Poena Oriental Series No.



Is'vara Kri}7Ja's Memorable Verses on Samkhya Philosophy with the Commentary 01 Gaug.apadacilrya

Critically edited with Introduction, Translation and Notes

Yidyiisudhakara Dr Har Dutt Sharma,
M.A., Ph.D ••

ORIENTAL BOOK AGENCY 15, Bhukrawar, POONA 2 (India)*


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.~ ....~ THE ORJENTAL BOOK AGENCY 1933 ... "'_'..A .... (Nawabganj) Catontore... I Professor of Sanskrit... l h ~ .. .. Ph..•..•...--.•...~ .D...ls'vata Kr~PJa'sl11emorable Verses on Sainkhya Philosophy with the Commentar3' of Gau4apadacarya 1~~iiijrq~rijq'ofi'QU~O:qT~r~: • ~~'!i~H: BY IVid:yasudftakara Dr Har Dutt Sharma.... .--.... - .-.... I" t . ... i i I M.. ~ ---.THE SAMKHYA-KARIKA ..... \ \ POONA \\ . Sa natana Dharma College..•-. ...

An English Translation of Isv ARA ':~ K~~~A'S SAMKHYA KARIKAS WITH - THE GAUQAPADA-BHA$YA (SAMKHYA) Salutations to that Kapila who. - J Kariki I On account of affliction from threefold _ misery. As it is said: .. j . giving proofs. ). If (it be said that) it is useless because of the (existence of) evident means. constructed a boat in the shape of Samkhya for crossing (that ocean). 1 . Asuri. born in his own family.. Vodhu and Pancasikha-. Thus born. he became filled with compassion and taught this knowledge of twenty-five principles to the brahmin Asuri. was the son of Brahman. K.: . these seven sages are said to be the sons of Brahman. This arya is introduced:The exalted sage. Sanatana the. For the good of the pupils. conclusions and reasons. seeing this world sinking in the blinding gloom and the succession of samsara (birth and death). (then we reply-) no.-the knowledge by which misery comes to an end. renunciation and power we~' bdtn with Kapila." . Sanaka. I shall compendiously explain this science briefly and clearly. because of the absence of certainty and finality. feeling compassion on the world sinking in the ocean of ignorance. Kapila.third. etc. inquiry (should be instituted) into the means for its removal. Virtue. ! s. . The threefold misery. Sanandana. knowledge. Kapila by name.

