Page 6-1

Chapter 6 • Failure Prediction for Static Loading
6.1 Given that the stress concentration factor is 3.12 for a machine element made of steel
with a modulus of elasticity of 207GPa, find the stress concentration factor for an
identical machine element made of aluminum instead of steel. The modulus of elasticity
for aluminum is 69GPa.
Solution:
Since the elastic stress concentration is entirely determined from the geometry of the machine
element, the stress concentration factor will remain the same. Therefore, K
c
=3.12.
6.2 A flat part with constant thickness b is loaded in tension as shown in Fig. 6.3(a). The
height changes from 50 to 100mm with a radius r=10mm. Find how much higher a load
can be transmitted through the bar if the height increases from 50 to 70 mm and the
radius decreases from 10 to 3mm.
Notes: To answer this question, one must compare the stress concentration factors for the two
cases. The stress concentration factors are obtained from Figure 6.3(a) on page 233.
Solution:
Referring to the sketch in Figure 6.3(a), H=100mm, h=50mm and r=10mm for the first case.
Therefore, H/h=100mm/50mm=2 and r/h=10mm/50mm=0.2. From Figure 6.3(a), K
c
for this case
is 1.8. For the second case, H/h=100/70=1.43 and r/h=3mm/70mm=0.043. Therefore, From
Figure 6.3(a), K
c
is around 2.8.
The load that can be transmitted depends on the maximum stress. Therefore, for the first
case:
σ
max
· K
c
1
P
1
bh
1
; P
1
·
bh
1
σ
max
K
c1
·
b 50mm ( )σ
max
1.8
For the second case:
σ
max
· K
c
2
P
2
bh
2
; P
2
·
bh
2
σ
max
K
c2
·
b 70mm ( )σ
max
2.8
The ratio of the two forces is:
P
1
P
2
·
b 50mm ( )σ
max
1.8
¸
¸

_
,

b 70mm ( )σ
max
2.8
¸
¸

_
,

·
50mm ( )2.8
70mm ( )1.8
· 1.111
Therefore the load carrying capacity decreases even though the thickness of the bar increased
from 50 to 70 mm, mainly because the radius of the notch decreased.
6.3 A flat steel plate is axially loaded as shown in sketch a has two holes for electric cables.
The holes are situated beside each other and each has a diameter d. To make it possible to
draw more cables, the holes are placed with one hole having twice the diameter 2d, as
shown in sketch b. Assume that the ratio of diameter to width is d/b=0.2 for the two-hole
plate. Which plate will fail first?
Page 6-2
Notes: The exact hole locations have not been specified, so some variation may occur with
assumed dimensions. Also, the two-hole case does not correspond to a particular chart in Figure
6.1 through 6.6. However, it is possible to obtain a reasonable solution from the existing data. For
a critical application, more advanced approaches, such as finite element analysis, would be
necessary. See also Problem 6.6.
Solution:
It will be assumed that the top and bottom halves of the plate are symmetric about the centerline,
and that the holes are placed in the center of each half of the plate. The locations where the largest
stress could occur are A and B in the sketch.
Considering the top half of the problem leads to:
Here the diameter to width ratio is 0.4, so K
c
is
around 2.2 from Figure 6.2(a). Note that this is
true for point A but not point B in the figure
above.
Because of St. Venant’s Principal, we must be concerned about the stress concentrations
interacting between the two holes. For B, take a section through the hole diameters to yield:
Here H=b/2, h=b/2-d,
r/h=(d/2)/(b/2-d)=0.1b/(0.5b-0.2b)=0.33.
Therefore, K
c
is just under 2.0 from Figure
6.4(a).
Therefore, the larger stress concentration is K
c
=2.2 and point A is more important than point B.
For the single hole, Figure 6.2 (a) gives a stress concentration of K
c
=2.2 (d/b=0.4). Therefore,
either design is expected to fail at the same stress.
6.4 A load-carrying beam is loaded with a bending moment M. The minor beam height is h
and the width in the perpendicular direction is b. This beam, which carries a balcony on
the wall of a house, is welded together with a beam in the house structure. That beam has
a major height H. Because of manufacturing problems the radius r of the connections
cannot be made larger than r
max
but can be made smaller, down to zero. Find how the
load-carrying beam should be placed on the house beam to give maximum strength.
Notes: Design recommendations arise from studying Figure 6.3 (b).
Solution:
From Figure 6.3 (b), the stick-out H/h should be small to give a low stress concentration factor.
Also, the radius to height ratio should be as large as possible. The optimum configuration is to
have the small beam flush with the top side of the large beam which gives zero stress
concentration.
Page 6-3
6.5 A round bar has a fillet with r/d=0.15 and D/d=1.5. The bar transmits both bending
moment and torque. A new construction is considered to make the shaft stiffer and
stronger by making it equally thick on each side of the fillet or groove. Determine
whether that is a good idea.
Notes: Figures 6.5 and 6.6 are used to obtain the solution.
Solution:
For r/d=0.15 and D/d=1.5, the stress concentrations for bending is just over 1.5 for bending (from
Figure 6.5 (b)) and about 1.25 for torsion (from Figure 6.5(c)). If instead of a fillet the bar became
a groove, with the same root diameter, then the stress concentrations are obtained from Figure 6.6
(b) and (c). The new stress concentration factors are around 1.65 for bending and 1.325 for
torsion. Since the stress concentration factors are higher for the proposed redesign, it is not a good
idea.
6.6 A rectangular plate has a central hole. The width of the plate is b=50mm and the diameter
of the hole is d=10mm. The plate is axially loaded with a force P=1500N, and the minor
height of the plate is h=5mm. Is it possible to find the stress concentration factor for the
plate without using Figure 6.2?
Notes: Figure 6.2 can obviously be used to solve the problem, and serves as a useful comparison
for the alternate technique. The problem can be approximated by Figure 6.4 if the plate is
sectioned. This solution compares the results of both approaches.
Solution:
First of all, if Figure 6.2(a) is used with d/b=(10mm)/(50mm)=0.2, K
c
=2.5. An alternative
approach is to cut the beam in half across the center of the hole, then reassembling the two
sections so the holes are on the exterior, thereby approximating the loading case in Figure 6.4(a).
Note that there are differences; there are not two matching fillets on opposite sides, and the
loading is complicated by the presence of a Poisson effect in the original geometry. However, the
two should be fairly close. For the new, sectioned geometry, r=d/2=5mm, H=b=50mm, h=(b-
d)=(50mm-10mm)=40mm. Therefore, H/h=(50mm)/(40mm)=1.25, and
r/h=(5mm)/(40mm)=0.125. From Figure 6.4(a), K
c
is around 2.3. The error between the two cases
is:
%error ·
2.5 − 2.3
2.5
×100%· 8%
6.7 A machine has three circular shafts, each with fillets giving stress concentrations. The
ratio of fillet radius to shaft diameter is 0.1 for all three shafts. One of the shafts transmits
a tensile force, one transmits a bending torque, and one transmits torsion. Because they
are stressed exactly to the stress limit (n
s
=1), a design change is proposed doubling the
notch radii to get a safety factor greater than 1. How large will the safety factors be for
the three shafts if the diameter ratio is 2 (D/d=2)?
Notes: Figure 6.5 is used to solve this problem.
Page 6-4
Solution:
For the shaft under tension, Figure 6.5(a) is used to obtain the stress concentration
factors. For D/d=2 and r/d=0.1, K
c
=2.0, and corresponds to the original case. If r is doubled, then
r/d=0.2 and K
c
=1.65. Since the original design was fully stressed, the new safety factor is
n
s
·
2
1.65
· 1.21
For the shaft under bending, Figure 6.5(b) is used to obtain the stress concentration
factors. For D/d=2 and r/d=0.1, K
c
=1.7, and corresponds to the original case. If r is doubled, then
r/d=0.2 and K
c
=1.43. Since the original design was fully stressed, the new safety factor is
n
s
·
1.7
1.43
· 1.19
For the shaft under torsion, Figure 6.5(c) is used to obtain the stress concentration factors.
For D/d=2 and r/d=0.1, K
c
=1.43, and corresponds to the original case. If r is doubled, then
r/d=0.2 and K
c
=1.22. Since the original design was fully stressed, the new safety factor is
n
s
·
1.43
1.33
· 1.17
Therefore, the lowest safety factor is ns=1.17 and corresponds to the torsion-loaded shaft.
6.8 The shaft shown in sketch c is subjected to tensile, torsional, and bending loads.
Determine the principal stresses at the location of stress concentration.
Notes: This problem can be easily solved through the principal of superposition. The stress
concentration factors are obtained from Figures 6.5 (a) and (b).
Solution:
The rod will see normal stresses due to axial loads and bending, and a shear stress due to torsion.
Note that the shear stress due to shear is zero at the extreme fibers where the stresses are largest.
The critical location is at the bottom where the bending and axial stresses are both tensile. Assign
the x-axis to the rod axis. The normal stress is given by:
σ
x
· K
c1
P
A
+ K
c2
Mc
I
· 2.0 ( )
10kN
π
4
0.03m ( )
2
+ 1.75 ( )
50kN ( ) 0.130m ( ) 0.015m ( )
π
64
0.030m ( )
4
· 4315MPa
where the stress concentration factors of 2.0 and 1.75 are obtained from Figure 6.5 (a) and (b).
The shear stress is
τ · K
c
Tc
J
· 1.45 ( )
100Nm ( ) 0.015m ( )
π
32
0.030m ( )
4
· 27.4MPa
Equation (2.16) gives the principal stresses.
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
4315MPa
2
t 27.4MPa ( )
2
+
4315MPa
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
Page 6-5
or σ
1
=4315MPa and σ
2
=-0.17MPa. Note that the shear stress is very small compared to the
normal stress; we could have taken σ
x
as a principal direction.
6.9 A steel plate with dimensions shown in sketch d is subjected to a 150kN tensile force and
300Nm bending moment. The plate is made of AISI 1080 steel and is kept at 20°C. A
hole is to be punched in the center of the plate. What is the maximum diameter of the
hole for a safety factor of 1.5?
Notes: Equation (3.16) gives the allowable stress in bending. The normal stress is the sum of the
bending stress and the axial normal stress, and is equated to the allowable stress. This gives an
equation in terms of the hole diameter and the stress concentration factors in tension and bending
which can be solved iteratively.
Solution:
From the inside front cover, AISI steel has a yield strength of S
y
=380MPa. Therefore, the
allowable stress is given by Equation (3.16) as:
σ
all
=0.6S
y
=0.6(380MPa)=228MPa
However, since the safety factor is 1.5, the allowable stress for this problem is 228MPa/1.5=
152MPa. The stress associated with axial tension is (see Figure 6.2(a)):
σ
a
·
K
ca
P
b − d (
)
h
·
K
ca
150kN ( )
0.235m − d ( ) 0.025m ( )
·
6MN / m
0.235m − d
K
ca
The stress associated with bending is (see Figure 6.2(b)):
σ
b
·
6K
cb
M
b − d ( )h
2
·
6K
cb
300Nm ( )
0.235m− d ( ) 0.025m ( )
2
·
2.88MN/ m
0.235m −d
K
cb
Therefore, the maximum stress is:
σ
max
· σ
a
+ σ
b
·
6MN/ m ( )K
ca
+ 2.88MN / m ( )K
cb
0.235m − d
This should be equated to the maximum allowable stress, of σ
max
=152MPa. Note that K
ca
and K
cb
are functions of only d, since the other variables needed for their definition are fixed. Therefore,
this equation can be iteratively solved. Note that we can re-write the equation as:
6MN / m ( )K
ca
+ 2.88MN/ m ( )K
cb
0.235m− d
· 152MPa; d · 0.235m −
6MN/ m ( )K
ca
+ 2.88MN/ m ( )K
cb
152MPa
Assume d=100mm, so that d/b=(100mm)/(235mm)=0.426, and d/h=100/25=4. From
Figure 6.2 (a), K
ca
=2.2 and From Figure 6.2 (b), K
cb
=1.46. Therefore, this equation would predict
d · 0.235m −
6MN / m ( ) 2.2 ( ) + 2.88MN / m ( ) 1.46 ( )
152MPa
· 0.120m
Therefore, the initial value was too small. If we now use d=0.120m=120mm, then
d/h=120/25=4.8 and d/b=120/235=0.511. This gives K
ca
=2.16 and K
cb
=1.4. Therefore,
d · 0.235m −
6MN / m ( ) 2.16 ( ) + 2.88MN/ m ( ) 1.4 ( )
152MPa
· 0.123m
This is close to the assumed value, and closer agreement between assumed and calculated values
is difficult because of the resolution of Figures 6.2(a) and 6.2(b).
Page 6-6
6.10 A Plexiglass plate with dimensions 1m x 1m x 1cm is loaded by a nominal tensile stress
of 55MPa in one direction. The plate contains a small crack perpendicular to the load
direction. At this stress level a safety factor of 1.3 against crack propagation is obtained.
Find how much larger the crack can get before it grows catastrophically.
Notes: Equation (6.4) is used to solve this problem.
Solution:
For the first case, Equation (6.4) gives:
K
ci
1.3
· Yσ
nom
πa
1
; K
ci
· 1.3Yσ
nom
πa
1
For the second case, the safety factor would be unity so that:
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa
2
Substituting for K
ci
:

nom
πa
2
· 1.3Yσ
nom
πa
1
; a
2
· 1.3
2
a
1
· 1.69a
1
Therefore, the crack can be 69% larger before catastrophic failure occurs.
6.11 A pressure container is made of AISI 4340 steel. The wall thickness is such that the
tensile stress in the material is 1100MPa. The dimensionless geometry correction factor
Y=1 for the given geometry. Find how big the largest crack can be without failure if the
steel is tempered
a) at 260°C
b) at 425°C
Notes: The material properties as a function of temper temperature is obtained from Table 6.1.
Equation 6.4 is used to solve the problem.
Solution:
The nominal stress is given as σ
nom
=1100MPa, and Y=1. The critical crack length is derived from
Eq. (6.4):
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa; a ·
1
π
K
ci

nom
¸
¸


_
,


2
From Table 6.1, at a temper of 260°C, the fracture toughness is 50MPam
1/2
. Therefore, the
critical crack length is 1.3 mm. At a temper of 425°C, The critical crack length is 4.0mm. (Note:
a is one-half the crack length.)
6.12 Two tensile test rods are made of AISI 4340 steel tempered at 260°C and aluminum alloy
2024-T351. The dimensionless geometry correction factor Y=1. Find how high a stress
each rod can sustain if there is a 2-mm crack half length in each of them.
Notes: The fracture toughness for these materials is obtained from Table 6.1 on page 232. The
nominal stress that can be sustained is then given by Equation (6.4).
Solution:
Page 6-7
From Table 6.1 on page 232, K
ci
for AISI 4340 is 50.0MPam
1/2
. For Al 2024-T351, K
ci
is
36MPam
1/2
. Therefore, the stress in the steel is given by Equation (6.4) as:
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa;σ
nom
·
K
ci
Y πa
·
50.0MPa
1 ( ) π 0.002 ( )
· 631MPa
For the Al 2024-T351,
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa;σ
nom
·
K
ci
Y πa
·
36.0 MPa
1 ( ) π 0.002 ( )
· 454MPa
6.13 A plate made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has the dimensionless correction factor Y=1.
How large can the largest crack in the material be if it still should be possible to
plastically deform the plate in tension?
Notes: To plastically deform the plate, the nominal stress must exceed the yield strength of the
material. Therefore, Equation (6.4) solves the problem.
Solution:
From Table 6.1 on page 232, the fracture toughness for Ti-6Al-4V varies from 44-66 MPam
1/2
.
Also, the yield strength is 910MPa. To plastically deform the material, σ
nom
>S
y
, or, from Equation
(6.4),
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa; σ
nom
·
K
ci
Y πa
≥ S
y
Solving for a,
K
ci
Y πa
≥ S
y
; a ·
1
π
K
ci
YS
y
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
1
π
K
ci
1 (
)
910 MPa (
)
¸
¸


_
,


2
Since K
ci
has a value between 44-66MPam
1/2
, then a has a range of a≤0.744-1.67mm. Therefore,
if the largest crack is below 0.744mm in half-length (1.488mm in length), then the nominal stress
will be larger than the yield strength.
6.14 A plexiglass model of a gear has a 1-mm crack half-length formed in its fillet curve
(where the tensile stress is maximum). The model is loaded until the crack starts to
propagate. Y=1.5. How much higher a load can a gear made of AISI 4340 steel tempered
to 425°C carry with the same crack and the same geometry?
Notes: Equation (6.4) is used to solve the problem with data from Table 6.1. This solution makes
sure that the steel does not plastically deform before catastrophic crack propagation occurs.
Solution:
From Table 6.1 on page 232, the fracture toughnesses for plexiglass and steel are 1.0 and 87.4
MPam
1/2
, respectively. For a gear, the bending stress is directly proportional to the applied load,
so for a constant crack size a and correction factor Y the load possible is directly proportional to
K
ci
. Therefore, K
ci
for steel is 87.4 times larger than for plexiglass, so it may be possible to
support a load 87.4 times larger.
However, it is possible that the steel will plastically deform at a lower stress than that
needed to propogate the crack. With a=1mm=0.001m, Equation (6.4) predicts the nominal stress
level as:
Page 6-8
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa; σ
nom
·
K
ci
Y πa
·
87.4MPa m
1.5 ( ) π 0.001m ( )
·1040MPa
Table 6.1 gives the yield strength for AISI 4340 tempered to 425°C as 1420MPa. Therefore, the
nominal stress level needed for crack propagation is not sufficient to cause plastic deformation,
and a load 87.4 times larger than for plexiglass can be carried.
6.15 A pressure container made of aluminum alloy 2024-T351 is manufactured for a safety
factor of 2 guarding against yielding. The material contains cracks through the wall
thickness with a crack half-length less than 3mm. Y=1. Find the safety factor when
considering crack propagation.
Notes: The safety factor guarding against crack propagation is obtained from the ratio of the
fracture toughness of the material to the stress intensity factor calculated by Equation (6.4).
Solution:
From Table 6.1 on page 232, S
y
=325MPa and K
ci
=36MPa-m
1/2
. The safety factor guarding against
yielding is 2, therefore the nominal stress is one-half the yield strength, or σ
nom
=162.5MPa. The
stress intensity factor is therefore calculated from Equation (6.4) as
K
i
· Yσ
nom
πa · 1 ( ) 162.5MPa ( ) π 0.003m ( ) ·15.78MPa m
The safety factor against crack propagation is therefore
n
s
·
K
ci
K
i
·
36MPa m
15.78MPa m
· 2.28
Since the safety factor for yielding is lower than the safety factor guarding against crack
propagation, the safety factor for the pressure vessel is still 2.
6.16 The clamping screws holding the top lid of a nuclear reactor are made of AISI 4340 steel
tempered at 260°C. They are stressed to a maximum level of 1250MPa during a
pressurization test before starting the reactor. Find the safety factor guarding against
yielding and the safety factor guarding against crack propagation if the initial cracks in
the material have Y=1 and a=1mm. Also, do the calculations for the same material but
tempered to 425°C.
Notes: This problem is similar to the previous problem. Equation (6.4) is used to solve this
problem.
Solution:
I. AISI 4340 Tempered at 260°C
From Table 6.1 on page 232, S
y
=1640MPa and K
ci
=50MPa-m
1/2
. The safety factor against
yielding is therefore
n
s
·
S
y
σ
·
1640MPa
1250MPa
· 1.31
From Equation (6.4), the stress intensity factor is
K
i
· Yσ
nom
πa · 1 ( ) 1250MPa ( ) π 0.001m ( ) · 70.06 MPa m
The safety factor guarding against crack propagation is therefore
Page 6-9
n
s
·
K
ci
K
i
·
50MPa m
70.06MPa m
· 0.714
Since the safety factor is less than 1, the bolts will fail.
II. AISI 4340 Tempered at 435°C
From Table 6.1 on page 232, S
y
=1420MPa and K
ci
=87.4MPa-m
1/2
. Using the same equations, the
safety factor against yielding is n
s
=1.14, and the safety factor against crack propagation is
n
s
=1.25. Therefore, the bolts will not crack.
6.17 A glass tube used in a pressure vessel is made of aluminum oxide (sapphire) to make it
possible to apply 30MPa pressure and still have a safety factor of 2 guarding against
fracture. For a soda-lime glass of the same geometry only 7.5 MPa pressure can be
allowed if a safety factor of 2 is to be maintained. Find the size of the cracks the glass
tube can tolerate at 7.5MPa pressure and a safety factor of 2. Y=1 for both cases.
Notes: Material properties are obtained from Table A.3. As is shown in Chapter 9, the stress is
proportional to the pressure. Equation (6.4) is used to solve this problem.
Solution:
From Table A.3 on page 901, the fracture strength of soda-lime glass is 69MPa. The stresses in
the tube are directly proportional to the pressure, so the fracture strength of the aluminum oxide
tube is:
S
fa
p
a
·
S
fs
p
s
; S
fa
·
S
fs
p
a
p
s
·
69MPa ( ) 30MPa ( )
7.5MPa
· 276MPa
Note that this is on the low end of the fracture strength values given in Table A.3 for aluminum
oxide (Al
2
O
3
).
For a safety factor of 2, the applied stress is 276/2=138MPa. From Table 6.1 on page
232, using a low value of fracture toughness for Al
2
O
3
, use K
cia
=3.0MPa-m
1/2
. From Equation
(6.4),
K
i
·
K
ci
2
· Yσ
nom
πa; a ·
1
π
K
ci
2Yσ
nom
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
1
π
3.0MPa m
2 1 ( ) 138MPa ( )
¸
¸


_
,


2
· 3.76 ×10
−7
m · 37.6µm
For the soda lime glass, the lowest value of fracture toughness is K
ci
=0.7MPa-m
1/2
. The applied
stress is σ
nom
=69MPa/2=34.5MPa. The stress intensity factor is
K
i
·
K
ci
2
· Yσ
nom
πa; a ·
1
π
K
ci
2Yσ
nom
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
1
π
0.7MPa m
2 1 ( ) 34.5MPa ( )
¸
¸


