLAIN 7. The delegates carried their . (octavo. the pain in my back..... torpedo... His writing style is really…………. The doctor gave me pull to ……….. casino) j. (calico.. mosquito) i. photo) do you need to make 1 liter of juice? 55 . To ………... canto..

It’s not allowed to hunt (bear).. A (series) of unexpected events prevented him from going on holiday to Scotland. They don’t even try to hunt (lion).. The consul sent several .. c. (crisis) k... 9. There are not many types of .. Fill in the correct plural form of the words in brackets: a.Business English 8..... .. (genus) o. But still many (bear) are killed.. Do other planets revolve on their ... d.. The (Navaho) were almost completely destroyed... i..... of these lenses are perfect for distance photography. Geologists search the rock ... (oasis) d. was collected by the scientist.. e.. The . He spent his time playing with mathematical .. g. I’ve always found the idea of .... of animals.... (datum) e.(index) n. A great deal of . (hypothesis) 56 .... are exact positions of things. since the war. of theorists must conform to the real world.. Fill in the correct forms of the nouns in brackets: a.. f. back to London. h... (memorandum) g. There have been many international . c.. What are the .. (alga) j.... All good reference books contain .. like the Earth? (axis) b.. They raise lots of (duck) on their farm. (formula).. f... (stratum) i... (focus) l. It can be dangerous if chemists make mistakes in their .. He made a living by raising (goose).... There is no (mean) of learning what is happening.. j. h. (index)... The (deer) have left their usual pastures. (locus) p. (analysis). The ... ... of success? (criterion) m. Despite their size (giraffe) are harmless creatures. They say (fish) are good for the brain.. There are many . for valuable minerals.. b. are rare in the desert. it is too dangerous. around the British coast. in algebra rather difficult..

Einstein’s mathematics (was/were) a revelation. Classics (take/takes) a back seat these days. g.. marquis. master.. to the resolution were proposed..s (thesis) r. czar. His motives may be good. j. Decide which of the two verb forms should be used in the following sentences: a..Business English q. peacock. n. b. negro. Radical politics (was/were) offensive to the Federalists.. l. m.. Acoustics (is/are) a branch of science that is growing fast. In every group. Athletics (has/have) been virtually abolished from smaller schools. drake. Post-graduate students have to write . They were all well trained and so they responded like .. o. lord. hero. bachelor.. Her hysterics (does/do) not move anybody that knows her. wizard... politics (is/are) a subject that arouses interest. but his tactics (is/are) deplorable. (automaton) t..D... Ballistics (is/are) the study of the motion of projectiles. (addendum) 10. Economics (doesn’t/don’t) require extensive knowledge of mathematics. e. stallion. widower. f. fox 57 . duke. to obtain their Ph. The optician found that both his patient’s eyes had defective . gander.. Two . i. drone. ram.. h. What are the feminine forms of the following words: actor. chauffeur. Your heroics (is/are) worthy of a better cause. d. Physics (was/were) my most difficult subject in high school. aviator. landlord. c. Tactics (is/are) really short term strategy. 11. His ethics (leave/leaves) a lot to be desired. driver. The acoustics of this room (is/are) not all they might be. (retina) s. k. son.. executor. clown.

tabby cat. maidservant. wife.Business English 12. countess. bitch. queen. governess. she-wolf. heir. niece. czarina. chauffeuse 58 . What are the masculine forms of the following words: madam. nurse. abbess. hind. doe. jenny-ass.

Read the following business letter and try to distinguish the parts it contains: a. Look at the tenses of the verbs.Business English Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Business letters © Past Simple © Past Continuous © Expressions of quantity © The Adjective •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks Have you ever written a business letter? What are the basic rules in composing a business letter? Reading Read this text about composing business letters. Translate the text into Romanian: Business letters Business letters are usually typed on notepaper bearing a specially designed heading which provides the reader of the letter with the essential information about the organisation sending it. and in many cases the names of the directors. the type of business it is engaged in. number. It is becoming increasingly common for firms to print an emblem or trademark on their stationery.A. GRAJO LEEDS Leeds 978653 59 . Normally the heading will include the company’s name and address. its telephone numbers and telegraphic addresses. its telex code and V.T.

Will you please send us price-lists and catalogues for all products manufactured by this company. Graden and Jones Ltd. according to whatever may suit the filling system of the firm in question. JAS/DS Manchester M24 5 BD e. P. Jones b. Limited\25 King Edward VII. The parts of the letter a.A. but on the left. J. Graden. Stevens Chief buyer d. It is usual to quote the reference initials of the addressee company in a reply. Oliver Green and Co. b. f. The reference This is typed on the same line as the date. We look forward to hearing from you. The date 60 . St. Sometimes other initials or figures are added. and consists of the initials of the person who signs the letter and those of the typist. The heading. c. g.Business English GRADEN &JONES LIMITED Home and Overseas Merchants Directors: L. Upper Bridge Street Leeds 2 c. Dear Sirs We understand from several of our trade connections in Bolton that you are the British agents for Petrou and Galitopoulous AE of Athens. 13 June 2003 Ways with words 1.G. together with details of trade discounts and terms of payment.. Yours faithfully. L.

the complimentary close will take the form “Yours sincerely.Business English The form in which the date is written in this letter -13 June 2003 is probably the simplest and clearest of all the current forms used in the English-speaking world. Firstly.” g. as well as being quicker for the typist. The signature It often happens that the person who has dictated a letter is unable to sign it as soon as it has been typed. Very often a comma is typed after the salutation. the complimentary close will read “Yours faithfully” or. This is the usual salutation in British business letters addressed to a company rather than to an individual within the company. The complimentary close This is typed above the name of the firm sending the letter. then a space is left for the signature. The salutation Below the address a double space at least is left. “Dear Mr. considering the spacing to fulfil the function of traditional punctuation. the typist or some other employee connected with the letter in question will sign it instead: in such cases he or she will write the word “for” or the initials “p. f. but an increasing number of firms are eliminating this. e. and the style shown in the example is neater. “Dear Miss Prism” etc. The diagonal granding of the name and address is rare nowadays.” immediately before the typed name of the 61 . but there are alternative ways of writing the date: • • • June 13 20003 13th June 2003.p. The inside address A few points concerning the name and address of the firm written to need to be made. and the words “Dear Sirs” are typed. they are typed on the left. normally against the margin. less commonly. “Yours truly”. and June 13th 2003 d. Brown”. If the salutation is “Dear Sirs” or “Dear Sir”. Since it is often essential to send a letter as soon as possible. If the correspondent is addressed by his or her name.

The name of the person signing the letter is typed below the space left for the signature. If an enclosure accompanies the letter.Business English employee responsible for the letter. 62 . for instance. and is followed on the next line by his position in the company or by the name of the department he represents.) typed against the left-hand margin some distance below the signature. but it is becoming more and more common for firms to place them against the left-hand margin. Traditionally the complimentary close and signature have been typed in the middle of the page. or Encl. or the typing of lines in the left-hand margin beside the reference in the text to the document or documents enclosed – but typing the word Enclosure at the bottom of the letter is by far the most common. this fact is indicated both in the text itself and by the word Enclosure (often reduced to Enc. There are other ways of referring to enclosures – the use of adhesive labels.

63 .Business English Now look at the following letters and try to write a reply.

Business English 64 .

Business English 65 .

Business English 66 .

Business English Grammar Reference Past Simple Past Simple is used to express • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. Suddenly he remembered something. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. He stood up and went out of the room. The chemists reported the results obtained yesterday. yesterday. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. in 1985. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic). etc): They protested against that law in the late eighteenth century. I met him every day on my way to the office. In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page @ – Appendix 1) 67 . She always wore red. He took off his shirt. • habitual. yesterday morning/ evening. The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. • Past Simple is used to describe a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. There are many common irregular verbs.

Business English I You He/She We You They arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. I You He/She We You They did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday. When did Where did I you he she we you they arrive? go? Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? 68 . Interrogative The question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did. Negative The negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t).

she did. When she arrived. I didn’t. No. I did.Business English Yes. he was sleeping. Did she report the results obtained? Yes. she didn’t. • past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative I He She You We They were were not (weren’t) was was not (wasn’t) working. No. 69 . Past Continuous Past Continuous is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was calculating the balance sheet when you came.30 yesterday.

( looking is a long activity. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. she wasn’t. Are there any books of Economy in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie.) She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room. but only with a singular noun: There is some ink in this pen. 70 . Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. No. a lot of/ lots of. much/many. and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night.Business English Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes.) I did my homework yesterday. I wasn’t. she was. Something happened in the middle to interrupt it). Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. (I started and finished. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences. Expressions of quantity some/any. (I was in the middle of the activity. I was. No.

a difficult exercise. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few.Business English Is there any paper in the printer? We haven’t got any butter in the house. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. a strange coincidence). 3. There’s a lot of paper in this printer. We only need a little money to buy this. and when they do. There are lots of letters here. The Adjective Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. 4. an interesting course. 71 . 2. they appear in a set order according to category. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much sugar left in the jar. As after you finish this course you may write articles on economy or management in English it is of major importance for you to know the correct order of adjectives in a sentence.g. Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many lawyers work for this company? We haven’t discovered many interesting data. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. Position of adjectives Adjectives appear before the noun or noun phrase that they modify (e. He’s got a lot of money.

small. new. English. Observation adjectives. There is however a pattern. perfect to interesting. V. green. orange. beautiful. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. demonstrative this tool II. metallic. because the order seems quite arbitrary. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. IV. etc. VI. brown. yellow. Spanish. round. book 72 . Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people. III. American. short. Qualifier is made of final limiter.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real. square young. gorgeous to large. adjectives.Business English The order of adjectives in a series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. violet adjectives French. old. black. possessive chapter. often hunting cabin. blue. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour ancient denoting red. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. Polish. Romanian adjectives wooden. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. her story. regarded as part of the passenger car. the sixth (numerals.

which quickly was replacing/ replaced whale oil in the kerosene stoves in the 50’s. People Actions 73 . b. While I was learning/ learnt for my Economy exam. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. 2. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. When the programme was completed. How did you hear/ were you hearing about their wedding? While I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio. it struck/ was striking me as odd to hear their names. The first important commercial product from crude petroleum was kerosene. Agriculture played/ was playing an essential part in the development of the Romanian economy 20 years ago. We produced/ were producing 10 different types of leather jackets last year. Our crew included/ was including an accountant. Find the correct action for each person and make a sentence: Example: Copernicus. c. two quality supervisers and one soft engineer. h.studying the planets Copernicus studied the planets. the crew moved/ was moving in. g. e.Business English noun cover Controlled practice 1. j. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. d. i. f.

I (walk) on quickly. Then he (tell) me he (be) a writer of detective stories and (try) to see if it was difficult to 74 . I (go) on. whom I had seen three times already that afternoon. Every time the buses (pull) at a stop. The man with the beard (miss) the bus but (get) into another 74. As I (stand) on the platform waiting for a Circle Line train. Then the conductor (come) downstairs and (ring) the bell. I (decide) to try and shake him off. Supply the simple past tense or the continuous past tense of the verbs in brackets: I (walk) along Piccadilly when I (realize) that a man with a ginger beard. I (become) rather tired of being shadowed like this. then left and (stop) suddenly at a shop window.Business English Michael Jackson Marlowe Picasso Neil Armostrong Americo Vespucci Artur Aish Martin Luther King Charles Dickens Edison going to the moon inventing the electric light writing “Doctor Faustus” singing pop music playing tennis discovering America painting “Guernica” working for Black people’s rights creating novels 3. (turn) right. he (sit) in one corner reading it. He (look) a very respectable type and (wear) very conventional clothes and I (wonder) if he was a policeman or a private detective. I (leave) the bus and (buy) a ticket at a ticket machine. the man (look) out anxiously to see if I (get) off. At first he (say) he (not follow) me at all but when I (threaten) to knock him down. he (admit) that he was. at some traffic lights. he (stop). He (look) over the top of the newspaper at every station to see if I (get) out. I (jump) on it. my pursuer (come) down the stairs. which (follow) the first. and whenever I (look) round he (be) still there. In a few minutes the man with the beard (appear) and (stop) at another shop window. he (change) buses and (get) into mine. At Gloucester Road Underground. Both buses (crawl) very slowly along Knightsbridge. so finally I (go) and (sit) beside the man and (ask) him why he follow me. A 74 bus (stand) at the bus stop just beside me. and I (read) the advertisements. To make quite sure. Finally. He (carry) a newspaper and when we (get) into the same compartment. just as the bus (move) off. (follow) me. Whenever I (stop).

They (choose) cream paint for the woodwork and apricot for the walls. It (be) a friend of Peter’s who (want) to know if Peter (play) golf in the following weekend. He (recognize) the voice that (shout) the loudest as that of the landlady. and (do) a whole wall before Ann (come) back. It (be) the postman with a letter from her aunt Mary. 4. saying she (come) to spend the weekend with them and (arrive) that evening at 6:30. but you (sleep) so peacefully when I (look) into your room that I (decide) to do it alone. I (tell) him he hadn’t been unseen because I had noticed him in Piccadilly and I (advise) him to shave off his ginger beard if he (not want) his victim to know he (be) followed. Ann (mix) the paint. Peter (return). Peter and Ann (decide) to redecorate their sitting-room themselves. because he (know) they (look) for someone to help them. They (be) glad to see John and (ask) if he (do) anything special that day. When John (look) in to see how they (get) on. They (work) in silence for some time. Ann (say) she (get) tired of interruptions but (go) and (open) the door. At last he (leave). Then Peter (think) he would do the ceiling. He (grumble) that she always (telephone). He hastily (reply) he (do) to the theatre and (go) away at once. Ann (remember) she (telephone). the doorbell (ring). Put the verbs in brackets in the simple or continuous past tense according to the meaning. They (begin) painting. b.Business English follow someone unseen. expecting Ann to say something about friends who (come) and (waste) valuable time talking about golf. But Ann nobly (say) nothing. He just (climb) the step ladder when the doorbell (ring) again. 75 . While they (wait) for the walls to dry. I (go) to ask you to help me. Ann (retort) that Peter always (complain). and Peter (wash) down the walls. a. He (stay) talking to Peter in the hall while Ann (go) on painting. Just as they (start) the third wall. but (find) the walls (be) too wet.

She actually (work) there at the time of the raid? m. I (see) that the Browns (have) a lot of alterations made to their house. While the schoolmaster (write) on the blackboard. 76 . Her face (be) mildly pretty but. k. We (have) to go round the back door because Grandfather (have) his front door painted. l. h. (open) the window and (lean) out. (light) a cigarette. The person who (drive) the car on the day of the accident (no be) insured. because she (cry) and mascara (run) down her cheeks. d. When they (get married) he (find) a job as a caretaker on a large estate. I (walk) down the street some minutes ago when I (see) a curiously dressed man. g. but I (not know) if the parents (go) to pay for them. He (wear) a sports-coat with black trousers. i. He (not keep) his appointment with you last Tuesday morning because at the time of the appointment he (be seen) by the Personnel Manager about a new job. While she (wonder) whether to buy the suit or not. he (not notice) that the boys in the back row (steal out) of the room on tiptoe. e. She (wear) green and it (suit) her very well. n. A traffic warden just (stick) a parking ticket to my windscreen when I (come) back to the car. j. she (not seem) as attractive as I (expect). f. I (try) to persuade him to tear it up but he (refuse). someone else (come) and (buy) it. When the dog (bite) Mary again. mother (prepare) dinner and we (listen) to the radio. He (come) into the room. Ann (work) in the branch where the big robbery (take) place.Business English c. o. Mary (shout) blue murder and (have) hysterics again. and one of his shoes (be) black and the other (be) brown).

He (watch) TV when the phone rang. What you (do)? t. I (make) a cake when the light went out. My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr. I had to finish it in the dark. c. The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father’s steps. so we only had time for a few words. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed. g. q. b. When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph. Put the verbs in the brackets into the simple past and the past continuous: a.Business English 5. He (insist) on finishing the game. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on the overhead projector. f. j. Whenever his wife entered the room he (stand) up. The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. They immediately (hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books. k. l. m. I (share) a flat with him when we were students. I (like) it very much. o. She apologized for starting without me but I said that she always (lunch) at 12:30. n. e. When I arrived she (have) lunch. Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave). I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand. The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. p. You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. i. s. He always (complain) about my untidiness. He was very polite. I didn’t want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave). He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water. h. He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. Pitt’s Pekinese attacked him. d. 77 . I lit the fire at 6:00 and it (burn) brightly when Tom came in at 7:00. r.

. many. information about the train times? c. Rotring pencils. 2. e... d... oil. more tea? b. Complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a.. Is there ……. Complete the following sentences with some or any: a. Would you like .. c. trouble. frumoase din porţelan. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Economy Today”. d.. El colecţionează vase vechi. c.. d.. but I couldn’t find …. Translate into English: a. Ai încercat să refaci calculele la casa cea nouă cu etaj? e. b or c). petrol in the car? 7.Business English 6. economy books in our library. Put much. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră. El calculează rata profitului pentru o companie mică privată. good conferences recently? e. 1 People work harder if they know that someone is ………………… in their progress. We don’t need …….……. If you have ……. just give me a ring. pencils because I’m going to draw a helix.. Have you attended ……. Have you got ……. or a lot of into each gap: a. There are ……. Could you give me .. b. homework? b.……. Which words in column A can combine with words from column B? A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! 8.. 9. I tried to buy ……. a enthusiastic b interesting 78 c interested . I want …….

a relations b contacts c connections 4 …………………in the Production Department is low because the workers have heard about the plans to reduce the work-force. b value c evaluate 10 Has the change in exchange rates had any ……………… on the cost of your raw materials? a result b affect c effect 79 . a aware a beat 9 We a cost have b sensible b motion several c sensitive c pace proposals for increasing sales. a formally b officiously c unofficially 3 Friendly ………………………………………………………….Business English 2 Nothing has been announced but we’ve heard …………………that the Company Secretary has resigned. no longer exist between members of the sales department because some got bonuses and others didn’t. 6 We have carried out………………into the effect of lighting on our workers’ productivity. a morale a equipment b feeling b machine c moral c machinery 5 This is a useful ………………………… . a a research b some research c researches 7 Strikes can be avoided if managers are………………… to the feelings of their employees. must…………………… the merits of each of them. We 8 Some people like to work at their own ……………………… .

. .. cold drink on .... .. o..... “Do you take .. coffee?” “I used to.. . truth is . Write the adjectives a... serious mistake.feather flock together.. normal girl would be heart-broken.. I would not do it for all .. article in the paper... polished – beautiful – antique – dining-table – oak – Japanese c.. shoes – leather – eye-catching – Italian – handmade e. . k... g.. drowning man catches at . ...... i. canvas – tennis – shoes – American – grey and red 11.” m..... straw.......... but now I’m on . n.. It is difficult to get about in that region without ... “You were pretty confident up to .. b......... size... Mr.. hot day is acceptable. car.. ..... We had . fish and .. . . b........ f... p..... h. .. coat – white – French – second-hand – handmade b.. virtue. .............. . books for this course are not expensive. cotton – dress – long – summer – fashionable d...... self-righteousness is certainly . Insert the indefinite article in the blank spaces... boy’s first toy is very important. j. He wants to make ... vice..... sugar in ... c. diet.. if necessary: a......... Under the circumstances ... weren’t you?” he asked. It colours his whole after-life. Smith called while you were out... There is ... gold in the world... He confused the positive and negative terminals..Business English 10... e. Peter and Jack are much of .. Birds of . I’m trying to lose weight. books are necessary for a student. Supply the when necessary: a. gold. silver is almost as precious as .. l. letter for you on the desk.... 12... point..... 80 ... chips for lunch... island is surrounded on all sides by water... complaint about ......

. his younger brother is the .anger of his wife..... science of the possible and ...... beauty is ............. mountains in the world. European history I studied at school helped me a great deal in my further studies.. ....... She married without ...... roses that I brought her in a vase..... fashion has always existed in .. The Alps are .. of them... boy...... art as well as in ..... His elder brother. .. impending danger.. I was overcome by ..... art of the impossible....... He had an unsatisfied hunger for . But I prefer ........... anger. The Carpathians are ... m..English literature?” “Yes.. ........ ...... honesty of Jane is admirable. roses are her favourite flowers...” j. h.. Use the positive...... knowledge of her parents.people. ... art belongs to . honesty is the best policy... (tall) b. o.... k. He wanted to see all ......... .. money policy of this bank is very strict........ He feared . comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives in brackets to fill in the blank spaces: a.. English literature of the eighteenth century. .. truth” is a line from a poem by Keats. i. He was conscious of .. tea or ... who is a basketball player. truth than lies.... Which would you prefer ..... n..... sure enough.. .. coffee? ..... It’s much easier to tell ... g....Business English c.. Peter is a .....art of public speaking must be learnt....... record of events. history is ..... animals on the farm. animals are content to eat and sleep... She put ........ d....... fashion............ “.. l... danger he was in didn’t make him lose heart. 13. . knowledge. I do..... . is . policy is ... ... dress.......... . f................ “Do you like ... yet the Himalayas are the . Those fur hats are all ......... (high) 81 ....... but.. coffee you are drinking comes from Brazil. e..

than I thought.. ....... She is the ……............... Insert the appropriate form of the two adjectives in brackets a... (narrow) g....... but that alley is ... direct) 82 ...... than anything we had before.... but the Smalltown road is ……….Business English c............ than usual with everyone away.... ............. but it seemed even ....... ........... and the path leading to your house is the ......... house..... the desk is ………. peaceful) c...... What’s the ............... The armchair in my room is .......... rainy autumn days are .................... (heavy) h. .............. of them all.. than other girls I’ve known.... This lesson is ……..... His position is a ........ (cold) d... of them all.. Autumn days are ……... girl I have ever met.. Your street is ............. person I have ever met... but the bookcase is the ………....... weather of all on clear.. (young) f......... You don’t often meet such a ……….. of them.. It is ....... Anne was .. (grave. (hard.………. serious) d........ but she was not the . (quiet........ The house was .. . the road through Duxberry is pretty ………. She’s .... in her class........ It’s the ....... girl... I have seen yet... It is very . In fact he is the …………. . He knew the situation was .. (small) e..... but a robin’s egg is the ………........................... one..... when he saw his father’s face..... of all was the empty playroom. (straight... John is .......... compared to that of an ostrich.. (handsome) i................. but we have the ....... for the class.. He didn’t like the . but his younger brother is .... A duck’s egg is .. (humble) 14... windy days in winter..... difficult) e......... than he is.... (insincere) j. (pretty.......... a hen’s egg is even ……….... Jane was very .... route to Milltown? Well...... beautiful) b........ He is insincere......