1 hat is proved by the Ved' a. VIZ... f. . Anus'rava is that which ~ r~ve~led. reached the Heaven and become acquainted with gods Th f ind dOl . as It.e+is cold..-( we) have h~co~e acqua~nted With the divine beings. ~the means) arising from it are (called) anus . t:Jeaven. how can the old age of a mortal affect us. the inquiry is useless. rain. i.! 2 SAMKHYA KARIKA i TRANSLA TION .' re:realed rn the Vedas.-' ??lm nunam asman krlJavad ari'itib:. thunder. the pungent. " Tl ur er 0 a aus when certain . Having pondered. h h I' I . alligators. aganma jyotih. due to four-fold living beings. 1. and union with what is not liked and the rest. e.move it. (they concluded)-Because . bile or phlegm. The external misery. oviparous. The divine miserv+-. mosquitos. sharks.."O remove t e t ree-ro d misery. e. storm. whatcan dhurtth. beasts.injury of mortal (martyasya) do to us? Moreover. on account of affliction from three-fold misery. do to us. e. e. become immortal. . I. viviparous. daioa.-is due to the disorder of wind. and als transgresses (the sin arising from) the mu d f. i.:"e-apama somam-have drunk soma. ere arc m ee. serpents. e. The internal is two-fold: bodily and mental.. a~e or . if its removal. no. I? lmmort~.. lice.e wh? performs the asvamedha sacrifice conquers all the regions. we have become ~I~n~ortal. whether he has matted hair. born of sweat and born of soil. external and divine. It is saId:' .i. . And 80. One endowed with the knowledge of the twenty-five principles will undoubtedly get salvation. the evident means for its removal are seen in the shape of protection and the like. i. e. IS salid : '. the internal means in the shape of treatment according to medical science.-No. certainly wl~at. mental is separation from what is liked. =r»: . birds.. which 1 Into the means for means for ths removal If (it be said that) of) evident means. 'no matter in what stage of life he is-. bugs.. The bodily misery. old.lIla and f' 1·· means "are " bra hrnm. oie. _inqui~y should be els~~here mS~ltuted into (finding out) the means certaiuly and fmally remove (the misery).. If you 'think that it U. If inquiry is to be instituted into other than the evid t '11 B .~or~over.0 . i. arises from men. J_ . The three kinds of So it is said:-On misery are.·····"1 h ~. It IS said in the Vedas that f' 1 goa] (is anchieved) by killing animals (in sacrifice): "l. W raoilza." On~e upon a time there was a discussion among the gods. ecause the revealed means (are k ) . are quite evident. krlJaoad.bolt: and the rest.-we have gone. dysentry and the rest. VI en means. heat. achieved JYotl~.. internal. deer. transgresses death. or 1 1S shaved or has rop-knot.-fever.. Therefore. e. . I f 1". r .. i. mmorta! One. preclusion of undesirable. union with the liked ones. kim~ dhurilr ~m~ta 0 Immortal One (he amrta). . bitter and astringent decoctions and the like. Therein which is the of that three-fold miseryit is useless because of the (existence (it be said that when) the evident means for removing the three-fold misery arc known. because it belongs to gods or comes from heaven.. what can an enemy do against us. sti no.nUnam. inquiry) is useless in the presence of evident means. transgresses sin. gnats. Thus. For removing the two-fold internal misery. (then we reply).. Indra and others: How did we b eeome . that: which arises with reference to these.' B~callse of the absence of certainty and finality." account 0/ affliction from threefold misery inquir:g (should be instituted). In (the case of affliction from) exlel'nal misery.. inquiry should be instituted. Because the evident means do not certainly (ekllntatah) and finally (at:yantata~). re. unmoving objects and the rest. enemy. nown .. Into what?- . f\. e. this inquiry is useless. e have drunk Soma. Avidama devan.. can ariiii.

therefore. being produced from intellect ~s an evolute. e. the subtle element of touch. . it is free from impurity. Ego also. i. because it is the origin and a non-product. That is. it is endowed with atis'aya.4 SAMKHYA 'KARIKA TRANSLATION 5 Kiriki II The revealed is like the evident one. being produced from ego is an evolute. destruction and inequality.• the seven are eooloenis and evoluies. By seeing superiority in one. M_ahat. i. inequality (due to superiority). Other than that is better: . The same (intellect) produces ego and I~. then it is repliedOther than the revealedand the evident ones is better. They are seven evolvents and evolutes. Unmanifest and the Knower. As it is not produced from anything. therefore. destruction and inequalityHow is it (acquired)? (The author) . the eleven ~. The subtle element of sound. O~e e~?owed with the knowledge of the twentyfive principles. what are the special characteristics of the Mamfest.. etc. that is. an evolvent. mte IIect. ~' I . ego and the five subtle elements. e... Again. destruction and inequality: Linked. In every yu~a thousands of Indras and gods have been surpassed by the time. because that what is revealed. Thus. dharma is prescribed by the S'rtdis and the Smnis. namely. . being produced from ego. The Knower is the PurU!}G. ~ow. n or an (is so called). the other feels pain. e. like rbeevident one? with impurity. the ~even. In their right cognition lies th~ pr~ference (over the other means). the Unmanifest and the Knower. As. itissaid: " According to the injunction in the as'oamedha. Because. Kariki III Primal Nature is not an evolute: Mahat. viz. e" slaughtered) at midday. ~rImal Nature. is an evolute. therefo:-e. are evolvents and evoJutes. of the slaughter Why is it organs and the five gross elements. these twenty-Five principles arc called the Manifest. . pradltiina." Although. Thus the revealed means are like the evident ones. Mahat. I ~ " From the ri~ht coJ1nition of the Manifest. mtellect. The Unmumfest is the Pra~hiina. It has also been s~ld-. and it is an evolvent. on account of the' destruction of lndra and others. IS an evol vent. It is linked with impurity.-proceeding from the right cognition of the Manifest. are employed (i. e. likethe evident. i. WI rep I we y- Linked with imPurity. it is a product of the Nat~re. etc. Other than that is better. and it is an evolvent as it produces the [ive subtle elements.replies. because 1~_l~ the origin of the seven evolvents and the evolutes.. it is full of impurity.· ego the five subtle elements. .-an evolute. six hundred animals. 'Again.. Unmanifest •. still. the Unmanifest and the Knower? . the group of sixteen 15 evolute: the Spirit is neither an evolute -evolvent. on account of the mixture (of items). The revealed is like the eoideni one: dr~tar)at." Thus. intellect is produced from the Nature. Time is (therefore) unsurpassable. of animals. _ . as it produces ether. Primal Nature. etc. Nature cannot be an evolute of anything. intellect. Similarly.. and Knower: The Manifest are mahat and the rest. minus three. If it be asked which is better. Because+-. Intell ect an d th e re st are seven. it is linked with destruction.