_
,


2
· 3.28×10
−7
m · 32.8µm
Therefore, the largest crack in the aluminum oxide must be less than 2a or 75.2µm, while for
soda lime glass the largest crack must be smaller than 65.6µm.
6.18 A stress optic model used for demonstrating the stress concentrations at the ends of a
crack is made of polymethylmethacrylate. An artificially made crack 100mm long is
perpendicular to the loading direction. Y=1. Calculate the highest tensile stress that can be
applied to the model without propagating the crack.
Notes: Material properties are obtained from Table 6.1 and Table A-4. Equation (6.4) is used to
solve this problem.
Page 6-10
Solution:
From Table 6.1 on page 232, the critical stress intensity factor for polymethylmethacrylate is
K
ci
=1.0MPa-m
1/2
. From Equation (6.4) the stress when the crack propagates catastrophically is:
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa; σ
nom
·
K
ci
Y πa
·
1.0MPa m
1 ( ) π 0.1m ( )
· 1.78MPa
From Table A-4 on page 902, the ultimate strength is between 48 and 76 MPa. Therefore, the
crack will propagate at a stress far lower than the ultimate strength of the material.
6.19 A passengerless airplane requires wings that are lightweight and the prevention of cracks
more than 2mm long. The dimensionless geometry correction factor Y is usually 1.5 for a
safety factor of 2. What is the appropriate alloy for this application? If Y is increased to
4.5, what kind of alloy from Table 6.1 should be used?
Notes: Equation (6.4), combined with material properties from Table 6.1, allow solution of this
problem.
Solution:
To maintain a safety factor of 2, set σ
nom
=S
y
/2. Therefore, Equation (6.4) gives:
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa · 1.5 ( )
S
y
2
π 0.002m ( ) · 0.0594 m ( )S
y
From Table 6.1 on page 232, the following data is obtained:
Material
K
ci
/S
y
(m
1/2
)
Aluminum alloy, 2020-T351
Aluminum alloy, 7075-T651
Alloy steel 4340, tempered at 260°C
Alloy steel 4340, tempered at 425°C
Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V
0.111
0.0574
0.0305
0.0615
0.0483
Therefore, either Aluminum alloy 2020-T351 or Alloy steel 4340 tempered at 425°C would work.
For weight savings, the aluminum alloy is probably the better choice.
If Y=4.5, Equation (6.4) gives:
K
ci
· Yσ
nom
πa · 4.5 ( )
S
y
2
π 0.002m ( ) · 0.178 m ( )S
y
None of the materials in Table 6.1 would be acceptable for this case.
6.20 The anchoring of the cables carrying a suspension bridge are made of cylindrical AISI
1080 steel bars 210mm in diameter. The force transmitted from the cable to the steel bar
is 3.5 MN. Calculate the safety factor range guarding against yielding.
Notes: The material property is obtained from the inside front cover. Equation (3.13) gives a
range for allowable stresses in tension.
Solution:
From the inside front cover, the yield strength for AISI 1080 is S
y
=380MPa. The stress in the steel
bar is
Page 6-11
σ ·
P
A
·
3.5MN
π
4
0.21m ( )
2
· 101MPa
Since the safety factor is n
s

all
/σ, Equation (3.13) gives
0.45S
y
≤ σ
all
≤ 0.60S
y
;
0.45 S
y
σ
≤ n
s

0.60S
y
σ
;
0.45 380MPa ( )
101MPa
≤ n
s

0.60 380MPa ( )
101MPa
Therefore the safety factor is in the range of 1.69≤n
s
≤2.25
6.21 The arm of a crane has two steel plates connected with a rivet that transfers the force in
pure shear. The rivet is made of AISI 1040 steel and has a circular cross section with a
diameter of 25mm. The load on the rivet is 10kN. Calculate the safety factor.
Notes: Equation (3.14) gives the allowable stress in shear.
Solution:
The yield strength of AISI 1040 steel is obtained from the inside front cover as S
y
=350MPa. From
Equation (3.14),
t
all
=0.4S
y
=0.4(350MPa)=140MPa
The shear stress on the rivet is
τ ·
P
A
·
10kN
π
4
0.025m ( )
2
¸
¸

_
,

· 20.37MPa
Therefore, the safety factor is:
n
s
·
τ
all
τ
·
140MPa
20.37MPa
· 6.87
6.22 A telescope stands on four feet, each carrying a load of 200kN. The feet are made of AISI
1020 steel, and the floor is a thick plate of AISI 1080 steel on a concrete base. Calculate
how large the diameter of the feet needs to be if they are circular and flat. The safety
factor is 2.5.
Notes: This problem is straightforward. Equation (3.16) gives the allowable stress.
Solution:
From the inside front cover, the yield strength of AISI 1020 steel is S
y
=295MPa, and for AISI
1080 the yield strength is 380MPa. Since the floor is stronger than the feet, the floor doesn’t have
to be analyzed - it will have a higher safety factor than the feet.
From Equation (3.16), the allowable stress is σ
all
=0.9S
y
=0.9(295MPa)=265.5MPa. Since
the safety factor is 2.5, the design stress is σ
d

all
/n
s
=(265.5MPa)/2.5=106.2MPa. Therefore, the
diameter of the feet is obtained from:
σ ·
P
A
·
4P
πd
2
; d ·
4P
πσ
·
4 200kN ( )
π 106.2MPa (
)
· 0.049m· 49mm
Page 6-12
6.23 A machine element is loaded so that the principal normal stresses at the critical location
for a biaxial stress state are σ
1
=20ksi and σ
2
=-15ksi. The material is ductile with a yield
strength of 60ksi. Find the safety factor according to
a) The maximum shear stress theory (MSST)
b) The distortion-energy theory (DET)
Notes: Equation (6.6) is used to obtain the safety factor for the MSST. Equation (6.11) gives the
safety factor for the DET after the von Mises stress is calculated from Equation (6.9). If the stress
is biaxial, then one principal stress is zero.
Solution:
First of all, since the stress state is biaxial, then one normal stress is zero. Therefore, the three
principle stresses are properly referred to as σ
1
=20ksi, σ
2
=0 and σ
3
=-15ksi, since σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. For
the maximum shear stress theory, Equation (6.6) gives the safety factor as:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
60ksi
20ksi +15ksi ( )
· 1.714
The von Mises stress is obtained from Equation (6.9) as:
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
2
− σ
1
( )
2
+ σ
3
− σ
1
( )
2
+ σ
3
−σ
2
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
−20ksi ( )
2
+ −35ksi ( )
2
+ 15ksi ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
or σ
e
=30.4ksi. Therefore, the safety factor is, from Equation (6.11),
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
60ksi
30.4ksi
· 1.97
6.24 A glass bottle is filled with a liquid having a compressibility similar to (~1% lower than)
the compressibility of the glass. To what depth within an ocean can the bottle be lowered
without cracking.
Notes: Equations (6.9) is used to solve the problem.
Solution.
If the pressure in the glass is hydrostatic, then σ
1

2

3
=-p, and Equation (6.10) gives
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
2
−σ
1
( )
2
+ σ
3
−σ
1
( )
2
+ σ
3
−σ
2
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
−p + p ( )
2
+ − p + p ( )
2
+ − p + p ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
· 0
Therefore, there is no limit to the depth that the bottle can be lowered (and is also the reason
rocks are not pulverized at the bottom of the ocean or inside the earth’s crust).
6.25 A bolt is tightened, subjecting its shank to a tensile stress of 80ksi and a torsional shear
stress of 50ksi at a critical point. All the other stresses are zero. Find the safety factor tat
the critical point by the DET and the MSST. The material is high-carbon steel (AISI
1080). Will the bolt fail because of the static loading?
Notes: Equations (2.16), (6.6), (6.10), and (6.11) are used to solve this problem.
Solution:
Page 6-13
From the inside front cover, the yield stress for AISI 1080 steel is 55ksi. Directions are arbitrary;
let’s refer to the tensile stress as σ
x
=80ksi and the shear stress as τ
xy
=50ksi. Since all other
stresses are zero, Equation (2.16) gives the principal stresses as
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
80ksi
2
t 50ksi ( )
2
+
80ksi
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
or σ
1
=104ksi, σ
2
=-24ksi. Note that the other stresses are zero, so the principal stress out of the
plane of the normal and shear stresses is zero. Putting the stresses in the proper order (σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
),
we assign them the values σ
1
=104ksi, σ
2
=0ksi, σ
3
=-24ksi. From Equation (6.6),
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
55ksi
104ksi − −24ksi (
)
· 0.43
which is the safety factor for the maximum shear stress theory. Equation (6.9) gives
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
104ksi − 0 ( )
2
+ 104ksi + 24ksi ( )
2
+ 0 + 24ksi ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
· 118ksi
From Equation (6.11),
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
55ksi
118ksi
· 0.47
Since the safety factor is less than one for both cases, both cases predict failure.
6.26 A torque is applied to a piece of chalk used in a classroom until the chalk cracks. Using
the maximum normal stress theory (MNST) and assuming the tensile strength of the
chalk to be small relative to its compressive strength, determine the angle of the cross
section at which the chalk cracks.
Notes: Given the loading condition, the angle of the largest tensile stress is obtained from
Equation (2.15). Based on the MNST, failure will occur at this angle.
Solution:
For pure torque, the stress state is τ
xy
=τ and σ
x

y
=0. The angle of the largest tensile stress, φ
σ
, is
given by Equation (2.15) as:
t a n 2φ
σ
·

xy
σ
x
− σ
y
·

xy
0
· ∞
Therefore, φ
σ
=45°. The chalk will crack along a 45° angle from its circumference.
6.27 A cantilevered bar 500mm long with square cross section has 25mm sides. Three
perpendicular forces are applied to its free end, a 100-N force is applied in the y and z-
directions, and a force of 1000N is applied in the x-direction (bar axis). Calculate the
equivalent stress at the clamped end of the bar by using the DET when the sides of the
square cross section are parallel with the y and z directions.
Notes: The stresses are largest at the corners, where the total stress is the sum of two bending
stresses and the axial stress. The effective stress is obtained from Equation (6.9).
Solution:
Page 6-14
The moment of inertia for the cross section is:
I ·
bh
3
12
·
a
4
12
·
0.025m ( )
4
12
· 3.255 × 10
−8
m
4
The cross sectional area is A=a
2
=(0.025m)
2
=6.25x10
-4
m
2
. Since the bar is cantilevered, the
loading is a combined situation of two bending moments and one axial load. The perpendicular
moments are M
1
=M
2
=Fl=(100N)(0.5m)=50Nm. The axial load is 1000N. Therefore, the
maximum stress occurs at a corner of the cross section, and is the sum of the stresses due to the
three loads. Therefore,
σ
x
·
M
1
c
I
+
M
2
c
I
+
P
A
· 2
50Nm ( ) 0.0125m ( )
3.255 × 10
−8
m
4
+
1000N
6.25 ×10
−4
m
2
· 40.00MPa
There is no stress in the y- or z-directions. Also, at the outside edge of the bar, the shear stress is
zero (see page 169). Therefore, σ
1
=40.00MPa, σ
2

3
=0. From Equation (6.9), the von Mises
stress is
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
40MPa ( )
2
+ 40MPa ( )
2
+ 0 ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
This is evaluated as σ
e
=40MPa.
6.28 A shaft transmitting torque from the gearbox to a rear axle of a truck is unbalanced, so
that a certrifugal load of 500N acts at the middle of the 3m-long shaft. The AISI 1040
tubular steel shaft has an outer diameter of 70mm and an inner diameter of 58mm.
Simultaneously, the shaft transmits a torque of 6000Nm. Use the DET to determine the
safety factor guarding against yielding.
Notes: The moment must be determined, which then allows for calculation of the bending stress.
The torque results in a shear stress; this combined stress state is then transformed to obtain the
principal stresses. Equations (6.9) and (6.11) are then used to solve the problem.
Solution:
From the inside front cover, the yield strength of AISI 1040 steel is S
y
=350MPa. The moment of
inertia for the shaft is:
I ·
π
64
d
o
4
− d
i
4
( )
·
π
64
0.070m ( )
4
− 0.058m ( )
4
( )
· 6.23 ×10
−7
m
4
Similarly, J=1.246x10
-6
m
4
. For a simply supported shaft, the maximum moment occurs at the
center of the shaft and has the value M=Pl/4=(500N)(3m)/4=375Nm. Therefore, the bending
stress is obtained from Equation (4.48) as:
σ
x
·
Mc
I
·
375Nm ( ) 0.035m ( )
6.23 ×10
−7
m
4
· 21.07MPa
The shear stress due to the torque is given by Equation (4.34) as:
τ
xy
·
Tc
J
·
6000Nm ( ) 0.035m ( )
1.246 × 10
−6
m
4
·168.5MPa
Also, σ
y

