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PROJECT WORK

1/2012

NAME

CLASS

I/C NUMBER

TEACHER

SCHOOL

:

:

:

:

:

**AMIRUL NAQIB BIN RAZAK
**

5 ST 1

PUAN NURUL IDZWATY BT MOHD NAZIR

SMK BANDAR BARU SALAK TINGGI

Objectives

**The aims of carrying out this project work are:
**

I.

**To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve
**

problems

II.

To improve thinking skills

III.

To promote effective mathematical communication

IV.

**To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way
**

that increases students interest and confidence

V.

**To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas
**

precisely

VI.

**To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective
**

learning

VII.

To develop positive attitude towards mathematics

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

**First and foremost, I would like to thank God that finally, I have succeeded in
**

finishing this project work. I would like to thank my beloved Additional

Mathematics teacher, Pn. Nurul Idzwaty Bt. Mohd Nazir for all the guidance

she had provided me during the process in finishing this project work. I also

appreciate her patience in guiding me completing this project work.I would like

to give a thousand thanks to my father and mother, Razak bin Mohd Mazlan

and Zalina binti Abdul Rahman, for giving me their full support in this project

work, financially and mentally. They gave me moral support when I needed it.

Who am I without their love and support?
I would also like to give my thanks to

my fellow friends who had helped me in finding the information that I’m

clueless of, and the time we spent together in study groups on finishing this

project work.Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to

all those who gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really

appreciate all the help I got.

Again, thank you very much.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

3

CONTENTS

NO CONTENT

PAGE

1

OBJECTIVES

2

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMET

3

3

INTRODUCTION

5

4

PART 1

Part 1 (a)

Part 1 (b)

Part 1 (c)

6

7

10

11

5

PART 2

Part 2 (a)

Part 2 (b)

Part 2 (c)

Part 2 (d)(i)

Part 2 (d)(ii)

Part 2 (d)(iii)

13

14

14

14

14

14

14

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

4

6

PART 3

Part 3 (a)

Part 3 (b)(i)

Part 3 (b)(ii)

15

16

18

21

7

REFLECTION

22

8

REFERENCES

23

INTRODUCTION

A polygon is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a

closed chain or circuit.

A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path,

composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed

polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the

points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or

corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is

sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more

general polytope in any number of dimensions.

The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολύύς (polús) "much", "many"

and γωνίύα (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γούνύ gónu, with a short o,

is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood

in terms of sides.

The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit

particular purposes. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed

polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

5

**may define a polygon accordingly. Geometrically two edges meeting at a
**

corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180°); otherwise, the

line segments will be considered parts of a single edge – however

mathematically, such corners may sometimes be allowed. In fields relating to

computation, the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived

from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics

(image generation)

**Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons
**

were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex

regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus,

Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C. Non-convex polygons in general

were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas

Bredwardine. In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the

complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an

imaginary one, to create complex polygons.

**SELANGOR EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
**

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

PART 1

Polygons are evident in all architecture. They provide variation and charm in

buildings. When applied to manufactured articles such as printed fabrics,

wallpapers, and tile flooring, polygons enhance the beauty of the structure

itself.

(a)

**Collect six such pictures. You may use a camera to take the pictures or
**

get them from magazines, newspapers, internet or any other resources.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

6

(b)

Give the definition of polygon and write a brief history of it.

(c)

**There are various methods of finding the area of a triangle.
**

State four different methods.

a)

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

7

The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

**The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry
**

structures located in Egypt.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

8

**Contemporary Home Design in Polygon Shape with Marvelous Panorama at
**

the Pittman Dowell Residence

Rectangular shaped bricks

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012

9

Pentagon-shaped tiles

Trapezium-shaped house

**b) Definition and History of Polygon :
**

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 10

**In geometry a polygon is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are
**

joined to form a closed chain or circuit.

A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path,

composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed

polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the

points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or

corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is

sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more

general polytope in any number of dimensions.