the tongue I ) 1 I i. if the existence of soul is admitted in one case then it is admitted in other cases as well. the means of cogrution should be defined..~": ~~!1:~~-. according to KlIrika. included in theselthree). Mutual Negation. Imagination (pratibhii). smell. Yh:"" ~"-"*A"~~~rdi~'~"~~-th~~~'i. being produced f rom ego IS an evolute. and is always respected by persons like himself. 't' an evolvent as it produces water.ables are proved by means of proof.~?-~~-'~~ ::~i~~. because there is no occasion for that. an d 1 IS I * etc. taste and smell are respectively the five objects of these. Moreover.. nan . The subtle element of fire. Seen". the know. This means of right cognition is called perception. The five or~ans of sense. " j' i ~ I . and yet he looks stout. The group of sixteen is eooluie. Antecedent Negation. Probability (sambhaoa). ever. being produced from ego is an evolute: and it is an evolvent as it produces light. are the products of Sattvika-ahamkar(. s-. A person is called valid because he is free from blemishes. the tongue. See JRAS. what are these means of right cognition?Presumption (arthiipai'ti). pp. S. The subtle element of smell. e. as of Devadatta in boyhood and youth. Therefore..i~'~i'-~fParamattha. are evolvents and evo utes.nised t? be of three kinds. An object which cannot be apprehended by perception or inference is apprehended by valid testimony. and it is an evolvent as it produces earth. (the existence of) Indra. mahat. this group of sixteen is on y evolute.-such a person is known to be valid. The Spirit is neither an erJoloent nor an eoolute. Negation is of the nature of antecedent." " He who is engaged in his duties is free from attachment and aversion. the seven.the 'skin the eye. e. j I Kariki IV The means of right cognition are recog. The Probability. e. Thus. as all the means of right cognition are prove~ (to he. the probability of four kuqaoas in it. Tek. p.. The ear . it is presumed that he eats at night.6 SAMKHYA KARIKA - TRANSLATION and it is an evolvent as it produc~s wind".~~.cle~ents t roduce the five gross elements. " Heard".~_~". but also th: ~rgans tlld. Well. total and consequent. It is but a product.. the nose." . Negation (abhava). when one guys a prastlia. is an evolute. By what and how many means ~f cognition are t~ese 'lely tree categorIes.. 625.-are the six means of right cognition. K.. The ear comprehends sound: the skin. He who is free from blemishes will not tell a lie.. All the other means of cognition are included in these three. inference and valid testimony . the king of gods: the northern Kurus: the nymphs in the Heaven and so on. Tradition (aitihya) and Analogy (upamana). Jaimini (says): there are six means of right cognition. Percep tiIOn. That which is not apprehended by perception or inference is apprehended by valid testimony. g. t h e f'rve or ga ns of action '. The subtle element of taste. being produced from ego. as of jar in cloth. . mutual. as rice by the (weIght) se~r and sandal by balance. July 1931. • and the nose are the five org~. a provable IS proved by means of right cognition.nyw. . Therefore.the five subtle . sight.. For example. it is said: " Scripture is valid testimony. g. the eleventh mind and I the five gross elements-. touch. The Presumption is of two kinds-" seen or heard. taste. Tolal Nega- . the Mamfest ' the Unmamlest " h and the Knower known ?-Which (category) by which (means of cognition)? In this ~orld.". is established.-perception. Verily. DevadaHa does not eat during the day._~~~.5-6 .