z

zx

yz
=0. Therefore, from Equation (2.16),
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
21.07MPa
2
t 168.5MPa ( )
2
+
21.07MPa
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
Therefore, σ
1
=179.4MPa, σ
2
=0, and σ
3
=-158.3MPa. Note that the principal stresses have been
renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
Page 6-15
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
179.4MPa − 0 ( )
2
+ 179.4 MPa + 158.3MPa ( )
2
+ 158.3MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·292.6 MPa
From Equation (6.11),
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
350MPa
292.6MPa
· 1.196
6.29 The right-angle-cantilevered bracket used in Problem 5.30, sketch w, has a concentrated
force of 1000N and a torque of 300Nm. Calculate the safety factor. Use the DET and
neglect transverse shear. Assume that the bracket is made of AISI 1040 steel and use the
following values: a=0.5m, b=0.3m, d=0.035m, E=205GPa, and ν=0.3.
Notes: The stresses must be determined using the approach described in Chapter 4. From the
stress state, the principal stresses are determined. Equation (6.6) gives the safety factor for the
Maximum Shear Stress Theory, and Equations (6.9) and (6.11) give the safety factor for the
Distortion-Energy Theory.
Solution:
From the inside front cover, S
y
=350MPa for AISI 1040 steel. The moment of inertia of the
bracket cross section is:
I ·
π
64
d
4
·
π
64
0.035m ( )
4
· 7.366 × 10
−8
m
4
Similarly, J=1.4732x10
-7
m
4
. The maximum stress for the bracket occurs at the wall (x=a). The
loading is a bending moment and a torque. The moment is due to the applied torque T and the
load P, and is
M=Pa+T=(1000N)(0.5m)+300Nm=800Nm
Therefore, the bending stress is obtained from Equation (4.48) as:
σ
x
·
Mc
I
·
800Nm ( ) 0.0175m ( )
7.366 ×10
−8
m
4
· 190MPa
At the wall, there is a torque of T=Pb=(1000N)(0.3m)=300Nm. The shear stress due to the torque
is given by Equation (4.34) as:
τ
xy
·
Tc
J
·
300Nm ( ) 0.0175m ( )
1.4732 × 10
−7
m
4
· 35.6MPa
Also, σ
y

z

zx

yz
=0. Therefore, from Equation (2.16),
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
190MPa
2
t 35.6MPa ( )
2
+
190 MPa
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
Therefore, σ
1
=196MPa, σ
2
=0, and σ
3
=-6.45MPa. Note that the principal stresses have been
renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. From Equation (6.6), the safety factor for MSST is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
350MPa
196MPa + 6.45MPa
·1.73
Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
Page 6-16
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
196MPa − 0 ( )
2
+ 196MPa + 6.45MPa ( )
2
+ 6.45MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1/ 2
· 199MPa
From Equation (6.11), the safety factor for DET is:
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
350MPa
199MPa
·1.76
6.30 A 10-cm diameter shaft is subjected to a 10kNm steady bending moment, an 8kN-m
steady torque, and a 150kN axial force. The yield strength of the shaft material is
600MPa. Use the MSST and the DET to determine the safety factors for the various types
of loading.
Notes: This is similar to problems 6.28 and 6.29, but now a stress due to the axial force must be
included. From the stress state, the principal stresses are determined. Equation (6.6) gives the
safety factor for the Maximum Shear Stress Theory, and Equations (6.9) and (6.11) give the
safety factor for the Distortion-Energy Theory.
Solution:
The moment of inertia of the shaft cross section is:
I ·
π
64
d
4
·
π
64
0.10m ( )
4
· 4.909 × 10
−6
m
4
Similarly, J=9.817x10
-6
m
4
. The area of the cross section is πd
2
/4=0.00785m
2
. The bending stress
is obtained from Equation (4.48) as:
σ
x
·
Mc
I
·
10kNm ( ) 0.05m ( )
4.909 × 10
−6
m
4
·101.8MPa
The normal stress due to the axial load is
σ
x
·
P
A
·
150kN
0.00785m
2
· 19.10MPa
Therefore, the maximum normal stress is σ
x
=101.8MPa+19.10MPa=120.9MPa. The shear stress
due to the torque is given by Equation (4.34) as:
τ
xy
·
Tc
J
·
8kNm ( ) 0.05m ( )
9.817 ×10
−6
m
4
· 40.7MPa
Also, σ
y

z

zx

yz
=0. Therefore, from Equation (2.16),
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
120.9MPa
2
t 40.7MPa ( )
2
+
120.9 MPa
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
Therefore, σ
1
=133.3MPa, σ
2
=0, and σ
3
=-12.42MPa. Note that the principal stresses have been
renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. From Equation (6.6), the safety factor for MSST is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
600MPa
133.3MPa + 12.42MPa
· 4.12
Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
133.3MPa − 0 ( )
2
+ 133.3MPa + 12.42MPa ( )
2
+ 12.42 MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·140MPa
Page 6-17
From Equation (6.11), the safety factor for DET is:
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
600MPa
140MPa
· 4.28
6.31 Use the MSST and the DET to determine the safety factor for 2024 aluminum alloys for
each of the following stress states:
a) σ
x
=10MPa, σ
y
=-60MPa
b) σ
x

y

xy
=-30MPa
c) σ
x
=-σ
y
=20MPa and τ
xy
=10MPa
d) σ
x
=2σ
y
=-70MPa, and τ
xy
=40MPa
Notes: This problem does not require determination of the stresses as in Problems 6.28 through
6.30, but uses the same approach. From the stress state, the principal stresses are determined.
Equation (6.6) gives the safety factor for the Maximum Shear Stress Theory, and Equations (6.9)
and (6.11) give the safety factor for the Distortion-Energy Theory.
Solution:
From Table 6.1, the yield strength for 2024-T351 is S
y
=325MPa.
For σ
x
=10MPa, σ
y
=-60MPa, note that there are no shear stresses. Therefore, we can
directly write the principal stresses as σ
1
=10MPa, σ
2
=0MPa and σ
3
=-60MPa. Note that the
principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. From Equation (6.6), the safety factor
for MSST is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
325MPa
10MPa + 60MPa
· 4.64
Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
10MPa − 0 ( )
2
+ 10MPa + 60MPa ( )
2
+ 60MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·65.57MPa
From Equation (6.11), the safety factor for DET is:
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
325MPa
65.57MPa
· 4.96
For σ
x

y

xy
=-30MPa, Equation (2.16) gives
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
−30MPa − 30MPa
2
t 30MPa ( )
2
+ 0 ( )
2
Therefore, σ
1
=0MPa, σ
2
=0MPa and σ
3
=-60MPa. Note that the principal stresses have been
renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. From Equation (6.6), the safety factor for MSST is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
325MPa
0MPa + 60MPa
· 5.42
Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
0 + 60MPa ( )
2
+ 60MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1/ 2
· 60MPa
From Equation (6.11), the safety factor for DET is:
Page 6-18
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
325MPa
60MPa
· 5.42
For σ
x
=-σ
y
=20MPa and τ
xy
=10MPa, Equation (2.16) gives
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
20MPa − 20MPa
2
t 10MPa ( )
2
+
20MPa + 20MPa
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
Therefore, σ
1
=22.36MPa, σ
2
=0MPa and σ
3
=-22.36MPa. Note that the principal stresses have
been renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. From Equation (6.6), the safety factor for MSST is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
325MPa
22.36MPa + 22.36MPa
· 7.27
Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
22.36MPa − 0 ( )
2
+ 22.36 MPa + 22.36 MPa ( )
2
+ 22.36MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
· 38.73MPa
From Equation (6.11), the safety factor for DET is:
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
325MPa
38.73MPa
· 8.39
For σ
x
=2σ
y
=-70MPa, and τ
xy
=40MPa, Equation (2.16) gives
σ
1
, σ
2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
−70MPa − 35MPa
2
t 40MPa ( )
2
+
−70MPa + 35MPa
2
¸
¸

_
,

2
Therefore, σ
1
=0MPa, σ
2
=-8.84MPa and σ
3
=-96.16MPa. Note that the principal stresses have
been renumbered so that σ
1
≥σ
2
≥σ
3
. From Equation (6.6), the safety factor for MSST is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
1
− σ
3
·
325MPa
0MPa + 96.16MPa
· 3.38
Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
8.84MPa ( )
2
+ 96.16MPa ( )
2
+ −8.84MPa + 96.16MPa ( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
· 92.06MPa
From Equation (6.11), the safety factor for DET is:
σ
e
·
S
y
n
s
; n
s
·
S
y
σ
e
·
325MPa
92.06MPa
· 3.53
6.32 Four different stress elements, each of the same material, are loaded as shown in sketches
e,f,g,h. Use the MSST and the DET to determine which element is the most critical.
Page 6-19
Notes: Equations (2.16), (6.6), (6.10), and (6.11) are used to solve this problem.
Solution:
(e) σ
1
=21MPa, σ
2
=0, σ
3
=-21MPa. Therefore, from Eq. 6.6: σ
1

3
=42MPa. Also, from Eq. 6.9,
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
2
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
3
−σ
1
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
· 36MPa
(f) σ
1
=28.5 MPa, σ
2
=0, σ
3
=-7.5MPa. Thus, σ
1

3
=36MPa. Also,
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
2
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
3
−σ
1
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
· 33MPa
(g) σ
1
=30MPa, σ
2
=30MPa, σ
3
=0. Thus, σ
1

3
=30MPa. Also σ
e
=30MPa.
(h) σ
x
=30MPa, σ
y
=0, τ
xy
=-10MPa. Therefore, from Equation (2.16), σ
1
=33MPa, σ
2
=0, σ
3
=-
3.02MPa. Therefore, σ
1

3
=36.02MPa, σ
e
=31.6 MPa.
This shows that the stress state in (e) is the largest.
6.33 The rod shown in sketch i is made of AISI 1040 steel
and has two 90° bends. Use the MSST and the DET to
determine the minimum rod diameter for a safety factor of 2 at
the most critical section.
Notes: Recognizing that the critical section is at the wall, the
component stresses can be expressed as functions of the rod
diameter. Applying MSST or DET gives an expression that can
be solved for d.
Solution:
The yield strength for AISI 1040 is obtained from the inside front cover as 350MPa. The critical
section is at the wall; the rod is slender so transverse shear effects will be ignored. The 8kN load
causes a torque equal to T
1
=8kN(0.75m)=6kNm, and bending moment M
x1
=8kN(0.3m)=2.4kNm.
The 10kN load causes axial normal stress, a bending moment M
z1
=10kN(0.75m)=7.5kNm and a
bending moment M
x2
=10kN(0.05m)=500Nm, which is in the opposite direction as M
x1
. The 75kN
Page 6-20
load causes torque equal to T
2
=-75kN(0.05m)=3.75kNm (in the opposite direction as T
1
) and a
bending moment M
z2
=75kN(0.3m)=22.5kNm, which is in the opposite direction as M
z1
.
Therefore, the bar sees the following: M
x
=M
x1
-M
x2
=1.9kNm, M
z
=22.5kNm-7.5kNm=15kNm, and
T=T
1
-T
2
=6kNm-3.75kNm=2.25kNm. Therefore, the moment at the wall is
M · M
x
2
+ M
z
2
· 1.9kNm ( )
2
+ 15kNm ( )
2
· 15.12kNm
The normal stress is therefore
σ ·
Mc
I
+
P
A
·
10kN
π
4
d
2
+
15.12kNm ( ) d / 2 ( )
π
64
d
4
·
12.73 kN
d
2
+
154kNm
d
3
·
12.73kN ( )d + 154kNm
d
3
The shear stress is:
τ ·
Tc
J
·
2.25kNm ( ) d / 2 ( )
π
32
d
4
·
11.46kNm
d
3
Equation (2.16) gives
σ
1

2
·
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
t τ
xy
2
+
σ
x
− σ
y
2
¸
¸


_
,


2
·
1
d
3
6.365kN ( )d + 77kNm [ ] t 11.46kNm ( )
2
+ 6.365kN ( )d + 77kNm ( )
2 ¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
It can be shown that unless d is in the millions of meters, that one of these stresses will be
positive, and the other negative. Therefore, for MSST, Equation (6.6) is:
σ
1
− σ
3
·
S
y
n
s
=
350MPa
2
· 175MPa
Substituting for the stresses and solving yields d=0.0964m. Therefore, a 0.10m or 100mm
diameter cross section is a good design designation. For DET, Equations (6.9) and (6.11) give:
σ
e
·
1
2
σ
1
− σ
2
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
2
−σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
1
2
σ
1
( )
2
+ σ
1
− σ
3
( )
2
+ σ
3
( )
2
[ ]
1 / 2
·
S
y
n
s
· 175MPa
This is solved numerically as d=0.0963m. Therefore, a 0.10m or 100mm diameter cross section is
still acceptable.
6.34 The shaft shown in shetch j is made of AISI 1020 steel. Determine the most critical
section by using the MSST and the DET. Dimensions of the various diameters shown in sketch j
are d=30mm, D=45mm, and d
2
=40mm.
Notes:
This problem requires the incorporation of stress concentration effects into the component
stresses before determining the principal stresses.
Page 6-21
Solution:
First, considering the location of stress concentration 80 mm from the wall:
J ·
π
32
d
4
·
π
32
0.040m ( )
4
· 7.95 × 10
−8
m
4
I ·
J
2
· 3.98 × 10
−8
m
4
,
A=πd
2
/4=7.07x10
-4
m
2
.
Also, from statics, V=10kN, M=0.4kNm, N=100kN, T=500Nm. The bottom location is critical,
since the bending and tensile stresses are additive at this location. Also, there is no shear stress
due to shear at the extreme location. The stress concentration due to bending is obtained from
Fig. 6.5(b) as 1.4, while for tension it is K
c
=1.55 from Fig. 6.5(a). The stress concentration for
torsion is K
c
=1.2 from Fig. 6.5(c). Therefore, σ
1
=458MPa and σ
2
=-28MPa.
For the location 40 mm from the wall, N=100kN, M=0.8kNm T=500Nm,
K
c
(bending)=1.45, K
c
(tension)=1.5, K
c
(torsion)=1.2 (all from Fig. 6.6). Therefore, σ
1
=312MPa
and σ
2
=-7.6.
This means that the critical location is 80mm from the wall, as the stresses are higher.

