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Additional Mathematics Project 20125.0

|Views: 661,536|Likes: 198Published by Amirul Naqib

Published by: Amirul Naqib on May 06, 2012

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/92572607/Additional-Mathematics-Project-2012

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CLASS

I/C NUMBER

:

:

5 ST 1

TEACHER

SCHOOL

:

:

PUAN NURUL IDZWATY BT MOHD NAZIR

SMK BANDAR BARU SALAK TINGGI

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

PROJECT WORK

1/2012

Objectives

The aims of carrying out this project work are:

I. To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve

problems

II. To improve thinking skills

III. To promote efective mathematical communication

IV. To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way

that increases students interest and confdence

V. To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas

precisely

VI. To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances efective

learning

VII. To develop positive attitude towards mathematics

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank God that fnally, I have succeeded in

fnishing this project work. I would like to thank my beloved Additional

Mathematics teacher, Pn. Nurul Idzwaty Bt. Mohd Nazir for all the guidance

she had provided me during the process in fnishing this project work. I also

appreciate her patience in guiding me completing this project work.I would like

to give a thousand thanks to my father and mother, Razak bin Mohd Mazlan

and Zalina binti Abdul Rahman, for giving me their full support in this project

work, fnancially and mentally. They gave me moral support when I needed it.

Who am I without their love and support?I would also like to give my thanks to

my fellow friends who had helped me in fnding the information that I’m

clueless of, and the time we spent together in study groups on fnishing this

project work.Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to

all those who gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really

appreciate all the help I got.

Again, thank you very much.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

3

CONTENTS

NO CONTENT PAGE

1 OBJECTIVES 2

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMET 3

3 INTRODUCTION 5

4 PART 1

• Part 1 (a)

• Part 1 (b)

• Part 1 (c)

6

7

10

11

5 PART 2

• Part 2 (a)

• Part 2 (b)

• Part 2 (c)

• Part 2 (d)(i)

• Part 2 (d)(ii)

• Part 2 (d)(iii)

13

14

14

14

14

14

14

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

4

6 PART 3

• Part 3 (a)

• Part 3 (b)(i)

• Part 3 (b)(ii)

15

16

18

21

7 REFLECTION 22

8 REFERENCES 23

INTRODUCTION

A polygon is a fat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a

closed chain or circuit.

A polygon is traditionally a plane fgure that is bounded by a closed path,

composed of a fnite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed

polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the

points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or

corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is

sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more

general polytope in any number of dimensions.

The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολυύς (polús) "much", "many"

and γωνιύα (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γούνυ gónu, with a short o,

is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood

in terms of sides.

The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit

particular purposes. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed

polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

5

may defne a polygon accordingly. Geometrically two edges meeting at a

corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180°); otherwise, the

line segments will be considered parts of a single edge – however

mathematically, such corners may sometimes be allowed. In felds relating to

computation, the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived

from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics

(image generation)

Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons

were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex

regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus,

Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C. Non-convex polygons in general

were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas

Bredwardine. In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the

complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an

imaginary one, to create complex polygons.

SELANGOR EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

PART 1

Polygons are evident in all architecture. They provide variation and charm in

buildings. When applied to manufactured articles such as printed fabrics,

wallpapers, and tile fooring, polygons enhance the beauty of the structure

itself.

(a) Collect six such pictures. You may use a camera to take the pictures or

get them from magazines, newspapers, internet or any other resources.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

6

(b) Give the defnition of polygon and write a brief history of it.

(c) There are various methods of fnding the area of a triangle.

State four diferent methods.

a)

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

7

The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry

structures located in Egypt.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

8

Contemporary Home Design in Polygon Shape with Marvelous Panorama at

the Pittman Dowell Residence

Rectangular shaped bricks

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

9

Pentagon-shaped tiles

Trapezium-shaped house

b) Defnition and History of Polygon :

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

10

In geometry a polygon is a fat shape consisting of straight lines that are

joined to form a closed chain or circuit.

A polygon is traditionally a plane fgure that is bounded by a closed path,

composed of a fnite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed

polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the

points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or

corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is

sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more

general polytope in any number of dimensions.