a tank is like sea. the rest. The"se six means of right cognition are comprehended by Perception and the rest. g. one infers rain. or the son of a barren woman.example.~ i :\ I I 11 ! ! . imagination arises that there are lovely qualities in that country.. Negation. This is Slimlinyatodrsfa. as in the case of Caitra. S(jmanyatodr~ta. Moreover. some by Inference and some by Valid Testimony. observing a mango tree in blossom (at a parti-. means that by these three means of right cognition. e. Imagination. as of a piece of burnt cloth. Consequent Negation is the negation due to destruction. (the possessor) is inferred to be a mendicant. seeing a mendicant. other means of right <cognition are established.'Ythe (knowledge oj) liitg~' (the Middle term) and the liitgin (the Major term).-~--<~ . As a consequence of seeing dry grain. r Ii.. one infers that the rest (of water) is also saltish. Imagination is a cognition which follows (an utterance).S' esavat (a posteriori) and Slimi'inyatodr~ta (commonly seen or analogous). negation of rains is understood. where a Major term is inferred by means of a Middle term.SAMKHYA _. after finding a palo of water from the sea to be saltish. or a flower in the sky. is the application of the sensesto their special objects. the five gross elements and the Spirit. The Presumption is comprehended by Inference. . as of horns in a man. Imagination. That jnfer-ence is preceded by the knowledge of the Middle term. seeing the rising cloud. Tradition. The things to be proved are-Primal of right J . which is inferred from) an antecedent (i. the Unmanifest and the Knower . Just as when one observes Caitra.. .-as a gavaya is like a cow. Thus. These are the three means of right cognition. so (have) the moon and the stars (locomotion). \ ~---~---~. Nature. sound and Inference is said to be of three kinds: Pflroaoai (a priori). one infers that Caitra has locomotion. e. . this is tradition. all the other means of right cognition being prooed to be included in these three.a (the Middle 'term) and the liilgin (the Major term). for examplewhen the moon and the stars are observed to move from one place to another. leaving . e. ego. And Valid Testimony consists of holy teachers and revelation. cause) is called Ptiroaoat: for . the five subtle elements. is lovely": hearing this. That preceded by a Major term is-where a Middle term is inferred from the ob servation of a Major term. Because.special ) objects.one place and reaching another. Tradition and Analogy are comprehended by Valid Testimony.. That which has got (i. the eleven organs. Analogy. e. intellect. as"The country lying to the south of the Vindhyas and the north of the Sahya and extending upto the seas. cular place).• by (perceiving) a staff. These twenty-five categories are called the Manifest. viz. Probability. Inference is said to he of three kinds: it is preceded by the (knowledge. Negation is of various kinds. S' esaoai.-as people say that a ~ak:tif}i resides on this bunyan tree. Drsia or Perception ·ear and the re~t-. Now the definitions of each are given-! t Kirikii V Perception is the application (of senses) to (their . one infers that the mango trees are in blossom at other places (aJso). as seen before. Out of these. KARIKA -- TRANSLATION 9 tion..g .of) liilJ!. one infers that this triple-staff belongs to him. for example. one infers their locomotion. it is preceded h. the prooables are prooed by means cognition.. some are to be proved by means of Perception. only three kinds of means of rillht cognition are recognised. Therefore. Similarly.

