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Journal of common A ferment of change Monnet,

studies

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1962 2030021-9886 [TN:237381][ODYSSEY: 129. 72.2.232/1LL]

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WYU :: Main Library Stephanie B. Anderson
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two-thirds of mankind have not shared in this process. mass education and even mass culture. so that the population of the world is increasing £lllt:lstically fast. on the very eve of creating unprecedented conditions of abundance. more and more ways. At the same time. l forces of nature. Natural resources arc IlO longer a limitation now that we control more and more forms of energy and can US(~ raw materials ill. To-day. We have only ttl look back on the last fifty years to see how constant ~e risk of upheaval has become. weare suddenly £'tced with the consequences of Ott! extraordinary mastery over the physic . We are cntering the agt· of abundance where work..000 million ill the year 2000. will only he one of many human activities. frmll a society where privilege was part of nature to (me where the enjoyment of lruman rights and human dignity are common to :111. Modern medicine a issteadily increasing our prospt'Cts of life.A FERMENT By OF CHANGE JIlAN MONNET I Tillscentury has probably changed the manner of life more for everyaileof us than all the thousands of years of man's progress put together. we are flcguiring au unprecedented mastery over nature. but the triumph or destruction of civilized life. And I1QW. We arc moving. Em we all know what terrible pressures on resources the growth of population is creating in Asia. has ISO million to-day. in the: West.203 . from 850 million in 1900 to almost 4. men were largely at the mercy of nature. The United States. I900 and. There. Per the first time we ill the West arc witnessing the emergence of a truly mass society marked by mass consumption. will probably reacha population of 300 million in the year 2000-a fourfold increase. No region ofthe world has escaped violence. . ill our iJldustrial countries of the Western world and elsewhere. as we know it. the number of people will have multiplied five times in a century. This revolution is creating new explosive pressures of all kinds in the world. which had 76 million people in. science is repeatedly creating new powers of destruction. This filet's us with the greatest threat humanity has ever had to dealwith. We cannot assume that we shall avoid such destruction. Unfortunately. The iS511t~ to-day is no longer peace or war. America can . In the past.lll()rd this.

these countries have lost their empires. the countries of continental EuroRe. can only be done through institutions: and it is this need for common institutions that we have learnt in Europe since the war. the nations of continental Europe were divided and crippled. During the last fifteen years. True.204 JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES One-third of mankind has become Communist. But I am equally convinced that we are at the mercy of an error of judgment or a technical breakdown. here in what used to be called the old world. in most of them. To understand this extraordinary change ill all its basic simplicity. We can see the revolution in the ex-colonial areas because power is plainly changing hands. We are then in a world of rapid change. to my mind. because it has been violent and because we have been living with it for nearly fifty years. Yet we have only to look at the difference between 1945 and to-day to see what an immense transformation has been taking place under our very eyes. whic~ have fought each other so often in the past and which. through conquest or revolution. the source of which no man may ever know. After the war. And now the President of the United States is already asking Congress for powers to negotiate with the enlarged European Common Market. the peoples had little faith in the future. after all these upheavals. We are so accustomed to this that we fmd it hard to appreciate those that are taking place peacefully in Europe even though they have begun to affect the world: We can see the Communist revolution. Britain is negotiating to enter this Europ~an Communirv and by this very fact changing the tradition of cen. their national resources were depleted and. II We are used to thinking that major changes in the traditional relations between countries only take place violently. This.turles. And yet. organized their economies as potential instruments of war" are now ~i:mg in a Common Market which is laying the foundations for pol~tlcal union. even m peacetime. But we tend to miss the magnitude of the change in Europe because it is taking place by the constitutional and democratic methods which govern our countries. and even among the remaining third nearly all countries have undergone revolutions or wars. It might have been expected they would be further depressed by what many considered the loss of past greatness and prestige. . atomic bombs have made nuclear war so catastrophic that I am convinced no country wishes to resort to it. another third has obtained independence from colonialism. in which men and nations must learn to control themselves in their relations with others.

