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Additional Mathematics Project 2012

Additional Mathematics Project 2012

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NAME :AMIRUL NAQIB BIN RAZAK

CLASS
I/C NUMBER
:
:
5 ST 1
TEACHER
SCHOOL
:
:
PUAN NURUL IDZWATY BT MOHD NAZIR
SMK BANDAR BARU SALAK TINGGI
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS
PROJECT WORK
1/2012
Objectives
The aims of carrying out this project work are:
I. To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve
problems
II. To improve thinking skills
III. To promote efective mathematical communication
IV. To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way
that increases students interest and confdence
V. To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas
precisely
VI. To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances efective
learning
VII. To develop positive attitude towards mathematics
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, I would like to thank God that fnally, I have succeeded in
fnishing this project work. I would like to thank my beloved Additional
Mathematics teacher, Pn. Nurul Idzwaty Bt. Mohd Nazir for all the guidance
she had provided me during the process in fnishing this project work. I also
appreciate her patience in guiding me completing this project work.I would like
to give a thousand thanks to my father and mother, Razak bin Mohd Mazlan
and Zalina binti Abdul Rahman, for giving me their full support in this project
work, fnancially and mentally. They gave me moral support when I needed it.
Who am I without their love and support?I would also like to give my thanks to
my fellow friends who had helped me in fnding the information that I’m
clueless of, and the time we spent together in study groups on fnishing this
project work.Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to
all those who gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really
appreciate all the help I got.
Again, thank you very much.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
3
CONTENTS
NO CONTENT PAGE
1 OBJECTIVES 2
2 ACKNOWLEDGEMET 3
3 INTRODUCTION 5
4 PART 1
• Part 1 (a)
• Part 1 (b)
• Part 1 (c)
6
7
10
11
5 PART 2
• Part 2 (a)
• Part 2 (b)
• Part 2 (c)
• Part 2 (d)(i)
• Part 2 (d)(ii)
• Part 2 (d)(iii)
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
4
6 PART 3
• Part 3 (a)
• Part 3 (b)(i)
• Part 3 (b)(ii)
15
16
18
21
7 REFLECTION 22
8 REFERENCES 23
INTRODUCTION
A polygon is a fat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a
closed chain or circuit.
A polygon is traditionally a plane fgure that is bounded by a closed path,
composed of a fnite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed
polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the
points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or
corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is
sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more
general polytope in any number of dimensions.
The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολυύς (polús) "much", "many"
and γωνιύα (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γούνυ gónu, with a short o,
is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood
in terms of sides.
The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit
particular purposes. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed
polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
5
may defne a polygon accordingly. Geometrically two edges meeting at a
corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180°); otherwise, the
line segments will be considered parts of a single edge – however
mathematically, such corners may sometimes be allowed. In felds relating to
computation, the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived
from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics
(image generation)
Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons
were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex
regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus,
Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C. Non-convex polygons in general
were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas
Bredwardine. In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the
complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an
imaginary one, to create complex polygons.
SELANGOR EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
PART 1
Polygons are evident in all architecture. They provide variation and charm in
buildings. When applied to manufactured articles such as printed fabrics,
wallpapers, and tile fooring, polygons enhance the beauty of the structure
itself.
(a) Collect six such pictures. You may use a camera to take the pictures or
get them from magazines, newspapers, internet or any other resources.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
6
(b) Give the defnition of polygon and write a brief history of it.
(c) There are various methods of fnding the area of a triangle.
State four diferent methods.
a)
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
7
The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry
structures located in Egypt.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
8
Contemporary Home Design in Polygon Shape with Marvelous Panorama at
the Pittman Dowell Residence
Rectangular shaped bricks
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
9
Pentagon-shaped tiles
Trapezium-shaped house
b) Defnition and History of Polygon :
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
10
In geometry a polygon is a fat shape consisting of straight lines that are
joined to form a closed chain or circuit.
A polygon is traditionally a plane fgure that is bounded by a closed path,
composed of a fnite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed
polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the
points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or
corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is
sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more
general polytope in any number of dimensions.
The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολυύς (polús) "much", "many"
and γωνιύα (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γούνυ gónu, with a short o,
is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood
in terms of sides
History.
Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were
known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular
polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to
the 7th century B.C Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically
studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine.
In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane,
where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create
complex polygons.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
11
C) Area of Triangle :
Method 1
Method 2
Method 3
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
12
Method 4
Area =
1
2