The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολύύς (polús) "much", "many"

and γωνίύα (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γούνύgónu, with a short o,

is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood

in terms of sides

History.

Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were

known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular

polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to

the 7th century B.C Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically

studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine.

In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane,

where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create

complex polygons.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 11

C) Area of Triangle :

Method 1

Method 2

Method 3

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 12

Method 4

Area =

1

2

++¿

¿

++¿

¿

¿

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 13

PART 2

A farmer wishes to build a herb garden on a piece of land. Diagram 1 shows

the shape of that garden, where one of its sides is 100 m in length. The

garden has to be fenced with a 300 m fence. The cost of fencing the garden is

RM 20 per metre.

(The diagram below is not drawn to scale)

p m θº

100 m c

Diagram 1

(a)

Calculate the cost needed to fence the herb garden.

(b)

**Complete table 1 by using various values of p, the corresponding
**

values of q and θ.

p (m)

q (m)

θ (degree)

Area (m2)

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 14

Table 1

(c)

**Based on your findings in (b), state the dimension of the herb
**

garden so that the enclosed area is maximum.

**(d)(i) Only certain values of p and of q are applicable in this case.
**

State the range of values of p and of q.

(ii) By comparing the lengths of p, q and the given side, determine

the relation between them.

(iii) Make generalisation about the lengths of sides of a triangle.

State the name of the relevant theorem.

(a)

Cost = RM 20 × 300 = RM 6000.

(b)

p m θº

p ( m)

50

60

65

70

80

85

90

95

99

100

q ( m)

150

140

135

130

120

115

110

105

101

100

100 m c

Diagram

θo 1

0

38.2145

44.8137

49.5826

55.7711

57.6881

58.9924

59.7510

59.9901

60

Area (m2 )

0

2598.15

3092.33

3464.10

3968.63

4130.68

4242.64

4308.42

4329.26

4330.13

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 15

Using cosine rule,

a 2 b2 c 2

cos

2ab

Area =

1

ab sin

2

(c)

The herb garden is an equilateral triangle of sides 100 m with a

maximum area of 4330.13 m 2 .

(d)(i) 50 < p < 150, 50 < q < 150

(ii) p + q ˃ 100

(iii) The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than

the length of the third side. Triangle Inequality Theorem.

**In this case, p + q > 100.
**

For the relevant theorem the length of sides can be related to the θ

according to cosinus rule. In order to find θ , we can refer to :

2

2

2

100 + p +q

cos θ =

−2 pq

1002+ p 2+ q2

θ = cos -1

−2 pq

(

)

PART 3

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 16

**If the length of the fence remains the same 300m, as stated in part2 :
**

(a) Explore and sugest at least 5 various other shapes of the garden that

can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum.

(b) Draw a conclusion from your exploration in (a) if :

(i)

The demand of herbs in the market has been increasing

nowadays. Suggest three types of local herbs with their scientific

names that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the

demand. Collect pictures and information of these herbs.

(ii)

These herbs will be processed for marketing by a company. The

design of the packaging plays an important role in attracting customers.

The company wishes to design an innovative and creative logo for the

packaging. You are given the task of designing a logo to promote the

product. Draw the logo on a piece of A4 paper. You must include at

least one polygon shape in the logo.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 17

(a)

(a)

Quadrilateral

ym

2x + 2y = 300 m2

x + y = 150 m2

Area = x y

xm

a

a

72o

t

54o

x

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

75

54o

a

a

y

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

75

Area = x y

1400

2600

3600

4400

5000

5400

5600

5625

**The maximum area is 5625 m2.
**

(b) Regular Pentagon

a

5a = 300

a = 60

t

30

t 30 tan 54 41.2915 m

1

Area (41.2915 60) 5 6193.73 m 2

2

tan 54

(c)

• rm

A Semicircle

2r r 300

300

r

2

2

1 300

Area

5347.55m 2 MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 18

ADDITIONAL

2 2

(d)

A Circle

rm

(e)