the Common Market. and if these same countries could be made to consider that their problems were no longer solely of national concern. the six Parliaments ratified the Treaty of Rome . these notions had to be eliminated. Obviously this could not be done all at once. they were ready to take further steps forward. their countries would form a single Common market. only three years after the failure of the ~uropean Army. Yet. The Europeans had to ovrrcmm~ the mistrust born of centuries of feuds and wars. run by common institutions administering common rules.MENT Of CHANGE 205 we must go back to 1950. created a silent revolution in men's minds. In itself this was a technical step. politicians and trade unionists that such an.:luc~ extended ~e Common Market frolll coal and steel to an economic union embracing all g(mds. Government through its Foreign Minister. Robert Schuman. The large market does not prejudge the future econormc systems of .1 large dynamic market immediately nor to produce trust between recent enemies overnight. The European Coal and Steel Community was set up. with its I70 million people ulile will become 225 million when Britain joins. After several unsuccessful attempts. proposed in 1950 what many people to-day would regard as a modest lx'ginning but which seemed very bold at the time: and the Parliaments of France. It was not possible to create . a large and dynamic common market.A IlEH. for coal and steel. Italy and Benelux voted that. if a basis for peace in the world was to be established. the French. M. Germany. The need was political as well as economic. . The govcnunents and peoples of Europe still thought in the old terms of victors and vanquished. approach could work and that the economic and political advantages of unity over division were immense. but its new procedures.. In 1957. under common institutions. the resources of a siI~g!c nation were not sufficient. but it became evident that to go beyond recovery towards steady expansion and higher standards of life for all. civil servants. To-day. For five years. one had to go beyond the nation and the conception of national interest as an mel in itsclf We thought that both these objectives could in time be reached if conditions were created enabling these countries to increase their resources by merging them in. Here again. Once they were convinced. the American scale. cite whole French nation had been making efforts to recreate the bases of production. It was necessary to tramcC'llcl the national framework. only five years after the war. It proved decisive in persuading businessmen. very much as within a single nation. but were mutual Burupcan responsibilities. is creating in Europe a huge continental market on.

We adapted to our situation the methods which have allowed individuals to live together in society: common rules which each Member is committed to respect. an open society looking to the future is replacing a defensive one regretting the past. this method has become a permanent dialogue between a single European body. and common institutions to watch over the application of these rules. This system leads to a completely changed approach to common action. which make it easier to solve any problems that arise. but the)' have never yet been applied between them. To establish this new method of common action. This profound change is being made possible essentially by the new method of common action which is the core of the European C01111111Ulity. The contribution of the Common Market isto create new opportunities of expansion fin" all the members. nationalized sector as large as the British and some also have planning procedures. It is this method which explains the dramatic change ill the relations of Germany with Prance and the other Common Market countries. within the discipline ?f the C0l111ut~ty. the Council of Ministers. Looking forward to a . On the other hand. not to any common interest. has no analogy in any traditional system. and to provide the rest of the world with prospects of growing trade that would not exist without it. This balance was necessarily unstable and the concessions made ill an agreement one year could always be retracted the next. It is not fedcml because there is no central governmentj the nations take their decisions together in. the nations fdt no irrevocable commitment. instead of trading temporary advantages. to seck a solution to the problems themselves. After a period of trial and error. These arc just as compatible with private enterprise on the large market as they are within a single nation. They had to rely on themselves alone. Most of the Six have a. In the past. This leads the nations. as far as I know. Nations have applied this method within their frontiers for centuries. Relations took the form either of domination if one country was much stronger than the others. But in the European Communities. The resulting procedure fi)f collective decisions is something quite new and.206 JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES Europe. the independent European body proposes policies. or of the trading of advantages if there was a balance of power between them. Their responsibility was strictly to themselves. responsible for expressing the view of the general interest of the Community and the national governments expressing the national views. common rules applied by joint institutions give each a responsibility for the effective working of the Community as a whole. InEurope. and the conunon element is further underlined by the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice.

Eight out of ten children whose parents are in responsible positions go to secondary schools which c)pcn up the normal path to higher education. But before we turn to wider issues beyond Europe there arc two further problems to be examined within Europe itself.trics step up thd: present efforts and quickly stop the waste of intelligence among their young people by making access to higher education truly democratic. To-day what divides men most is not mom'y but education. the United States have 3 million students. German. III Firstly. 207 common futurc has made them agree to live down the feuds of the past. and the Community of tile Six only 6oo.uor bone of contention betwccn France and Germany. European unity has made it seem an anachronism. of course there has been progress in this field. How can. And to-day. hut it has been too little and too slow. the Soviet Union 2. and which should allow tIS to extend to all our citizens the benefits of higher education.l. OUt' might hazard the estimate that ill the Community murc than SO per cent of the children of workers and peasants never receive :U1Y general education beyond the primary school level. Now we must set out on an energetic European campaign which must speedily change the conditions under which higher education is available to the youth of our cmmtries.A FERMENT Of' UIAN(.ll.ct that. To-day people have almost fi~rgntt(. one filil to be struck by tile £.r a problem and yet from I') 19 to 1950 It was a m. As you IV . . at French invitation. while scarcely two out of ten children of workers and peasants have this opportunity . troops arc training 011 French soil.ll th:~t the Saar was eve.We cannot judge our cducation simply by its intellccrual lcvcl. So tIle progress towards unity is well on its way. million.The economic integration of Europe in the Common Market will glVC us resources W~· now lack. This will permit them to make their full contributionto the pr()gress of the Community and at the same time benefit from it to the full in their personal lives. Beyond the economic integration of our countries and the increase in our wealth which it will bring there remains the problem of achieving our political union which wa's our aim from the beginning. secondary and higher education are very limited in Europe compared with these two great new countries. we must bear in mind dun economic integration cannot yield its full fmit unless Otl~· con. with roughly equal populations.ooo? Contrary to what we might think about the development of education in nul' countries with their older civilizations.