++¿
¿
++¿
¿
¿
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
13
p m
100 m c
Diagram 1
θº
PART 2
A farmer wishes to build a herb garden on a piece of land. Diagram 1 shows
the shape of that garden, where one of its sides is 100 m in length. The
garden has to be fenced with a 300 m fence. The cost of fencing the garden is
RM 20 per metre.
(The diagram below is not drawn to scale)
(a) Calculate the cost needed to fence the herb garden.
(b) Complete table 1 by using various values of p, the corresponding
values of q and θ.

p (m) q (m) θ (degree) Area (m
2
)
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
14
p m
100 m c
Diagram 1
θº
Table 1
(c) Based on your fndings in (b), state the dimension of the herb
garden so that the enclosed area is maximum.
(d)(i)Only certain values of p and of q are applicable in this case.
State the range of values of p and of q.
(ii)By comparing the lengths of p, q and the given side, determine
the relation between them.
(iii) Make generalisation about the lengths of sides of a triangle.
State the name of the relevant theorem.
(a) Cost = RM 20 × 300 = RM 6000.
(b)

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
15
p ( m) q ( m) θ
o
Area (m
2
)
50 150 0 0
60 140 38.2145 2598.15
65 135 44.8137 3092.33
70 130 49.5826 3464.10
80 120 55.7711 3968.63
85 115 57.6881 4130.68
90 110 58.9924 4242.64
95 105 59.7510 4308.42
99 101 59.9901 4329.26
100 100 60 4330.13
Using cosine rule, Area =
(c) The herb garden is an equilateral triangle of sides 100 m with a
maximum area of 4330.13 m
2
.
(d)(i) 50 < p < 150, 50 < q < 150
(ii)p + q 100 ˃
(iii) The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than
the length of the third side. Triangle Inequality Theorem.
In this case, p + q > 100.
For the relevant theorem the length of sides can be related to the
θ

according to cosinus rule. In order to fnd
θ
, we can refer to :
cos
θ
=
100
2
+p
2
+q
2
−2 pq

θ
= cos
-1
(
100
2
+p
2
+q
2
−2 pq
)
PART 3
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
ab
c b a
2
cos
2 2 2
− +
= ° θ
θ sin
2
1
× ab
16
If the length of the fence remains the same 300m, as stated in part2 :
(a)Explore and sugest at least 5 various other shapes of the garden that
can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum.
(b)Draw a conclusion from your exploration in (a) if :
(i) The demand of herbs in the market has been increasing
nowadays. Suggest three types of local herbs with their scientifc
names that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the
demand. Collect pictures and information of these herbs.
(ii) These herbs will be processed for marketing by a company. The
design of the packaging plays an important role in attracting customers.
The company wishes to design an innovative and creative logo for the
packaging. You are given the task of designing a logo to promote the
product. Draw the logo on a piece of A4 paper. You must include at
least one polygon shape in the logo.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
17
x m
y m
2x + 2y = 300 m2
x + y = 150 m2
Area = x y
a
a
a
a
a
72
54 54
!
r m
"
2
2
55 . 5347
2
300
2
1
2
300
300 2
m Area
r
r r
=






+
=
+
=
= +
π
π
π
π
(a)
(a) Quadrilateral
x y Area = x y
10 140 1400
20 130 2600
30 120 3600
40 110 4400
50 100 5000
60 90 5400
70 80 5600
75 75 5625
The maximum area is 5625 m
2
.