Notes: The exact hole locations have not been specified, so some variation may occur with assumed dimensions. Also, the two-hole case does not correspond to a particular chart in Figure 6.1 through 6.6. However, it is possible to obtain a reasonable solution from the existing data. For a critical application, more advanced approaches, such as finite element analysis, would be necessary. See also Problem 6.6. Solution: It will be assumed that the top and bottom halves of the plate are symmetric about the centerline, and that the holes are placed in the center of each half of the plate. The locations where the largest stress could occur are A and B in the sketch. Considering the top half of the problem leads to: Here the diameter to width ratio is 0.4, so Kc is around 2.2 from Figure 6.2(a). Note that this is true for point A but not point B in the figure above. Because of St. Venant’s Principal, we must be concerned about the stress concentrations interacting between the two holes. For B, take a section through the hole diameters to yield: Here H=b/2, h=b/2-d, r/h=(d/2)/(b/2-d)=0.1b/(0.5b-0.2b)=0.33. Therefore, Kc is just under 2.0 from Figure 6.4(a). Therefore, the larger stress concentration is Kc=2.2 and point A is more important than point B. For the single hole, Figure 6.2 (a) gives a stress concentration of Kc=2.2 (d/b=0.4). Therefore, either design is expected to fail at the same stress.

6.4

A load-carrying beam is loaded with a bending moment M. The minor beam height is h and the width in the perpendicular direction is b. This beam, which carries a balcony on the wall of a house, is welded together with a beam in the house structure. That beam has a major height H. Because of manufacturing problems the radius r of the connections cannot be made larger than rmax but can be made smaller, down to zero. Find how the load-carrying beam should be placed on the house beam to give maximum strength.

Notes: Design recommendations arise from studying Figure 6.3 (b). Solution: From Figure 6.3 (b), the stick-out H/h should be small to give a low stress concentration factor. Also, the radius to height ratio should be as large as possible. The optimum configuration is to have the small beam flush with the top side of the large beam which gives zero stress concentration.

Page 6-2

2 can obviously be used to solve the problem.6 A rectangular plate has a central hole. For the new.2(a) is used with d/b=(10mm)/(50mm)=0. The problem can be approximated by Figure 6.15 and D/d=1. thereby approximating the loading case in Figure 6.3 %error = ×100% = 8% 2. Page 6-3 . one transmits a bending torque. there are not two matching fillets on opposite sides. An alternative approach is to cut the beam in half across the center of the hole. with the same root diameter. One of the shafts transmits a tensile force.5.4 if the plate is sectioned. H=b=50mm. Solution: For r/d=0. each with fillets giving stress concentrations.25 for torsion (from Figure 6. sectioned geometry.3. Since the stress concentration factors are higher for the proposed redesign.4(a). This solution compares the results of both approaches. However. H/h=(50mm)/(40mm)=1. Note that there are differences.325 for torsion. it is not a good idea. How large will the safety factors be for the three shafts if the diameter ratio is 2 (D/d=2)? Notes: Figure 6.4(a). If instead of a fillet the bar became a groove. Determine whether that is a good idea.2. The plate is axially loaded with a force P=1500N.5 and 6. Because they are stressed exactly to the stress limit (ns=1). Notes: Figures 6. and the loading is complicated by the presence of a Poisson effect in the original geometry.15 and D/d=1.5. and r/h=(5mm)/(40mm)=0.5 6.5. The bar transmits both bending moment and torque. The ratio of fillet radius to shaft diameter is 0. and one transmits torsion.2? Notes: Figure 6.6.5 (b)) and about 1. and serves as a useful comparison for the alternate technique. then reassembling the two sections so the holes are on the exterior.6 are used to obtain the solution.5 − 2. Kc is around 2. Therefore. 6. and the minor height of the plate is h=5mm. Kc=2. a design change is proposed doubling the notch radii to get a safety factor greater than 1. Is it possible to find the stress concentration factor for the plate without using Figure 6. then the stress concentrations are obtained from Figure 6.65 for bending and 1.125.25. if Figure 6. the two should be fairly close.6 (b) and (c). r=d/2=5mm. From Figure 6.5 is used to solve this problem.7 A machine has three circular shafts.5 for bending (from Figure 6. A new construction is considered to make the shaft stiffer and stronger by making it equally thick on each side of the fillet or groove.5 A round bar has a fillet with r/d=0. The error between the two cases is: 2. Solution: First of all. The new stress concentration factors are around 1.5(c)). h=(bd)=(50mm-10mm)=40mm. The width of the plate is b=50mm and the diameter of the hole is d=10mm. the stress concentrations for bending is just over 1.1 for all three shafts.

2  σ x − σ y  2 4315MPa σx + σ y 2  4315MPa  2 σ1. torsional. then r/d=0. If r is doubled. The stress concentration factors are obtained from Figures 6.7 ns = = 1.03m )2 ( 0.19 1. Assign the x-axis to the rod axis.65. and corresponds to the original case. Note that the shear stress due to shear is zero at the extreme fibers where the stresses are largest.17 1. For D/d=2 and r/d=0.2 and Kc=1.2 and Kc=1.4MPa ) +    = 2 2 2  2    Page 6-4 . For D/d=2 and r/d=0.7. and bending loads.0 and 1.0.43. Determine the principal stresses at the location of stress concentration.45) = 27. then r/d=0. Kc=1.16) gives the principal stresses.1.5(b) is used to obtain the stress concentration factors.33 Therefore.22.8 The shaft shown in sketch c is subjected to tensile.75) = 4315MPa π π A I (0.Solution: For the shaft under tension. the new safety factor is 1.5(a) is used to obtain the stress concentration factors. the new safety factor is 2 ns = = 1. 6. If r is doubled.75 are obtained from Figure 6.65 For the shaft under bending.5(c) is used to obtain the stress concentration factors. The shear stress is Tc (100Nm )(0.030m )4 4 64 where the stress concentration factors of 2.015m) σ x = Kc1 + K c2 = (2.015m) τ = Kc = (1. Figure 6.43 ns = = 1. and a shear stress due to torsion. Since the original design was fully stressed. If r is doubled. For D/d=2 and r/d=0. Figure 6. Since the original design was fully stressed. Kc=1. Since the original design was fully stressed. The critical location is at the bottom where the bending and axial stresses are both tensile.030m ) 32 Equation (2.5 (a) and (b). Kc=2.4MPa π J 4 ( 0.17 and corresponds to the torsion-loaded shaft. Solution: The rod will see normal stresses due to axial loads and bending. the new safety factor is 1. the lowest safety factor is ns=1.43. and corresponds to the original case.1.σ 2 = ± τ xy +    ± ( 27. Notes: This problem can be easily solved through the principal of superposition.130m) ( 0.2 and Kc=1.43 For the shaft under torsion. then r/d=0.5 (a) and (b). Figure 6.1.21 1. The normal stress is given by: P Mc 10kN (50kN )( 0. and corresponds to the original case.0 ) + (1.

6.235m − d This should be equated to the maximum allowable stress.235m − 0. A hole is to be punched in the center of the plate. From Figure 6.2 (a).235m − = 0. d = 0.2(a)): K P Kca (150kN ) 6MN / m σ a = ca = = K (b − d )h (0. we could have taken σx as a principal direction.2 (b).426.123m 152MPa This is close to the assumed value. and is equated to the allowable stress. Therefore.16 and Kcb=1. the allowable stress is given by Equation (3. Therefore.4.16) as: σall=0.88MN / m) Kcb (6MN / m )K ca + ( 2. since the safety factor is 1.120m 152MPa Therefore. and d/h=100/25=4.235m −d Kcb (b − d )h ( 0. If we now use d=0. then d/h=120/25=4.or σ1=4315MPa and σ2=-0. Solution: From the inside front cover. Therefore.025m ) Therefore. Kcb=1.5? Notes: Equation (3.9 A steel plate with dimensions shown in sketch d is subjected to a 150kN tensile force and 300Nm bending moment.4) d = 0. the allowable stress for this problem is 228MPa/1. The stress associated with axial tension is (see Figure 6.511.235m − d )( 0. The normal stress is the sum of the bending stress and the axial normal stress.88MN / m )K cb = 152MPa. this equation would predict (6MN / m)(2. This gives an equation in terms of the hole diameter and the stress concentration factors in tension and bending which can be solved iteratively.16) + ( 2.88MN /m )(1. and closer agreement between assumed and calculated values is difficult because of the resolution of Figures 6.235m − d 152MPa Assume d=100mm. Note that the shear stress is very small compared to the normal stress.2(a) and 6.235m − = 0. AISI steel has a yield strength of Sy=380MPa.2 and From Figure 6.46.88MN / m )(1.6(380MPa)=228MPa However.8 and d/b=120/235=0.17MPa. Therefore.235m − d ca The stress associated with bending is (see Figure 6.6Sy=0. Kca=2. (6MN / m)(2.2 ) + (2. The plate is made of AISI 1080 steel and is kept at 20°C. of σmax=152MPa. since the other variables needed for their definition are fixed. the maximum stress is: (6MN / m )Kca + (2. so that d/b=(100mm)/(235mm)=0.88MN / m σb = 2 = 2 = 0.025m) 0.88MN /m )Kcb σ max = σ a + σ b = 0.46 ) d = 0. the initial value was too small.2(b).2(b)): 6Kcb M 6Kcb (300Nm) 2. this equation can be iteratively solved.235m − d )( 0.5= 152MPa.120m=120mm. What is the maximum diameter of the hole for a safety factor of 1.5. Page 6-5 . Note that Kca and Kcb are functions of only d.16) gives the allowable stress in bending. Note that we can re-write the equation as: (6MN / m) Kca + ( 2. This gives Kca=2.