I I 'I On account oj injury to senses: e. On account of obstruction.. are proved. . another. like Brahman and the . e.. e. - d ••• -v e- <. proved. the king of gods: the northern Kurus. Th'ey are called Valid Testimony. the objects. as its effect. is .rest. and a pigeon in a flock of pigeons.. The holy teachers and the Veda are called Apta'-s'ruti. existent objects are not perceived in this world on account of these eight causes.• holy teachers. e. an eye cannot perceive collyrium in itself. that which is not proved by this' (Inference) and cannot' be directly perceived.. Again. Nature and the Spirit. of the That which is not prooeJ by this (Inference) and . however well-said. the atoms of smoke. this Unconscious (Nature) appears to be conscious. minuteness. is proved by Valid 'Testimon». sound and colour. g. somebody says:-Nature and the Spirit are not perceived: that what is not perceived in this world. On account of excessioe proximity. for example. They are- Thus three kinds of Means of Right Cognition have been defined. the objects . Here. ) • 1 i On account of minuteness: e. i. ! •• _ •••• ..beyond senses. mixed with what is similar.. by Valid Testimony. therefore. Now. does these imperceptibles are- asterisms suppression (of I of bean in a heap of beans. g. g" a wall is invisible. so Nature and the Spirit also do not exist.10 TRANSLATION -. Maitra and Vi$vumitra living in another country. or a lotus and a myrabolan in a heap lotuses and myrabolans. heat. 11 And Valid Testimony consists of the holy teachers and reoelation. injury to senses.• the conscious Spirit. obstruction. It is replied :-In this world. • . suppression and mixture with what IS similar. On account of mixture with what is similar. Kariki VI By means of Inference based on Analogy. possessing three Attributes... g. Here. which are beyond sense-perception. not exist. the objects which cannot be directly perceived by the senses. e. deaf and blind men I do not apprehend On account of inattention. of Caiira.. e.-all proved by Valid Testimony. it is explained what is to be proved by which Means of Right Cognition:- tt I i Kariki VII On account of excessive distance.. e. Nature is that which has Mahat and the rest. beyond senses are proved . the second head or the third arm (of a man do not exist). e.cannoi be directly perceived.• Nature). water and frost are not visible in the sky. a grain \' II . e. i. for example. because. and stars are invisible on account their light) by the sun. . are proved by inference based on analogy. Mahat and the rest has three Attributes. Atdo . an object obstructed by On account of suppression. S'ruti is the Veda. For exarnpler-r-lndra. Manifest is proved by Perception. t:. (it must have). For. Thus. are invisible. to superintend it (i.. inattention. ~. e. because. &. (even the existent objects are not perceived). the non-perception of objects is caused by eight causes. (excessive) proximity. even existent objects are not perceived on account of excessive distance. a man who is distracted does not hear anything. _ By means of inference based on Analog)'!. the Middle term. the planets. i. g. the nymphs in the Heaven.