(b)Regular Pentagon
5a = 300
a = 60
m t
t
2915 . 41 54 tan 30
30
54 tan
= ° =
= °
2
73 . 6193 5 ) 60 2915 . 41 (
2
1
m Area = × × =
(c) A Semicircle
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
18
r m
"
2
2
97 . 7161 ) 2 (
150
2
1
150
300 2
m Area
r
r
=






=
=
=
π
π
π
π
60º
2
19 . 6495 6 60 sin 50 50
2
1
m = × × × ×

(d) A Circle
(e) A Regular Hexagon
Conclusion:
Circle is the best shape to use for the garden as it gives a maximum enclosed
area among the other shapes.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
a
a
a
a
a
50
m
a
19
2
2
97 . 7161 ) 2 (
150
2
1
150
300 2
m Area
r
r
=






=
=
=
π
π
π
π
(b) FURTHER EXPLORATION
(i) 3 Suggested types of herbs:
(i) Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon (lemongrass) is a genus of about 55 species of
grasses, (of which the type species is Cymbopogon citratus)
native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World
and Oceania. It is a tall perennial grass. Common names include
lemon grass, lemongrass, barbed wire grass, silky heads,
citronella grass,cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad,
hierba Luisa or gavati chaha amongst many others.
Uses:
Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. It is widely used as a
herb in Asian cuisine. It has a subtle citrus favor and can be dried and
powdered, or used fresh.
Lemongrass is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
20
suitable for poultry, fsh, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in
African countries such as Togo and the Democratic Republic of the
Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico.Lemongrass oil is
used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that
lemongrass oil has anti-fungal properties.
(ii) Orthosiphon stamineus (misai kucing)
Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional herb that is widely grown in
tropical areas. The two general species, Orthosiphon stamineus
"purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white" are traditionally used to
treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and
bone or muscular pain.
Also known as Java tea, it was possibly introduced to the west in the
early 20th century. Misai Kucing is popularly consumed as a herbal tea.
The brewing of Java tea is similar to that for other teas. It is soaked in
hot boiling water for about three minutes, and honey or milk is then
added. It can be easily prepared as garden tea from the dried leaves.
There are quite a number of commercial products derived from Misai
Kucing.Sinensetin is a polyphenol found in O. stamineus.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
21
.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
22
(iii) Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek)

Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea) (in Thai Language) is a tree species
native to Malaysia.
Malaysia's tropical rainforest is unique, with a large biodiversity of valuable
plants and animals. The discovery of herbal plants in these jungles, and in
particular Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea), is slowly receiving international
recognition for its medicinal values and health benefts. Based on traditional
knowledge, the leaves, fruits, stems and roots of Mas Cotek display healing,
palliative and preventative properties
Mas Cotek, also known as "mistletoe fg", has been scientifcally
researched by various institutions, including University of Malaya,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Forest
Research Institute of Malaysia, the Malaysian Agriculture Research And
Development Institute (MARDI). Research results show that Mas Cotek
possesses fve classes of chemicals, namely favonoids, tannins,
triterpenoids, proanthocyanins and phenols
Traditionally used as a postpartum treatment to help in contracting the
muscles of the uterus and in the healing of the uterus and vaginal canal,
it is also used as a libido booster by both men and women.The leaves
of male and female plants are mixed in specifc proportions to be taken
as an aphrodisiac.
[
Among the traditional practices, Mas Cotek has
been used for regulating blood pressure, increasing and recovering
sexual desire, womb contraction after delivery, reducing cholesterol,
reducing blood sugar level, treatment of migraines, toxin removal, delay
menopause, nausea, joints pains, piles pain and improving blood
circulation.
Mas Cotek products are formulated and sold in the form of extracts,
herbal drinks, cofee drinks, capsules, and massage oil.
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
23
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
24
#) Godiva Lemongrass package
REFLECTION
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
25

While I conducting this project, a lot of information that I found.I have
learnt the uses of polygons. I also learned some moral values that I practice.
This project had taught me to be responsible on the works that are given to
me to be completed. This project also made me felt more confdence to do
works and not to give up easily when we could not fnd the solution for the
question. I also learned to be more discipline on time, which I was given about
three weeks to complete these project and pass up to my teacher just in time.
I also enjoyed doing this project during my school holiday as I spent my time
with friends to complete this project and it had tighten our friendship
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
26
REFERENCES
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon
• http://www.scribd.com/
• https://www.facebook.com/
• Additional Mathematics Text Book
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012
27

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