. b..… (good). f.. They have invited quite (a) a lot of. Will you switch the light on? The room has grown ……….. I’ve ever seen. Your first paper was ……. Her children are all ……... b...... e.….... Sometimes food eaten at home is (a) the better. soldier in the world couldn’t have done more. (b) better than food eaten in a restaurant. thing to do.. c.. (b) any better today... j.. courageous) h... (brave. Kenyon fell ill... (sad.. d. It was a ………. of all. i.. (clever..Business English f. (b) many people. (b) the most well-known English poet. action. the ……… is by far …….. wonderful) g.... From these two photographs the smaller is (a) the best... Not (a) a lot of (b) much ink is spilled. (b) the better. and I can’t see any longer. Kenyon looks.. A bigger dictionary is always (a) completer..… of all. (b) little friends visit him now.. He needs (a) some.. the first born....every day. He doesn’t feel (a) no. old. They have been very ……. clever) c..... Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: a. (great. (b) more complete than a smaller one. He has retired and (a) few.. Fill in the adequate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. since Mrs... That was a .. (dim) 83 . Can you speak (a) some (b) any foreign language? h.. I’ve never seen a .. g. Stratford-upon-Avon is the birth place of one of the (a) best known. Mr. The ………. (b) any months of training.... than this...... k... That was Laurence Olivier’s Hamlet. unhappy) 15. 16.. performance. and the little boy is the………….. I’ve only seen one performance in my life that was .… but this one is even ……..... Those little people have (a) a lot of (b) much energy.. it was the ………..

than I had expected. Don’t be hard on that girl. Is this tie …………… than the old one? (becoming) e. Is this the ………. Which is the ………… of these two students? (hardworking) f. She is ………… of all the group.… things.. (cheap) 84 .Business English d. (gay) g. sunny) h.… room in your hotel? (pleasant. She is much ………. (sensitive) i. and the ……. She is always hunting for ……..

Excellent companies have a ‘vast network of informal. Written by two business consultants. One of the points made by the writers is that communications in 10 excellent companies are different from those in other companies. These provide useful lessons for all managers. People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. and have many unscheduled meetings. Fortythree top companies were studied. few barriers exist to prevent people talking to each other.Business English Unit 6 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Communication © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple © Prepositions •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-Reading Tasks What are the advantages and disadvantages of having open-plan offices? Reading Read this text on Communication in business. Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman. Many examples of the experiences of these organisations are given in the book. open communications’. The authors give many examples to back up their view. Identify the Present Perfect Simple of the verbs: COMMUNICATION In recent years. For instance. They meet often. the book identified factors which have accounted for the success of some of America’s best-run companies. In the best-run businesses. few books on management have been more acclaimed than In Search of Excellence. 85 . The companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meet easily and frequently.

chattering about new product problems. communicate as effectively as we think we do. It went on all day — people meeting in a seemingly random way to get things done. in fact.’ One of the 3M executives told the authors.’ The book is full of examples of companies who believe in keeping in touch firms like IBM where the Chairman personally answers any complaint which is addressed by members of staff. We do not.Business English one day. other companies where managers are encouraged to get out of the office and walk around and some which make a point of informality. However. a study was made of a production department in a British company. They soon noticed that there were a lot of casual meetings going on with ‘salespeople. where everyone wears a name-tag with his/her first name on it. The department manager believed he had given ‘instruction or decisions in 165 out of 236 episodes. they visited the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). but his subordinates considered they had received instruction on only 84 occasions. like Walt Disney Productions. marketing people. Research done by Rensis Likert in 1991 (see Figure 1) showed that 85% of the supervisors thought their subordinates felt free to discuss important things with them. One problem with communication is that people think they have got their message across when in fact they have not. ‘We just plain talk to each other a lot without a lot of paper or formal rigmarole. In 1984. Several studies have shown this. manufacturing people — even accounting people — sitting around. only 51 % of the employees agreed with this opinion! 86 .

For this reason. New Patterns of Management. They do not want to give bad news. It is not surprising. A breakdown in communication is quite likely to happen if there is some kind of ‘social distance’ between people. In organisations.’ It is risky to tell the truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy they may not like what they hear and hold it against you. when in fact it is a month behind schedule! There’s nothing new about all this. But if the Chief Executive of the company passes by and asks how things are going.’ they say. 1991 themselves employees say about supervisors This finding is important for managers. ‘Just fine. They deliberately alter the facts. for example. 47. She used to give gold to messengers bringing good news. when giving instructions. For example. It is possible. managers must make sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted correctly. or if one person has a much higher position than the other.Hill Book Company. a couple of production workers will probably speak frankly to each other about things that are going wrong in their department. ‘The project’s coming along fine. It suggests that.Business English EXTENT TO WHICH SUBORDINATES FEEL FREE TO DISCUSS IMPORTANT THINGS ABOUT THE JOB WITH SUPERIORS – AS SEEN BY SUPERIORS AND SUBORDINATES Top staff says about Supervisors say about Supervisors say about Employees supervisors Feel very free to discuss important 90% 67% 85% 51% things about the job with my superior Feel fairly free 10% 23% 15% 29% Not very free 10% 14% Not at all free 6% Source: Rensis Likert. telling the boss what he/she wants to hear. they’ll probably say. to have a 87 . One thinks of Cleopatra and the problem she had in her military campaigns. people may have difficulty communicating if they are different in status. but executed those bringing bad news. therefore. that the information she received was unreliable! One way of reducing social distance — and improving communications — is to cut down on status symbols. New York: McGraw. so they give their superior too good an impression of the situation. staff often ‘filter’ information. thank you. p.

that in Japanese companies. sender and receiver are always on slightly different wavelengths. but the employee will interpret his meaning incorrectly. However. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It is worth noting. a manager will say something. rather than lifts. The world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. 90 The Corning Glass Company in the United States installed escalators. Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encourage communication. the probability of communicating at least once a week was about 8%. Studies show that the further away a person is. An example of this is given in Figure 2. Put simply. in their new engineering building because they wanted to increase the chances of employees meeting face-to-face. When they were five metres apart. The message becomes distorted. the probability was 25%. Let’s 88 .Business English common dining-room for all staff. too. it is interesting to note that employees in such offices will often move furniture and other objects to create mini-offices. it is common for all the staff to wear uniforms. Excellent companies use space to create good communications. The physical layout of an office must be carefully planned. the less he/she communicates. He showed that if people were more than ten metres apart. another important barrier to communication is selective perception. Because their knowledge and experience is different. Therefore. So. Figure 2 HOW COMMUNICATIONS BREAK DOWN What the manager said I’ll look into hiring another person for your department What the manager meant We’ll start interviewing for that job in about three What the subordinate heard I’m tied up with more important things. Open-plan offices are designed to make communication easier and quicker. Thomas Allen studied the effect of location on communication in engineering and research departments. this means that people perceive things in different ways.

below par last quarter. & Winston). We’d like you to go out there and look it over. if you don’t. If I were you. 305. Your people seem to be having some problems getting their work out on time. managers must remember one thing. without you screwing things up too. from time to time. you’re out. You don’t have to go out to L. SOURCE: Richard M. if you don’t want to. due to budget problems. However. I need that report within the week. I’d like that report as soon as can get to it. but I know you can do it. Ways with words 1. p. Communication should be a two-way process. you can kiss good-bye to your career with this firm.Business English as soon as I complete my budget review. with your credentials. We’re certainly not going to pay that kind of salary to a person If you’d like that job. You be the judge. Then get with them and jointly solve it. problems I’ve got enough around here forget about hiring for the indefinite future. Rinehart . I talked to the boss. Hodgetts and Steven Altman. We have a job opening in Los Angeles that we think would be just your cup of tea. Drop that rush order you’re working on and fill out that report today. Feedback is essential. Your performance was weeks. Communication problems will arise. I don’t care how many heads you bust. We can give you 95 percent of that offer. (New York: Holt. I want you to look into this situation and straighten it out. and I know we’ll be able to do even more for you next year. However. I’d take that competitive offer. you can stay here in Denver. but at the present time. If you screw it up more time. Talk to your people and find out what the problem is. just get me that output.A. If not. of course. we’ll be unable to fully match your competitive salary offer. to minimise such problems. Managers should encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the managers are saying. it’s yours. 1979. The most useful question a manager can ask is ‘Did you understand that?’. You’re going to have to try harder. I really expected more out of you. Understanding the main points 89 . in the best-run companies. Organizational Behaviour.

g. Supposing you were Communications Manager in a large organisation. what advice would you give managers to avoid communications problems? Note down a few of the suggestions you would make.Business English Number the following ideas 1—8. depending on the order in which they appear in the text. 90 . Better communications between managers and employees can be achieved by trying to reduce the social divisions between them within the company. b. another important barrier to communication is selective perception. d. Read the sentence: So. astfel încât. c. So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English. f. Staff communications are much easier if work places are designed in such a way that people frequently come into contact with each other. e. 2. In the most successfully managed organisations communications are extremely good because staff meet to discuss things openly and informally. Communication problems sometimes occur when employees misinterpret what their managers tell them. a. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât. Subordinates are often reluctant to tell their superiors when things are not going well. One of the problems faced by managers is that their staff do not always feel that they are able to come and discuss important matters freely with them. In In Search of Excellence the authors give many examples of the ways in which organisations try to break down the barriers between management and employees. h.The purpose of the book was to illustrate the good management techniques which are used in top American companies. 3.

of 20% a year.) rise (n. from time to time. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. However. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. arise (v. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. in the best-run companies. (6)in prices made our products uncompetitive. they had to pay for this by …………………(5)the prices of all our products by10%. so far as = întrucât. later on. We’ll have to discontinue it. Complete the following sentences using suitable items from the list below.. This …………………… is unprofitable. management decided to ……………(3) the salaries of all the staff. 4. so much = atât de mult. pânã în prezent. so it seems = aşa se pare. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. How do you translate to arise? Now complete the following passage with the correct forms of the following words. Read the following sentence again: Communication problems will arise. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa.Business English so far = pânã acum. ca sã zicem aşa. 91 . For this reason. b. A sales revenue growth-rate product-line resources productivity agency aims to achieve a production capacity advertising well-known …………………. Such a large …………………. în mãsura în care.) raise (v. they gave everyone a ………………(4) of £10 a week. So now. management is talking of lowering our salaries again! 5.) A serious problem has………………… (1) in my company. product range market share a.(2) by 6% last year. Because the cost of living………………….) rise (v.

I took my house back. gave up a claim f. so we aren’t able to offer a wide ……………………… . a. 7. Read the following sentence again: The authors give many examples to back up their view. f. restored to its owner j. He backed the wrong horse. 6. We’re a small firm. I see that he was backed from the position he b. 4. 5. 10. be situated at took last week.Business English c. Most of Shell Oil’s ………………………comes from overseas subsidiaries. Our garden backs theirs. I backed my friend in that argument. high-quality word-processor. The wind backed. Match these sentences with the explanations on the right: 1. 6. h. hid the truth 2. withdraw from g. How do you translate to back up? Now learn some phrases containing the word back. Present Perfect Simple is used to express: 92 . 9. c. He turned his back on me. you can often increase their ………………… e. 8. the Amstrad company were able to greatly increase their …………………… in the UK. enter (with the back) Grammar Reference Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Simple relates past actions and states them to the present. 3. change direction h. With the help of their cheap. made the wrong choice i. supported him d. He promised to help me but then backed out. He backed the car into the garage. we have been able to expand our …………………… . By extending our factory. d. By re-organising the work of office staff. Companies like Unilever and IBM have huge financial …………………… . refused me e. They kept back the truth. g.

There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page @ – Appendix 1).) Has oil only been used by mankind in the last hundred years? (But: Why was oil used on such a large scale in 1999?) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. Affirmative and negative I We You They He She has (‘s) has not (hasn’t) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in the human resources department. He has fixed his car. • activities completed in the immediate past: She has just met him in the laboratory. • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. (i.Business English • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. He has never seen such a big computer touch screen. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago. How long have you worked as an economist? How long has it taken the oil industry to grow to its present size? Form have/has+verb+(past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. He can drive it now).e.e. (Since means from a definite point in the past till now. 93 . and for expresses a duration). (i. I can tell you the story).

(He is still alive.) F.) He has worked in this company for four years. they he she been to the United Kingdom? Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do.) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a 94 . No. (He is dead.Business English Interrogative Have I we you Has Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. I found them behind a couple of other books. The Preposition Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. I have. she has. on the top shelf. she hasn’t. (Now I live somewhere else. I haven’t. Where did you find them? (certainty). Has she ever worked as a lawyer? Yes. I have.) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. No.) I lived in this flat for two years. Neagu has written very good short stories. (But: He started working in this company in 1997.

Business English prepositional phrase. Nouns, pronouns, noun phrases, gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions. Note that in English, prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. Because of you, I can't get any work done. After telling the whole story, he disappeared. As the preposition in English may be different from the preposition in Romanian, here is a text in which you may learn about the use of the preposition in English: (Also see the list with prepositions which are usually mistaken by Romanian students on page @ – Appendix 2) Now read the following text and pay attention to the use of the preposition in English: It seems generally accepted that Mathematics is indeed fundamental for all engineering education, and for most schools all engineering students take the same mathematics sequence. Two areas of mathematics seem broadly basic to engineering: namely, the calculus as used in the linear constant coefficient differential equation, and statistical theory. The linear differential equation is a general form, useful to engineering because we can obtain answers from it. Therefore, where this form applies to the physical world, the use of mathematical prediction is increasing over the experimental approach. Next is the area of the partial differential equation, rigorously solvable in only a few special cases although approximation methods exist. Here the laboratory still depends on many solutions where analytic methods are not yet fully available

Prepositions of time
In the morning/ afternoon/ evening; January, February, etc.; summer, winter, etc.; 1988; the 1930s; two weeks; two weeks’ time; your free (spare) time; good/ bad weather 95

Business English At six o ‘clock, etc.; midnight; Easter/ Christmas; the weekend; the moment On Saturday, Monday, etc.; Tuesday morning, etc.; 11-th January, etc. For seven minutes, etc.; a long time; ages Since June, 25-th, etc.; my last birthday; I came here During* the film; the class; the war; my holidays; summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb, during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you...

Controlled practice
1. Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect: a. He just (buy) a second-hand car. b. I always (want) to meet Professor Leech. c. What (happen) to the keys of the car? I can’t find them anywhere. d. I (finish) my letters and am going to the post-office. e. We (be) to Brighton twice this year. f. We (book) seats for tomorrow; here they are. g. This parcel (arrive) for you; do you want me to take it into your room. h. Someone (take) away the umbrella that used to hang behind the door. i. I (get) a letter from my brother today. j. Come and see the new furniture I (buy). 2. Supply for or since in the following sentences: a. We haven’t seen Mary ...... (the accident/three months). b. I haven’t spoken Italian ...... (1985/three years). c. We have had two breakdowns ...... (we bought the car/last week) d. John hasn’t paid any bill.... (he moved here/ eighteen months). e. I’ve asked the same question....(a week/the beginning of the year). f. Dr. Brown has been here twice ...... (you went out/lunch-time). 96

Business English g. We haven’t had such a lot of snow here ...... (the war/ten years). h. The Jamesons have not been away from Crew ...... (they were married/ longer than they can remember). i. They have known each other ...... (their childhood/twenty years). j. It hasn’t rained ...... (a month/March). 3. Rephrase the following sentences, using the present perfect tense with for and since, according to the model: The last time I was abroad was in the summer of 1983. becomes I haven’t been abroad since 1983. a. He last shaved last Monday. b. It’s years since Jane visited us. c. He last ate snails when he was a student in Paris. d. It’s years since I last had a really good night’s sleep. e. It’s ages since I last wrote a letter. f. She last went to the hairdresser’s for her brother’s wedding. g. I last skated in my childhood. h. It’s more than ten years since that house was lived in. i. I last met her the day when she got a job. j. It’s quite a long time since he rode a motorcycle. 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect or simple past: a. Peter (buy) a new car last month, but he (not sell) his old car yet, so at the moment he has two cars. b. When we (move) into our new flat we (ask) for a telephone. The Telephone Company (tell) us to wait, but we (wait) a year now and our phone still (not come). c. When I (be) on my way to the bus stop it (start) to rain. I (run) back home for my umbrella, but this (make) me late for the office. My boss (look) up as I (enter) the office. “You (be) late twice this week”, he (growl). 97

Business English d. Ann (think) the garage (be) empty and (turn) off the lights. “Hey”, (shout) Paul from under the car. “I’m sorry, Paul”,(say) Ann, “I (not know) you (be) there.” e. Tom (meet) Paul at lunch time and (say): “I (not see) you at the bus stop this morning. You (miss) the bus?” “I (not miss) it”, (reply) Paul, “I (not miss) a bus for years. But this morning George (give) me a lift.” f. Peter (try) to come in quietly but his mother (hear) him and (call) out: “Where you (be)? Your supper (be) in the oven for an hour.” g. “I just (buy) a copy of ‘David Copperfield’. You (read) it?” “As it happens it is the only one of Dickens’s books that I (not read). I (not even see) the film.” h. “You (be) to Scotland?” “Yes, I (be) there last summer.” i. “You (be) to the theatre lately?” “Yes, I (go) to ‘Othello’ last week.” “You (like) it?” “Yes, but I (not see) well. I (be) right at the back.” j. “How long you (be) in your present job?” “I (be) there for six months.” “And what you (do) before that?” “Before that I (work) for Jones and Company. k. I (smoke) forty cigarettes a day till the doctor (warn) me about the dangers. l. I (work) as a civil servant from 1985 till 1989. For 5 years I (work). Since 1989 (work) in a hospital. It is now 1995. This means I (work) in a hospital for 6 years. 5. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello, Dan. Dan: Hello. I (not hear) from you for a long time. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks months, but you (not see) me. I (be) on a tram. 98

Business English Dan: Well, how are you? I remember that you were learning for your chemistry test. …. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes, I have. I (pass) in December. I (not pass) my Mathematics exam yet. But what about you, Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No, not really. My brother is still out of work. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. They just (give) me a pay rise. Maria: Well, that’s one piece of good news. 6. Imagine that you are talking on the phone to an old friend who you haven’t seen for about two or three weeks. Write down three of four items of news about yourself that you can tell your friend. 7. Supply the right preposition: a. She is very fond ... children. b. The new teacher is very patient... us. c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd. d. I was interested ... management. e. What are you afraid ...? f. I’m proud ... your success. g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far. h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet don’t expect us until late ... night. i. The results depended ... the revenues we obtained. j. An accountant is a person who has specialised ... accountancy. 8. Put one of these prepositions in each empty space:

99

on account …. B: Oh? Who? A: James. The man is well again now. his having been knocked down by a car. These young doctors are having a discussion …. by. thanks. on.Business English These ambulance men are making preparations …. I look… you to help James if he needs it – without forcing… him to refuse. 9. taking a man to hospital. but you do nothing when you’re ……………home. They take a lot of pride …. with. or (-) where necessary: a. doing their job as perfectly as possible. to or nothing in each empty space: A: I have arranged … someone to look after the shop while I am away. operating on the wounded man. I can always count… him to help. d. Write this story. B: How sad! I always long … someone to owe something to! A: What do you mean? B: I was only joking. for. The doctor says he has no objection … his going home tomorrow. B: That’s wonderful. on. What time did you go …………home last night? f. 10. c Where’s Harry? – I think he’s gone …………bed. Put for. Aren’t the children ……………bed yet? e. Have you reminded… him that he can call… me to come if he needs me? A: Yes. B: Of course. Did you come all this way ……………foot? b. I came here ………………the bus. Supply at. A: Well. This nurse is giving the man an injection as a protection … getting tetanus. to. I didn’t walk. in. but he can’t bear… anyone to feel that he owes him anything. But it seems… me to be a sign of something strange if one wants… anyone to help one. 100 . You may work hard all week.

What happened …………the end of the story? 5.Business English g. 1. How long have you been waiting ………. Where did you hear about this? I saw it ………. What time do the children go ……………school in the morning? j.TV. 7. She invited us. I can’t wait to get to the ……………chapter! 8. so we must invite her………… 4. We haven’t seen much of you ………….. Supply the best word in the following sentences. m. I’ll see you …………ten minutes. 11. 6. l. h. I arrived first and Tom arrived…………. She phoned me …………Monday. the bus? n. o. The experience was not so bad ………… .the black handbag? i. 9. It’s no good raising your voice. They’ve replied ……………our letter on February 15th. he can’t hear ……………you. Who’s the woman …………. I don’t mind being alone ……………the house. You can’t speak to him now. He’s …………class. a) in a) after a) again a) in a) in the end a) finally a) last a) last a) last a) late b) back b) at b) at last b) after all b) latest b) the last b) lastly b) lately b) after b) later 2. 3. k. 10. We missed the train and …………we got a taxi. My name comes ……………in the list. I don’t think it’s much cheaper to go …………bus. 101 .

Here is the information they have sent you by mail. Constanta. Universitatea Ovidius Constanţa – Facultatea de Litere Call for Papers SECOND BALKAN CONFERENCE BALKAN CULTURAL IDENTITIES Ovidius University. 2004 102 .Business English Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Filling in a conference call for papers © Present Perfect Continuous © Modal verbs © Prepositions of place •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks How many conferences have you attended so far? Reading Imagine you are participating in a conference at University Ovidius Constanta. Romania October 14-16. Read the call for papers carefully and prepare to fill in the registration form.

the particular and the universal hold a tense. patterns of private and public life.) Balkanism – Orientalism – Occidentalism. etc. theories of modernity 103 - . homeland and diaspora. mainstream and alternative currents.) the cult-lit path to Balkan identity (national literature at home and abroad. cultural specificity has been looked into as local. national. self-assertion vs. past and present (colonial and postcolonial traces. In the light of current research in the field. us and them. economic. regional or continental particularism. second home and exile. toponyms. choreographic. among so many. the onomastic factor. theories of identity and imagology cultural identity: forma mentis or determinism(s)? one or various Balkan identities? (whys and whereofs) narratives of Balkan identity (literary. my self – my friend – my foe. national classics. identities in the world of late modernity.Business English This conference aims at singling out ‘a’ possible Balkan. if dialectical. etc. visual. and debate at our forthcoming event. centre and margin. musical. terms of endearment and swearwords. Topics suggested: identity between self and other. Commonly regarded as a basic issue of interdisciplinary approaches to identity. relationship. ‘Balkan identity’ is such a problematic category. metropolis and colony. political. analyse. the imperial ‘hangover’) the linguist path to Balkan identity (language – dialect – sociolect – idiolect.) the Balkan region. etc. It is the loose nature of this identity that we invite colleagues from the region and from the academies at large to question. historical. basic stock and loans. etc. minority group literatures and cultures. geographic.

ro> and <nicoletastanca@yahoo.ro> and <alinadpopescu@yahoo. Registration fee: ROL 400. Further details on the program will be made available at a later date to those who will have filled in and returned the registration form below.edu> <nicoletastanca@univ-ovidius.com> <ileanachiru@univ-ovidius. to be paid upon arrival.com> IMPORTANT! PARTICIPANTS ARE ASKED TO SEND THEIR APPLICATION FORMS TO BOTH E-MAIL ADDRESSES OF EACH OF THE ABOVE CONTACTS.000 for Romanian participants / EURO 25 for foreign participants. 104 .Business English Please consider the registration form provided and return it by April 30. 2004 to Alina Popescu / Ileana Chiru-Jitaru / Mona Momescu / Nicoleta Stanca at the following e-mail addresses: <alinapopescu@univ-ovidius.ro> <mmm2120@columbia.ro> and <jitaruileana@rdslink.

