Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Water Tank Design
- Design of Liquid Retaining Concrete Structures - R.D. Anchor
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Contents

Introduction Design & Detailing Considerations Types of Water Tanks, Usages & Design Guidelines Erection of Precast Ring Tank Design of Water Tank Ultimate Limit State Design CP 65 Serviceability Limit State Design BS 8007 Precast Water Tank Floor System

Swimming pool Basement wall / slab Retaining Walls Water Tanks Wet riser tanks (suction tanks) Roof tanks

Design Considerations

Design for Strength according to CP 65 Special considerations for crack control according to BS8007

Max crack width Max crack spacing Min steel content

Detailing Considerations

Detailing follows usual rules for normal structures. Bars to be continuous, and sudden changes in reinforcement ratios to be avoided. No construction joint below specified highest water level shall be allowed (for water tanks). The entire concrete tank below the water level shall be cast in one operation with partially hanged internal formwork (for water tanks). Water-stop to be used where construction joints are unavoidable. Bars to be continuous across the joints.

Detailing Considerations

The tank roof and the portion above the water level shall be cast in second operation. After passing the water test, the internal surface of the concrete tank shall be coated with approved type of cementitious waterproofing coating before laying of tiles. For the slab of water tank, ratio of length to width 1.5 and the shorter span of the slab shall be 3.6m maximum.

Detailing Considerations

The minimum area for main and distribution steel is 0.35% for walls and slabs for deformed grade 460 reinforcement and 0.64% for plain grade 250 bars. The maximum spacing of bars shall be 300mm or the thickness of the section, whichever is the lesser. Nominal cover of concrete for reinforcement should be not less than 40mm.

Detailing Considerations

Construction Joint

Waterstop

CIS

Rectangular

Precast

Circular Tank Ring Tank

Usage

Roof tanks Wet riser tanks for fire-fighting (>60m above GL, 22 sty & above) Water tanks for domestic supply Suction tanks (reserve tanks to pump water to roof tanks)

Suction Tanks

Reserve tank to pump water to roof tanks Capacity depends on water demand for the block:

< 22 stories > 22 stories no fire-fighting requirement fire-fighting requirement

Distribution System

Roof Tanks

Building (Fire-fighting)

Suction tank

Pump

Detailing

Detailing

1 3 months to construct the CIS water tank Need to improve the site productivity Solution To precast the water tank

Before 1985, roof tanks were made of stainless steel or mild steel RC water tanks were introduced in HDB in 1985 to replace SS & MS water tanks < 20 sty precast circular water tanks > 20 sty in-situ rectangular tanks The precast segmental ring water tanks have replaced the in-situ RC tanks for domestic use since Jul 1999.

There are basically two types of components, the base and the body segments. A few of the body segments will be stacked on top of each other to form the height of the tank required. The maximum height of the tank is 5.13m.

5130

1300

1550

Standardisation

Items 1) Sizing Total height (including 130mm thick cover) External diameter (including 60mm thick protrusion at the joints) Weight of base (including tiles) Weight of body segments (including tiles) Weight of cover Weight of empty tank Weight of water tank filled with water 3830mm 3640mm 5130mm 3640mm 2530mm 3640mm Annex 1 and 2 Type A (3 Rings) Type B (4 Rings) Type C (2 Rings) Remarks

Type C is used in buildings with 21 storeys where no fire fighting water is required. Type A can also be used if there is no height constraint. But total volume of the tank shall be considered when calculating the no.of tanks required.

Standardisation

2) Min clear height from soffit of water tank to lowest point of main roof 3) Min clearance between tank & tank and tank & wall 4) Min clearance between piping connection & main water tank suporting beam and /or secondary cross beams 5 Range of Storey heights of building 2300mm 2300mm 2300mm

900mm

900mm

900mm

Annex 4

100mm

100mm

100mm

Annex 4

21-30

22-30

21

Beyond 30 storeys, this tank could be used subject to discussion between ARCH, SE and ME due to different requirement for fire fighting water.

Standardisation

6.2 ton 370

370

370

100 TYPE C

100 TYPE B

9.1 ton

7 ton each

Standardisation

Design Guidelines

Concrete water tanks shall preferably rest directly on column, whenever possible. For case where it is not possible to place the water tanks directly on columns, deep and broad transfer beams shall be designed to carry the water tank loads to the nearest supports. No roof shall be provided over the precast concrete water tanks. A working platform shall be provided at one side of the water tank, where there is a cat-ladder.