The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολυύς (polús) "much", "many"

and γωνιύα (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γούνυ gónu, with a short o,

is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood

in terms of sides

History.

Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were

known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular

polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to

the 7th century B.C Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically

studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine.

In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane,

where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create

complex polygons.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

11

C) Area of Triangle :

Method 1

Method 2

Method 3

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

12

Method 4

Area =

1

2

++¿

¿

++¿

¿

¿

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

13

p m

100 m c

Diagram 1

θº

PART 2

A farmer wishes to build a herb garden on a piece of land. Diagram 1 shows

the shape of that garden, where one of its sides is 100 m in length. The

garden has to be fenced with a 300 m fence. The cost of fencing the garden is

RM 20 per metre.

(The diagram below is not drawn to scale)

(a) Calculate the cost needed to fence the herb garden.

(b) Complete table 1 by using various values of p, the corresponding

values of q and θ.

p (m) q (m) θ (degree) Area (m

2

)

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

14

p m

100 m c

Diagram 1

θº

Table 1

(c) Based on your fndings in (b), state the dimension of the herb

garden so that the enclosed area is maximum.

(d)(i)Only certain values of p and of q are applicable in this case.

State the range of values of p and of q.

(ii)By comparing the lengths of p, q and the given side, determine

the relation between them.

(iii) Make generalisation about the lengths of sides of a triangle.

State the name of the relevant theorem.

(a) Cost = RM 20 × 300 = RM 6000.

(b)

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

15

p ( m) q ( m) θ

o

Area (m

2

)

50 150 0 0

60 140 38.2145 2598.15

65 135 44.8137 3092.33

70 130 49.5826 3464.10

80 120 55.7711 3968.63

85 115 57.6881 4130.68

90 110 58.9924 4242.64

95 105 59.7510 4308.42

99 101 59.9901 4329.26

100 100 60 4330.13

Using cosine rule, Area =

(c) The herb garden is an equilateral triangle of sides 100 m with a

maximum area of 4330.13 m

2

.

(d)(i) 50 < p < 150, 50 < q < 150

(ii)p + q 100 ˃

(iii) The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than

the length of the third side. Triangle Inequality Theorem.

In this case, p + q > 100.

For the relevant theorem the length of sides can be related to the

θ

according to cosinus rule. In order to fnd

θ

, we can refer to :

cos

θ

=

100

2

+p

2

+q

2

−2 pq

θ

= cos

-1

(

100

2

+p

2

+q

2

−2 pq

)

PART 3

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

ab

c b a

2

cos

2 2 2

− +

= ° θ

θ sin

2

1

× ab

16

If the length of the fence remains the same 300m, as stated in part2 :

(a)Explore and sugest at least 5 various other shapes of the garden that

can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum.

(b)Draw a conclusion from your exploration in (a) if :

(i) The demand of herbs in the market has been increasing

nowadays. Suggest three types of local herbs with their scientifc

names that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the

demand. Collect pictures and information of these herbs.

(ii) These herbs will be processed for marketing by a company. The

design of the packaging plays an important role in attracting customers.

The company wishes to design an innovative and creative logo for the

packaging. You are given the task of designing a logo to promote the

product. Draw the logo on a piece of A4 paper. You must include at

least one polygon shape in the logo.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

17

x m

y m

2x + 2y = 300 m2

x + y = 150 m2

Area = x y

a

a

a

a

a

72

54 54

!

r m

"

2

2

55 . 5347

2

300

2

1

2

300

300 2

m Area

r

r r

=

+

=

+

=

= +

π

π

π

π

(a)

(a) Quadrilateral

x y Area = x y

10 140 1400

20 130 2600

30 120 3600

40 110 4400

50 100 5000

60 90 5400

70 80 5600

75 75 5625

The maximum area is 5625 m

2

.