3 mm.3Yσnom πa1 . The nominal stress that can be sustained is then given by Equation (6. The wall thickness is such that the tensile stress in the material is 1100MPa. At a temper of 425°C.1. and Y=1.4). Therefore.0mm.) 6. Equation 6. 6. Solution: The nominal stress is given as σnom=1100MPa.1 on page 232. the fracture toughness is 50MPam1/2.3Yσnom πa1 1.4): 2 1  K ci    Kci = Yσ nom πa.4) is used to solve this problem. Kci = 1.6. The critical crack length is derived from Eq.69a1 Therefore.10 A Plexiglass plate with dimensions 1m x 1m x 1cm is loaded by a nominal tensile stress of 55MPa in one direction. a 2 = 1. (6. Find how high a stress each rod can sustain if there is a 2-mm crack half length in each of them.12 Two tensile test rods are made of AISI 4340 steel tempered at 260°C and aluminum alloy 2024-T351.4 is used to solve the problem.3 against crack propagation is obtained. the crack can be 69% larger before catastrophic failure occurs.a =  π  Yσ nom   From Table 6.3 For the second case.32 a1 = 1. The critical crack length is 4. Solution: For the first case. Find how much larger the crack can get before it grows catastrophically. Notes: Equation (6. (Note: a is one-half the crack length.11 A pressure container is made of AISI 4340 steel. The plate contains a small crack perpendicular to the load direction. Equation (6. The dimensionless geometry correction factor Y=1. Find how big the largest crack can be without failure if the steel is tempered a) at 260°C b) at 425°C Notes: The material properties as a function of temper temperature is obtained from Table 6. the critical crack length is 1. Solution: Page 6-6 . The dimensionless geometry correction factor Y=1 for the given geometry. At this stress level a safety factor of 1.4) gives: Kci = Yσ nom πa1 . the safety factor would be unity so that: Kci = Yσ nom πa2 Substituting for Kci: Yσ nom πa2 = 1. Notes: The fracture toughness for these materials is obtained from Table 6. at a temper of 260°C.1.

σnom>Sy. the nominal stress must exceed the yield strength of the material.From Table 6.4) as: K 50. Also. then the nominal stress will be larger than the yield strength.4) is used to solve the problem with data from Table 6.001m.4 1/2 MPam .14 A plexiglass model of a gear has a 1-mm crack half-length formed in its fillet curve (where the tensile stress is maximum). respectively. Equation (6.4) predicts the nominal stress level as: Page 6-7 .0 and 87. How large can the largest crack in the material be if it still should be possible to plastically deform the plate in tension? Notes: To plastically deform the plate. so it may be possible to support a load 87. Kci for AISI 4340 is 50. from Equation (6. it is possible that the steel will plastically deform at a lower stress than that needed to propogate the crack. How much higher a load can a gear made of AISI 4340 steel tempered to 425°C carry with the same crack and the same geometry? Notes: Equation (6. so for a constant crack size a and correction factor Y the load possible is directly proportional to Kci. the fracture toughnesses for plexiglass and steel are 1. For Al 2024-T351.002 ) For the Al 2024-T351. a =  Y πa π  YS y  π  (1)( 910 MPa)      Since Kci has a value between 44-66MPam .0MPam . The model is loaded until the crack starts to propagate. the yield strength is 910MPa.002 ) 1/2 6.1 on page 232.488mm in length). Therefore.744mm in half-length (1.σ nom = ci = = 454MPa Y πa (1) π (0. Therefore. Equation (6. the stress in the steel is given by Equation (6.σ nom = ci = = 631MPa Y πa (1) π (0.1. then a has a range of a≤0.1 on page 232. Y=1.0MPa Kci = Yσ nom πa. With a=1mm=0. or. σnom = ci ≥ Sy Y πa Solving for a. Therefore.744-1. Therefore. However. Solution: From Table 6.5. For a gear. This solution makes sure that the steel does not plastically deform before catastrophic crack propagation occurs. 2 2 K ci 1  K ci  1 Kci  =   ≥ Sy . Kci for steel is 87.67mm. the bending stress is directly proportional to the applied load. 1/2 6. K 36.0 MPa Kci = Yσ nom πa. the fracture toughness for Ti-6Al-4V varies from 44-66 MPam . K Kci = Yσ nom πa.13 A plate made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has the dimensionless correction factor Y=1.1 on page 232. if the largest crack is below 0. Solution: 1/2 From Table 6. Kci is 1/2 36MPam . To plastically deform the material.4) solves the problem.4 times larger.4 times larger than for plexiglass.4).

4) as Ki = Yσ nom πa = (1)(162. Solution: 1/2 From Table 6. or σnom=162. Equation (6. σnom = 6.78MPa m The safety factor against crack propagation is therefore K 36MPa m ns = ci = = 2.001m ) Table 6. the nominal stress level needed for crack propagation is not sufficient to cause plastic deformation. Notes: This problem is similar to the previous problem. Kci = Yσ nom πa.001m) = 70.15 A pressure container made of aluminum alloy 2024-T351 is manufactured for a safety factor of 2 guarding against yielding.78MPa m Since the safety factor for yielding is lower than the safety factor guarding against crack propagation.16 The clamping screws holding the top lid of a nuclear reactor are made of AISI 4340 steel tempered at 260°C. Therefore. the stress intensity factor is Ki = Yσ nom πa = (1)(1250MPa ) π (0. Y=1.28 Ki 15. Sy=1640MPa and Kci=50MPa-m .4).06 MPa m The safety factor guarding against crack propagation is therefore Page 6-8 . Also. The safety factor guarding against yielding is 2. They are stressed to a maximum level of 1250MPa during a pressurization test before starting the reactor.4) is used to solve this problem.4). Solution: I. Find the safety factor when considering crack propagation. The material contains cracks through the wall thickness with a crack half-length less than 3mm.1 on page 232. AISI 4340 Tempered at 260°C 1/2 From Table 6.5MPa ) π ( 0. do the calculations for the same material but tempered to 425°C. 6. Notes: The safety factor guarding against crack propagation is obtained from the ratio of the fracture toughness of the material to the stress intensity factor calculated by Equation (6. Sy=325MPa and Kci=36MPa-m . The stress intensity factor is therefore calculated from Equation (6.5MPa. Find the safety factor guarding against yielding and the safety factor guarding against crack propagation if the initial cracks in the material have Y=1 and a=1mm.4MPa m = =1040MPa Y πa (1.Kci 87.4 times larger than for plexiglass can be carried. therefore the nominal stress is one-half the yield strength.31 σ 1250MPa From Equation (6.1 on page 232. and a load 87.5) π ( 0.003m) =15. the safety factor for the pressure vessel is still 2. The safety factor against yielding is therefore Sy 1640MPa ns = = = 1.1 gives the yield strength for AISI 4340 tempered to 425°C as 1420MPa.

Y=1 for both cases.3 for aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Sy=1420MPa and Kci=87.S fa = = = 276MPa pa ps ps 7. Notes: Material properties are obtained from Table A.18 A stress optic model used for demonstrating the stress concentrations at the ends of a crack is made of polymethylmethacrylate.25. Calculate the highest tensile stress that can be applied to the model without propagating the crack. Equation (6.4MPa-m . the applied stress is 276/2=138MPa. Notes: Material properties are obtained from Table 6. Y=1. The stress intensity factor is 2 2 K ci 1  K ci  1  0. a =    =    = 3. Therefore. Solution: From Table A.7MPa-m . ns = 6.1 on page 1/2 232. The stresses in the tube are directly proportional to the pressure. Find the size of the cracks the glass tube can tolerate at 7. II. so the fracture strength of the aluminum oxide tube is: S fa Sfs S fs pa (69MPa )(30MPa) = . Using the same equations.14.5MPa Note that this is on the low end of the fracture strength values given in Table A. the bolts will not crack. 6.3 on page 901.1 on page 232.5MPa pressure and a safety factor of 2.5MPa)  )   Therefore.7MPa m  Ki = = Yσnom πa .76 ×10−7 m = 37. Equation (6.3. From Equation (6.2µm. An artificially made crack 100mm long is perpendicular to the loading direction. The applied stress is σnom=69MPa/2=34. a =    =    = 3. the safety factor against yielding is ns=1.17 A glass tube used in a pressure vessel is made of aluminum oxide (sapphire) to make it possible to apply 30MPa pressure and still have a safety factor of 2 guarding against fracture. Page 6-9 . using a low value of fracture toughness for Al2O3.8µm 2 π  2Yσ nom  π  2( 1 ( 34.6µm. As is shown in Chapter 9. use Kcia=3. the fracture strength of soda-lime glass is 69MPa. and the safety factor against crack propagation is ns=1. 2 2 K ci 1  K ci  1  3. the largest crack in the aluminum oxide must be less than 2a or 75. From Table 6.5MPa.Kci 50MPa m = = 0.6µm 2 π  2Yσ nom  π  2( 1 (138MPa ) )   1/2 For the soda lime glass.4) is used to solve this problem.5 MPa pressure can be allowed if a safety factor of 2 is to be maintained. the bolts will fail.4). while for soda lime glass the largest crack must be smaller than 65.714 Ki 70. the lowest value of fracture toughness is Kci=0.1 and Table A-4. For a soda-lime glass of the same geometry only 7. For a safety factor of 2.06MPa m Since the safety factor is less than 1.28×10 −7 m = 32.0MPa m  Ki = = Yσnom πa .0MPa-m . the stress is proportional to the pressure. AISI 4340 Tempered at 435°C 1/2 From Table 6.4) is used to solve this problem.

Solution: To maintain a safety factor of 2.19 A passengerless airplane requires wings that are lightweight and the prevention of cracks more than 2mm long.5 MN. tempered at 425°C 0. σ nom = = = 1. From Equation (6.0305 Alloy steel 4340. ( ) ( ) 6.1 would be acceptable for this case. either Aluminum alloy 2020-T351 or Alloy steel 4340 tempered at 425°C would work. Equation (6. tempered at 260°C 0.4). The dimensionless geometry correction factor Y is usually 1. What is the appropriate alloy for this application? If Y is increased to 4.5.0MPa-m . allow solution of this problem.002m ) = 0.13) gives a range for allowable stresses in tension.5 ) π ( 0. the following data is obtained: 1/2 Material Kci/Sy (m ) Aluminum alloy. For weight savings. Equation (3. Therefore.0574 Alloy steel 4340. If Y=4. 2020-T351 0. Therefore. set σnom=Sy/2. what kind of alloy from Table 6. Calculate the safety factor range guarding against yielding. Notes: The material property is obtained from the inside front cover. the critical stress intensity factor for polymethylmethacrylate is 1/2 Kci=1. the aluminum alloy is probably the better choice.002m ) = 0.4) gives: Sy Kci = Yσ nom πa = ( 4. 6.0594 m Sy 2 From Table 6. combined with material properties from Table 6. the ultimate strength is between 48 and 76 MPa.20 The anchoring of the cables carrying a suspension bridge are made of cylindrical AISI 1080 steel bars 210mm in diameter.Solution: From Table 6.78MPa Y πa (1) π ( 0.4) the stress when the crack propagates catastrophically is: K ci 1.4) gives: Sy Kci = Yσ nom πa = (1. 7075-T651 0.1 on page 232.111 Aluminum alloy. Solution: From the inside front cover.5 for a safety factor of 2.0MPa m Kci = Yσ nom πa.178 m Sy 2 None of the materials in Table 6. Equation (6.1.5.5 ) π ( 0.1 on page 232.0483 Therefore.1 should be used? Notes: Equation (6. the crack will propagate at a stress far lower than the ultimate strength of the material. The force transmitted from the cable to the steel bar is 3. the yield strength for AISI 1080 is Sy=380MPa. The stress in the steel bar is Page 6-10 .0615 Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V 0.1m ) From Table A-4 on page 902.