since.-and similar in form. the effect exists. if. Nature?-For in this school of Samkya philosophy. and they -are similar and dissimilar to Nature. This is a contradiction. from the earth a pot. It is ascertained from Its -effects. For example. does exist.Nature. then it cannot be existent. since (the effeci is) 0/ the same nature as the cause. Those effects are dissimilar to Nature-s-Prahrii is Nature: dissimilar to it. The effect is of the same nature of which the . it is <explained why there is no apprehension of Nature and the Spirit..heat. the effect is existent. .. In this world. existent or non-existent in their cause. As even the existent atoms of smoke. The causes of similarity and dissimilarity. i. gold cannot be produced from silver. Again. existent cannot be produced. oi'!>. since everything cannot be produced (from anything). Now. Its non·apprehension is due to minuteness. One who wants curds selects milk and not water. as oil cannot be produced from sand (wherein oil is non-existent). Therefore. wheel. because everything cannot be produced from anywhere. since eoersthing cannot be produced. water etc. And also. So. the eleven organs and the five gross elements they are the effects of that (Nature). e. a son is similar as well as dissimilar to his father. i.12 SAMKHYA KARIKA TRANSLATION 13. we shall explain later on. the Manifest does exist before its production in Nature. water and frost are invisible in the sky. A cause rs mferred from the observation of an effect. since only an existent object can be produced. Morever. Mahat and the rest. I On account of disagreement it is capable. Karika VlIl The non-apprehension of Nature is due t. (Non-appre-hension) of.oits minu~e~ ness and not to non-existence. so an eHect does exist (in its cause). a man selects the material cause of that thing which he wants. If It IS existent. the effect is existent. In this world we do not see the production of a non-existent object.. Everything cannot be produced from anywhere. Therefore. . So the effect is existent. Those effects are M ahai and the rest. dust and sand. it is n~nexistent... And similar. since the material (cause) is selected Up{j~ dana is the material cause. however. Then. the effect is exist~n~: with the Buddhists and the rest. how 1S it to be ascertained?. e. as the cause. whose effects are these. what is ascertained does exist. ! J . Nature is not apprehended on account of minuteness.-intellect. Even m this world. like the potter or the means like earth. e. grass. Since there can be no production of non-existent thing.- Thus. among teachers. It is to be ascertained/rom its effects. a thread of rags. can produce. Nature. since the material (cause) is selected.. it is said :. on account of selecting it. Therefore. since a potent thing can produce that 0/ which Here we see that only a potent thing.. Are all these effects. and how can they be apprehended:- Karik'i IX The effect is existent (in its cause). it cannot be non-existent. . the five subtle elements. which is capable of being produced. And again. . since a potent (cause) produces that of which it is capable and since (effect is) of the same nature as the cause• non-existent is that which does not exist. dissimilar to Nature. Since non-existent cannot be produced. non~.go. a doubt arises-... it is non-existent. Therefore.

g" barley (is produced) from barley and rice from rice. e. Hetumat is that which has got a cause.. oiz. mg 19 ler han~ne Nature.-'~.---""". ego merges In the mtellect. Isse I"utron.. touch. .n. The Un~ manifest is just the reoerse. erge m ego. it is active.. Therefore.. 'active. .. there are five causes (proving) the existence of the mergent. i.. it is proved that onlv -existent is produced and not non-existent. dependent. e.". therefore. ego. Again. the eleven organs and the five gross elements.. earth is caused by the subtle element of smell.. e. . just the reverse of these characteristics belong' to the Unmanl"fest . is caused. it is manifold: viz. the five subtle clements.'-"'. glow is caused by the subtle element of colour.Spirit are..or mate to ego. rrie U nmani "f''est IS uncaused. the principle 0': ego is caused by inte llect: the five subtle elements and the eleven organs are caused by the ego.. be d' ven organs are su . the effect is existent. ego depends upon intellect' the eleven organs and the five subtle elements depend ~l. The Manifest is not al l-pervading as the Nature and the . _ Again. conjunct and subordinate.} > I ----. e. and the five gross elements depend upon the hve subtle elements. sound. we shall describe the Unmanifest. made up of parts). it migrates at the time of cr ti "" ea IOn. th e Mani' . . in Nature. then rice could be produced from hodreoae: and as it is not so. Now he explains the similarity Mahat and the rest) with Nature:and dissimilarity . colour and smell are the pa"'ts'd d "I h ' " en owe wit 1 tern. Thus. Mahat and the rest. and Nimitta are synonyms. For example.. It is endowed with (the h f) C aracterlsllC 0 merging.en owe wrt Again. d Now. it is su~ordinate. because it is produced from anothe~r. a jar is non-eternal. Karazza Upa. it is dependent. mergent. Thu' S.-.. i.' _ . '" lest which IS subordinate. dana. It mlgrates along with the subtle bod d d 'I ) t hirrteen mstruments. it is conjunct (i. intellect. water is caused by the subtle element of taste. non-eternal. Because. t h e (of . Again it is non-eternal.. paine.0. because it is produced from a lump of clay. The Manifest has Nature for its cause: therefore. Th e Mam'f est . and the intellect (merges) in the Nature.14 SA~1KHYA KARIKA TRANSLATION 15 cause is. dependent on its cause' mtellect depends upon Nature. i. it is not all-pervading. so.. non-pervading. the effect like Mahat and the rest. manifold..- . Again. • ( ). If the effect were not existent. Thus. dependent on another ' • 18 exI. e. viz. The principle of intellect is caused by Nature. Again. is caused. Agai. it is not independent. it is aciioe. 1las been described as caused There I'S noth" hi I . the entire Manifest upto the five gross elements.. At the period of di .'-. y. .. it is non-pervading: that is."". lhe entire Manifest upto the five gross elements is caused. Heia. i Karika X The Manifest is caused. And as the Nature is not prod t d uc e . Again. The Unroanifest is just the reverse. ..1 '. The Manifest. taste. and the five gross elements are subordmate to the five subtle elemen''''<". tive gross elements merge in five subtle elements' the latter along with the eleven organs (m ).p:m ego. As mtellect IS subordinate to Nature' ego I' b d' " • s su or mate to mteHect: the five subtle elements and the ele " . sky is caused by the subtle element of sound: wind is caused by the subtle -element of touch. it is mergent.