1 am convinced that the British tn-day arc aUl\IOU. Yet everything that h. and why we must all make every dfiltt that the ltl'gotlatinm between rhe Six and Britain should quickly succeed. of integration versus co-operation: Europe with its rules and its institutions will be the framewllrk in which our countries will express their energies ill COlumna within a sin~~k' Comrunnity.rn'. Europe replaces the dli. an lllward~loo~illg group.f do.Jrts 'It domination of n~~on states a constant process of collccriv« adapratlou til new conditions. At the point which we have now reached many an: asking dlelllselves whether Bri~ain's entry intn. but is a historic I'lllitical event. Entering the Common Market will inevitably ch.in world affairs. I have always fdt that the political union nf Europe must be built step by step like its economic integration.lIt'lIpt' Wh()Sl' fate they WIsh to share will allow them to exercise this neCt'~~al'y Ihlliric.d of action developed in. t1~L' Cnllll. it was widelv assumed the member ~oUllt~ieswould want to protect themselves and become (IS some put It.t f:lct of world illlp~rtallc~.~s happened since has shown tlus VIew to be wrong.o take p.'.l' ha. That is why I believe that the prnsp("ct of Britain's entry 1m not only an economic significance. It is obvio.~!'t in its ecollomic crrowth.SClIl\IS that !lOlle of ~ur cotl1:~'ics can any longer St'pa:a tel r.~'~l'l'dsl' an.s to enter the European Community not simply ill order t. and that only the umon ()f }. outsidt' Europe. promise the political unity of out'.'lls that countries and peoples who arc overCOn1l1l~ this state of 1111l1d between themselves will bring the same mentality to their relations with others. When It was set up. The Six have reduced the tariffs br . a u:rmcltt where Ime change induces another.mination which ruled state policies fi)1' S() m:my centuries. atti t.lIlgt~ rhc lwhaviollt of Britain as it has changed that nf each of nul' Six countries.S overcome tilt.tnllltrit:s.uoll Market will not put a brake on our dlorts of ccononuc intcgrarron and would Hot com. When Britain is a member she will wish to contrfbute til the Success of a Community which will then be hers just as much as it.mmS know.l~ inHuL'IlCC. but also because they arc necessarily cnH. v We have seen that Europ.ll inHucltce. ~ook at the ~ffect the Common Market has alread y had on world tanffs. The days art: past when we debated the pros anti cons nt the little and the big Europe. Hut quite: apart from what this means for us ill the old continent. One day this process will then lead us to a European Federation.udt~o. this is . Hut r lh~ not share tllcse fears. is now ours. a cham reaction. The new mctho. c.NAL or: COMMON MARKET STl.20B ]OUlI.