The load on the rivet is 10kN.22 A telescope stands on four feet. Equation (3.5MN = = 101MPa π A (0. each carrying a load of 200kN. the diameter of the feet is obtained from: P 4P 4P 4(200kN ) σ = = 2 . The rivet is made of AISI 1040 steel and has a circular cross section with a diameter of 25mm.21 The arm of a crane has two steel plates connected with a rivet that transfers the force in pure shear. and the floor is a thick plate of AISI 1080 steel on a concrete base. tall=0.9(295MPa)=265.37MPa A π 2  (0.16) gives the allowable stress.2MPa.049m = 49mm A πd πσ π (106.13) gives 0.25 σ= 6.5MPa)/2.87 τ 20. Solution: From the inside front cover. the allowable stress is σall=0. Calculate how large the diameter of the feet needs to be if they are circular and flat.45( 380MPa ) 0.5=106. Calculate the safety factor. Since the safety factor is 2. the floor doesn’t have to be analyzed .it will have a higher safety factor than the feet. From Equation (3.69≤ns≤2.025m )  4  Therefore. Solution: The yield strength of AISI 1040 steel is obtained from the inside front cover as Sy=350MPa. ≤ ns ≤ σ σ 101MPa 101MPa Therefore the safety factor is in the range of 1.d = = = 0. the yield strength of AISI 1020 steel is Sy=295MPa.9Sy=0.14) gives the allowable stress in shear. and for AISI 1080 the yield strength is 380MPa.4Sy=0. Notes: This problem is straightforward. Equation (3. From Equation (3. the safety factor is: τ 140MPa ns = all = = 6. Therefore.5.4(350MPa)=140MPa The shear stress on the rivet is P 10kN τ= = = 20.2MPa ) Page 6-11 . Notes: Equation (3.21m)2 4 Since the safety factor is ns=σall/σ. ≤ ns ≤ .60Sy 0. the design stress is σd=σall/ns=(265.16).P 3.60Sy .45Sy ≤ σ all ≤ 0.60( 380MPa ) 0. The safety factor is 2.37MPa 6.45 S y 0.5.14). Since the floor is stronger than the feet. The feet are made of AISI 1020 steel.5MPa.

subjecting its shank to a tensile stress of 80ksi and a torsional shear stress of 50ksi at a critical point.6) is used to obtain the safety factor for the MSST. since the stress state is biaxial.9) is used to solve the problem. the three principle stresses are properly referred to as σ1=20ksi. (6. The material is high-carbon steel (AISI 1080). there is no limit to the depth that the bottle can be lowered (and is also the reason rocks are not pulverized at the bottom of the ocean or inside the earth’s crust). [ ] [ ] 6. Solution: Page 6-12 .9).6) gives the safety factor as: Sy Sy 60ksi σ1 − σ 3 = . The material is ductile with a yield strength of 60ksi. For the maximum shear stress theory.11) are used to solve this problem. If the stress is biaxial. Therefore. Sy Sy 60ksi σe = . then σ1=σ2=σ3=-p. Find the safety factor tat the critical point by the DET and the MSST. then one principal stress is zero. (6. Equation (6.24 A glass bottle is filled with a liquid having a compressibility similar to (~1% lower than) the compressibility of the glass.4ksi. Therefore. σ2=0 and σ3=-15ksi. then one normal stress is zero.10) gives 1/2 1/2 1 σe = (σ 2 −σ1 )2 + (σ 3 −σ 1 )2 + (σ 3 −σ 2 )2 = 1 (−p + p )2 + (− p + p ) 2 + (− p + p) 2 = 0 2 2 Therefore.4ksi [ ] [ ] 6. Solution: First of all. If the pressure in the glass is hydrostatic. from Equation (6. Equation (6. and Equation (6. Find the safety factor according to a) The maximum shear stress theory (MSST) b) The distortion-energy theory (DET) Notes: Equation (6.6).714 ns σ 1 − σ 3 ( 20ksi +15ksi ) The von Mises stress is obtained from Equation (6. ns = = = 1.11).11) gives the safety factor for the DET after the von Mises stress is calculated from Equation (6. and (6.6.16). Will the bolt fail because of the static loading? Notes: Equations (2.97 ns σ e 30. the safety factor is.10).23 A machine element is loaded so that the principal normal stresses at the critical location for a biaxial stress state are σ1=20ksi and σ2=-15ksi. Solution.9) as: 1 / 2 1 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ 2 − σ1 )2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 )2 + (σ 3 −σ 2 )2 = (−20ksi )2 + (−35ksi )2 + (15ksi )2 2 2 or σe=30. n s = = = 1. since σ1≥σ2≥σ3. To what depth within an ocean can the bottle be lowered without cracking.25 A bolt is tightened. Notes: Equations (6. All the other stresses are zero.

The chalk will crack along a 45° angle from its circumference. let’s refer to the tensile stress as σx=80ksi and the shear stress as τxy=50ksi.16) gives the principal stresses as 2  σ x − σ y  2 80ksi σx + σ y 2  80ksi  ± τ2 +    = ± (50ksi ) +   xy  2 2 2  2    or σ1=104ksi. σ2=-24ksi. the yield stress for AISI 1080 steel is 55ksi. we assign them the values σ1=104ksi. Notes: Given the loading condition. so the principal stress out of the plane of the normal and shear stresses is zero. Sy Sy 55ksi σe = . Directions are arbitrary. 6. σ1. The angle of the largest tensile stress. σ2=0ksi. The effective stress is obtained from Equation (6. σ3=-24ksi. Equation (2. φσ.11).26 A torque is applied to a piece of chalk used in a classroom until the chalk cracks.σ 2 = [ ] [ ] 6. Based on the MNST. failure will occur at this angle. Notes: The stresses are largest at the corners. a 100-N force is applied in the y and zdirections. Putting the stresses in the proper order (σ1≥σ2≥σ3). φσ=45°.From the inside front cover.27 A cantilevered bar 500mm long with square cross section has 25mm sides.15) as: 2τ xy 2τ xy t a n 2σ = φ = =∞ σ x − σy 0 Therefore. and a force of 1000N is applied in the x-direction (bar axis). Using the maximum normal stress theory (MNST) and assuming the tensile strength of the chalk to be small relative to its compressive strength. Since all other stresses are zero. Equation (6.9). where the total stress is the sum of two bending stresses and the axial stress. Sy Sy 55ksi σ1 − σ 3 = . Solution: Page 6-13 .6). ns = = = 0. Solution: For pure torque. determine the angle of the cross section at which the chalk cracks. From Equation (6.9) gives 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 1 / 2 1 = = 118ksi (104ksi − 0 )2 + (104ksi + 24ksi) 2 + ( 0 + 24ksi )2 2 From Equation (6. both cases predict failure. Note that the other stresses are zero. the stress state is τxy=τ and σx=σy=0.15). the angle of the largest tensile stress is obtained from Equation (2. is given by Equation (2.47 ns σ e 118ksi Since the safety factor is less than one for both cases. Calculate the equivalent stress at the clamped end of the bar by using the DET when the sides of the square cross section are parallel with the y and z directions. ns = = = 0. Three perpendicular forces are applied to its free end.43 ns σ 1 − σ3 104ksi − (−24ksi ) which is the safety factor for the maximum shear stress theory.

28 A shaft transmitting torque from the gearbox to a rear axle of a truck is unbalanced.25x10 m . Since the bar is cantilevered.11) are then used to solve the problem.0125m) σx = 1 + 2 + = 2 = 40. and is the sum of the stresses due to the three loads.The moment of inertia for the cross section is: bh 3 a4 ( 0.255 × 10−8 m 4 12 12 12 2 2 -4 2 The cross sectional area is A=a =(0. The moment of inertia for the shaft is: π 4 π I= do − di4 = ( 0.25 ×10 −4 m2 There is no stress in the y. From Equation (6.07MPa I 6.34) as: Tc (6000Nm )(0.9) and (6.9).4MPa. σ2=σ3=0. Therefore. σ1=40. the shear stress is zero (see page 169). the maximum stress occurs at a corner of the cross section. [ ] [ ] 6. σ1=179.00MPa.07MPa  σ1. Simultaneously. σ2=0. the loading is a combined situation of two bending moments and one axial load.07MPa 2  21. this combined stress state is then transformed to obtain the principal stresses. from Equation (2. the shaft transmits a torque of 6000Nm.035m) τ xy = = =168.070m )4 − (0.3MPa. which then allows for calculation of the bending stress.5MPa J 1. Notes: The moment must be determined. so that a certrifugal load of 500N acts at the middle of the 3m-long shaft.23 ×10 −7 m4 The shear stress due to the torque is given by Equation (4. M c M c P 1000N (50Nm )(0.255 × 10 m 6. Use the DET to determine the safety factor guarding against yielding.025m )4 I= = = = 3. Therefore.23 ×10 −7 m4 64 64 -6 4 Similarly.025m) =6. Also. ( ) ( ) 2  σ x − σ y  2 21. Therefore. the von Mises stress is 1 / 2 1 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ3 )2 + (σ 2 −σ 3 )2 = (40MPa)2 + ( 40MPa )2 + ( 0) 2 2 2 This is evaluated as σe=40MPa.058m)4 = 6.246 × 10 −6 m4 Also. σy=σz=τzx=τyz=0.σ 2 = ± +   = ± (168. J=1.246x10 m .48) as: Mc ( 375Nm )( 0. at the outside edge of the bar. For a simply supported shaft. Solution: From the inside front cover.5m)=50Nm. The perpendicular moments are M1=M2=Fl=(100N)(0. Therefore.16). the maximum moment occurs at the center of the shaft and has the value M=Pl/4=(500N)(3m)/4=375Nm. The torque results in a shear stress. the bending stress is obtained from Equation (4. Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3.or z-directions.035m ) σx = = = 21. Therefore.00MPa −8 4 + I I A 3. The axial load is 1000N. Equation (6.5MPa ) +    2 2 2  2    Therefore. the yield strength of AISI 1040 steel is Sy=350MPa.9) gives the effective stress as σx + σ y τ2 xy Page 6-14 . The AISI 1040 tubular steel shaft has an outer diameter of 70mm and an inner diameter of 58mm. and σ3=-158. Equations (6.

2  σ x − σ y  2 190MPa 2  190 MPa  σ1.45MPa. d=0.3MPa)2 2 From Equation (6. Solution: From the inside front cover.29 The right-angle-cantilevered bracket used in Problem 5.48) as: Mc ( 800Nm )(0. E=205GPa. σ2=0.σ 2 = ± +   = ± ( 35.3m. The moment of inertia of the bracket cross section is: π 4 π I= d = ( 0. there is a torque of T=Pb=(1000N)(0. Equation (6.3m)=300Nm. Sy Sy 350MPa σe = .035m )4 = 7.5m)+300Nm=800Nm Therefore. and Equations (6.196 ns σ e 292.5m. The maximum stress for the bracket occurs at the wall (x=a).73 ns σ 1 − σ 3 196MPa + 6. J=1. From the stress state.6MPa [ ] 6. the principal stresses are determined. ns = = = 1. Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3. σy=σz=τzx=τyz=0.366 ×10 −8 m4 At the wall. Assume that the bracket is made of AISI 1040 steel and use the following values: a=0.6) gives the safety factor for the Maximum Shear Stress Theory. Notes: The stresses must be determined using the approach described in Chapter 4. Sy=350MPa for AISI 1040 steel.035m. and σ3=-6. The loading is a bending moment and a torque.9) gives the effective stress as σx + σ y τ2 xy Page 6-15 . and ν=0. ns = = =1.4732x10 m . From Equation (6.9) and (6. and is M=Pa+T=(1000N)(0.4 MPa + 158.366 × 10−8 m 4 64 64 -7 4 Similarly.45MPa Equation (6. the bending stress is obtained from Equation (4.6MPa J 1. Use the DET and neglect transverse shear.3MPa)2 + (158.3. sketch w. from Equation (2.6).4MPa − 0 )2 + (179.4732 × 10−7 m 4 Also.σe = = 1 / 2 1 (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 + ( σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 [ ] 1 / 2 1 =292. The moment is due to the applied torque T and the load P. Calculate the safety factor.30.11).0175m) σx = = = 190MPa I 7. b=0. σ1=196MPa.16).34) as: Tc ( 300Nm )(0. The shear stress due to the torque is given by Equation (4. has a concentrated force of 1000N and a torque of 300Nm. the safety factor for MSST is: Sy Sy 350MPa σ1 − σ 3 = .6 MPa (179.6MPa) +    2 2 2  2    Therefore.0175m) τ xy = = = 35.11) give the safety factor for the Distortion-Energy Theory. Therefore.