Dr. Mrs. Prof]:_________ Affiliation: _________________________________________________ Address (+telephone/fax): ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ E-mail: ______________________________________________________ Presentation details Paper title /topic for panel discussion [specify which]: ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Suggested/preferred field/section: _____________________________________________________________ Abstract (about 50 words): ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Auxiliaries needed (please tick): none OHP cassette player video + TV other – please specify your message).Business English REGISTRATION FORM PERSONAL DETAILS Name:____________________________ Surname:__________________________ Title [Ms. _____ _____ _____ _____ Send this registration form as an e-mail (the file will become an attachment to 105 . Mr.

in which case a nuance of reproach. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. etc.Business English Grammar Reference Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous is used to express: • an activity begun in the past and still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new jobs for several years. in negative sentences. • an activity begun in the past which has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses a present perfect simple can be also used. Interrogative 106 . • a repeated activity. irritation. especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new petroleum products for several years. can be present. Affirmative and negative I You We They He She has been has not been (hasn’t been) have been have not been (haven’t been) working. Why don’t you answer the phone? Its form consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up.

The form is the same for all persons. He can speak three foreign language well. Can you type quickly? Could you give me an example? Should I go home now? Need I invite them too? 3. There are no auxiliaries such as don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t. etc.) She should learn more. Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as not/ n’t immediately after the modal verb. The verb form is the infinitive (without to) She can drive. and there are no -ing or -ed forms. They “help” another verb. Questions are formed by putting the modal verb in front of the subject.Business English What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? Modal Verbs The modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verbs which express the modality of the action and have some specific features. 107 . The following are modal verbs: can/ must/ / may/ need/ shall/ will/ would/ should They have the following in common: 1. etc. you may. I must go. French and Italian. There are no auxiliaries such as do/does/did. He insisted that Jack must go and see it himself. 4. He can speak English. Modals do not inflect (There is no -s in the third person singular. “May I open the window?” “Yes.” 2.

e. b. not used come. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. Te caut de o orã. Problematic prepositions of movement and place Movement Place to at used wih verbs of movement: go. university. Câte dischete ai folosit pânã acum? d. (=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the promenade. I’m tired. 108 . But: I arrived at London Airport. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop. Translate the following sentences into English. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. She wouldn’t like to become a teacher like me.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. even when meaning is different: She goes to house. Pe unde ai umblat? b. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el.Business English I can’t spell your name. etc. London. I (read) all day. Locuim în România de trei ani.. Use Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous: a. c.) with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the Controlled practice 1. 2. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a.

Alan has been/ has gone to South America. otherwise she will miss the train. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. e. c. Vrei sã te cãsãtoreşti cu mine? h. El nu poate sã scrie în englezã. 5. Pot sã închid geamul? d. I saw her in August. Translate the following into English: a. g. dar ştiu sã schiez şi sã patinez. c. 3. dar au început un curs anul acesta. Nu ştiu sã înot. Choose the best variant which completes these sentences: a. You (run)? f. o sã te pedepsesc. You’re out of breath. but (not see) her ever since. She still (not write) the report. g. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. What she (do) all afternoon? h. “Chiar trebuie sã ne ducem la curs la ora patru?” “Da. i. Choose the correct verb form: a. e.” i. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. She can/may/ must go. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. d. Angela worked/ has been working in this company for ten years and a half. f.Business English c. d. b. Ea trebuie sã plece. Your eyes are red. Ei nu ştiu engleza. 109 . Ea ar trebui sã se strãduiascã mai mult la examene. pentru cã nu ne place la mare. j. You (cry). Nu vrem sã venim cu tine. Tu vei sta unde îţi spun. chiar trebuie. dacã nu.

E necesar să îmi las bagajele aici? i. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. El trebuie că a plecat. I went ……. I used to be interested …. Translate into English: a. Mă îndoiesc că el a putut face aşa ceva. Noi trebuie să ne grăbim. as he is in Portugal. altfel întârziem la cursul de econnomie şi nu mai putem intra în sala de curs. the shop. dar aştept să-mi ceară el ajutorul. but I am free now so could/ should/ may you tell me your problem? 6. g... e. b. spunea că nu şi-a terminat lucrarea la finanţe. The baby crawled ……. He strolled carelessly . d. the road. I can’t/ couldn’t/may not help you at that time. Ei nu vor să meargă în excursie. c. the rock concert. Instalaţia este defectă şi se poate întâmpla vreun accident. Physics when I was a child.. Noi vom vota să se schimbe constituţia. Should/ Could/ Will I attend this optional course? d. El poate să vină mai târziu. I met her ……. 110 . h. the station. He cannot/ mustn’t/ may not come to this wedding. the kitchen. They arrived late . b. Aş putea să îl ajut. j.……. e. I’m afraid she may not/ can’t/ mustn’t help you at the moment.. li se pare prea scump. Paris last year. Nu ai voie să dai drumul la curent de aici. 7. c. d. She ran all the way ……. as I was extremely busy. Eu ştiu să vorbesc franceza de când aveam patru ani. c. e.Business English b. f. f. g.…….

. the ship “Voyager” sank. night Batty slept . He cooked the fish ……. looking rather …..... the one hill and put a flag ….. Batty stayed ……. and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. The only survivor was an Englishman called Wilfred Batty. August 1934. the end of September. air.. The ship had been sailing ……. the island. he often fished …. ……. my pocket. swimming two miles. a long blue coat ……..……. i. He climbed ……. a Monday evening ….. the middle of the Indian Ocean. work. 8... 111 .Business English h... She has left... and was on her way ……. a home-made net.. ……. dark hair and a beard. There’s a strike ……. j... September 1931. it ……. a gorilla. the day.... The sailors found a man . Australia. Put in the missing prepositions: …….…….. who saved himself ……. The island was quite small... an island …….... our factory.. She must be ……. the whole of it ……... He spent three years …….. England . a signal. about eight o’clock. the island ……. and the captain saw Batty’s signal. where he felt quite ……. a wood fire. The money fell . almost three years. and he could walk …...... home ……. an hour.…….. a ship was sailing …….. when she left London. Batty was soon home. …….. a cave..

The country is hugely wealthy. anger. For whatever reason – career advancement. For this reason you have two choices after 5 p. opportunity for fantastic profits or simply for losing a bet. you will feel every emotion – frustration. you are surely in for one hell of a ride! One way or another. joy. experience. loneliness. – the first choice would be: develop a good sense of humour. frustration. though extremely under-developed. The gap between the rich and the poor is immense and easily recognizable. and the second: develop a drinking problem! Any pre-conceived ideas of Romania you might have should be put aside.Business English Unit 8 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Useful tips for businessmen who do business in Romania © The Cardinal Numeral © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks If you decide to start any kind of business do you know what you are supposed to do? What would you advise a foreigner who wants to start doing business in our country? Reading Read this text containing useful tips for those who want to do business in our country. while working here. frustration.m. Almost everybody under the age of 35 years old is university educated and speaks at least two languages. Identify the cardinal numerals: So you have decided to make the great leap and try to do business in Romania. Also the idea of making quick profits have 112 . frustration.

Business English been thought and tried by many and they almost never work. Many billionaires have come here and left as millionaires! The bureaucracy is the hardest nut to crack. It doesn’t matter the size of your company you may have more than one hundred employees, the money in your bank account or how big or influential you are in your country, you are a big zero here. Don’t expect to find any “friends” for at least two or three years. Friends don’t come cheap. Those two or three years will be the most frustrating of your life. With your local employees, don’t assume that any directive has been carried out. Check and double-check everything not done directly by you. Although immensely laborious, it is necessary and saves you agony later.

WAYS WITH WORDS
Special terms: Pre-conceived: [only before noun] preconceived ideas, opinions, etc are formed before you rrally have enough knowledge or experience Under-developed: a country, region that is poor and where there is not much modern industry or not having grown or developed as much as is usual or necessary Bureaucracy: a complicated official system which is annoying or confusing because it has a lot of rules, processes or the officials who are employed rather than elected to do the work of a government, business Laborious: a job or piece of work that is difficult and needs a lot of effort or seeming to be done slowly and with difficulty

Grammar Reference
The Cardinal Numeral
The form of the cardinal numeral 1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 113 100 a (one) 1,000 a (one)

Business English hundred* thousand* 103 a (one) 1,003 a (one) hundred and two 3 three 13 thirteen 23 twenty-three 306 hundred and three four and three three 3,476 thousand hundred 4 four 14 fourteen 30 thirty 744 hundred fourty-four 5 five 15 fifteen 40 fourty 999 hundred ninety nine 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 16 sixteen 17 seveteen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety

2 two

12 twelve

22 twenty-two

hundred and six

seventy-six seven 4,578 four and thousand hundred five and

seventy-eight nine 1,000,000 one and million

The numerals hundred and thousand do not take the plural form: 500 sheets of paper - five hundred sheets of paper. Notes: 1. When you read phone numbers, you should read them figure by figure. For example: My phone number is 142357- My phone number is one four two three five seven. 2. When you read years, you should read them in pairs of two figures. For example: He died in 1987. - He died in nineteen eighty-seven.

Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the officer who had been rude to the company’s clients? 114

Business English He had read his lecture before he went to university. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 we had composed about 5000 business letters for five years. He had lived in this flat since he was born. Its form consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb. Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t. Had he spoken English before he started the English course? Yes, he had. No, he hadn’t. done? had had not (hadn’t) left.

Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous is used to express: • an action in the past begun before the time of speaking in the past and still going on that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. They had been living for generations in that house. 115

Business English Its form consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main perfect.

Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t. been working on by that time, last year? had been had not (hadn’t) been working for a year.

Controlled practice
1. Decide the order in which these things happened. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. Example: The bank clerk gave it to me./ She looked at my cheque./ She counted out the money. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque, she counted the money. After she had counted the money, she gave it to me. a. The tourists got out of the coach./ They got back in the coach./ They took photos. 116

Business English b. The prisoner ran across the yard./ He jumped out of the window./ He climbed over the wall. c. The reporter wrote a report on the accident./ She interviewed the people there./ She went to the scene of the accident. d. The mechanic put a new tyre on./ He put the wheel back on./ He took the wheel off the car. e. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was./ She wrapped it./ She showed it to me. 2. Translate into English: a. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. b. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni. c. Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d. Îl aşteptam de o orã, când am aflat cã avusese un accident de masina. e. Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? f. Noi cunoşteam adevărul în momentul în care te-ai decis tu să ni-l spui. g. Abia se terminase ploaia că a şi început un vânt îngrozitor. h. De îndată ce a terminat tema, a sunat telefonul. i. Ei se cunoscuseră cu zece ani în urmă, la o conferinţă de petrol. j. Nu crezuse că o să i se întâmple tocmai lui să nu-şi amintească aşa nişte noţiuni elementare de engleză. 3. Use the simple past, or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write). b. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant. c. It was getting late, so we (decide) to go to bed. d. She (say) that she (study) for two hours.

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under no circumstances no sooner at no time not until Study the following pairs of sentences. i./ Never has the company had such a successful year. No wonder I (be) so tired. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. h. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring./ Under no circumstances should you smoke in this area. When the following words and phrases begin a sentence.Business English e. Inversion e. No sooner has he hung up than Bill drops by his office for a chat. Inversion is used mainly in formal English.g. hardly scarcely rarely never (before) seldom only little 118 . e. b The company has never had such a successful year. 4. g.g. the subject and verb are inverted. Note that the second sentence of each pair is more emphatic than the first and that the subject and auxiliary verb are inverted. No sooner/I start/write/report/someone/telephoned/me. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister. I (write) for five hours. No sooner had I started to write the report when someone telephoned me. It (be midnight). a You should not smoke in this area under any circumstances. f. A Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce correct sentences from the following sets of words and phrases.

I my office sooner no in arrive rang did telephone the than c. e. b. We (cook) all day for the party and by 8 o’clock we still weren’t ready. been seldom after so I meeting have tired a b. Rarely/our company/fail/meet/delivery dates. e. Their hands were quite numb because they (make) a snowman.Business English a. f. c. so as to make correct sentences. c. Mark looked at his watch. d. Begin each sentence with the word underlined. Under no circumstances/manager/rely on/memory/log/time. 119 . B Put the following words in the correct order. He (hope) to find John and was very disappointed when he didn’t. 1986 not factory our able to until were we buy own g.g. Not until/two years ago/company/begin/make/profits. Only/after three hours negotiations/we succeed/reach agreement/the final contract. on did a only of lot the market put research after they the product e. I (work) for about two hours when John came with a letter e. have efficient I met a more rarely manager Rarely have I met a more efficient manager. any to relax does she rarely have time f. He (wait) for that letter for weeks when at last arrived. a. It was twenty minutes to three and he (wait) since two o’clock. my boss dropped my hardly report started had the I when 5. disturbed no I be must circumstances under d. b. little redundant that soon he be made he realise does will h. d. Hardly/I finish/phone/my boss/drop into/my office. Supply past perfect simple or continuous forms and past tense where necessary: a.

She (tell) me that she only once (see) a kangaroo in her life. He (wonder) where he (lose) his keys. When we (reach) the airport. n. k. o. She (know) about the accident because someone from the office (phone) her before I (arrive). She (be) up for three hours when the rest of the household awoke. i. 120 . q. r. m. He (not understand) a word until they (bring) an interpreter. j. h.Business English g. When I (get) on the train I (realize) that I (forget) my passport. They (bring) in a patient who (swallow) a diamond ring. When the police (enter) the bank the robbers already (escape). l. Everyone (pack) until the last minute and no time (be left) to take the dog round to their neighbours. we (find) that the plane (crash). They all (look forward) to the excursion and were disappointed to hear it (be cancelled). When I (see) her I (be) sure that we (meet) before. p.

The agriculture also underwent essential changes during communism.Business English Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © A Short Presentation of the Romanian Economy Today © Future Simple © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks What do you understand by economy? What do you know about your county’s economy? Reading Read this text about Romanian economy. Romania’s economy was organized on the communist model: it was hyper-centralized and nationalized. Look at the tenses of the verbs. inefficient agriculture. Translate the text into Romanian. which involved high human and material costs. Pay attention to the use of tenses: Past Tense for actions which were completed in the past (prior to 1989) and Future for actions which will take place later: Prior to 1989. The forced industrialization of the country had serious social repercussions: a great part of the population migrated to industrial areas. the lack of competitiveness of domestic products on western markets and the collapse of the communist economic system called for a total reorganization of industry. After 1989. Collectivization and state ownership of large estates led to a nationalized. 121 .

we hope the Romanian economy will go on developing and meet European standards. The general political trend after the Revolution (the end of 1989) started to be and will still be the state’s almost complete withdrawal from the economy and construction of a freemarket economy. in all together = în total. Romania’s main objective was to bring real estate back into private ownership and to relaunch the freemarket economy. or which must exist before something else can happen In the sentence: Soon after the communist regime was overthrown in 1989. usually with one owner or all of someone’s property and money. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile. The prerequisites for development of a modern banking system are an independent National Bank and privatization. One of the most important economic achievements will represent the reviving of the credit system by reorganizing the banking system. 122 . especially everything that is left after they die Achievement: something important that one succeeds in doing by his/her own efforts or the act of achieving something Prerequisite: something someone must have before they can be allowed to do something.Business English Soon after the communist regime was overthrown in 1989. based on free competition and private initiative. Thinking of the future. WAYS WITH WORDS Special terms: Ownership: the fact of owning something: a dispute over the ownership of the land Estate: a large area of land in the country. Romania’s main objective was… the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of time (in 1989). in the beginning = la început.

in common with = în comun cu. in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday. Grammar Reference Future Simple Future Simple is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. I shall be thirty next year. Notes: 1. apart from predicting the future: e. in quantity = în cantitate. in such a manner = în aşa mod. We use will and shall in many other ways. in search of = în cãutare de.g. 123 .) 2. in order to/ that = ca sã.) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me. in return for = în schimbul a. in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary. in progress = în curs de. pentru ca. in itself = în sine. in particular = în special. please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way. I’ll be grateful to you.Business English in contrast to/with = în contrast cu.

we stay inside. I shall. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my project? Yes.Business English When it rains. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. help him? shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come. Note: No. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in -y early heavy Adjectives with careful two syllables expensive Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive 124 Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive . it may mean I don’t want to help you.

The latter has also an abstract meaning. further/ the furthest are used in relation to time.). the latter is a student in Foreign Languages). hot/ hotter/ the hottest.Business English not ending in -y difficult or more than interesting rapid good bad many/ much little far* fore** late*** two syllables Irregular adjectives more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse more less farther/ further former later/latter the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the farthest/ the furthest the foremost/ the first the latest/ the last near**** nearer the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives with one vowel and one consonant double the consonant: fat/ fatter/ the fattest. the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John.) Examples: There are two forces F1 and F2.). the next refers to order. °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively. the former is the greater. (Give me further details in order to understand it better. in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four).) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times.)./ This is Newton’s first law of motion. 125 . * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you. the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J.). ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest oil pump?). people used whale oil for lamps. *** Later means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Management. the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play was probably lost.). Fowles. quantity. etc./ This welder is the foremost worker in our workshop. the first means initial (Americans claim that the first underground oil well was drilled in the United States.). (The next bus comes in an hour.

c. The faster you are in typing. Shall we take a drive into the b. d. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight.. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives which are very common in technical English texts: Form: the+ comparative .. Translate into English: a. making a request d. the less time you will need. Crezi cã veţi avea timp faceţi proiectul la contabilitate? 2./ There is less oil in this tank than in the other one... Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã.. making a prediction c.b. e. the bigger your salary will be. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. the+ comparative . 2. b. I’ll report you to the police next g.. Va deveni necesar sã gãsim noi resurse de energie. expressing future hope e. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. The more efficient you become. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A B 1. Comparative Sentences In relation with the degrees of comparison. expressing future uncertainty f.Business English This is a good conductor of electricity./ We need a better conductor. a. There is little advantage in using rotary drilling on this field. offering country later? 7. Will there be a general strike? 3. promising/ stating an intention 126 . Controlled practice 1./ This is the best machine in the exhibition by far. stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. Shall I go to the library for you? 6./ Forces are not of least importance for an engineer. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4.. . Will you send me an e-mail? 5.

i. d. Perhaps j. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. Dintre cele douã rapoarte. 8. Contabilul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. Explain it to them again. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working for now. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets: a. (great) care is taken to prevent accidents. The wedding will take place next h. g. dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. c. Ideea ta e mai bunã. b. 10. Cu cât înveţi să faci calculele mai repede. d. 127 . He was unable to get (far) information. She found (little) errors in John’s programme than in Mary’s one. Presiunea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. cu atât mai uşor îţi va fi în viitor. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. primul este mai mic. iar al doilea este mai mare. c. Will you have dinner with us on i. Translate into English: a. e. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. j. 11. 4. 9. asking for a prediction Saturday. cu atât mai bine. Today. threatening they’ll understand. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. f. h. Aceastã ofertă devine din ce în ce mai tentantă. e. making a suggestion Sunday? 3. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. Avem nevoie de mai multe calculatoare ca să fim mai eficienţi. f. The pressure in such working conditions was (big) than expected.Business English time. making an invitation Friday. He is (lazy) student in the class. b. g.

Where is everyone? It’s as silent as……………in here! a Sunday b the grave c death d a tomb 2. and ……. for common people. 6.Business English 5. a an athlete b sunshine c rain d roses 3. b. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. I’ll never eat and drink as much as that again! I was sick as a ………………on the way home. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. too expensive. Karen! Look at you! You’re as 128 . a dog b horse c pig d poodle 4. He’s as strong as……………… a an elephant b a mountain c a gorilla thin as a ……………. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. We can’t eat this meat-it’s as tough as………………. Jimmy’s feeling a bit under the weather today. even if their cars are very ellegant and ……. c or d): 1. The Electrolite is . d a horse 5. the largest.. Ask David to give a hand moving the furniture.……... the most expensive. a stick insect b rake a canvas b old boots c finger c rubber d wire d stale bread 6.. In this unit you have learnt about comparison. but I expect he’ll be as right as…………by the weekend. Fill in the blanks with one suitable word (a. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. Yet at the same time you should think that. Now learn a few idioms of comparison. they are …….. The latest Mercedes model is of course ……. yet if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it... You’re not getting enough to eat.

I wish the new secretary would cheer up! She’s been as miserable as………………for the past week. “The suitcase isn’t too heavy. Doreen?” “No. a ditchwater b a don as…………………. No matter what happens. You’ll have to shout. both my wife and I found it to be as dull as………………. I’m afraid. a a pony b snowflakes c a lamb d washing-up liquid 14. It’s hard to believe Brian and Stephen are brothers. but don’t worry. My father’s as deaf as………………. a religion b gold c God d brass 15. Liz. not at all. Poor thing! She went as white as……………. a a monk b death c a banker 129 d sin c a dungeon d a museum 12. Honestly. it’s as light as………………” a dust b lighting c a feather d a fish 16. is it?” “No. he always seems to remain as cool as………………… a cold feet b ice-cream c a cucumber d an Eskimo 9. Although we had been told that the film was very exciting. Pam. “I hope children didn’t play you up.Business English 7. a a leaf b a post c a politician d a stone 10. Mrs Gardener. They’ve been as good as……………. isn’t it? They’re as different as……………. a a fighter b a fiddle c a frog d an athlete 13. a Mars from Jupiter b milk from honey margarine from butter 11. Fido’s as gentle as…………………-especially with children. ever since I’ve given up smoking I feel as fit c chalk from cheese d . You shouldn’t have frightened her like that.! a a sheet b snow c milk d whitewash 8. Nothing ever seems to bother Collin. Our dog looks very ferocious.

I hope the computer course starts this term. we have.” a Solomon a a pancake d a bell 19. have you heard the one about the Welshman. “By the way.Business English 17. a coffee b mustard c a gigolo d cornflakes b the hills c a dinosaur d Jupiter c the nose on your face 18. Of course he loves you! It’s as plain as ……………… b the knob of your door 130 . a punch b a poppy c a sunflower d pound notes 20. We’ll all as keen as ……………… to get going. Kathy was as pleased as………………when she heard she had passed the exam. The joke’s as old as………………. the Irishman and the pig?” “Yes.