(b)Regular Pentagon

5a = 300

a = 60

m t

t

2915 . 41 54 tan 30

30

54 tan

= ° =

= °

2

73 . 6193 5 ) 60 2915 . 41 (

2

1

m Area = × × =

(c) A Semicircle

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

18

r m

"

2

2

97 . 7161 ) 2 (

150

2

1

150

300 2

m Area

r

r

=

=

=

=

π

π

π

π

60º

2

19 . 6495 6 60 sin 50 50

2

1

m = × × × ×

(d) A Circle

(e) A Regular Hexagon

Conclusion:

Circle is the best shape to use for the garden as it gives a maximum enclosed

area among the other shapes.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

a

a

a

a

a

50

m

a

19

2

2

97 . 7161 ) 2 (

150

2

1

150

300 2

m Area

r

r

=

=

=

=

π

π

π

π

(b) FURTHER EXPLORATION

(i) 3 Suggested types of herbs:

(i) Cymbopogon

Cymbopogon (lemongrass) is a genus of about 55 species of

grasses, (of which the type species is Cymbopogon citratus)

native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World

and Oceania. It is a tall perennial grass. Common names include

lemon grass, lemongrass, barbed wire grass, silky heads,

citronella grass,cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad,

hierba Luisa or gavati chaha amongst many others.

Uses:

Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. It is widely used as a

herb in Asian cuisine. It has a subtle citrus favor and can be dried and

powdered, or used fresh.

Lemongrass is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

20

suitable for poultry, fsh, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in

African countries such as Togo and the Democratic Republic of the

Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico.Lemongrass oil is

used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that

lemongrass oil has anti-fungal properties.

(ii) Orthosiphon stamineus (misai kucing)

Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional herb that is widely grown in

tropical areas. The two general species, Orthosiphon stamineus

"purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white" are traditionally used to

treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and

bone or muscular pain.

Also known as Java tea, it was possibly introduced to the west in the

early 20th century. Misai Kucing is popularly consumed as a herbal tea.

The brewing of Java tea is similar to that for other teas. It is soaked in

hot boiling water for about three minutes, and honey or milk is then

added. It can be easily prepared as garden tea from the dried leaves.

There are quite a number of commercial products derived from Misai

Kucing.Sinensetin is a polyphenol found in O. stamineus.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

21

.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

22

(iii) Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek)

Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea) (in Thai Language) is a tree species

native to Malaysia.

Malaysia's tropical rainforest is unique, with a large biodiversity of valuable

plants and animals. The discovery of herbal plants in these jungles, and in

particular Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea), is slowly receiving international

recognition for its medicinal values and health benefts. Based on traditional

knowledge, the leaves, fruits, stems and roots of Mas Cotek display healing,

palliative and preventative properties

Mas Cotek, also known as "mistletoe fg", has been scientifcally

researched by various institutions, including University of Malaya,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Forest

Research Institute of Malaysia, the Malaysian Agriculture Research And

Development Institute (MARDI). Research results show that Mas Cotek

possesses fve classes of chemicals, namely favonoids, tannins,

triterpenoids, proanthocyanins and phenols

Traditionally used as a postpartum treatment to help in contracting the

muscles of the uterus and in the healing of the uterus and vaginal canal,

it is also used as a libido booster by both men and women.The leaves

of male and female plants are mixed in specifc proportions to be taken

as an aphrodisiac.

[

Among the traditional practices, Mas Cotek has

been used for regulating blood pressure, increasing and recovering

sexual desire, womb contraction after delivery, reducing cholesterol,

reducing blood sugar level, treatment of migraines, toxin removal, delay

menopause, nausea, joints pains, piles pain and improving blood

circulation.

Mas Cotek products are formulated and sold in the form of extracts,

herbal drinks, cofee drinks, capsules, and massage oil.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

23

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

24

#) Godiva Lemongrass package

REFLECTION

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

25

While I conducting this project, a lot of information that I found.I have

learnt the uses of polygons. I also learned some moral values that I practice.

This project had taught me to be responsible on the works that are given to

me to be completed. This project also made me felt more confdence to do

works and not to give up easily when we could not fnd the solution for the

question. I also learned to be more discipline on time, which I was given about

three weeks to complete these project and pass up to my teacher just in time.

I also enjoyed doing this project during my school holiday as I spent my time

with friends to complete this project and it had tighten our friendship

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

26

REFERENCES

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon

• http://www.scribd.com/

• https://www.facebook.com/

• Additional Mathematics Text Book

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

27

Kisah Arnab Dan Kura

Prism Periscope

1.4 Rate of Reaction(1.2d)

A MOTHER’S LOVE DENIED

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