3MPa. The yield strength of the shaft material is 600MPa.42 MPa)2 2 σx + σ y τ2 xy [ ] [ ] Page 6-16 .42MPa Equation (6. Use the MSST and the DET to determine the safety factors for the various types of loading.00785m 2 Therefore. an 8kN-m steady torque. Therefore.3MPa − 0 )2 + (133. From the stress state.42MPa.00785m .76 ns σ e 199MPa [ ] 6. The area of the cross section is πd /4=0.12 ns σ 1 − σ 3 133.10MPa A 0.29. Solution: The moment of inertia of the shaft cross section is: π 4 π I= d = (0.3MPa + 12. The bending stress is obtained from Equation (4.8MPa I 4.45MPa )2 2 From Equation (6. σ1=133.34) as: Tc ( 8kNm )(0.3MPa + 12. and σ3=-12. the maximum normal stress is σx=101.9) gives the effective stress as 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ3 )2 + (σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 1 / 2 1 = =140MPa (133.909 × 10−6 m 4 The normal stress due to the axial load is P 150kN σx = = = 19. σ2=0.8MPa+19.28 and 6.10MPa=120. J=9.45MPa)2 + (6.42MPa )2 + (12. but now a stress due to the axial force must be included. σy=σz=τzx=τyz=0.11) give the safety factor for the Distortion-Energy Theory. From Equation (6.σ 2 = ± +   = ± ( 40. ns = = =1. the principal stresses are determined. and a 150kN axial force.9MPa. 2  σ x − σ y  2 120. The shear stress due to the torque is given by Equation (4.σe = = 1 / 2 1 (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ3 )2 + (σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 [ ] 1/ 2 1 = 199MPa (196MPa − 0 )2 + (196MPa + 6.909 × 10−6 m 4 64 64 -6 4 2 2 Similarly.9MPa 2  120.10m)4 = 4. and Equations (6.9) and (6.11).30 A 10-cm diameter shaft is subjected to a 10kNm steady bending moment. Notes: This is similar to problems 6. Equation (6. ns = = = 4.817 ×10 −6 m4 Also.6) gives the safety factor for the Maximum Shear Stress Theory.6). the safety factor for MSST is: Sy Sy 600MPa σ1 − σ 3 = .16).48) as: Mc (10kNm )(0.817x10 m . the safety factor for DET is: Sy Sy 350MPa σe = .7MPa ) +    2 2 2  2    Therefore.7MPa J 9.05m ) τ xy = = = 40.9 MPa σ1.05m ) σx = = =101. from Equation (2. Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3.

57MPa For σx=σy=τxy=-30MPa. σ2=0MPa and σ3=-60MPa. σy=-60MPa.σ 2 = ± +   ± (30MPa ) + ( 0 )  = 2 2 2   Therefore. ns = = = 5. Equation (2. and τxy=40MPa Notes: This problem does not require determination of the stresses as in Problems 6.28 ns σ e 140MPa 6. From the stress state.57MPa (10MPa − 0)2 + (10MPa + 60MPa )2 + ( 60MPa )2 2 From Equation (6. ns = = = 4. the safety factor for MSST is: Sy Sy 325MPa σ1 − σ 3 = . note that there are no shear stresses.64 ns σ 1 − σ 3 10MPa + 60MPa Equation (6.11). the safety factor for MSST is: Sy Sy 325MPa σ1 − σ 3 = . ns = = = 4. σ1=0MPa. σy=-60MPa b) σx=σy=τxy=-30MPa c) σx=-σy=20MPa and τxy=10MPa d) σx=2σy=-70MPa.1.6).28 through 6. Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3. and Equations (6.9) gives the effective stress as 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ3 )2 + ( σ2 −σ 3 )2 2 1 / 2 1 = =65.11). From Equation (6. Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3. the safety factor for DET is: Sy Sy 325MPa σe = . Therefore. the principal stresses are determined. Solution: From Table 6.96 ns σ e 65.31 Use the MSST and the DET to determine the safety factor for 2024 aluminum alloys for each of the following stress states: a) σx=10MPa.30. Equation (6. the safety factor for DET is: σx + σ y τ2 xy [ ] [ ] Page 6-17 .6). From Equation (6. ns = = = 4.9) and (6. the yield strength for 2024-T351 is Sy=325MPa. σ2=0MPa and σ3=-60MPa. but uses the same approach.11) give the safety factor for the Distortion-Energy Theory.42 ns σ 1 − σ 3 0MPa + 60MPa Equation (6. we can directly write the principal stresses as σ1=10MPa. the safety factor for DET is: Sy Sy 600MPa σe = .9) gives the effective stress as 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ3 )2 + (σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 1/ 2 1 = 0 + (60MPa ) 2 + (60MPa) 2 = 60MPa 2 From Equation (6.6) gives the safety factor for the Maximum Shear Stress Theory.11).From Equation (6. For σx=10MPa.16) gives [ ] [ ]  σ x − σ y  2 −30MPa − 30MPa 2 2 σ1.

σ 2 = Therefore.11). ns = = = 3.27 ns σ 1 − σ 3 22.36MPa Equation (6.325MPa = 5. Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3. ns = = 2  σ x − σ y  2 20MPa − 20MPa σx + σ y 2  20MPa + 20MPa   ± τ2 +  ± (10MPa) +   =  xy  2 2   2 2   Therefore. ns = = = 8.39 ns σ e 38.84MPa )2 + ( 96. Page 6-18 . ns = = = 3.73MPa ( 22.06MPa ( 8. σ1=22.36 MPa + 22.h.36MPa − 0 )2 + (22.16MPa Equation (6.9) gives the effective stress as 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 1 / 2 1 = = 92.73MPa For σx=2σy=-70MPa. σ2=0MPa and σ3=-22.16MPa )2 + ( −8.6). σ1=0MPa.36MPa )2 2 From Equation (6.32 Four different stress elements. Equation (2. and τxy=40MPa. the safety factor for DET is: Sy Sy 325MPa σe = . Use the MSST and the DET to determine which element is the most critical.11).36MPa.06MPa 2  σ x − σ y  2 −70MPa − 35MPa σx + σ y 2  −70MPa + 35MPa  ± τ2 +  ± (40MPa ) +    = xy  2 2   2 2    [ ] [ ] 6.6).36MPa.16MPa. each of the same material.53 ns σ e 92.g. From Equation (6. the safety factor for DET is: Sy Sy 325MPa σe = .38 ns σ 1 − σ 3 0MPa + 96. Equation (2. From Equation (6. ns = = = 7.σ 2 = [ ] [ ] σ1.9) gives the effective stress as 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 + ( σ2 −σ 3 )2 2 1 / 2 1 = = 38.16) gives Sy Sy σ1.84MPa and σ3=-96.16) gives σe = .42 ns σ e 60MPa For σx=-σy=20MPa and τxy=10MPa. are loaded as shown in sketches e.84MPa + 96.16MPa )2 2 From Equation (6. the safety factor for MSST is: Sy Sy 325MPa σ1 − σ 3 = . σ2=-8. the safety factor for MSST is: Sy Sy 325MPa σ1 − σ 3 = . Note that the principal stresses have been renumbered so that σ1≥σ2≥σ3.36MPa + 22.f.36 MPa)2 + (22.

Therefore.11) are used to solve this problem. Solution: (e) σ1=21MPa. σ2=30MPa. from Eq. [ [ ] ] 6. 6. (6.10). Also. The critical section is at the wall. from Eq. σ2=0. σe=31.75m)=7. σ2=0. 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + ( σ3 −σ 1 )2 = 36MPa 2 (f) σ1=28.33 The rod shown in sketch i is made of AISI 1040 steel and has two 90° bends. σ2=0. and (6. Solution: The yield strength for AISI 1040 is obtained from the inside front cover as 350MPa.5MPa. σ1-σ3=36MPa. from Equation (2.6: σ1-σ3=42MPa. which is in the opposite direction as Mx1. Use the MSST and the DET to determine the minimum rod diameter for a safety factor of 2 at the most critical section. σ1-σ3=30MPa.16).6).5 MPa. σ1-σ3=36.02MPa. σ3=0. σ1=33MPa. σ3=3. The 75kN Page 6-19 . Applying MSST or DET gives an expression that can be solved for d.9.75m)=6kNm. Also.4kNm. a bending moment Mz1=10kN(0. (h) σx=30MPa. The 10kN load causes axial normal stress. σ3=-7.02MPa. σ3=-21MPa. the rod is slender so transverse shear effects will be ignored.6 MPa. 6. σy=0. τxy=-10MPa. This shows that the stress state in (e) is the largest.3m)=2.16). Thus.Notes: Equations (2.05m)=500Nm. Therefore. Thus. (6. 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + ( σ3 −σ 1 )2 = 33MPa 2 (g) σ1=30MPa. The 8kN load causes a torque equal to T1=8kN(0. and bending moment Mx1=8kN(0. the component stresses can be expressed as functions of the rod diameter.5kNm and a bending moment Mx2=10kN(0. Notes: Recognizing that the critical section is at the wall. Also σe=30MPa. Therefore.

Therefore.75kNm=2. Mz=22. the bar sees the following: Mx=Mx1-Mx2=1.73kN ) d + 154kNm σ= + = + = + = π 4 I A π d2 d2 d3 d3 d 4 64 The shear stress is: Tc (2. Therefore.25kNm. a 0. the moment at the wall is 2 2 M = Mx + Mz = (1.365kN ) d + 77kNm )   d  It can be shown that unless d is in the millions of meters.9kNm) + (15kNm) = 15.9) and (6. Dimensions of the various diameters shown in sketch j are d=30mm.46kNm ) + ((6. which is in the opposite direction as Mz1.34 The shaft shown in shetch j is made of AISI 1020 steel.16) gives 2 2 σ1 .11) give: 1 / 2 1 σe = (σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 + ( σ 2 −σ 3 )2 2 1 / 2 S 1 = (σ1 ) 2 + (σ1 − σ 3 )2 + (σ3 )2 = y = 175MPa 2 ns This is solved numerically as d=0. for MSST. Page 6-20 .3m)=22.9kNm.5kNm=15kNm.10m or 100mm diameter cross section is still acceptable.46kNm ) τ= = = π 4 J d3 d 32 Equation (2.12kNm The normal stress is therefore Mc P 10kN (15. Equation (6.6) is: Sy 350MPa σ1 − σ 3 = = = 175MPa ns 2 Substituting for the stresses and solving yields d=0. Therefore.load causes torque equal to T2=-75kN(0.5kNm.0964m.73 kN 154kNm (12. Determine the most critical section by using the MSST and the DET.05m)=3. Equations (6. Notes: This problem requires the incorporation of stress concentration effects into the component stresses before determining the principal stresses. Therefore. For DET.365kN ) d + 77kNm ] ± (11.5kNm-7. D=45mm. a 0.25kNm)(d / 2 11.σ 2 = σx +σy σ x − σy  2 ± τ2 +   xy  2 2   1  2 2 = 3 [(6.12kNm)(d / 2) 12. Therefore.10m or 100mm diameter cross section is a good design designation.0963m. [ ] [ ] 6. and the other negative. and T=T1-T2=6kNm-3. that one of these stresses will be positive.75kNm (in the opposite direction as T1) and a bending moment Mz2=75kN(0. and d2=40mm.

6. since the bending and tensile stresses are additive at this location. σ1=458MPa and σ2=-28MPa.5(c). 6. considering the location of stress concentration 80 mm from the wall: π 4 π 4 J= d = ( 0. This means that the critical location is 80mm from the wall.Solution: First.2 (all from Fig.6. Also.5(b) as 1. The stress concentration due to bending is obtained from Fig. from statics. while for tension it is Kc=1. there is no shear stress due to shear at the extreme location.45. as the stresses are higher.55 from Fig.5. Therefore. M=0. Also. Kc(bending)=1. 6.07x10 m . T=500Nm. For the location 40 mm from the wall.2 from Fig.8kNm T=500Nm. 2 2 -4 2 A=πd /4=7. Therefore. M=0. N=100kN.98 × 10−8 m4 .95 × 10−8 m4 32 32 J I = = 3. The bottom location is critical.4kNm.6). Kc(tension)=1.040m ) = 7.4. V=10kN. Kc(torsion)=1. σ1=312MPa and σ2=-7. N=100kN. The stress concentration for torsion is Kc=1.5(a). 6. Page 6-21 .

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