. D. we don’t mind. The ……. doesn’t go/ takes. The ……. don’t know/ had to. ask my supervisor. isn’t going/ took. I ……. than ours. an essay when I ……. the nick of time. the room.? I ……. 131 . I ……. C. Choose the best variant: 1.? A. A. 9. D. D. but last week there was a strike of the tram workers and he …….. D. She ……. D.. B. A. B. doesn’t go/ took. C. B.. What are you looking ……. were writing/ was entering. the ……. D.. B. better/ better. can/ the worst.. A. one will be appreciated by everybody. better/ happier. better/ best. C. were you/ was looking.. D. A. for you everywhere. soon/ happy. B. wrote/ entered. B. was arriving/ in. C. B. doesn’t go/ has taken.. better/ happy. D. C.. on. A. If this proposal is ……. He ……. 4.. couldn’t/ worse. A. 10. for/ have lost. didn’t know/ have to. C.Business English Test I. in. A. there …. B. 11. for 7.. have you been/ have looked. hasn’t been. What exactly are you looking……. I arrive home. good/ good. wasn’t/ was. to school by tram.. what decision to make. about. B. was arriving/ on 6. wrote/ entered. won’t/ worst. were writing/ entered.. as it was ……. haven’t known/ must. better/ good. hasn’t been/ was. my glasses and I can’t find them anywhere.here since she ……… 14. Where ……. at/ lost.. wasn’t/ has been. C. 2. C. C. so I ……. I ……. didn’t know/ had to 8.. A. D. I am. have you been/ have been looking. arrived / on. possibly accept his offer. arrived/ in.. sooner/ happier. ? I ……. C. 5. B. 3.. You ……. B. D. C. A. in/ have lost. D. than the other one. the bus. of/ lost. wouldn’t/ bad. A. were you/ looked.

the faster/ the fastest. the better it is. have you last written/ haven’t written. ……… the novel before we ……. B. C. He was preoccupied …… solving that problem. so he ……. did you last write/ wrote. B.. last summer? I …….? A. the better it is. did you last write/ haven’t written. did you go/ went. C. Put each of the following phrases in its correct place in the sentences below. faster/ faster. The quick we learn English. faster/ the fastest.. in/ hasn’t heard. of. 13. D. II. 15. A.. I ……… to him for ages. B. The train is ……. is : A. red-carpet treatment a red herring blue-eyed boy to see red black sheep a. D.. have you last written/ wrote. D. faster/ the faster. than the bus.Business English 12.. for. C. what I was saying. with. The quicklier we teach English. C. cu atât mai bine. D. 17.. C. B. with/ didn’t hear. The sooner we learn English. to the seaside. to John? Oh. B. did you go/ have gone. Had you read/ saw. 132 a white-collar job a white lie rose-coloured spectacles a green belt . for/ didn’t hear. D.. Did you read/ saw. at. A. D. 16. The quicklier we learn English. B. The translation of Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. Have you read/ saw. C. 14. have gone/ have gone. the film? A. Had you read/ had seen. the better it is. D. the better it is. B. for/ hasn’t heard. of all. 18.. C. Naturally the President’s wife received the ………… on her visit. When ……. Where ……. have you gone/ went. A. A. but the plane is ……. How much did you sell your car …….

50 points per each good answer 1 point + 1 point per each good answer 133 . 1 point + 0. B. Everyone thinks he’ll be Director of the firm one day. rose-coloured spectacles. of open country where building is restricted. d. D. 3. 13. 2.. 18. a white-collar job.. d. g. h.. 6. g. A.. B. pupils sometimes introduce ………………. C. when she sees one being badly treated. He told ………………. Everybody in the family knows that he is the …………. C. to distract the teacher from correcting their homework.Business English b. a red herring. i. black sheep. f. c. a green belt. e. Answer key: 1. 7. blue-eyed boy. red carpet treatment. 16. 14.to avoid hurting his wife’s feelings. 5. A. c. B. A. You can’t go through life looking at the world through …………… h. 17. 11.. All round the city there is ……………. A... b. 9. f. In class. to see red. 15. a white lie. 12. i. D. B. 4. He said he didn’t want to have ………………and sit in an office all day. She loves animals and tends ……………. A. He’s the …………………. D. 10. Be realistic. C. e. a.. A. A. D. 8.

Business English Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Planning and Strategy © Be going to Future © Future Simple or be going to? © First Conditional •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading task How important do you consider planning an action before actually performing it? Why? Reading Read the following text on planning and strategy. One of their key tasks is to make major decisions affecting the future of the organisation. Before doing any kind of strategic planning. These and other such decisions shape a company’s future. how expansion is to be financed. These strategic decisions determine where the company is going and how it will get there. top managers must decide which markets to enter and which to pull out of. Pay attention to the use of Future tenses. For example. They must decide what is the mission and purpose of their 134 . PLANNING AND STRATEGY The top management of a company have certain unique responsibilities. whether new products will be developed within the organisation or acquired by buying other companies. the management must be sure of one thing.

The head of the organisation at that time. One of the strategies they used was to concentrate on selling clothing and textiles. at reasonable prices. an organisation will have worked out certain more specific objectives. Two examples will make this point clear — one British. Their later success was founded on this idea. to customers from the working and middle classes. the public would call for its nationalisation. Later on. around that time. This became the overall objective of the company. The second example concerns the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. medium-term objectives. In other words. If the company didn’t perform well. food products were added as a major line of business. the company can draw up a corporate plan. In 1926 Marks and Spencer became a public company. and Marks had taken into partnership Tom Spencer. a car firm may have the objective of producing and marketing new models of cars in the medium-price range. They decided on their mission some sixty or so years ago. For example. Another objective may be to increase its market share by 10% in the next five years. and has remained so ever since. Deciding the mission and purpose is the foundation of any planning exercise. in Leeds. Theodore Vail. Most people have heard of Marks and Spencer. they must know why the business exists and what its main purpose is. As soon as it has established its more specific. Vail and his colleagues decided that giving service would be the mission and purpose of the organisation. England. the other American. Providing value for money was their mission and purpose. they developed a clear idea of Marks and Spencer’s mission and purpose. it had to give efficient service to its customers. one of the biggest and most successful retailers in the world. they could have rested on their laurels! However. They decided that the company was in business to provide goods of excellent quality. To avoid this fate. They also need to decide what it should be in the future. At that point. the cashier of one of his suppliers. Ten years later there were nine market stores.Business English business. Its 135 . realised that a privatelyowned telephone and telegraphic company might easily be nationalised. Michael Marks opened his first penny bazaar in 1884. Having decided on its mission and purpose.

One strategy may be to build a new factory to increase production capacity. It also examines the activities of competitors. It looks at performance indicators like market share. economic and political trends in the markets where it is competing. increasing competition may be a threat to its very existence. the planners have to look at the company’s present performance. The department store chain. the company looks at external factors. weaknesses. 136 . For example. and at any external factors which might affect its future. the company may develop another strategy. They will ask themselves questions such as: Are we producing the right products? What growth rate should we aim at in the next five years? Which new markets should we break into? The remaining task is to develop appropriate strategies to achieve the objectives. To do this. Once they have been carried out. sometimes called a SWOT analysis (strengths. Next. It is trying to assess technological. Company planning and strategic decision-making are key activities of top management. may see the opportunity to increase profits by providing financial services to customers. output and productivity. the issuing of new shares to the public. opportunities and threats). sales revenue. for example. before deciding strategies. it carries out an analysis. from the point of view of opportunities and threats. assessing its strengths and weaknesses. It also examines its resources — financial. objectives and targets can be set at lower levels in the organisation. products and facilities. social. The organisation decides what actions 80 it will take and how it will provide the resources to support those actions. First. human. a department store chain may have stores in good locations — a strength — but sales revenue per employee may be low — a weakness. However. the organisation examines its current performance. the company can now evaluate its objectives and perhaps work out new ones. To finance this.Business English purpose is to indicate the strategies the management will use to achieve its objectives. On the other hand. Having completed the SWOT analysis.

g. Finally. The second planning stage is to establish more specific (mediumterm) objectives. Marks and Spencer’s aim to provide excellent value for money has led to their becoming one of the world’s most successful retailers. It is necessary for management to analyse the company’s current performance as well as external factors affecting its future before they can draw up a corporate plan. de la început pânã la sfârşit. depending on the order in which they appear in the text. a.Business English Ways with words 1. Read this sentence again: Next. opportunities and threats.. an organisation may re-consider its objectives. d.. After analysing its strengths. weaknesses. e. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company decided that its principal objective was to provide customers with an efficient service.. from this point of view = din acest punct de vedere. 2. pânã la. from. How do you translate from? Now learn some expressions containing this preposition: from first to last = de la A la Z. b. Understanding the main points Number the following ideas l—8. from the point of view of opportunities and threats. h. c. the company looks at external factors. management needs to decide what actions it should take in order to achieve its objectives. 137 . from experience = din experienţã. The first step in planning the (long-term) future of a company is to decide on its overall objective. to = de la. f. The purpose of a corporate plan is to state how management intends to achieve the objectives..

1 When the Managing Director …………………… to change the management structure. using suitable verbs and nouns from the list above. a journey i balance against 8 set against (v. 3 It looks as if a recession is about to …………………………… .) 5 set about (v.Business English apart from = în afarã de.) 3 set back (v. 4 The new Marketing Manager doesn’t understand the department yet. 2 The strike of our shop floor workers ……………………. e.) 2 set-up (n. 5 It is a common practice of companies to ………………. far from it = departe de acest lucru.) a keep for a special purpose b establish a business or organisation c something that slows or impedes progress d an organisation or arrangement e start to do. far be it from me = departe de mine. How do you translate to set? Now learn some phrasal verbs and compound nouns with set.g. 3.) 9 set aside (v. Read the following sentence again: Once they have been carried out. or deal with. certain business losses 138 ………………taxes.) h start and probably continue 10 set down (v. something f put back or delay the development of something g begin an undertaking of some kind.. separat de.) 7 set out (v. make a record of B Complete the following sentences.) 6 set in (v.) 4 set-back (n. A Match the following verbs and nouns with the correct definitions.No one seems to have any money at the moment. Use an English-Romanian dictionary in order to translate their meaning.) j write.. of our . no one thought he had a chance of succeeding. production at least three months. 1 set up (v. objectives and targets can be set at lower levels in the organisation.

etc. Read the following sentence again: One of their key tasks is to make major decisions affecting the future of the organisation. Some of the directors 139 . f. Patricia …………………… an interesting suggestion at the meeting. a. To make a decision is called a collocation. Our chairman is too old for the job. The Financial Director has…………. we were able to ………………… to an agreement. A collocation refers to words which are frequently grouped together. e. last year when our warehouse caught fire and our stock was destroyed. If we don’t come up with new products. 9 We had a big ………………. c. we …………………… the risk of falling behind our competitors. what happened in a report. It is important to …………………into account all options to ………………… a decision. Other examples could be: to take into account. Now complete the following sentences with appropriate verbs. Finally.Business English 6 One of our competitors has ……………………a distribution network covering the whole country. b. How annoying! 7 How on earth are we going to ……………………… reducing our costs? 8 Most companies …………………… a part of their profits for future investment. d. g. to solve a problem. Although our company wants to expand rapidly.. After we had listened to him. we must…………… in mind that we have limited cash to do so. 10 If an employee has an accident at work.… the conclusion that we must reduce costs by 10%. 4. The money is kept in their reserves. he or she has to……………………. the Chairman ……………………his opinion about the matter.

How can you find out if there will be a demand for a product you wish to develop? (carry out) e. 5. Complete the 140 carry out draw up work out Answer the following questions in any way you wish using the verbs in . i. Read the following sentence again: Having completed the SWOT analysis. the company can now evaluate its objectives and perhaps work out new ones. we finally …………………… agreement. Now learn more phrasal verbs containing the particle out. After five hours’ negotiation. a. Look them up in the dictionary and translate them. What can you do if the demand for your products in your home market is saturated? (break into) 6. What conclusion have you …………………… from the facts given in his letter? j. l. I have …………………… a great deal of thought to our financial problems. After you have made a deal with an overseas agent. h.Business English ……………… pressure on him to resign. How do you translate to work out? Now learn more phrasal verbs containing the particle out. pull out break into brackets. k. what do you usually do? (draw up) d. I don’t want to ……………………… action until I’ve heard everyone’s opinion. What does a firm often have to do if it is not successful in a market? (pull out) b. What do you do if your main competitor is doing better than you in the market? (work out) c. The writer has ………………… some recommendations in his report.

I shall …………………for a lot more money. I’m fed up with my boss criticising me all the time. b. point out hold out make out (two meanings) have out stand out cut out (two meanings) a. particularly with the verbs go and come. so at my next salary review. or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. Mr Jones……………………… several weaknesses. Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. 141 . using the suitable forms of the verbs given below. I think I …………………… among all the candidates because my qualifications for the job were so good. I’m a valuable member of the organisation. She’s too busy to hold them then. d. c. h.Business English following sentences. I’m going to ………………… it…………………… with him. intention. Sheila wants to……………………… the training sessions she runs on Friday afternoon. g. How long are they going to stay in Brasil? She isn’t going to attend this optional Economy course. When reviewing my performance. Patricia? f. e. How did you ……………………… in the interview. Can you read David’s writing? I can’t …………………… what he’s put on this report. He said that I was not ………………… for a career in banking. Grammar Reference Be going to Future Be going to Future is used • to express a future decision.

Business English She’s coming on Monday. • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. (I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge). I’m not. No. I’m going home. Watch out! The box is going to fall. Its form consists of the verb to be in Present+to+infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You They Interrogative When am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work. I am. Future Simple or Be Going To? Look at the use of Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English. 142 . Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes.

he’ll go to university. she she doesn’t learn. we you are not polite. (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking. Main Clause Present/ Future Affirmative and negative If I work hard.Business English What language shall I learn? Er. This is replaced by the present. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. We’ll destroy the environment if you don’t look after it. talk to you anymore. she ’ll won’t pass my exams.” b. Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. be late wait for you. If he passes the baccalaureate. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on trip to Kilimanjaro.) First Conditional The first conditional is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes.. Decide which is the correct verb form: a.. “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. she we don’t hurry up. Interrogative What Where will will you do she go if you don’t go to any university? she can’t find a job? If Clause Present in Controlled practice 1. buy that new book on MathCad. I know. pass her exams Mathematics. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you. I’ll buy this car. I she has enough money. 143 . we you are late.

I (send) him some grapes.” f. c. You (miss) the train if you carry on like this. The man in the helicopter (try) to rescue the man in the water. “He has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg. g. Use the be going to-form with the verbs in brackets: a. e. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e. I (telephone) for them right now.” “I’m sorry to hear that. I have seen the play.” 144 . I’ve lent you my car once. “Where are you off with that ladder?” “I (have) a look at the roof. He (translate) it for you. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. it’s leaking and I think a tile has slipped. I (come) and help you if you like. i. “Why do you want all the furniture out of the room?” “Because I (shampoo) the carpet. He (make) a speech. no I forgot. The Lord Mayor is standing up. 3. d. I (stop) here for a moment to get some petrol. It’s impossible to do it unless you take everything out. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. The pressure cooker (explode). I (not do) it again.Business English c. We bought our new garage in sections and we (assemble) it ourselves.” b. d. “I can’t understand this letter. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. Use be going to or shall/will future with the verbs in brackets: a. That man with the tomato in his hand (throw) it at the singer. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. b.” “That sounds rather interesting. “Did you remember to book seats?” “Oh. h. Those swans (eat) all our sandwiches.” d. Now I (read) the book.” 2.” “I (call) my son.” c. f.” e.

Voi spãla paharele în apã fierbinte. “Why have you brought your camera? You (try) to take photographs? It’s not allowed. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. d. Translate the following sentences into English: a. Dacã aştepti o clipã. Dacã le vei pune în apã fierbinte se vor sparge.” “No.” i.” “Never mind. g. but what do you want them for?” “I (make) a bonfire at the end of the garden. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. Nu. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. “Here are the matches.” h. b. Dacã voi putea. c. vin si eu cu tine. h. I (not get) all wet and muddy and pretend that I’m enjoying it. What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b. “I’ve come out without any money. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? 5. nu face asta. If a policeman sees you. I want to burn that big heap of rubbish.” “Well. I (lend) you some. you know. he (confiscate) the camera. 145 . f. How much do you want?” j.” 4. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. e. “You (wear) that nice dress in a dinghy?” “Of course not! I (sit) on the pier and (watch) you all sailing. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c. spune-i sã-mi telefoneze. I (try) to sell the camera. o sã ţi-l spun. be careful. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. Dacã îl vei întâlni pe Jerry la facultate. eşti binevenit. If the fire gets too big it (burn) the apple trees. either.Business English g.” “That’s not allowed.

d. g. you (be) out ………. If the police catch him they (arrest) him. Dacã nu mã crezi. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely. m.Business English i. Dacã tot faci remarci nepotrivite. voi mai sta un an aici... If he (be) late we’ll go without him. Unless you work very hard you (not be) successful. Dacã voi primi permis de lucru. If he (not start) at once he’ll be late for the train.00. If you read in bad light you (ruin) your eyes. voi începe studiile în toamnã.. şi vrea sã renunte la şcoalã la sfârşitul semestrului. I (lend) you my car if you promise to take care of it. c. Dacã va face asta. h. Maria: Thanks. k. …….. If you eat all that you (be) ill. but remember I’m going out. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. Put if.. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: ………. vom impune mãsuri şi mai severe. întrebã-l pe tatãl tãu. Have a good trip. 7. Câinele nu te va ataca dacã vei sta liniştit. n. j. Dacã cumva aceste mãsuri nu vor restabili ordinea. I (arrive) at the hotel.. Maria: Well. f. I (ring). and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. l. 146 . 6. nu-i de mirare cã lumea te ocoleşte. If I see him I (give) him a lift. i. darling. the plane (arrive) on time. o.00 your time. John: Great. That’s 8. j. or as soon as into each gap. John: Good. b. e. I (be) at the hotel at about 10. Are doar şaisprezece ani. Dacã voi fi acceptat la colegiu. Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work. If you heat ice it (turn) to water. o sã-i parã rãu mai târziu. when.. I (ring) you ……….

Maria: Thanks. Bye! 147 . you know the time of your flight back. darling. Give me a ring ……….Business English John: All right. And remember... and I (pick) you up.

a new approach to management has been developing. Job enrichment involves giving extra responsibilities to workers such as 148 . Those favouring it say that the way to increase workers’ efficiency is to improve their job satisfaction and motivation. the operator of a word-processor may be asked to do filing duties as well. These include job enlargement. The Quality of Working Life Over the last thirty years. Followers of the Quality of Working Life movement (QWL) have been trying out various methods of making work more interesting. fractional and multiplicative numerals. With job enlargement. job enrichment and new forms of group work.Business English Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © The Quality of Working Life © The Ordinal Numeral © The Fractional Numeral © The Multiplicative Numeral © Second Conditional •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-Reading Task Which is the best way to increase workers’ efficiency? Work in pairs and make a few suggestions. Thus. the worker is given additional tasks to perform. Reading Read the following text on the quality of working life. Pay attention to the ordinal.

In the early experiments. Their aim. They found out that the groups of workers who were studied increased their output whether the lighting was improved or not. This led them to look for the human factor influencing efficiency. USA. a Harvard University psychologist. assembly workers do not work on a moving production line. It all began when the Hawthorne Company investigated the effect of factory lighting on production and workers’ morale. They are organised into thirty teams of fifteen to twenty members. and they work in their own part of the factory. Once again. they brought in Professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues. 149 . the basic idea of QWL is that a worker should have an interesting. He directed a series of experiments on how working conditions affected output. As it can be seen. In some organisations. The roots of the QWL movement can be traced back to the 1920s and 1930s. was to evaluate the factors influencing productivity. from 1927—32. the researchers soon directed their attention towards studying people. especially their social relationships at work. lunch times. quality control and technical development of equipment. Most of the studies were directed by Professor Elton Mayo. special types of work groups have been formed where workers share responsibility for certain tasks. However. to be sensitive to the needs of employees. Such things as lighting. pay and temperature were varied to see how they affected productivity. These were held at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago. For example. therefore. They have their own tasks. Sweden. initially. rest periods. The researchers generally discussed the changes with the girls before putting them into effect. It was at this time that the famous Hawthorne Studies were carried out. his subjects were a group of girls who assembled telephone equipment. To help them in their search. at the Volvo car plant in Kolmar. wall colours.Business English production planning. it was found that there was an increase in productivity whether conditions were made better or worse. even challenging job. QWL encourages managers. like assembling heating and electrical systems.

the girls had enjoyed feeling they were especially selected for the study and were receiving a lot of attention from management. The feeling of belonging to a group. Both men. the good relationships and social contacts had made their work more enjoyable. The idea of job enlargement is to make work more satisfying for an 150 . affect output. however. It is said that Elton Mayo founded the Human Relations School whose offspring is the Quality of Working Life movement. This experiment was followed by many others. First. among workers and between workers and their bosses. It was clear that the girls had developed a high morale during the experiment and had been motivated to work hard. a. they had developed good relationships with each other and with their superior during the experiment. Understanding the main points Decide whether the following statements are true or false. b. Secondly. They realised that their study was also about workers’ attitudes and values. Managers who believe in QWL are experimenting with new ways or organising work. Taylor.Business English The researchers began looking for other factors which would explain the increased productivity. Ways with words 1. This high morale was put down to several factors. The researchers came to the conclusion that social relations. and his/her status within that group. changed the course of management thinking. This was because they had been fairly free to work at their own pace and to divide their work up amongst themselves. Another important finding was that a worker needs more than money and good working conditions to be productive. Lastly. The conclusions of the study challenged the theory of Scientific Management put forward by Frederick W. the quality of work and motivation. strongly affect his/her behaviour — even if the group is an unofficial or informal one. He directed and publicized the Hawthorne experiments which have been so influential to this day.

to make tight = a ermetiza. a (se) pregãti. e. 2. a redacta. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. to make it possible = a face posibil. Job enrichment involves giving workers more tasks of the same level of difficulty. to make a stand = a se opune. a demonstra. it was found that there was an increase in productivity whether conditions were made better or worse. a închide etanş. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. a face ceva repede. to make for = a contribui. to make believe = a face sã creadã. Read this sentence again: Once again. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. a etanşeiza. a face ca şi cum. to make out = a înţelege. a finaliza. c. to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. a ceda. to make over = a transfera. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. The QWL approach makes managers more aware of their workers’ interests. a profita la maximum de. to make use of = a întrebuinţa. to make ready = a fi gata. a termina. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum. a pretinde ca şi cum.Business English employee. to make it clear = a clarifica. d. 151 . to make sure of = a se asigura de. to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. The Kolmar car plant is efficient because workers specialise in one task.

.. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make: e.Business English 3.……. to do sbd. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way.. to do wonders = a face minuni. . Put make or do before the following nouns: ……. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. . …. you’d better ………… the fire. a mistake. an excuse.……. .. my homework. Oh.……. . a good turn/ a favour = a face cuiva o favoare.. ………… they? They had to ………… away with it.sure.. to do one’s best = a face tot ce-i posibil.a noise. sense. a phone call. ………… haste! Are you …………science at school? 152 .. to have sth. What shall I ………… without her? He ………… a name for himself. ……. a cup of tea.. …..……. . the shopping. Fill in with DO or MAKE: I …………it my way. How did you ………… this problem? He recognized that he had ………… a mistake.. They work hard.. .. to do sth... 4.up your mind.. …. a mess. ……. a face ceva cu ochii închişi.. Why do you ………… a lot of ado? It’s cold in here.…….. with your eyes closed = a şti ceva foarte bine. ……. someone a favour. to do harm = a face rãu. .g. your best.……. to do with = a avea de-a face cu. ……. to do the donkey work = a munci din greu... 5. your bed. He ………… his own way in life. an appointment.. ….

don’t ………… such a fuss. Please. (clean) He ………… a copy of his birth certificate. to carry out. using suitable forms of the verbs in the box below. He ………… a gesture of disgust.Business English I can’t ………… this sum. Old Mr. In the text you have read there are some phrasal verbs containing out: to find out. How do you translate them? Now complete the following sentences. Tell the housemaid to ………… the bedrooms. He ………… a success in appearing on TV. I am sure he is ………… for. Can you ………… the difference? He ………… a speech in my honour. I’ll ………… all I can. Brown has been ………… for me since my wife died (perform domestic services) Poor fellow. You’ll ………… it a start. sort out make out bring out pull out spell out buy out 153 carry out sell out sound out turn out . He ………… eyes at me. He ………… his best to help us. Don’t ………… a fool of him! Go and …………your hair. I have a lot of correspondence to ………… . We are bound to ………… progress in this field. (ruined) This room needs ………… out. I’ll ………… a man of you. That’s a practice that should be ………… away with. 6. He ………… an interesting discovery.

f.… a lot of research. d. A group of senior managers want to take over the firm by ……………… it……………… j.. Givenchy have …………………… an exciting new perfume. c. 154 .. I’m willing to consider introducing flexitime. We were well paid and we had a productivity ……………….. i. Complete the following passage. h. please? g. (2) too. b. assembly line bonus capacity component foreman lay off layout redundant schedule incentive overtime shift quality control robot ‘I used to work in a company which made …………………… (1) for cars. I understand one or two possible candidates have already been …………. please? e. Use some of the verbs above in sentences of your own.. the owners will probably …………………. pharmaceutical companies have to ………………. If the firm doesn’t make a profit. carburettors.. Several leading banks such as Barclays have……………………… of South Africa. And if you needed extra money for a holiday... . you usually had the chance to do a bit of …………………. 6. Things like spark plugs. about five hundred sports cars a year. Would you …………………… the cheque to David Cotton. We’re looking for a new chief executive.our production problems soon. In order to develop new products. We hope to ………………….Business English a. and so on. but would you first………………… the advantages of the system. The firm………………………. using the suitable words and phrases given below.

They studied our methods of work. In the end. They gave prizes. That was a real……………………(4) for us not to be sick! We worked two………………(5) at the factory — I usually worked at night. b. only a few workers were ……………… (11). we did as they said. such as car radios. c or d). The trouble is. Things changed two years ago. The ……………… (8) people weren’t too pleased either because a number of carburettors had faults. I spray the car bodies. That meant changing the whole ………………… (9) of the factory. I must say. Read the following sentence again: It was at this time that the famous Hawthorne Studies were carried out. I’m working on an ………………… (13) in a car manufacturing factory. (7). It is only a……………………… a matter of time b course of time c length of time d stage of time 155 before the firm closes down. The Production Manager got really upset when we got behind………………. He let you get on with the job. 1. At first. .(14) to do my job! So I’ll be out of a job again soon.’ 7. How do you translate at this time? Now complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a. Well. Nowadays. our production ………………… (10) did increase and stock levels became high again. but later staff from all departments were made………………… (12). I liked the …………………(6) a lot. The management was generous. the company brought in some management consultants. Would you believe it.. to workers who attended regularly.Business English (3). so they were thrown away. We got several big orders at once and just couldn’t cope. I hear they’re bringing in ………………. then recommended automating part of the plant. the management decided to cut down the work-force.

We must not have it too early or too late. The fact that many small shops are closing down is a ……………………… of the times. a mark b image c sight d sign 5. a time-log b time-delay c time-hold d time-lag 3. a wonderful experiences b the best of times 156 . Meetings are necessary. but they can be very……………………… a time-consuming b time-saving c time-losing d time-costing 4. When I visited our subsidiary in West Germany. a wait their time b spare their time c spend their time d take their time 7. It is important that we get the…………………… of our sales campaign right. There is usually a………………………between when you sell goods and when you get paid by your customer.Business English 2. a moment b point c timing d time 6. Some workers like to ………………………… doing a job.everyone was most hospitable. I had ………………… .

04 (nought) point nought four 1. a for the sake of good times b for old times sake c in memory of good old times d for the good old days Grammar Reference The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seveteenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieh 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56. I bumped into a former colleague recently.000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1. We had a drink together …………………… .Business English c good times d the time of my life 8.000.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.06 one point nought six 157 .

I Interrogative What Which countries would you do would you visit 158 If would (’d) wouldn’t if buy a new computer. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. tell it to us immediately. The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. We can always say But. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles.Business English The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single.. a hundred times Second Conditional The second conditional is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future. palaces. (But my house is very small. Main Clause Present Conditional Affirmative and negative I had more money. she I didn’t have debts.. I’d have a party.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). ten times 100x a hundredfold. three times 4x fourfold.) If I lived in a big house. If I were Prime Minister. ranches. (But I’m not Prime Minister. have to work so hard. four times 10x tenfold. etc. I she knew the answer. If Clause Past Subjunctive you were me? you travelled world? round the . the verb in the conditional clause is in the past subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons.

Dacã ai vrea. Dacã n-ar fi aşa timidã. E aşa deprimant sã aştepti în întuneric. cu sigurantã cã n-ar sta la “Savoy”. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. e. I would have told you the truth. e. If you could do it. j. k. Dacã mi-ar spune ce necazuri are. Dacã aş fi în locul tãu. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. c. n-aş spune nimic despre asta. Stã la Hotelul “Savoy” la Londra. N-aş vinde acest tablou pentru tot aurul din lume. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. m. Dacã am avea chibrite am putea face focul. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest anticlinal. d. 2. 159 . Este moştenire de la bunicul meu. Dacã ar fi aici am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. If it rained. we would go inside.Business English Controlled practice 1. b. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. g. Ce-ai face dacã te-ai întâlni cu o stafie? n. b. E asa de bogat? Dacã n-ar fi bogat. l. Dar sã-ţi spun cinstit n-am chef sã lucrez toatã noaptea. Dacã i-as şti adresa i-aş putea scrie. o. If I knew it. De-am avea o luminã. poate aş putea face ceva sã o ajut. Dacã am munci toatã noaptea am putea termina la timp. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. ar putea sã se afirme mai mult. h. Translate the following sentences into English: a. ţi le-aş spune. d. f. i.

f. b. g.Business English 3. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come). If you saw somebody drowning. e. i. what you (do)? j. h. d. h. e. If I (know) French I could tell you what this means. f. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g. 160 . I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arab. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: a. I’d ask him to dinner more often if he (be) more amusing. i. c. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. If I (have) a degree I could get a job easily. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I’d give up my job. 4. d. If I knew his address I (give) it to you. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. b. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. c. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. I (not go) there if I were you. If I thought that I’d be any use I (offer) to help. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.

MOTIVATION The work of managers is to ensure that staff work efficiently in an organisation. In his theory. Abraham Maslow. in groups of two or three. it is clear that managers must know what motivates people. One of the best known theories of motivation was put forward by an American psychologist. What sort of things motivates people to do their job well? List all the things you can think of. Pay attention to the use of articles. He identified certain basic human needs and classified them in an ascending 161 . If you won a great deal of money. To achieve this. he presents a hierarchy of needs. would you continue working? If not. do you think you would lose anything by giving up work? Reading Read the following text on motivation. By understanding the factors influencing motivation. they can create the conditions in which employees will perform to their maximum potential. b. a.Business English Unit 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Motivation © The Indefinite Article © The Definite Article © Zero Article •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading tasks Answer the following questions. then. Compare the article in English with the article in Romanian. compare your answers. in a book entitled Motivation and Personality (1954). for example in a lottery.

They are the desire to develop. social and security needs may be dominant. Research into Maslow’s theory has not been very conclusive. if a person was starving. which has been very popular with managers. sleep etc. Maslow said that people satisfied their needs in a systematic way. For example. Security needs They are the needs to be free from danger. They have a need for power. is Frederick Herzberg’s ‘two-factor’ theory. When a need had been met. But once he had enough food. to be liked and loved. Social needs A human being needs to belong to a group. physical pain and loss of a job. water. it stopped being a motivating factor. respect and self-confidence. in the late 1950s. Another theory of motivation. status. he would start thinking about those other needs. air. they want to have selfrespect and to be esteemed by others. Maslow believed. He concluded that at work there are certain factors which cause job satisfaction 162 . Physiological needs These were things required to sustain life like food. Until these needs are satisfied. Esteem needs After people have satisfied their social needs. according to Maslow. higher needs at the top. At the higher levels in a company. USA. Basic needs were at the bottom of the hierarchy. Self-actualisation needs These are the highest needs. other needs will not motivate people. to feel accepted by others and to develop affiliations. he would not be too concerned about security and social needs. Studies have tended to show that needs vary greatly among individuals. self-actualising needs may be very strong whereas at lower levels. Herzberg conducted a number of studies in the region of Pittsburg.Business English order of importance. They include the need for clothing and shelter. to maximise potential and to achieve one’s goals.

These include company policy and administration. responsibility recognition. They must find ways of making jobs more challenging and interesting. These factors are considered to be only ‘dissatisfiers’. managers in the USA and elsewhere have recently been showing great interest in job enrichment programmes. for example. As a result. They include things like a challenging job. job security. they do not. Other 163 . If Herzberg’s theory is true. Hygiene factors are essential if workers are to be motivated. personal life. Volvo workers assemble the whole of a car rather than do a few simple operations.Business English while others lead to dissatisfaction. If they do exist in quality and quantity. The idea of such programmes is to make jobs more challenging and to give the worker a sense of achievement. recognition etc. the work itself. work conditions. In a glass factory. Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory Motivators: achievement. Sweden has been leading the way in this respect.the conditions of work . production workers have complete control over the work process in the grinding and polishing department. give increased satisfaction. At one car plant. As one writer has aptly put it. salary and fringe benefits. quality of supervision. however. status. Herzberg called the other group of factors ‘hygiene’ or ‘maintenance’ factors.while the motivators refer to job content. relationship with colleagues. salary and fringe benefits. responsibility. status and personal life. challenging work. Hygiene factors: company policy and administration. If they do not exist. The motivators deal with the question ‘Why work harder?’. Herzberg’s two-factor theory is shown in the following diagram. advancement. it means that managers must pay great attention to job content. they cause dissatisfaction. career prospects. The group of factors bringing about satisfaction were called motivators. These factors give rise to positive satisfaction. not motivators. It is worth noting that the hygiene factors refer to the context of the job . they deal with the question: ‘Why work here?’. job security.

believes that people satisfy their needs systematically. f. Understanding the main points Decide whether the following statements are true or false. putting an end to uncertainty (paragraph 4) f. c. 2. a. d. Esteem needs) d. e. the most somebody or something is capable of (paragraph 1) b. The purpose of job enrichment programmes is to increase worker motivation. a person’s position in relation to others (paragraph 2. becoming popular or fashionable (paragraph 10) 164 . admired (paragraph 2. Herzberg. Esteem needs) e. b. Job security is one of the most important factors that motivates employees. Herzberg believed that workers would not necessarily work harder if they earned more money. According to Maslow people are not concerned about achieving their personal goals in life unless they have satisfied their physiological needs. Ways with words 1. Vocabulary focus Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following: a. system of lower and higher ranks (paragraph 2) c. like Maslow. respected. final. Job enrichment is undoubtedly catching on fast in Sweden.Business English workers have helped to build and design paper mills. Senior managers who want to become company directors have selfactualisation needs which they wish to satisfy. feeling (paragraph 9) g.

suggest. 4. ici şi colo. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. Let’s learn some more containing the preposition to. to little purpose = cu puţin efect. propose (an idea. to hand = la îndemânã. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva.Business English 3. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. scheme) explain or communicate clearly move to a later date postpone or delay give someone information about. How do you translate the sentence A human being needs to belong to a group.g. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect. to date = la zi. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. e. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. You need expertadvice about this. to this effect = în acest scop. Phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions with put put down to put forward put across put back put off put on to attribute. Read the following sentence again: One of the best known theories of motivation was put forward by an American psychologist. How do you translate the phrasal verb to put forward? Now learn some phrasal verbs with put. to the letter = întocmai.g. I can put you on to a 165 . I put his mistake down to inexperience. în cea mai mare mãsurã. mai degeaba. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. e. ad litteram. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. to advantage = cu profit/ folos.

Our chairman has presented a proposal for a profit-sharing scheme. B Complete the following sentences with phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions from the list above. h. g. I’m not surprised by our poor financial performance. 166 . Apparently a foreign investor has provided $lm to finance the project. c. ruin completely. Make any other necessary changes. put through put up put out put up with put one’s finger on put one’s foot in put paid to put in a good word for connect by telephone invest. I can’t postpone my visit. recommend someone A Re-write the following sentences.g. b. I think we’d better hold the meeting a week later. e. His accident put paid to his chances of being promoted. a. They’ve put up £50. provide money for.000 for the project.make a special effort tolerate. She knows a lot about the use of computers but she can’t seem to express her ideas clearly to the rest of us. I think it was caused by ineffective leadership. Make any other necessary changes. f. a.Business English very good lawyer. a put someone out . At such short notice. That’s ………………… to my chances of a bonus. d. endure find the cause of the trouble say the wrong thing or make an awkward mistake destroy. b put oneself out . My boss won’t accept any inefficiency from his staff. I’ve been trying to discover why the morale of the sales department is so low but I just can’t understand what the problem is.g. e.inconvenience him or her. replacing the words in italics with phrasal verbs or idiomatic expressions from the list above. e. Our sales have been low this quarter.

At our management meeting. 5. f. (on the phone) Hello . Complete the following passage with suitable verbs from the list above. the Marketing Manager ………………… (1) the subject of our new lawnmower. she’s just left him! g. The Production Manager said that problems with the PX2 had been ………………… (2) by bad timing. It’s very kind of you to ask me to dinner. You’d like to transfer to the Personnel Department.. would you? Perhaps I can …………………… for you when I see the Personnel Manager. mention a matter d cause to happen e put on the market ……………to make their stay 6.Business English b.. it is . 167 . I’ll……………you ………………. How do you translate to bring about? Now match the following verbs with the correct definitions. Apparently. I hope I’m not ………………… you ………………. the PX2 model. Hold on a second. He mentioned that sales had been disappointing.. You want to know the prices of houses in the United States? Sorry. When senior managers from head office come to visit us we really………………ourselves enjoyable. c. d. Read the following sentence again: The group of factors bringing about satisfaction were called motivators’. I …………………… it when I asked Mr Johnston how his wife was. 1 bring up 2 bring out 3 bring about 4 bring round to 5 bring down a reduce (a price) b persuade someone to change his/her opinion c raise. . you ………………… to someone who can... e. Mr Smith? Certainly. I can’t help... but I can ……………. yes.

We should ………………… (3) its price.) 8 catchy (adj) a attract attention b pleasant and easily remembered c draw level with d start to burn e notice suddenly f a hidden or unexpected difficulty g become popular or fashionable h trap someone in an error. In his view. it was a lemon! He thought we should ………………… (5) an entirely new model . technologically speaking.) 3 catch out (v.) 6 catch (n. he thought. find someone unprepared 9 catch fire (v. in the end almost everyone ……………(4) to his point of view.) 7 catch-phrase (n. he also thought the mower was too expensive.something that would be a real breakthrough. 1 catch sight of (v.) 2 catch on (v.) 5 catch ones eye (v. Which words in the above passage mean: a not as good as expected? b to introduce a new product? c a failure (slang)? d an important development or discovery? 7. He presented his arguments well and. Finally. Match the following with the correct definitions. However.) 4 catch up with (v.) while 168 i become involved in j a phrase which become popular for a . Read the following sentence again: Job enrichment is undoubtedly catching on fast in Sweden. the Chairman gave his opinion. How do you translate to catch on? Now learn some idiomatic uses of catch. show someone to be at fault.) 10 become caught up in (v.Business English We had put the mower on the market at the wrong time of the year. He advised us to forget about the PX2.

when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. especially when referring to them in a general way: 169 . She is an engineer. The Definite Article: the is used: • before a singular or plural noun. to take a seat. to have a good time. Here are the basic rules. He is a Christian. to develop a disease. The Indefinite Article: a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semivowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one.Business English Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex. Mind the baby! • before nouns expressing certain public places. The course I’m reading is very interesting. as a matter of fact. or it doesn’t matter which one): They live in a flat. I’m reading a course for my exam now. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. religion. to have a headache. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. etc.

The English are very polite. the Bahamas. Money is the root of all evil. towns. shops. on the one hand. on the whole. etc. • in phrases: at night. Oxford Street. the Sahara. channels. to shake hands. the Alps. festivals. nationality. to make friends. mountains. or if they represent a union). institutions. at dawn. prison. by sea. to take place. the United States. means of transport.. denoting groups of islands. months. oceans. days of the week. • in phrases: to tell the time. denoting a class. lakes. deserts. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. by the way. regions.. by mistake.is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. seas. 170 . rivers. church. hotels. countries (if they are in the plural. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. streets. day by day. continents. on the other hand. the Suez Canal. etc • before nouns converted from adjectives. the Pacific. Paris. countries. etc. magazines and periodicals. when we imply the use made of the building: He goes to school (to learn). January. the Orient Express. the Hilton. etc.: Mary/ Mount Everest. Europe. Newsweek • nouns like school. • proper nouns denoting persons. Zero Article: . I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. Sunday. the Time.Business English I went to the cinema last night. chains of mountains. at the moment. to be in trouble. the Netherlands. Gas is cheaper than electricity. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural).

authority. Main clause Past/Perfect conditional Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. I she had known the answer. which can no longer be changed. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the past perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect). an. the 171 . B or C best fits each space: a. C.. Decide which answer A.. plants need . . have bought would have the exam.. I would (‘d) this ellegant car... she I hadn’t made so many mistakes. In order to survive. B. . a.. He is speaking to . Controlled practice 1. The condition is highly hypothetical. C. A. A. passed wouldn’t have the failed Interrogative What Which countries would you have done would visited you have if you had seen such a wonderful movie? you had travelled round the world? driving If clause Past perfect subjunctive licence test. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb). water.Business English Third Conditional The third conditional is used to express impossible condition referring to the past. it contradicts reality.. the b. B.

bed as I was very tired.. B. I did my homework and then went directly to . Smiths are at . C. best teachers in our highschool. home now.. A.. Work in pairs to find one mistake in each of the following sentences: a. 172 . e./the../ . In order to fix the armchair he needs . ..... an/a/the g./ .. B. very good time at . . B. hammer and . a. so he was one of . A. the/ a e. you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening. yet not everyone admires . way. A. the/the f. A. They had .. Mathematics./the. a/ some d. sincerity in such ../ . a/ . a/the/the/the h. the/ ./ . degree in .. B.. B. C. a/the. so he studies the physical features of the earth. excellent dinner and had .. ./the. seat and waited for . I thought you had passed .. B./the. I want to borrow one hundred pounds./ . b... ... yet they are busy at the moment. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. Her office is in the Baker Street. C... . C. in London. the/ the... He had . A... C. C.. He’s geologist. c. exam but it seems that it was . C... I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment. the/ ... a/ the../a/the. Hilton.. d. A.. an/the.. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example. hardest of all.Business English c... A.../a j./ . B. an/the/ . A./the 2. . a/ . She goes to the work in the City by train every day. nails. Everyone was impressed by .. the i. ../ ... C. sincerity with which he spoke.. . Physics and one in . .. director to come.. I took . B.

I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me.Business English 3. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. dar nu am avut timp. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confrunted with) such storms. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. 5. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. j. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. If I (know) this from the beginning. 4. If I had known how to solve the problems in economy. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. te-aş putea ajuta. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. nu aş fi picat acest examen. e. Se uită la mine ca şi cum nu ar înţelege o iotă din ce spun. 173 . Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. i. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. If it had rained it (be) a disaster. d. Aş fi venit şi eu la petrecere. c. Dacã nu ar fi nins. pentru că s-a întrerupt curentul. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. c. Nu ştiu dacă aş mai încerca o dată să alerg atâţia kilometri. h. If she (go) to university so late. f. g. Chiar dacă aş vrea să mă apuc de lucru. e. Dacă aş cunoaşte amănunte. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. d. b. b. b. n-aş putea. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. Translate into English: a.

.. you (accept)? e. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. If I buy this machine . I’d have brought my compass if. 6.. d.. I shouldn’t have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes.Business English c. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly.. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off. These are mixed conditional sentences... If she rings while I’m in the tunnel. If I (know) that you were coming I’d have met you at the station. If he had taken my advice.... j. i. The substance would look better if. If he had asked you to do that job. b. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.. If the river rises any higher. 174 . f.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: a.. If the fire had been noticed earlier. d. taking care to use the correct tense.. you (accept)? d. g. 7. g. e.. If she practised more. i... If you had arrived ten minutes earlier you (get) a seat. Finish these sentences.. e. h. c. b. j. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. f. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way. If he had asked. h... If I had known what a bad driver you were I (not come) with you. a. I would lend it to you if. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. c. If you had asked his permission.

e. c. b. If the pilot (make) one mistake the ship would have run around. ar fi acum un om bogat. Dacã i-as fi ştiut numãrul de telefon. aş fi vizitat mai multe muzee din Londra. i-aş fi telefonat şi n-ar fi trebuit sã fac atâta drum pe jos. j. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. h. 8. Nu ai fi fost aşa de obosit dacã ai fi fost mai obişnuit cu munca în grãdinã. Dacã ai fi lãsat în pace viespea. d.Business English f. nu te-ar fi înţepat. h. Dacã ai fi urmat instrucţiunile. Dacã ai fi învãţat mai mult. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. g. If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) the wrong street. Dacã aş fi ştiut ieri. Nu te-aş fi invitat sã petreci vacanţa cu noi dacã nu ne-ar fi fãcut mare plãcere. f. If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn’t have answered the wrong questions. Dacã ar fi urmat sfatul mãtuşii Betty. Dacã n-ar fi fost furtuna. j. am fi putut ajunge mai repede. poate mai puteam face ceva. i. Dacã aş fi avut timp. 175 . ai fi reuşit cu sigurantã sã treci examenul. nu s-ar fi întâmplat nimic din toate acestea. Translate into English: a. i. g.

head towards the passport control booths sign – posted ‘Other Nationals’ (ie. There are two ways of trying to get through the ‘Diplomatic’ booth: . present the (again extremely cheerful looking) gentleman/lady with your passport and 176 . Negative issues and incidents are very rare. and have a fantastic time – and mostly at fantastic prices. or 2. you shove on a pair of sunglasses. As soon as you have fought your way off the bus that takes you from the airplane to the terminal building. not Romanians). and when confronted. gasp in mock surprise “Do you realize who you are talking to?”. and tends to leave you walking back to the ‘Other Nationals’ queue feeling ridiculous and being stared at by all the ‘Other Nationals’. see fantastic sights.1. one should be aware of the local pit – falls and traditions. After receiving your visa. Immigration/Customs Visas can be obtained from Romanian embassies around the world. 1. but most people pay on – arrival. but interesting. a swagger and an attitude. ‘Romanian Passports’.Business English Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Romania seen by foreigners © The Adverb © The Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Look at the way others see us. and ‘Diplomatic’. grab a cream and a red coloured immigration form and fill it in with a pen that you had prepared. Run to the counter advertising VISAS/EXCHANGE and give your immigration form and passport to the cheerful looking person on the other side of the window. but this latter attempt rarely works. At your arrival at the passport control booth. you are a diplomat. This isn’t so much easier. but as in every country. Comment on Jess Mackenzie’s impressions: Romania is great – you can meet fantastic people.