The Spirit is the reverse of that. g. Again. colour and smell do not exist in the Nature. from ego. viz . the five subtle clements and the eleven organs are produced.. it is not Again. In this world. because it is eternal. etc. the Unmanifest is without parts. is its own master. ego is produced. the Unrnanifest is inactive" also because of omnipresence. the similarity it was said that it also similar (to the: the three Attrihutes.---- .. The Manifest is manifold. touch.. non-discriminated. Again. For example. that is. the Manifest is dependent. the Manifest is non-pervading: the Un-manifest is all-pervading. the Manifest is productive. . The Unmani~ fest is similar in these (characteristics).. Moreover. from the five subtle elements. of enjoyment. the Manifest is conjunct. So also is the Nature. e. (But) the Nature is not such. the Unmanifest. the effect has the same essence as the cause has. because not produced. non-rnergent. . therefore. It is not possible to discriminate that the Nature is. . e. so also is the Nature. Mahat. as well as similar. as we can do (in the case of a bull and a horse) that this is a bull and this is a horse.. these characteristics of the Manifest ending with productiveness have been described. whose products. It viz" Sattoa.. the Nature _also cannot be discriminated from the thre~ Attributes.l6 TRANSLATION 17 has Similarly. K. Thus. the five gross elements (are produced). independent. '. . Rajas and Tamas. non-intelligent and productive. objective. from intellect. the Manifest is general. that of pleasure. the Manifest is objectioe. the Unmanifest isnon-mergent. There is nothing higherthan the Nature of which the Nature could be an effect. merge in one another at the time of diasolution. non-disceiminated. that is. is also composed of the three Attributes. the Manifest is mergent. is of discrimination. pain and delusion. The Manifest is active.. it is an object (of enjoyment) for all the Spirits. it is common is. 1 The conscious Manifest is non-intelligent.is composed of the three Attributes. a piece of cloth woven out of black yarn will be black. It is not produced from anything like the gross elements. because.other than the three Attributes. (between the two) is explained. the Unmanifest is one" because it is the cause. the Nature is. taste. Again. to all (the Spirits) like a harlot. the Nature is one. are composed of the three Attributes.. Therefore. it is devoid It is not possible to discriminate (between the tvvo) that this is the Manifest and these are the Auributes. . ___1 i ! . The mergent. Again. the Manifest is subordinate: the Unmanifest is independent.Thus. The Unmanifest is the only causeof all the three worlds. the Manifest is non-discriminated. 2 Kariki XI The Manifest. general.. as (i. Again.-As the manifest is. the Manifest is non-eternal. S.. The Manifest is composed of the three Attributes. the Unmanifest is. it is eternal. i I :! j--~--~~--. the Manifest and the now.non-discriminated. being omnipresent. Sound. Again. the product of the Nature) is Nature).. So. it is an object because. the Unrnanifest is eternal. being a non-effect. the dissimilarity between Unmanifest has been described. The Manifest The Mantjest is composed of the three Attributes. Again.• Mahat and the rest. so the Nature-is .