2r 300

150

r

•

2

1 150

2

Area

(2 ) 7161.97 m

2

A Regular Hexagon

a

a

a

60º

a

a

1

50 50 sin 60 6 6495.19 m 2

2

50

ma

Conclusion:

Circle is the best shape to use for the garden as it gives a maximum enclosed

area among the other shapes.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 19

2r 300

150

r

2

Area

1 150

2

(2 ) 7161.97m

2

(b) FURTHER EXPLORATION

(i)

**3 Suggested types of herbs:
**

(i)

Cymbopogon

**Cymbopogon (lemongrass) is a genus of about 55 species of
**

grasses, (of which the type species is Cymbopogon citratus)

native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World

and Oceania. It is a tall perennial grass. Common names include

lemon grass, lemongrass, barbed wire grass, silky heads,

citronella grass,cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad,

hierba Luisa or gavati chaha amongst many others.

Uses:

**Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. It is widely used as a
**

herb in Asian cuisine. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and

powdered, or used fresh.

Lemongrass is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 20

**suitable for poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in
**

African countries such as Togo and the Democratic Republic of the

Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico.Lemongrass oil is

used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that

lemongrass oil has anti-fungal properties.

(ii)

Orthosiphon stamineus (misai kucing)

**Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional herb that is widely grown in
**

tropical areas. The two general species, Orthosiphon stamineus

"purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white" are traditionally used to

treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and

bone or muscular pain.

Also known as Java tea, it was possibly introduced to the west in the

early 20th century. Misai Kucing is popularly consumed as a herbal tea.

The brewing of Java tea is similar to that for other teas. It is soaked in

hot boiling water for about three minutes, and honey or milk is then

added. It can be easily prepared as garden tea from the dried leaves.

There are quite a number of commercial products derived from Misai

Kucing.Sinensetin is a polyphenol found in O. stamineus.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 21

.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 22

(iii)

Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek)

**Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea) (in Thai Language) is a tree species
**

native to Malaysia.

Malaysia's tropical rainforest is unique, with a large biodiversity of valuable

plants and animals. The discovery of herbal plants in these jungles, and in

particular Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea), is slowly receiving international

recognition for its medicinal values and health benefits. Based on traditional

knowledge, the leaves, fruits, stems and roots of Mas Cotek display healing,

palliative and preventative properties

**Mas Cotek, also known as "mistletoe fig", has been scientifically
**

researched by various institutions, including University of Malaya,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Forest

Research Institute of Malaysia, the Malaysian Agriculture Research And

Development Institute (MARDI). Research results show that Mas Cotek

possesses five classes of chemicals, namely flavonoids, tannins,

triterpenoids, proanthocyanins and phenols

Traditionally used as a postpartum treatment to help in contracting the

muscles of the uterus and in the healing of the uterus and vaginal canal,

it is also used as a libido booster by both men and women.The leaves

of male and female plants are mixed in specific proportions to be taken

as an aphrodisiac.[ Among the traditional practices, Mas Cotek has

been used for regulating blood pressure, increasing and recovering

sexual desire, womb contraction after delivery, reducing cholesterol,

reducing blood sugar level, treatment of migraines, toxin removal, delay

menopause, nausea, joints pains, piles pain and improving blood

circulation.

Mas Cotek products are formulated and sold in the form of extracts,

herbal drinks, coffee drinks, capsules, and massage oil.

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 23

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 24

b) Godiva Lemongrass package

REFLECTION

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 25

**While I conducting this project, a lot of information that I found.I have
**

learnt the uses of polygons. I also learned some moral values that I practice.

This project had taught me to be responsible on the works that are given to

me to be completed. This project also made me felt more confidence to do

works and not to give up easily when we could not find the solution for the

question. I also learned to be more discipline on time, which I was given about

three weeks to complete these project and pass up to my teacher just in time.

I also enjoyed doing this project during my school holiday as I spent my time

with friends to complete this project and it had tighten our friendship

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 1/2012 26

REFERENCES

**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon
**

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https://www.facebook.com/

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