As in every city around. Some Romanian words seem impossible to pronounce. it is very cheap. If he/she finishes the constant stamping of your passport without a barrage of extraordinarily irrelevant questions and within 15 minutes. Asking a stranger to make love to you on the spot. to speak the ‘lingo’ will always go down well. Bus. and down the aisle to meet your friends/family/driver. Transport In recent years. Don’t fear.Business English visa. Should you not be able to see your luggage. Some of the local places do not have Englishwritten menus and it is good to know what you are eating. this will be due to one of two reasons: 1. it is a good idea to carry a Romanian phrase book on you at all times. It is also a good idea. Another place where you will find a grammar book useful is when visiting restaurants. Language Should you not speak Romanian. metro and tram timetables can be brought from kiosks along all the main streets of the city. As in all countries an attempt. it hasn’t arrived yet. to ask the advice of a local friend or colleague. One thing to be wary of though. taxis do come with their safety problems.reading time. therefore a hand squashed against your bottom is most probably unintentional. either because you have just arrived (or because you are typically English). however small. and some are also very similar to each other – it can be a bit embarrassing asking for a large dog when in a bakery. 2. instances have been few and far between. when asking advice – make sure it is from someone you trust. 3. In Bucharest. the airport staff have gotten bored and hidden your luggage for a laugh. or 2. One piece of advice – during rush hours all forms of public transport get very packed. but one should be wary just in case 177 . make your way past the customs staff without bothering their important magazine. public transport has come up to good Western standards and added to that. when you thought you were asking the time can get a bit awkward. Once with your luggage and senses. your luggage will either arrive quite quickly or you will find where the staff have hidden it – usually in quite simple places. then be incredibly surprised and make your way to the luggage carousel. when practising the use of language.

if not. Firstly. use a taxi company where you telephone in advance. Money Until recent years. it was seen as necessary to have some amount of hard currency on you when in Romania. every street corner has one. be aware of the following: Exchange offices are not run by very nice little men simply wanting to make you happy . although automatic cash machines seem to be popping up everywhere. use your common sense. make sure the driver has a taxi license number that looks official. Exchange offices are abundant in Romania. you may be in the middle of nowhere. secondly. safe and pleasant (the taxis. know where you are going or have a map on you. Keep your exchanged money in a safe.. Always – agree on a price before getting in. more importantly. this may not seem as necessary.make sure you check the rate of exchange is correct. if you do not know your bank’s daily working hours may regularly find yourself staring at ‘INCHIS’ sign. which would be changed into Lei at the numerous exchange offices. not the old – timers!). Now that automatic cash machines and top – standard international banks are the norm in most major cities in Romania. Ask an old – timer to recommend one – most are extremely cheap. of course. thirdly. that you get a stamped receipt. keep a lit cigarette or lighter in your hand throughout the journey as a form of defence if you do not feel completely safe (this sound pathetic but does make you feel as though you have some kind of weapon). and that you count your money before leaving the premises.Business English (especially. secure place when leaving – even the most stupid of potential pick – pockets will know that you are not walking out of the door with empty pockets. If you need to change hard currency. make sure you use an official liking establishment. they do regularly run out of cash (or should I call my bank manager?). if you are a single woman). The best advice is to get to know a friendly taxi driver and use the same one as often as possible or. As you may be changing an amount of money in one day that the average local earns in one month. but it is still a very good idea. 178 . 4.

For the same reasons doctors’ and nurses’ salaries are so ridiculously low that many of the medical staff take under-the-table payments to make up the difference. do not be surprised or angered if it is made obvious that cash is wanted – this may also hasten medical attention considerably. contraceptives. 5.Business English Never change money on the street. It is also illegal to change money on the street and you will be arrested and fined by the eagle – eyed policemen. Should you feel adventurous and try the first option. who are seen on the streets. so it is useful to take some on you just in case you need it. Should you need emergency care. All you will get from the nice looking man promising a much better rate than the exchange offices is one 10. or check what is being stuck into you! 6.S. there are some things you should know: Doctors and nurses in Romania have very good qualifications. cleansing products. Therefore. Dogs 179 . you can either try your luck at the state emergency hospitals. tampons. Western standard pharmacies (many open 24 hours) can be found on most main streets and stock most things such as plasters and first-aid products. but it is a good idea to bring some with you just in case. Health For non-emergencies. and basic drugs. Disposable needles are now used almost 100 percent. Most services are happy to accept U. or contact one of the private clinics which are expensive but topstandards are guaranteed. dollars instead of Lei. but you should be wary. but should you be taking regular medicine. instances such as the above are few and far between. a good supply should be brought with you as a supply here cannot be guaranteed. As with public transport. but due to a huge lack of funds. hospitals rarely have the equipment and technology that you may be used to.000 Lei note wrapped around 50 pieces of toilet paper (and not very nice toilet paper at that).

to call most Romanians intolerant of gypsies – would be an understatement. but due to obvious reasons these are few and often change venues. that leaves you with about one half hour of sleep before your alarm clock goes off. and are hard to get information about. some locals can have a negative attitude regarding this subject so it is best to keep your opinions to yourself – or at least not be surprised or angered by what you may find to be archaic views. homosexuality is still. Many of the dogs are ‘sort – of owned’ by the locals. Also. as is lightning on the carts. be prepared for the NOISE! – Romanian dogs seem to like to sleep most of the day and then party all night until about 7 a. 9. There are unofficial clubs that cater for the gay population.m. Trust me. BUT BEWARE – the odd stray dog happens to think he/she is the Romanian version of Godzilla (Godzillescu?) Apart from the physical problems involved with stray dogs in Romania. The feeling is so strong that to make even a light – hearted joke aimed at a local friend such as “Look. Homosexuality At the time of writing.Business English They are a big problem that will be obvious after a matter of hours in Bucharest. Patience 180 . unfortunately. Street lightning is non-existent. an illegal offence in Romania. until the law jumps into this decade and changes. there are at least 1. due to lack of education. when a woman on a gypsy cart past will result in a huge silence. For the same reason be extremely careful when driving on the country roads after dark. Due to this. 7. it is a good idea to keep a low profile in this aspect. meaning they are thrown scraps of food and given corner in hall ways. When driving. 8.. even from very close friends.5 million stray dogs – and this number is ever – increasing. they are quite harmless as long as you leave them alone. your mother has come to pick you up”. Gypsies In general. Latest figures show that in Bucharest alone. gypsy carts should be overtaken with great care – their tendency to stay in the middle of the road will one day win awards. For these reasons.

soon after = curând dupã. Ways with words 1. bad. bad impressive etc something really is. 10. after a while = dupã câtãva vreme. important etc than they really are or a statement that is not strong enough to express how good. especially a foreign one. a valorifica. to take control of = a-şi asuma controlul. or at least to know some useful phrases. to take account of = a ţine seama de. stray . to take its course = a-şi urma cursul.Business English Gain some. 2. In this text there are several occurrences of the preposition after and of the verb to take. understatement .a way of describing things as being less good. day after day = zile în şir. to take an active part in = a lua parte activã la. a se folosi de ocazia. a se prevala de. a avea grijã de. A Sense of Humour Get one. Special terms staff – the people who work for an organization. to take care of/ to take charge of = a-şi asuma rãspunderea.an animal that is lost and cannot find its home or has no home. to look after = a avea grijã de. to speak the ‘lingo’ – to speak a language. 181 . Now learn more phrases containing the preposition after and the verb to take: after all = la urma urmelor. especially a school or business or the members of such a group. to take advantage of = a utiliza.

g. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. when you thought you were asking the time can get a bit awkward. to take a stand = a adopta un punct de vedere. 3. = a manifesta interes faţã de.. situation or organisation that can be criticised 5 spot-check 6 put someone on the spot 7 spot-cash e immediately or at the place of action f outstanding moment g ask someone a difficult question or put someone in a difficult situation 182 . to take warning = a fi prevenit. a se însãrcina.. to take into account/ consideration = a lua în consideraţie. a privi. to take on = a lua asupra sa. to take an interest in. How do you translate on the spot? Below there are some phrases each containing the word spot. to take the liberty of (+-ing form) = a-şi lua libertatea de a… (e. to take one’s own way = a-şi urma calea proprie. to take note/ notice of = a ţine seama de.. a considera indiscutabil. 1 on the spot 2 in the spot 3 in the spotlight 4 spot-on a at the centre of public attention b quick. random examination c cash on delivery d aspect of a character.. a lua o poziţie.. Match the phrases with the correct definitions.). to take a view of = a considera. Read the following sentence again: Asking a stranger to make love to you on the spot.Business English to take for granted = a lua drept sigur. to take a weight off somebody’s mind = a elucida o problemã. to take over = a prelua. She took the liberty of doing it in her own way.

In my opinion. b. Two companies have been fighting to take it over. c. j. It’s the ……………… in our business. you’re really ………………me ……………… I don’t know how many we have in stock.? f. g. Read the following sentence again: As soon as you have fought your way off the bus that takes you from the airplane to the terminal building… How do has gone bankrupt. and everyone has been talking about the takeover battle. ~ Can we give you twenty machines for immediate delivery? ~ Now. Even the Chairman lets his hair down. We’re ……………… …… at the moment because one of our biggest customers money. i.Business English 8 high spot 9 weak spot 10 knock spots off h be much better than i in a difficult situation j exactly right 4. The income tax officials often do a ………………… on taxpayers to make sure they are giving accurate information. Our distribution system doesn’t cover certain areas of the country. The forecasts of our Marketing Department have been……………………… . I don’t know how they manage to be so accurate. Can’t you give me a decision ……………………. 5. Recently. Our terms for this consignment of rubber are……………………… e. a. I don’t want to wait for an answer. our computer products ……………………… those of our competitors. The Distillers company has been ……………………… . Now complete the following sentences with suitable phrases from the list above. d. h. He owed us a lot of 183 . The …………………… of our year is our staff party.

The battle was fought …… Cape Trafalgar. w. He’s …… to Leeds. How kind …… you to help him. k. p. He is a man …… humble origin. He was accused …… crime. OFF may indicate: distance: it is a mile off departure: off with it! separation: his head was cut off completion: have you finished it off? disconnecting: turn it off Now fill in with of or off: a. t. 184 . Are you sure …… it? r. Well. What is a Master …… Art? n. j. That’s the city …… Dublin. g. d. It’s time I was …… or I must be …… . Why don’t you have that funny beard …… ? h. or use it on its own to suggest separation. I think well …… them. m. We must pay …… our debts before we buy a new car. b. c. v. Use a noun or pronoun object after OF and use an object after OFF. The door handle has come …… . o. He’s been smoking …… while he had the flu. e. A ship anchored …… the entrance to the harbour. f. This man is hard …… hearing.Business English you translate to fight your way off the bus? What is the difference between of and off? Never use OF and OFF in place of each other. Help her …… with her coat. I’ll have to get rid …… it. Their engagement is …… . i. l. Finish …… one job before you start another. what’s …… it? s.

of himself last night. I know. l.. I don’t think I’d recognize her now. there are plenty more………………in the sea. In this text you have read about stray dogs in Romania. y. She married at thirty years …… age. j. Although he had only known her for two weeks he decided to take the ……………by the horns and asked her to marry him. 185 bull dog goose pig cat donkey horse rat cow fish kitten stag a. f. I’ll do it in my …… time (free from duty). Turning up half an hour late for the interview really cooked . i.out of the bag. She loved tennis and could watch it until the …………. h. We were hoping to keep the wedding a secret.with one stone and visit my old school as well. it’s hard to believe he was once a successful barrister. Choose the animal bird crocodile goat lion his……………… .came home. You’re upset now. g. But you’ll soon forget her-after all. It’s not that I mind giving her a lift home every Tuesday. That’s the last time I invite Steve for a meal. Don’t be fooled! She’s not a bit sad. it’s………………’s years since I last saw her. Now lean some idioms with animals. but what gets my ……………is the fact that she’s never once offered to pay for the petrol. As I had to go to Swansea on business. Looking at him now. k. b. I decided to kill two……………. You’re flogging a dead ……………. Harry has really gone to the ………………since his wife died. He really made a …………….trying to get Harry to change his mind! d. 6. but my brother soon let the ………………. they’re just …………………tears. e. I’ll go to the theatre on my next …… day.. z. c.Business English x.

This is due to the fact that in the latter type of economy there is actually no (9)…………………. while on the other hand command economy most likely leads to (3)………………………………… . customers. It can modify: 186 . Fill in the gaps with words from the list at the end of the text: A market economy is based on private (1) ……………………………… in contrast to planned economy where (2)………………………………ownership prevails. subsidized Grammar Reference The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. whereas in a command economy businesses are (5)…………………………… . inefficiency. thus allowing them to survive in spite of their non-satisfactory economic performance. monopolies. a quality thereof. In a free market economy efficiency is the key word. competition. In a free market economy inefficient businesses go (4) ……………………………… . ownership.Business English m.’s share of his money. 7. as there are state (10) ………………………… and the options of customers are severely restricted. economy ……………………… of goods and services. while on the other hand planned economy will not focus on offering high quality goods and services to (8)…………………… . When their grandfather died. Robert and his sister got the…………. state. This enables actually the latter type Market of economy to leads resort to to high (6) (7) ………………………………. overstaffing.. that is employing more personnel than required. quality. bankrupt.

aboard. afterwards. degree and approximation: awfully. fast Adverbs of place: away. hence. Form Simple adverbs Far fast here late near now Then Today Well Derived adverbs likewise afloat homeward(s) repeatedly hardly monthly bitterly happily excellently Compound adverbs everywhere outdoors outside thereby therefore today tomorrow wherein wherefore Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old Adverbs of manner: badly. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. 187 . ever. early Adverbs of quantity. extremely. a pronoun: Me too. where. excellently. why.Business English • • • • • • a verb: We are talking about your report today. result and concession: consequently. every time. fore. after. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. enough. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. carefully. again. for this reason. little Adverbs of frequency: always. measure. reason. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. above. when. wherefore. forever Adverbs of cause.

A way of avoiding placing responsibility on any specific continuous or the future continuous. Translate it into Romanian. Now learn about the passive voice in English. performer of the action. I am sorry that your letter was mislaid 188 I am called I am being called I have been called I was called I was being called I had been called I shall be called Let me be asked . etc. to look after. This is the passive voice. There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the pasive voice such as: to have. The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. etc. the past perfect When the receiver of the action is more important than the When the performer of the action is not someone specific. to look at. person or organization. The local cinema was closed down three years ago. Its form consists of the respective tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the past participle of the lexical verb. to hold.Business English The Passive Voice What voice are the underlined verbs in the sentence: It is also illegal to change money on the street and you will be arrested and fined by the eagle – eyed policemen. to speak to. who are seen on the streets. The indicative mood Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Future The imperative mood Uses: • • • • It is not used in the present perfect continuous. to resemble. to attend to. to send for. to possess.

I’ve finished for today. get dressed. I saw a marvellous film. We talk. get married. Subject + passive + to-infinitive: She is considered to be the best singer in the group. often here a lot . constructions: It + passive + that clause: It is expected that many people will die from starvation in the next decade. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. • drunk. get hit. 189 lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. get lost. get Controlled practice 1. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. Suzanne comes about once a week.Business English • • To avoid a change of subject in the sentence. She’s rather tired. get killed. get elected. There + passive + to be: There are believed to be many homeless teenagers living on the streets. Thank you for your letter. Get is often used with certain past participles: get engaged. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. I don’t keep my plan. It was called “The English Patient”. I’m working for my exams. • We can use by + the performer of the action after a verb in the passive if we want to say who or what did it. It is often used with verbs of saying and believing in these I went by train and was met at the station by my aunt. but I’ve been very busy. I’ve planned my revision. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. Is it five months since really I last wrote? I’m sorry.

.. (false. lowly) p.... This is a . Treat him . He works ... (pretty...... I’ll sell you the car .. you accused me . expressly) s.. Still waters run ..... (hard. mountain... (cheap. good attempt.. cheaply) r..... I got off first in the race but managed to come. (last/lastly) v. you shall pay for it.... deeply) e. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. worked this week.. (kind. I don’t think you’ve been treated very. highly) b. coolly) j.. dearly) h.. The book cost .. (high...... kindly) n. task.. I did not.. Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a... (low.. His position is ... for the exams.... lowly) o.. hardly) m. I’d like to thank all those who helped me.... to me. (dear. . That was a ... highly) d..Business English I hope to visit England again...... in the lake. I had a lovely time last year. prettily) q. She swam ....... . (fair.. shocked. yours.. We’ve been receiving a lot of junk mail.. And... (last/lastly) x. He was . ...(late/lately) y.(just/justly) 190 next year there again hard soon . Send this letter .. .. Birds can fly .... (cool... ... .. falsely) t. fairly) c. (low.... He acted ... hardly) l. deeply) f... in the sky. falsely) u. (hard.. (high. You played me ... He loves his son . He has ... . . . .. (deep. dearly) i. I’m trying to save some money. Love.. deeply) g.. hardly) k. (express... (hard. Maria 2. (deep.... (deep. Boxers are not allowed to hit ... It would be great to see you.. . (dear.. That was a . (false... He was .

c. Nu mi-e deloc fricã. We go swimming (on Saturdays/generally/at the local pool) i. i. She’s been sleeping (in that chair/all afternoon/soundly) e. M-am purtat prosteşte. te rog iartã-mã. Write the sentences with the adverbs/adverbial phrases in brackets in the correct position. b. Mã întâlnesc cu John tot a doua zi. Nu l-am vãzut de foarte mult timp. dacã mã gândesc bine nu l-am vãzut de când am terminat facultatea. Sistematic uitã sã stingã lumina la baie. d. He is (at this time of day/usually/at the college) f. Tot nu a terminat sã se aranjeze pentru petrecere. f. De-abia mi-am dat seama despre ce vorbea. j. n. e.. I . g. h. Voi cere sã vãd actele în cursul acestei dimineţi. În timpul discursului s-a ridicat si a plecat. Nu voi putea ajunge la 5 ci doar la 6. Nu e cazul sã mã priveşti atât de neprietenos. k. I’ve been working (in my office/all morning/hard) b. m. Nu voi putea ajunge decât la 5. He speaks to me (in the mornings/never/nicely) c. o. I thought you spoke (in that meeting/very well/yesterday) h. 4. Se pare cã tot nu a priceput. Deci l-am vãzut ultima oarã acum 15 ani. We were listening (all evening/carefully) d. If the adverbs can go in more than one position. The postman comes (in the morning/very early) g. A dat un rãspuns obraznic. put them in the more usual position. S-ar prea putea sã aibã dreptate. fell off the edge of the platform! (near/nearly) 3. I bought these jeans (in the sales/very cheaply/last week) 191 .. a. Translate into English: a.Business English z. l.

The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. 8. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. Put the following into the passive. 6. People in my town built this hospital last year. John can’t have done this. Mention the agent each time: 192 . Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. c. f. Children had cast stones. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. i. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. d. He’s been (to a dentist/never/in his life) 5. When no agent is given supply one: a. e. e. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã compoziţia acestei substante. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. 7.Business English j. b. b. d. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. g. h. When was your car stolen? c. Mi s-au furat banii. Doctorul a fost chemat. d. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. Who drew this asymptote? b. AIDS is thought to be curable. Translate the following sentences into English: a. e. c.

i. h. Turn these sentences into the passive voice (sometimes the agent is required): a. Last night’s storm blew those telephone poles down. A jellyfish stung her. f. j. 9. j. He hasn’t slept in his bed. Her story didn’t take them in. Burglars broke into the house. Edison invented the electric bulb. Falling rocks killed two of the climbers. e. Beavers make these dams. h.B. The preposition or adverb must be retained when the combination is put into the passive. l. All the ministers will see him off at the airport. No one has taken out the cork. e. 193 . d. will broadcast this play again next week. We called in the police. They didn’t look after the children properly. f. Everyone looked up to him. Lightning struck the old oak. They threw him out. g. People often take him for his brother. b. The B.Business English a. c.C. Thirst and fatigue overcame the explorers. b. A policeman called Steward caught the thief. In this exercise the sentences contain a verb + preposition/adverb combination. k. West pinned up the notice. They took down the notice. Mr. Fog held up the trains. c. i. d. g.

beef and lamb. insurance and so on. are called ‘visible’ exports. tourism. have to be bought abroad. sugar beet. British industry requires raw materials. as well as electric and electronic equipment such a s computers and communications systems. too. All exports which the eye can see. mainly from the profits of investments in other countries and from ‘services’ – transport. 194 . oil.Business English Unit 14 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Britain’s trade with the world © The Infinitive © The Participle © The Gerund •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Pre-reading What does Britain import? What does Britain export? What about Romania? Reading Britain’s trade with the world Britain is too small and crowded to produce all the food its people need. Scotch whisky. British farms produce large quantities of wheat. of course. and financial services like banking. But Britain obtains 50% of its earnings abroad from ‘invisible’ exports. products like whisky and cars. plastics. Industries which need silicon. dairy products. chemicals and. Rolls Royce cars! Famous British exports! But Britain also exports complete aircraft. Most of these. Coal and North Sea oil and gas are the great exceptions. cotton can only get them from foreign countries. All Britain’s imports must be paid for by exports. copper. but more than half of Britain’s foodstuffs are bought abroad. zinc.

then hotels and catering. A few of the old factories have even been turned into museums. So where do the majority of people work now? More than 65% work in service industries. although these changes have been good for Britain. Unemployment During the 1980s. People also have more leisure time and longer holidays so more entertainment and travel services are needed. in 1986. medical and other health services and distribution service. foreign exchange market and commodities market. the world’s biggest insurance market. there were more people out of work in Britain than ever before. In fact. an engineer from York. He travels 320 kilometres every Sunday evening to work in 195 . The problem is particularly bad in the industrial areas of northern Britain where most workers once earned their living in factories. However. There are many reasons for this growth in the demand for services. Banking. Changes. the loss of jobs in manufacturing industry has made life very hard for some people. finance and insurance have been the fastest growing areas. Only two countries. In 1950 40% of the working population worked in manufacturing industry. 12% of the working population were unemployed. so vital to Britain’s economy.Business English These financial services. Now the figure had dropped below 25%. are concentrated in a small area of central London called ‘the City’. earn more from invisible exports than Britain. new technology is making possible many services that were not possible before. More people have more money to spend than they used to. People sometimes ask. ‘Why don’t they go and look for work somewhere else?’ One man who found work somewhere else is Don King. as in many other countries. The City houses the world’s greatest concentration of banks. development and new directions Working life today is very different from the way it was in the middle of this century. and the world’s most advanced stock exchange. At the same time. the USA and France.

and a huge increase in the number of ordinary people who owned shares in companies. fewer people employed by the state. Sometimes there was great bitterness and even fighting between workers who decided to strike and those who refused to. They believed that new jobs would appear if controls and restrictions on businesses were taken away. as most people cannot afford such expensive journeys and there are not enough jobs in the south anyway. But Don considers to be a lucky person. Britain’s slow economy was growing faster than any other country in the European Community. During the last hundred years the unions have helped to make Britain a more democratic. British Airways and British Telecom. more civilised and fairer country by representing and protecting the interests of working people. Other results of Conservative policies were more self-employed small business owners.Business English London. Although the first results of their policy were huge increases in unemployment.g. They cannot all move to London because a house in London costs three times as much as a house in York and they couldn’t pay for it. but this may be true for much longer because during the 1980s the unions lost much of their strength and popularity. The government also decided to fight the power of the trade unions. e. Government and industry The government of the 80s changed the relationship between government and industry. privatization of many industries that had belonged to the state. Special terms 196 . The Conservatives believed that previous governments interfered too much in the economy. Ways with words 1. Trade unions Today more of Britain’s workers belong to a trade union than in other major Western country. He only sees his family at weekends.