K. non -discriminated. Therefore.. it is omnipresent. the Unmanifest is inactive.. Again. Manifest and the Unroanifest.. so also is the Spirit independent. '" The Manifest and the Unmanifest are general.*" The Manifest is dependent." The Manifest and the Nature are productive: the Spirit is non-productive. ..e Ht t h IS point a OIlC. i." the similarity of the Manifest with the Nature and the dissimilarity with the Spirit have been explained . Here.of that. Thus. The Manifest is non-eternal. There are no parts (in the shape) of sound and the rest in the Spirit.--. The Manifest is mergent. the Unmanifest is pervading: so also is the Spirit pervading. And again. the sim)1arity of the Unmanifcst with the Spirit was explained in the previous verse. it knows them. For example. so also is the Spirit inactive. also lice dIe footnote RAS.. being common to all. so is the Spirit.. . it is said that the Spmt IS the reverse that the Manifest is caused. the Manifest is non-intelligent. As to the remark that the Spirit is similar to that. so also is the Spirit non-conjunct. it is intelligent. individual ).-~' . non-eternal and so on...he Unmanifest IS independent. The Manifest is conjunct. the Unmanifest is nonmergent... e. .. t. e. The Manifest is non-pervading. the Nature also has been described. the Spirit is Attribute-less. the Spirit is discriminating. p. it has been explained in the previous verse. Again. I .-. How do you infer this ?-We see that from a non-intelligent lump of clay. the Unmanifest IS eternal." The reverse of that. the Spirit is non-general ( i. i.... as the Nature is uncaused. p. .. being omnipresent. so also is the Spirit'one.-""'. The Manifest is manifold. . because it IS not produced. pain and delusion. that it is multiple. Thus. The Manifest' and the Unmanifest are non-discriminated. so also is the Spirit non-rnergent. pa~n and delusion. the Manifest is subordinate: the Unmanifest is non-subordinate: so also is the Spirit non-subordinate. e . the Unmanifest IS uncaused. viz. S. so also is the Nature.The Manifest and the Unmanifest are composed of the three Attributes. the Nature also is 'Objective. the Manifest is general. so is the Spirit uncaused. the Unmcnifest is one. so also is the Spirit eternal. 18 SAMKHYA KARIKA # \ TRANSLATION 19 Again. therefore. because it is an object of enjoyment for aU the Spirits... again because.. the Manifest is caused. the Unmanifest is the reverse of that. the Spirit is the reverse of the'. is its own master. a non-intelligent jar is produced... the Unmanifest is nonconjunct." Tak. Nothing is p~du.. 628 (d) . the Nature also is not conscious of pleasure. It was said there * Para. because it does not merge anywhere. The Manifest is active. etc. the Spirit is non-objective. "". ~. the Spirit is conscious of pleasure. July 1931. The Manifest and the Unmanifest are non-intel1igent..-~ . 16.ced from the Spirit. Now. the Manifest is' objective. In the present verse viz " "Composed of the Attributes.martha's original here reads-"Spirit oJ differs from Natu~ . " The Manifest and the Unmanifest are objective. we are going to explain-" the Spirit is the reoerse of that as 'well as similar..

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