Design Guidelines

There must be sufficient clearance (>1500mm) for the pipings at the underside of the beam (to highlight to Architect early if there is a need to change the level of the water tank floor). The sanitary pipe position shall be fixed as shown in the construction manual.

slab slab slab

Booster pump room

slab

slab

slab

100mm 100mm

2100mm

900mm

900mm

Design Methods

Design Of Water Tanks Ultimate limit state (ULS) CP65 Serviceability limit state (SLS) BS8007

Partial Safety Factor Bending

k = M / fcu*b*d2 Z = d(0.5+(0.25 k/0.9)1/2) < 0.95d As = M / 0.87fy*z

1.4 DL + 1.4 Water Load 1.0DL + 1.4Water Load

f = 1.4 for load combinations (1) & (2) 1.2 (DL+Water Load+ WL) f = 1.2 for load combinations (3)

Shear

v = V / b*d < vc

Wall

Tension

Ft = kR* * h * r As > Ft / 0.87fy

Base slab

* For design of circular tanks, coefficient for bending moment, shear force & tensile force refer to BS 5337.

Partial Safety Factor

f = 1.0 for all load combinations (1), (2) & (3)

Plane sections remain plane after bending Stresses in the steel and concrete are proportional to the strains The concrete is cracked up to the neutral axis, and no tensile stress exists in the concrete below it

Cracks cannot be avoided in RC structures Limit crack widths

0.2 mm for severe or very severe exposure 0.1 mm for critical aesthetic appearance

100 N/mm2 for design crack width of 0.1mm 130 N/mm2 for design crack width of 0.2mm

Crack width calculation Minimum reinforcement Spacing of reinforcement Check reinforcement provided against BS 8007

b cc x h As st Section For equilibrium of forces : F cc = 2 st 0.5bx F= eA sd - eA sx 0.5bxf 0.5bx 2 E c = f cc/ cc ; E s = f st/ st st = (d-x) cc/x Moment of resistance : e = E s/E c A c = bx + eA x cc = A sfsst - eA sd = 0 x Strain Stress Ac d Neutral Axis F st f cc F cc 2x/3 z

c cc s s c cc

eA s

Transformed Section

Maximum surface crack width at any point, w max = 3a cr m 1 + 2(a cr - c min)/(h-x) a cr = the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain (surface of the nearest longitudinal bar) m = the average concrete strain, allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone c min = the minimum cover to the tension steel h = the overall depth of the member x = the neutral axis depth m=1-2 1 = the apparent strain For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm, b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm, 1.5b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x) b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered

x a` h

a cr c min bt m=1-2 1 = the apparent strain For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm, b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm, 1.5b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x)

b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered

Maximum surface crack width at any point, w max = 3a cr m 1 + 2(a cr - c min)/(h-x) x a` h a` h a cr 1 = the apparent strain 2 m c m min indicates that the section is uncracked <0 a cr c min am c min For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm at the soffit, (h-x)(a`-x) b tb t(h-x) 2 2 = Maximum crack width occurs at midway between the bars Constant value 2,h 3E ssA ss(d-x) 3E A (d-x) Minimum crack width occurs immediately below the bar bt 2 m x

m=1-2

Maximum surface crack width, w max = 3a cr m a cr = the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain (surface of the nearest longitudinal bar) m = the average concrete strain, allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone =1-2 1 = the apparent strain = F t/(E sA s) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm, 2= 2b th 3E sA s b th E sA s Ft Ft

h = the overall depth of the member b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel m < 0 indicates that the section is uncracked

Due to effects of :

Drying shrinkage Thermal contraction

Critical steel ratio, crit = 0.0035

Crack spacing smax = (fct/fb)(/2prov) fct/fb = 1.6/2.4 = 0.67 fct - the tensile strength of the concrete fb - the average bond strength between concrete and steel - the size of the reinforcing bar Spacing of reinforcement Bar spacing not exceed 300mm or thickness of the section, whichever is the lesser For welded fabric reinforcement, bar spacing not exceed 1.5 times the thickness of the section

Allowable steel stresses fy = 100 N/mm2 for 0.1mm crack width fy = 130 N/mm2 for 0.2mm crack width Moment of resistance M = Fstz = Asfst(d-x/3) fst = M/[As(d-x/3)] Tensile force due to hydrostatic loading fst = Ft/As

References

Reinforced Concrete Design W. H. Mosley & J. H. Bungey Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete F. K. Kong & R. H. Evans Reinforced Concrete Design to BS 8110 A. H. Allen Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids R. Cheng Design of Liquid-Retaining Concrete Structures R. D. Anchor

Precast all elements above the main roof With effect from 15 Apr 1999 Precast components Water tank beam Pilot project - Sembawang N5 C4 & C5 Tender date - 26 Sep 1997 Water tank floor slab 70 mm thk non-prestressed plank Not for booster pump room floor

Column stump For normal precast water tanks Splice sleeve connection 1500 mm length PCF1 (300x400) - 4T25 (s) PCF2 (300x500/600) - 4T25 (s) PCF3 (200x600) - 3T28 (s) PCF4 (300x500/600) - 3T28 (s)

Screen wall Pilot project - Sengkang N3 C13 Design Instruction Sheet : DR/P-SW1/311 100 mm thk wall 150x300 stump at both ends of the wall 2T16 splice sleeves

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