Business English commodities market = a place where sugar, oil, metals, etc can be traded. Only the trading is done here; the actual commodities do not need to pass through Britain. distribution = the transporting of goods to and from factories, ports, shops, etc. foreign exchange market = a place where large amount of currencies can be bought and sold the stock exchange = the place where stocks and shares can be bought and sold. Other famous stock exchanges are Wall Street in New York and La Bourse in Paris. trade unions = the national organisations which represent workers in their negotiations with employers about pay and conditions of work 2. Complete the sentences: a. Milk, cheese and yoghurt are examples of ……………… . b. Wood, silicon, copper and cotton are examples of ……………… . c. Profits on investments in other countries, transport services and insurance are examples of ……………… . d. Transport, tourism and banking are examples of ……………… . e. Banking, insurance and foreign exchange are examples of ……………… . 3. Which of the following have increased in Britain in recent decades and which have decreased? a. the number of people who work in factories b. the number of industrial museums c. employees in service industries d. the number of hotels and restaurants e. self-employed people f. state-owned industries g. the power of trade unions 4. Translate the following text into Romanian: 197

Business English The Commercial Bank Ion Tiriac (C.B.I.T.) is the largest Romanian private bank and was established after 1989.The bank is the result of the courage and the vision of its founding members “Ion Tiriac Group of Companies”. Some 5500 individuals and companies joined this initiative as shareholders. The C.B.I.T. became operational in April 1991 with an initial share capital of 3 billion that successively increased, totalling presently ROL 1.097.443.896.000. Since the beginning, the bank has benefited from an excellent international reputation which was further enlarged when the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) became a shareholder of the bank in April 1993 – EBRD’s first participation in a Central and Eastern European bank. Since its establishment the bank has evolved into a powerful institution counting presently for 1000 employees and 61 branches agencies and points of sale which cover almost all the important economic centres in Romania (at the end of 2003). The implementation of the plan “Banca Tiriac 2000 – 2002” has pushed the bank up to the ladder of best performing financial institutions acting in Romania. As recognition of the bank’s achievements, in December 2002 the Commercial Bank Ion Tiriac has been presented with “Bank of the Year” award by the prestigious local magazine “Capital”. Fitch IBCA, which upgraded the bank’s rating for two years in a row, also reconfirmed the positive trend of the bank’s development. The C.B.I.T. was listed for the first time in year 2000 among the first 75 banks in Central and Eastern Europe, according to the classification made by the prestigious international rating agency Standard&Poors. The C.B.I.T. also ranks among the first five Romanian commercial banks listed in top 100 in Central and Eastern Europe by “The Banker” magazine. The C.B.I.T. is permanently engaged to establish correspondent relationships with various bank’s the development of its operations as well as providing high quality banking services to all its clients. 198

Business English The Commercial Bank Ion Tiriac is a member of: SWIFT, VISA, MASTERCARD, AMERICAN EXPRES, DINERS, JCB, REUTERS and ROMCARD. 5. False Friends In each pair of words below, the first word is the false friend and the second is the word it is often confused with. Put each word in its correct place in the sentences which follow each pair. actual (real) present (current, existing now) a) b) Carter and Bush are former American presidents. Who is the I’ve known many rich men, but he is the only ………………… ……………………one? millionaire I’ve met. morale (spirits, state of mind) moral (right, proper, virtuous) a) b) It was a good move financially, but from the ………………point As we became aware of the difficulties, our ……………… of view I have my doubts. dropped. frequent (go to often) attend (go to a school, course, be present at) a) b) Please state the name and address of the college you Criminals are known to …………………the clubs and bars in ………………… . this street. adequate (enough, sufficient) suitable (right for the purpose) a) b) Make sure you have ……………………money for the trip. Do you think this dress is …………………for tonight’s party, 10,000 pesetas should be enough. or is it too formal? 199

Business English argument (i: disagreement ii: supporting reason) subject (something talked or written about or studied) a) b) health. c) He and his wife had a heated ……………………about which car to buy. experience (i: previous knowledge or work ii: event) experiment (test carried out to see results) a) forget. b) c) We’ll try an …………………with these chemicals and see This is a very responsible job, so we want someone with a lot what happens. of ……………… . fabricate (invent, make up something false) manufacture (make, produce in a factory) a) b) To avoid suspicion, he decided to ………………… a This is the factory where they …………………the new completely false story. sports-car. pass (be successful in test, exam) take (attempt test, exam) a) b) If I ……………….. the exam, I’ll celebrate by giving a party. I …………………my driving test tomorrow. I hope I Meeting the president was an …………………I’ll never My favourite ………………at school was geography. The best …………………against smoking is its effect on

………………it. reunion ( gathering of old friends, colleagues after separation) meeting ( gathering of people for social or formal discussion) a) b) We have a …………………at the office every Friday to talk I haven’t seen my old school friends for 15 years. It’s time about plans and problems. someone organized a ………………… . 200

Business English remark (say, make a comment) notice (happen to see) a) b) He enjoyed his stay with us, but he did ………………that he I thought I saw a strange-looking man outside the house. Did hadn’t slept well. you ………………him?

Grammar Reference
Punctuation
There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to o make their meaning clear. Here are some punctuation rules. 1. Sentence - Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks . ordinaly and Some of us think we should independent clause is invest in this company. Others made into a sentence by think it is useless. beginning it with a capital letter and ending , it with a period. Independent clauses The forecast promised Guidelines Examples

may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea, but it rained the words and, but, yet, every day. or, nor, and so. The first Draw the figure and solve the clause ; is usually problem. followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that independent clauses invest in this company; others 201

or or without any punctuation.Business English are closely connected by think it is useless joining them with a : semicolon. Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded. 2. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feeling may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an exclamation mark. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are they compounded. when there are two or more subjects. are usually I’m taking Chemistry and Guidelines Examples reduce next year’s joined together with Physics and Maths this semester. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? ? capital letter. objects. exemplifies it. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have ! mark. predicates. a words such as and. and so forth. Occasionally more 202 . charged to a major credit card. punctuation is necessary. they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. that is.

didn’t. An apostrophe is used He’s. with words such as and or or usually between . and test of and teacher internal vocabulary. businesses use recycled paper. 203 . When the items in a Students were selected on the series are very long basis or have punctuation. can be and reading. semicolons may be used instead. by recommendations. Commas are used photocopy on both sides of a to separate items in sheet. four in constructions to o’clock. and Wales conscious contain more than share the island of Great Brittain.Business English than two elements are joined in this . occuring the last two items. Punctuation Marks ‘ Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. memory. Scotland. a series. and use ceramic cups. Ma’am. of grades. separation commas confusing. Compounds that England. Word . There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. two elements are Environmentally called series. show possession. 3.Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences. way. let’.

. When settle down. have been omitted. to find the middle of a sentence.. 24 ft. K. numbers . they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations.Business English show where letters or 45’s.and containing hyphens are second-year students... self-confidence to .m. Lawrence. common elements are often not repeated. told him the the omission must be marked following: “If you want to with points of ellipsis. J. insta - form compound words When two modifiers The study included first. like abbreviations and initials.. you should points are used. three proper wife.. When the give 204 up your selfish . joined together. 4:00 mark shortened forms p. Ralph Waldo words of someone else. ABC’s. A period is used to Prof... A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four. to get a the omission comes in the proper job. Tell me what set them off from the rest of the you know.. Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Marks “ Guidelines Examples When writers use the exact In 1841. .” text. She .. If part of a quotation is omitted.

four “Work of the tyre that points are used. rock to slip.A.. 205 . Form It appears as long infinitive (preceded by the particle to): I didn’t want to tell you that. it [the crust of within a quoted passage.” one or more sentences. again − if you let me”. where the adverb which modifies the verb is inserted between the particle to and the verb proper: He was too disappointed to really care about the circumstances of the accident.” The dash can be used to “Well −uh − I’d like to try indicate hesitations in speech.” When writers insert something “In a fault. the the earth] has cracked and insertion should be set off with caused different layers of − brackets. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern.W. value out in when a The Infinitive The infinitive is considered to be the base form of the verb.. and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight . There are many factors which affect a pressure vessel [] of the types commonly used.Business English omission includes the end of ideas. or as short infinitive (not preceded by the particle to): She made me do it eventually. A special use of the infinitive is the split infinitive.. he offered. B.R.

thank. want. has a passive meaning after verbs as desire. forgive. The Gerund • denotes an action simultaneous with the present. It is used in the following situations: a) with verbs and verbal expressions. past or future expressed by the finite verb: I thanked him for letting me know. reading Passive Voice being helped. Structures: gerunds and infinitives When the . Thank you for letting me know. Form Indefinite Gerund Active Voice helping. being read Perfect Gerund having helped having been helped having read having been read In order to improve your knowledge about Gerund/ Infinitive. need. The Gerund is formed ith the help of the -ing suffix added to the verb. you may look at Appendix 3 (page 189). etc. require. Your hair needs cutting. etc. • • expresses anteriority after verbs as excuse. 206 . Form Active Voice Indefinite Participle asking Perfect Participle having asked Passive Voice being asked having been asked I saw smoke coming through the door of the chemistry laboratory.Business English The Participle There are two participle forms in English: • • the -ing participle which denotes a continuous action or state: the past participle (the third form of the verb) which denotes the action as a result: The police wanted the law respected.ing form of the verb is used as a noun it is called the Gerund. remember.

with certain phrasal verbs: be for/against. remind. demand. easy. Swimming underwater is easy if you remember to breathe deeply before going down. can. sad. consider. finished. happy. fancy. invite. delighted. prepare. proud of. make help (followed by an object) To + Infinitive can be also used after adjectives of emotion such as: amazed. and others by an object +to+Infinitive a) verbs followed by to+Infinitive: afford. others by the Infinitive without to. arrange. order. understand. promise. keep (=continue). possible.Business English 1. The Gerund must be used after the following verbs: admit. detest. have (=be obliged). hard. etc. care for. fail. exempt from Certain verbs are followed by to+Infinitive. see about 3.g. enjoy. should. etc. do. delay. b) with prepositions. teach. tell. disappointed. etc. used to. b) verbs followed by object +to+Infinitive: advise. difficult. decide. would. such as: keen on. can’t stand. What about swimming to the island and back before lunch? c) as the subject of the sentence. accustomed to. 207 . shall. If a verb follows a preposition the Gerund forms must be used: e. may. hope. ashamed. prevent. give up. don’t mind. request. anticipate. warn. keep on. excuse. g. pleased. learn. d)with adjectives: busy and worth and a few adjectives accompanied by prepositions. c) verbs followed by the Infinitive without to: the auxiliaries will. 2. angry. defer. avoid. with certain expressions: can’t help. stop (=cease). be accustomed to. mind (=object). be used to. when the action is being considered in a general sense or as a habit: e. it’s no good/use. etc. look forward to. suggest. Swimming everyday is good exercise for your physical condition. seem. must as well as let.

2. having finished his main theme./ I stopped smoking when I started to train for the Olympics. I used to live on a houseboat. Certain verbs can be followed by either Gerund or Infinitive. sometimes with a different meaning. Put the verbs in brackets into either a Gerund or Infinitive form: a. 208 . (drive) or (sail)? d. but her husband preferred the hills. Remember (phone) him in the evening. g. What do enjoy most. She proposes to live on a houseboat all winter. I can’t afford (buy) a new car as they are still owing me some money. went on to talk about minor problems of sailing. Don’t pretend (like) him. don’t waste your time anymore! h. I don’t need any help. j./ I’ll learn how to use a computer even if it means practising all day. e. b./ I propose going to the theatre on Sunday. c. he]s very unreliable. f./ The speaker went on talking about sailing although most of his audience had gone home. She wanted (go) to the coast. He was very keen on (sail) and went to the coast most weekends. The speaker. It isn’t worth (rely) on him. e. i./ He tried sailing across the bay first. They were delighted (see) their father standing on the deck. you know you don’t really. I mean to find out who stole the club funds. b. He simply cannot give up (smoke)./ I am used to sailing single-handed. The children are looking forward to (row) on the lake in the afternoon.Business English Controlled practice 1. He tried to sail across the bay but there wasn’t enough wind. d. f. Explain the meaning of the verbs in italics in the following sentences: a. c. I stopped to speak to the teacher as I wanted his advice. I think she’s mad.

Put the verbs between brackets in gerund or past participle: 209 I . h. b. 3. I regret to inform you that you were turned down.Business English g./ My father taught me swimming. Translate into English: a. Alice has learnt to cook. c. e. Studentul a dovedit cã este foarte bun la matematicã. e. Dacã nu faci maşina sã porneascã. The That man with the is black very eyes patient. g. Please. Îţi mulţumesc pentru cã m-ai ajutat sã rezolv acest exerciţiu la geometrie. 5. El vrea sã plece mai repede. My father taught me to swim. j. and he broken is used nose to denies………………………… fisherman ……………………………… f. people are not allowed…………………………… d. Te deranjeazã dacã închizi fereastra? i. ne stricãm buna dispoziţie. it keeps on ………………………………… c. sit down. d. Sper sã termin de învãţat ultimul curs. Complete the following sentences using a suitable Gerund or Infinitive form of a verb and any necessary phrases a. Te-a rugat sã scrii un raport. f./ Helen has been learning cooking for years. Answer the phone. motivând de ce gândeşti aşa. i. putem pleca la universitate. Ploaia oprindu-se. Iatã câteva formule pe care sã le învãţaţi. pentru cã are o treabã importantã de rezolvat. I’ll remember to tell him about the fair when I see him!/ remember telling him about the fair on Saturday. Do you remember ………………………………………………… 4. He encouraged the children ……………………………………… b./ I really regret speaking to Jack like that! h.

210 . h. I should like the World Championship (to win) by the Romanian team. e. g.Business English a. After (to wait) for you for half an hour. They stopped (to cut) the pipes. I’ll make them (to answer) all my questions about Canadian drilling. Thank you for (to tell) me the truth. Why are you loking at me? Go on (to work)! i. You are always late. f. We need to have our roof tiles (to replace) d. b. you certainly must have your watch (to reapair). I don’t mind your (to stay) here and (to wait) for my daughter. when they discovered that they had some short ones too. I left the hotel c.

Lancaster was one of only three Business Schools in the UK to have been awarded the top rating – 5*signifying international excellence research. What were your expectations when you came here? Reading Here is a presentation of Lancaster Management School. we have a balanced portfolio of teaching: over 300 students graduate with Bachelor’s degrees in management subjects every year and 350 with Master’s degrees. We are therefore one of the three UK Business Schools to have achieved the top rating for both our teaching and our research.Business English Unit 15 Pre-reading Make a short presentation of the distance learning programme within the Faculty of Economics. The Management School has about 20% of the whole University’s staff and their departments were among those which helped found the University in 1964. In the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise. There are over 80 members of the faculty covering the full range of management subjects with a commitment to high quality and innovative teaching. We also have about 100 active research students. 211 . In the most recent Higher Education Funding Council assessment we were also rated Excellent for our teaching of Business and Management. Pay attention to the use of conjunctions in English: The Management School Lancaster has one of the largest and most experienced management schools in the United Kingdom. Our students benefit from contributions of staff who are researching and undertaking specialist teaching at the forefront of their subjects. Management teaching and research have a high profile at Lancaster. As you would expect from a School of such distinction and size.

computing laboratories and common rooms. Lancaster is also unusual among UK graduate business schools in providing both a leading MBA programme and a range of Master’s courses covering the management specialisms. An extensive collection of management books and journals is housed in the centrally located University Library. services and public authorities through our long experience of collaborative research. North West Water and Royal Mail. The School has a major cluster of terminals and PCs connected to the University’s main computing network and to others beyond the University. This provides first class facilities for our growing number of Master’s and research students. but also with leading researchers in North America business schools and with the People’s Republic of China and other SE Asian countries. seminar and tutorial rooms. British Aerospace. We have strong international links. Graduates from all our programmes are notably successful in obtaining excellent positions to launch or enhance their careers. of course. These links have been reinforced by the launch in 1996 of our prestigious International Master’s programme taught collaboratively by leading staff at INSEAD. including British Airways. We are able to maintain strong links with manufacturing. post-experience teaching and. well-equipped Graduate Management School. offices.Business English Co-ordinated through our Management Development Division. India) and Lancaster. there are over 500 practising managers following our Senior Executive programme. chiefly into networks of the leading west European business schools. Our commitment to postgraduate programmes is reflected in our decision to build a new. our Executive MBA. Hitotsubashi University (Japan). in-company projects undertaken by our students. McGill University. our International Master’s or Postgraduate Diploma programmes. It is close to the centre of the Lancaster campus and comprises lecture. the achievements of our alumni. These programmes are supported by a wide range of organisations. complementing the Management School’s main building. Institute of Management (Bangalore. 212 .

….…. Many people would rather work …………. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had . 213 . pl. d. profession. For example. pl. year. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. In this way you may create a word set which may include among other words: day. -ni = a person. who has attended or is a graduate of a particular school. etc. a boy or man. -took.. Complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a.. c. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . year. The management said salaries had INCREASED. The first shop he opened was a big SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. b. college. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another.... -nae = a girl or woman alumnus to enhance = to improve the quality or condition of something to launch = to start (a person) on some course or career to undertake.. the opposite of old is young. position. -taken = to make oneself responsible for.…. e.…………. esp. 3. Now think of words connected to time. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. the opposite of short is long. Word sets.than FULL-TIME. alumna. century. etc. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a. Try to think of the word time. Special terms specialism = concentration on or specialization in a branch or field of a study... month. etc. alumnus.Business English Ways with words 1. take over as a charge cluster = a number of things of the same sort gathered or grouped together 2.…….

e. . produce a Our production of washing-machines increased by 5% last year. d. c Our company’s main objective is to keep ahead of the 214 eggs. c …………………… per worker will increase with the introduction of the new machines. c. to cash a cheque. a building society. . Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. etc. Pierre is very worried because he is in ………. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. having a personal bank account. to put money in. a mortgage.. When Mr Michael retired he received a . b We try to stay……………………… by investing heavily in advertising and promotion. was only $20000 a year. When she started with the company her …………. It sells mainly farm …………………… compete a Coca Cola’s main ……………………is the Pepsi-Cola company. b We have recently put on the market two new …………………… .………… of $200 a month. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. milk.Business English b. the Stock Market. a cheque card. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money. Word building Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in italics. saving and investing money. Now it’s at least four times that. butter. a deposit account. a current account. d Word processors have helped to make office workers more ……………………. to buy shares in a company. e The company is well known in the agricultural industry.... 4.. a monthly statement. nobody will lend him any money.. to earn 15% interest.

Business English ………………………….. replacing the words in italics with words and phrases from below. c We must look at the problem………………… 5. if you are still unsure of the meanings of any of the above. . i. time-switch (referring to a machine)………………………………. it is wise to show him a business …………………. c. c Before asking a bank manager for money. check them in your dictionary. 6. to be in time………………………………………………………… Now.showed that we needed to put more emphasis on marketing.. time-zone…………………………………………………………… e. g. timekeeper…………………………………………………………. analyse a Managers needs to have an …………………mind. to be on time………………………………………………………… j.. plan a The meeting did not go as …………………. b Our…………………. b Some projects take years of ………. time-sharing (referring to a computer)……………………………… h. Make sentences of your own using five of the above. time-lag……………………………………………………………. time-card …………………………………………………………. Rewrite the following sentences. Make any other necessary changes. f. Compound nouns and phrases with time What do the following mean? a. time-limit…………………………………………………………….…………. . time-and-motion study……………………………………………… d. for the time being in no time at all in good time ahead of its time 215 at one time from time to time work against time before one’s time .. b.

b. b. 1 Nowadays. Complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a. Formerly I worked on the shop floor of the factory. 7. 216 . The technology used in the Lotus car is very advanced indeed. f. I am going to retire earlier than expected. We check the machines at intervals. g. I can get these brochures and price lists off to you almost immediately. a staff b staffs c employers d personal 6 One of the company’s main …………………… is to increase sales by 10% per year. It is far more ………………. a sparing b economic c effective d economical 4 The management has worked out a …………………… to improve our market share. e.Business English a. We have little time left to complete the project. Now. My …………………is much higher than it used to be. I eat out at restaurants regularly and often go abroad for holidays. d. a standard of living a duty b work b cost of living c job d function c lifestyle d way of life 2 Writing reports is not a ……………………that everyone enjoys. a strategy b policy c target d planning 5 Many of the ………………… in the Personnel Department are part – time workers. c. c or d). 3 This machine uses much less fuel than the previous one. Times have changed! h. I must stay with my company for the moment because jobs are hard to find. I’m Managing Director. The salesman decided to get to the meeting fairly early so that he could prepare his presentation.