Naturally. "whlt-m.lrising that only Europe (mel the United States togt~th~'r have tilt' resources W deal with. Now Presidcllt. Separately.1 decisive conrribution. 'rhat we haw lW~~\lntl\ ce-operarc em these affilirs at the Atlantic level is :I gn'.'\!l~ thinkin~ of world agriculture ill a more and mort' industria! civilization. Kennedy propus('S America and Europe should cut tariffs 011 mamlfilctmes hy half. Thesl~ch:mgl'~ i~lSidt·. large part depend on maintaining intcruatinna] monetary !I{. It is evident that we must soon go a good deal further towards all Atlantic Community. Tl1t~need to develop policics of sustained gmwth.it1IlS.thilitr. I.A ('F.. nd nu:sidc Europe would not have taken place a without the dnvlll~ force nf the Common Market. Just as the United Stares in their own dav finUld it necessary to unite. It opens new prospects for dealing with problems tilt' solution of which was becoming illcreasi~l. expected. even em political questions. rhc ElIr~l}h'. is an example.I\Ulg trade will also benefit the Conunonwcnlth. Increasing the aid of the West to tIlt' under-developed areas on n large scale is another. The necessary precondition of such a pmtncrship between Amcricn and Europe is that Europe should bl' unitt'd and rhus bl. and in particular of the need for growing trade between Japan and the United States :U1.t.r. This is not an end 111 irself It IS the Ylc: .d Europe together. Lam convinced that ultimately.gly U~~l·n.RMilNT C)F CHANGE 209 betweell tl1c1l1sdvcs and towards other countries faster than. which in.lt stt'P fiH'W'. arc . Similarly.*s too will delegate powers of effective nction tn common institutions. The pnlsp~ct nf Britain's futun. The creation of a united Europe brings this nearer by making it possible for America and Europe tn act as partners on. inCrt'. 'I'his leads to a situation where tariffs throughout the major trading areas nf the world will be lower than they have ever been.m nations haw inevitably taken divergent views of aid policies. (If links between the new and the long-cstablislll'd industrial I'q. an equal foodng. just as st must :novc Europe is now in the pnIC(:5s 'nf uniting. th(.i. Clearly. But tl HHorrnw. tilt' United Smtc. fot' countries whose major need is to obtain 1lI111'l'capiral fl)[' development.' ahlc to deploy resources on the same scale as America.~ nations of Europe by acting tllget111~rcan lIwh~.~ entry into the Common Market has alreadv ninde rhe Ct11UilWHt more aware than ever before of the pt'obl~:l1ls IIf the Comruouwcaleli. and the Common Market will certainly welcome it. so the towardssome kind of union. the filct that Britain is part of a rapidly tkvdoping Europe holds great promise of future progress. This i~what is in the course of happening to-day.U'I.

more often outside the European Community than ~thin. It is this: umry in Eur~pe docs not create a new kind of great power. it is a method for mtroducing change in Europe and consequently in the W?rl? People. The natural attitude of a European Community based on the ?n~ . The discussions on peace to-day are dominated by the question of disarmament. they act on their revised estimate before that situation is established. The world will be more and more threatened by destruction as long as bombs continue to pile up on both sides. Of course we must continue to negotiate on these questions. After all. Britain has asked to join the Common Market before it was complete. Many therefore feel that the hopes for peace in the world depend on as early an agreement on armaments as possible. Personally.is implies. The history of European unification shows that when people become convinced a change is taking place that creates a new situation.d the Europeans have built up the E~opean C. particularly an agree:ment on nuclear arms. can any longer believe it-when the partnership of America and a United Europe makes it plain to all that the West may change from within but that others cannot change it by outside pressures. Kruschev has told us many times. arc tempted to see the European Community as a potential ll1neteenth-cen~ stat~ with all the overtones of power th. then Mr.210 JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES beginning on the road to the more orderly world we must have if we are to escape destruction. as Mr. For what is the Soviet objective? It is to achieve a Communist world. even within a closed society. Can we not expect a similar phenomenon in the future relations with the Soviet Union? VI Wha~ conclusions can we draw from all these thoughts? impression predominates in my mind over all others. at last real disarmament will become possible. But we are not in the nineteenth century. an. the view which people take of the future.Ol11l11unity precisely ill order to find a "Way out of ~e conflicts to wmc~ the nineteenth-century power philosophy gave me. Then. When this becomes so obviously impossible that no body. I do not think we shall have to wait long for tlxis change. The President of the United States is seeking powers to negotiate with the European Community on steps to an Atlantic ~a~ership even before Britain has joined. and the conditions will at last exist for turning so-called peaceful coexistence into genuine peace. But it is too simple to hope the problems that arise out of philosophic conflicts could be settled without a change in. Kruschev or his successor will accept the £acts.

European unity is not a blueprint. it is a process that has already begun. Eurcpcan unity is the most important event ill the West since the war. J . of bringing peoples and nations together to adapt themselves jointly to changing cirCUlllS ranees. to the world.A FERMENT OF CHANGE 211 exercise by nations of common responsibilities will be to make these nations also aware of their responsibilities. This is the process of civilization itself. . III filet. we already sec this sense of world responsibilities developing as unity ill Europe begins to affect Britain.cthod it introduces is permanently modifying relations between nations and meu. but when nations and men accept the same rules and the same institutions to make sure that they arc applied. as a Community. but because the new institutionalll1. not because it is a new great power. it is not a theory. America and many other areas of the world. their behaviour towards each other changes. Human nature does not change.

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