They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party.an important order. not only. before. a fill b meet c make d do Grammar Reference The Conjunction Conjunctions join words.and. Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor. how. Neither money nor power can make him happy. neither....nor make the connection more intense. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. when.or. whom She never saw him after he left town. We won’t be able to …………………….. unless. as much as. as.. (but also). although. who. She has been very ill since her operation. (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly. Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket.. where. what. either.. that. if. 217 . because. phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. since.. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after.Business English a designs b plans c purposes d objectives 7 Several machines have broken down. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both.

She informed him that she was making a cake. he would do it now.” She said that if he had time.g. “I talked to him yesterday”. “I feel dizzy”. I.Business English Grammar Reference Direct and indirect (reported) speech Indirect speech is the term used to refer to the means of expressing what a person has said by reproducing either the exact words uttered or the essence of the utterance. “I have already answered these letters!”. the Conditional and the Subjunctive usually remain unchanged if the time reference and the place are the same. “I’m making a cake”. she answered. “I will do it. “If he had time. e. she said. when the reported utterance is introduced by a verb in the past tense. she exclaimed. I promise. She said that she felt dizzy. The rules are the following: DIRECT SPEECH Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Past Continuous Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous INDIRECT SPEECH Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future-in-the-Past Future-in-the-Past Continuous Future Perfect in-the-Past Future Perfect Continuous inthe-Past The Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous remain unchanged. She exclaimed that she had already answered those letters.” She promised she would do it. he would do it now. The changes involving the tense of the verb are those mentioned in connection with the sequence of tenses. She answered that she had talked to him the day before. 218 .

except for the reported special questions. Used (to). “What are you doing here?” He wondered what I was doing there. that In that place Then (on) that day (on) the previous day/the day before The previous night/week Next day/the following day Before The following day/week III. Adverbs or adverbial phrases of time and place also change to suggest remoteness. this In this place Now Today Yesterday Last night/week Tomorrow Ago Next day/week There. “I was at home when the TV news started.g. e.g. “English is an analytic language. e. when. how. No change of the past tense occurs when the time of the main clause is fixed by an adverbial clause of time.” She insisted that she was at home when the TV news started. what. Should. etc).” I advised her that she should be more careful.g. “You mustn’t smoke in the classroom.g. “Does she always wear hats?” He asked if she always wore hats. e. a universal assertion. where. Would. an eternal truth. e. “You should be more careful.Business English These rules are not observed in certain cases: No change of the present tense occurs in the reported clause when the statement contains a natural law. Here. Ought (to). which are introduced by the question words (who. must (especially in its prohibition sense) do not change. Reported questions are introduced by if or whether.” The teacher told them that English is an analytic language. II. 219 . The word order of indirect speech is the same with that of a statement: there is no subject-auxiliary inversion.” He told us that we mustn’t smoke in the classroom. which.

When the verb of the main clause is in one of the present tenses or in one of the future tenses. they may become finite object clauses with the verb in the subjunctive mood. “How nice to meet you again!” She said/exclaimed she was delighted to meet me again. after certain verbs. She wished me a good morning. Imperatives or direct orders become infinitive clauses (accusative with the infinitive constructions) in reported speech or. Sequence of tenses I.Business English IV. e. the tense of the verb in the secondary clause is conditioned exclusively by context and by the speaker’s intention. “Darling I love you!” He called her “darling” and professed his love for her.g. “Good morning!” She greeted me. the following rules are applied: If the action of the secondary clause verb is simultaneous with the action of the main clause verb. If the action of the secondary clause verb is anterior or previous to the past action of the main clause verb. That was what I had been doing until then. the past perfect is used in the subordinate clause. It was certain that he worked well. She asked/ordered that I (should) shut the door after me. “Shut the door after you!” She asked/ ordered me to shut the door after me.g. When the verb of the main clause is in one of the past tenses. “What a terrible noise!” She complained of the noise. I suppose he knows about it / he knew about it / he will find out about it. 220 . e. V.g. e. I knew that she had been very upset. Reported exclamations are frequently paraphrases of direct exclamations or are object clauses.g. II. That was what I thought. e. e.g. the past tense of the main clause is followed by a past tense in the secondary clause.

I had to talk to her. that I shall remember her for a long time. If the verb of the main clause is in the future-in-the-past. IV. I knew that they would not agree. It was certain that we would have guests again.g. Her grades were better last year than they will be next term. the rule given under II may not be observed in the following types of clauses: In object clauses: e. You will be my friend again after you have proved more loyalty. He will call you as soon as he has a spare moment. and anteriority by the past perfect: e.g. In attributive or relative clauses: e.g. and the present perfect to express anteriority: e. the same happens if the secondary clause expresses some general truth or refers to some lasting situation. He said that they would meet when he had finished his work. She sang beautifully. When this is the case.g.Business English If the action of the secondary clause verb is posterior or subsequent to the past action of the main clause verb.g. the future-in-the-past is used in the secondary clause. The simple present is used to express simultaneity.g. In adverbial clauses of result: e. e. In adverbial clauses of comparison (after as … as. simultaneity is expressed with the help of the past tense. In adverbial clauses of cause: e.g. the verb of the secondary clause may be in any tense required by the logic of communication or dictated by the moment when the utterance is made. than): e. Even if the main clause verb is in the past.g. She bought the ring which she is wearing when he was away. No future can be used in the adverbial clauses of time after a future tense in the main clause. 221 . III. He promised he would call you as soon as he had a spare moment. He insisted that the earth moves around the sun. because I am leaving soon.

the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. e. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f. c. a. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles. ……. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. d. and beyond. ………. and averages only 6 inches deep. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hayokee." g.. into the Olympic Mountains. In Wyoming are the rugged.. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths. ……. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide. A river that is 100 miles long. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. nature is the hand setting b. …….. there is a remarkable rainforest. islands and hyacinth pools.. ……. On the western slopes of the mountains. is the brooding. most mountain ranges. Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. ……. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. the Tetons have no foothills. Although relatively small. Along this coast. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. some sixty active glaciers slow-sliding their relentless way down from the heights. on the Olympic Peninsula. majestic white-robed peaks.000 feet. hammocks. 222 .Business English Controlled practice 1. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. "Grassy Water. may be the most unusual river in the world. live more than 350 species of birds. Within the park are alpine meadows.. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. To the west. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. 50 miles wide." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park.

The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o. serene. n. ……. No longer shrouded in ice.Business English Sea.. all cut from stone by the delicate. River. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor. in Shenandoah National Park i.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid 223 . hickory. These are softer mountains. minarets. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k. m. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made. j.. in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.1794.. powerful strokes.. l. towers. time and wind.. the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia. the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. ……. To walk these cool. ……… seem to have once been alive. there is a more gentle forest. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. maple and other hardwoods. ……. Here is where glaciers come to die. Far to the east. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed. There are castles and whimsical skylines.for the soul.. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke. ……. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest. are seemingly endless groves of oak. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. Mountain. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience. arches. They are the largest living things on earth. powerful hand of water. ……." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. ……. ……. h. laying comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist. In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.

his sister promised. “I am quite a good cook and I do all my own washing and mending.” i.” k. after his father’s return to London. “I can’t think where my umbrella is”. m. I know that the meeting has already been held. l. “The goldfish has jumped out of its bowl and I can’t find it anywhere. Make all the other necessary changes. “but I hope to have a flat of my own shortly. Jack said to the mechanic. d. a. He said. I said to her. “When John comes back. Everybody is sure that. f. said I. Mary said. she said. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever.” n.” j. too. said the little boy. Change the verb in the main clause into the Past Tense Simple. said Peggy. 224 . “I haven’t found my bag yet”. “I have something to show you”. g. “I am living with my parents at present”. said Sarah. he will ring up at once”. Put the following sentences into reported speech: a. “If you give me some wire. h. 3. b. e. “The engine has been running for more than ten minutes”. “If you are short of money I can lend you fifty pounds”. Mr.Business English crystal. Holmes told the pupils. “From one of the windows of my flat I can see the Tower”. said Tony. said my aunt. “The highest mountain in Britain is Snowdon”. I’ll mend the fuse for you”. “I didn’t want to wash my face. “I shall ask them what they have been doing”. mother”. 2. c. he will not lag behind his group and will study much better. b. “and you can take your time about paying it back. said my cousin.

Mother has said Adam is coming on Saturday and will stay for a very short time. f. You tell me you have read this play in translation. He knows that if he tells his friends about it. g. She promises that by the end of the month they will have finished their work. d. and what hopes he has about going to the university where he can continue his studies. e. 225 . they will not be surprised.Business English c. I feel sure that when he goes home he will not fail to tell his father everything he has done at school. He tells me that two minutes are left before the train leaves. h. I advise you to read it in English.

On ……. C. B. 4. on ……… other I think I shan’t have the time to finish it. B. Should I know. Hardly/ when. B. hard/ when. was. D. B. A. promoted. B.. several hours ago. C. out. Have I known. chemistry laboratory. B. D. C. hardly/ than. 13. on that drilling rig when he ………. C. he had moved/ was. come/ the. rained. just/ -. 8. has been sent for. 6. in your place. D. wanted. the/ a. C. had been able to. coming/ the. I went to ……. D. coming/ -. A.. 3. ……… the truth.. scarcely/ then. D. B. 12. I would gladly acept his invitation.. of. was being sent for. 9. was he moved/ was. B. A. If it ……… tomorrow we’ll postpone our businees trip. ……. will rain. I couldn’t make ……… a story. The doctor ……. In case you ……… my advice. were. D. 11. in. He would have helped you if he ……… A. 7.. D. needed. No sooner ……. A. cinema last night. will need. A. B.. had he moved/ was. A. I would have told it to you. -/ already. a. A.. Did I know. A. a/ the. had I entered the door ……. up. C. C. the phone started to ring. If I ………. C. 5. 10. already/ -. D. finished your homework ………? A. an. C. was sent for. B. had rained. 2. the/ the. A. B. -/ yet. C. has needed. rains. so I had to tell them the truth. -. I saw smoke ……… through the door of ……. D. -. need. C. 226 . D. had he moved/ has been. D. had been. has been. has been able to. D. B. A. call me at this number. could. C. C. Have you ……. come/ -. Had I known. one hand I would like to start such a project. -. A. D. the. had been sent for..Business English Test Choose the best variant: 1. B.

2. of to do. Do you think we ……… call him so late? A. extremely loudly. B. to do. 18. A. 10. 6. C. 1 point + 0. . D. 15. Answer key: 1. A. A.. 12. . to doing. The paper addresses a basic question…….. B.. should. 3. didn’t understand. 4. A. must. understood. C. B. B. C. A. 5. C.. extreme loudly.. A. extreme loud. 14. need. How can we take steps needed to protect the environment? A. B. C. of doing. He was looking at me as if he ……… that easy equation. She took the liberty ……… it in her own way. B. 17. . hadn’t understood. 18.. B. D. D. 13. B. B. hasn’t understood. : . B. 11. D. D..50 points per each good answer 227 . A. C. had to. B. 15. extremely loud.. 16. D. C. A. 7. C. She spoke……… A.Business English 14. 17. 16. 8. A. 9. C.

What did you enjoy about it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3. What have you learnt from this book? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.Business English Evaluation 1. What didn’t you enjoy about it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 228 .

Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 229 .Business English ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 4.

Business English Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow blew blown a obliga a sufla a to break broke broken arde (fuzibilul unei siguranţe) a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma a concasa to bring to build to burn brought built burnt brought built burnt a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a calcina to burst burst burst a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy bought bought 230 a crãpa a cumpãra .

Business English to cast to catch cast caught cast caught a arunca a turna a prinde a capta a bloca to choose to cleave chose cleft clove to come to cost to creep came cost crept chosen cleft cloven come cost crept a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca to cut cut cut a se alungi a tãia a fasona a secţiona to deal dealt dealt a opri (un motor) a se ocupa (cu) a contracta a distribui to dig dug dug a repartiza a sãpa a excava to do to draw did drew done drawn a explora a face a desena a schiţa to dream to drink to drive to eat dreamt drank drove ate dreamt drunk driven eaten 231 a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca .

Business English to fall to feed fell fed fallen fed a cãdea a da la rebut a alimenta a hrãni to feel to fight to find felt fought found felt fought found a aproviziona a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa a pune receptorul în furcã 232 .

Business English to have to hear to hew had heard hewed had heard hewed hewn to hide to hit hid hit hidden hit a avea a auzi a ciopli a degroşa a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa to hurt hurt hurt a cuprinde a rãni a lovi to keep kept kept a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine to knit knit knit a întreţine a înnoda a tricota to know to lay knew laid known laid a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza to lead led led a întinde a conduce a avansa to lean leant leant a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca to learn to leave learnt left learnt left 233 a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca .

Business English a pãrãsi a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca to run ran run a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta to shake shook shaken 234 a stabili a bate to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet lent let lay lit lost made meant met lent let lain lit lost made meant met .

Business English a scutura to shear sheared shorn a vibra a tãia a mãrgini to shed shed shed a forfeca a arunca a difuza to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent a vãrsa a strãluci a polisa a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a freta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui to spill spilt spilt a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi to split split split 235 a turna a cliva .

Business English a scinda a despica to spin spun spun a disocia a centrifuga a roti to spread spread spread a presa a rãspândi a acoperi to spring sprang sprung a extinde a sãri a izvorî to stand stood stood a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista to steal to stick to strike to string stole stuck struck strung stolen stuck struck strung a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing strove swore swelled swam swung striven sworn swollen swum swung a încorda a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa to take took taken a pendula a lua a capta to teach to tear to tell taught tore told taught torn told 236 a necesita a preda a rupe a spune .

Business English to think thought thought a reflecta a gândi to throw to thrust threw thrust thrown thrust a socoti cã a arunca a împinge a înfige to understand to wake to wear understood woke wore understood woken worn a apãsa a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a uza to weep wept wept a toci a plânge a picura to win to wind to wring won wound wrung won wound wrung a se prelinge a câştiga a rãni a stoarce a rãsuci to write wrote written a smulge a scrie 237 .

on sth. to be careful about sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth./sb. sb. sth./ sb. to be fed up with sth. to be at home to be aware of sth. to be good at sth. to be bored with sth.= somenthing) (break sth.= somebody. at the beginning of sth. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. to argue with sb. to be full of (energy) to be fond of sb. in the beginning to be afraid of. 238 ./ sth. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth.Business English Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb. to be in charge of sth. attentive at sth. to assist in sth. about sth. to be in love with sb.

/ sb. to be married to sb. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth. in the (20-th) century certain of sth. to deal with sth. to develop into sth. else to complain about sth. deficiency in sth./ sth. to be different from sb. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb.Business English to be in a mess to be interested in sth. to die of sth. to go by bus/ train/plane. to depend on sb. to belong to sb. etc. to benefit from sth. to be tired of sth./ deficient in sth. to cooperate with sb. to be impressed by sth./sth. to debate on sth. to cope with sth./ sth. to be similar to sth. to believe in sth. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth. 239 ./ sb. with sth. to be proud of sth.

to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to go home to have a degree in sth. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb. to find put about sv./ sth. in the end at the end of sth. 240 . to fight against sb. to get in touch with sb. to originate in sth. to go out with sb. to look for sth./sth./ sb. to look at sth. to have an interview for a job to invite sb. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. from sth. to forget about sb./ sth./sth./ sth. to get on (well) with sb. to laugh at sb./sth. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb. to merge with sth. etc. to look forward to doing sth. to listen to sth. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb./ sth. else to dream about sb.Business English in the distance to distinguish sth.

to suffer from sth./ sth./ sb./ sth. to participate in sth./ sb. to sell sth. a letter) to sb. to spend money on sth. in view of sth. (a gun) at sb. a story about sth. to search for sth. resistance to sth. similar to sb./ sth. to point sth. 241 . about sth. preoccupation with sth. to rely on sb./ sth. a ticket for sth. about sth. to point at sb./ sb. to write (an e-mail./ sth representative of sb. with sb. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you thinf of von Laue?) to throw sth. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth. to wait for sb.Business English owing to sth. to specialise in sth. for ($300) to share sth. at sb. to speak to sb. thanks to sb. to talk to sb./ sth. to pay ($5000) for sth.

consist. manufacture. guard. spring. stand. fight. suffer. see. turn. look. divide. take. murmur. crave. work. write. exact. BY: begin. revolt. say. put. banish. hanker. AT: aim. atone. strike. paint. flee. do. mutter. profit. yearn. mock. confide. expect. OF: 242 . withdraw. differentiate. cry. send. point. defend. fall. hunger. IN: abound. hunt. call. walk. interfere. worry. receive. rush. excerpt. hammer. buy/sell (sth) at a price. think. obtain. rage. distinguish. thunder. answer. deal. pull. change. descent. select. exclaim. derive. die. wish. break. search. write. gaze. know. borrow. repine. throw.Business English Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. rejoice. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc. drive. look. extricate. set. strive. warn. wait. ensue. thrust. ask. pay. refrain. take. fire a shot. stay. protect. succeed. fish. finish. grieve. hope. glance. doubt. start. fret. long. AFTER: aspire. pine. sail. believe. divide. learn. reach. care. FOR: account. laugh. entangle. speak. insert. purge. pitch. swear. AGAINST: clamour. lament. puff. FROM: absolve. bargain. recover. sneer. sigh. assess. tell. complain. pass. shoot. indemnify. prepare. cry. last. talk. insure. call. languish. purchase. merge. look. leave. knock. smile. employ (sb). INTO: alter. differ.

listen. side. bet. attach. TO: adapt. rely. acquit. meet (~hardships). agree. belong. cling. comment. succeed. frown. drink. rest. tell. muse. appeal. help (oneself). point. mingle. suspect. apologise. OVER: brood. tend. correspond. cry. depend. remind. die. force. amount. quarrel. cure. complain. lead. concentrate. think. refer. stumble. allude. tremble. count. give. smile (about fate). talk. reconcile. complain. do. dream. chance. trample. aspire. vie. quarrel. adhere. join. set (to work). inculcate. enter. combine. sympathize. avail (oneself). fall. exult. insist. rhyme. deprive. congratulate. explain. disagree. consist. ruminate. speak. attest. agree. compare. dispose. trifle. allow. quiver. 243 . operate. announce. nod. object. stick. embark. WITH: agree. take. deal. insist. become. shiver. go. intermeddle. fight. approve. entitle. comply. come. rule. gloat. ON: act. return. impose. prove. subscribe. contend. speak. connect. UPON: act. jar. play (~one’s feelings).Business English accuse. disapprove. compare. differ. seem. correspond. relieve. hear. tattle. learn. doubt. depend. resort. reply. contrast. adjust. oppose. interfere. talk. respond. look. attend. bear. beware. call. fix. consent.

e.Business English Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition: Addicted to adequate for (smth.) anxious for (smb.) clever at (mathematics) compatible with concerned about /with concerned for (smb) connected with consistent with contended with 244 .) adverse to affected by amazed at ambitious after annoyed at anxious about (smth.) appalled by apprehensive of (i.) charmed with (smb. worried about) apt for ashamed of averse to bad at beneficial to bent on busy with capabale of certain of charmed at (smth.) adequate to (smb.

Business English convenient for (smth.) delighted at derogatory to devoid of dexterous at diffident in disappointed at disgusted by (smth.) crazy about cruel to deficient in (smth.) disgusted with (smb.) displeased at dissatisfied with doubtful of (smb.) convenient to (smb.) hungry for identical to/with ignorant of immersed in (debts) 245 .) dying for eager for/about earnest about enraged by essential for excited at/over fit for frightened at full of good at greedy of hostile to (smb.

sorry for smb subject to suffering from sufficient for 246 .Business English immune against immune from impolite to inadequate for smth/to smb incensed at/with inclined to /for inconceivable to independent of smb indignant at/with infatuate with intent on irritated at offended at opposite from parallel to paralyzed with partial to particular about pleased at smth prepared for proficient in prone to resolved on rude to secure of skillful at/in slow at solicitous about sorry about smth.

Business English suited to sure about smth sure of smb sympathetic to tired with true to unfit for unjust to vexed at smth. vexed with smb 247 .

Business English Appendix 3 Verbs which are always followed by a GERUND: The drilling engineer denied experiencing a gusher. afford agree appear decide expect hope intend need offer plan pretend promise refuse seem want Verbs which are followed by either an INFINITIVE or a GERUND Nowadays many countries prefer to generate/generating electricty from renewable sources of energy. admit appreciate avoid celebrate consider defer delay deny detest dislike dispute enoy escape excuse explain find finish forgive mention mind miss pardon postpone practice prevent recall risk suggest understand Verbs wich are always followed by an INFINITIVE: The regional Electricity companies expect to earn an additional 23% profit this year. begin continue prefer start 248 .

Business English 249 .

Prentice Hall Inc. Washington. Oxford. 1985 8. Michael. Oxford University Press. Hall. Eastwod. A. Exercises. Cluj. Oxford University Press. Eugene J. 1984 4. 1976 6. 1977 7. The British Council. Greere. Student’s Book. Bucharest. Mistzal. ***. ***. 1989 14. Zdrenghea. Dãnilã. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Timişoara. Test Your English Grammar. A. 1991 12. Lin. Thomson. Ed.. 1986 13. London Edinburgh. Oxford University Press. Hill. 1996 16. The Language of the Petroleum Industry in English. Marius. Martinet. Oxford University Press. Teora. Bucureşti. Heinemann. 1996 9. Adrian B. Headway. Hong Kong. Editura tehnicã. Cavallioti Publishing House. A Basic English Grammar. D.. Soars. Engleza pentru ingineri şi tehnicieni. Macmillan. Vince. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere. New York.Business English Bibliography 1. Soars. Bishop.. Viorica. Vocabulary Development. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. Deighton. The Great Preposition Mystery. A. Oxford. 1998 250 . Macmillan. John & Liz. pre-intermediate. V. Excel at First Certificate. Viorica. Oxford.. A Practical English Grammar. 1982 2. Dãnilã. New Jersey. Reading Comprehension. Bucuresti. A Practical English Grammar. Student’s Book. Editura tehnicã. English Teaching Division. English for Science and Technology. Lee C.. Advanced Stories for Reproduction.J. 1984 10.. Editura Amarcord.. 1991 11. Bucureşti. Sanford. Exercises 1. Engleza tehnicã. Hong. L.A. 1967 3. Headway. Katherine V. Oxford. New York. Student’s Book. Clusium. J.C. upper-intermediate. 1984 5. M. Oxford University Press. John & Liz. 1997 15. Lougheed.

edu/grammar/adjectives.commnet. http://www.randomhouse. http://ccc.com 251 .Business English 17.htm 18.

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