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# Design & Detailing of Water Retaining Structures & Precast Water Tank Floor System

ESE Tay Ah Ching 27 Feb 02

Contents

Introduction Design & Detailing Considerations Types of Water Tanks, Usages & Design Guidelines Erection of Precast Ring Tank Design of Water Tank Ultimate Limit State Design – CP 65 Serviceability Limit State Design – BS 8007 Precast Water Tank Floor System

Water Retaining Structures

Water Retaining Structures Swimming pool Basement wall / slab Retaining Walls Water Tanks Wet riser tanks (suction tanks) Roof tanks .

Design & Detailing Considerations .

Design Considerations Design for Strength according to CP 65 Special considerations for crack control according to BS8007 Max crack width Max crack spacing Min steel content .

Bars to be continuous. Water-stop to be used where construction joints are unavoidable. . Bars to be continuous across the joints. and sudden changes in reinforcement ratios to be avoided.Detailing Considerations Detailing follows usual rules for normal structures. No construction joint below specified highest water level shall be allowed (for water tanks). The entire concrete tank below the water level shall be cast in one operation with partially hanged internal formwork (for water tanks).

. For the slab of water tank.5 and the shorter span of the slab shall be 3.6m maximum. ratio of length to width 1.Detailing Considerations The tank roof and the portion above the water level shall be cast in second operation. After passing the water test. the internal surface of the concrete tank shall be coated with approved type of cementitious waterproofing coating before laying of tiles.

64% for plain grade 250 bars. Nominal cover of concrete for reinforcement should be not less than 40mm.Detailing Considerations The minimum area for main and distribution steel is 0.35% for walls and slabs for deformed grade 460 reinforcement and 0. whichever is the lesser. The maximum spacing of bars shall be 300mm or the thickness of the section. .

Detailing Considerations Cover to links >40mm Construction Joint Waterstop .

Types of Water Tanks .

22 sty & above) Water tanks for domestic supply Suction tanks (reserve tanks to pump water to roof tanks) .Types of Water Tanks CIS Rectangular Precast Circular Tank Ring Tank Usage Roof tanks Wet riser tanks for fire-fighting (>60m above GL.

.Suction Tanks Reserve tank to pump water to roof tanks Capacity depends on water demand for the block: < 22 stories > 22 stories no fire-fighting requirement fire-fighting requirement Precast circular tanks or rectangular in-situ tanks.

Types of Water Tanks Distribution System Roof Tanks Building (Fire-fighting) Outlets to DUs (Domestic) Suction tank Pump 1st storey from pump .

CIS Suction Tanks Detailing .

CIS Suction Tanks Detailing .

Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof) .

Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof) .

Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof) 1 – 3 months to construct the CIS water tank Need to improve the site productivity Solution – “To precast the water tank” .

.Roof Water Tanks Before 1985. roof tanks were made of stainless steel or mild steel RC water tanks were introduced in HDB in 1985 to replace SS & MS water tanks < 20 sty precast circular water tanks > 20 sty in-situ rectangular tanks The precast segmental ring water tanks have replaced the in-situ RC tanks for domestic use since Jul 1999.

Precast Water Tanks .

Precast Water Tanks .

The maximum height of the tank is 5.Precast Ring Water Tanks There are basically two types of components. . A few of the body segments will be stacked on top of each other to form the height of the tank required.13m. the base and the body segments.

3700 130 1550 3830 1550 600 3520 3640 TYPE A (3 rings) .

3700 130 1550 5130 1300 1550 600 3520 3640 TYPE B (4 rings) .

3700 130 1300 2530 1100 3520 3640 TYPE C (2 rings) .

Standardisation Items 1) Sizing Total height (including 130mm thick cover) External diameter (including 60mm thick protrusion at the joints) Weight of base (including tiles) Weight of body segments (including tiles) Weight of cover Weight of empty tank Weight of water tank filled with water 3830mm 3640mm 5130mm 3640mm 2530mm 3640mm Annex 1 and 2 Type A (3 Rings) Type B (4 Rings) Type C (2 Rings) Remarks - 7t 6.2t 3.7t 18.7t 28.1t 48t 7t 6.1t 33t Type C is used in buildings with 21 storeys where no fire fighting water is required.1t 5.2t (1550mm) 5.3t 3.4t 65t 9.of tanks required. Type A can also be used if there is no height constraint.7t 23.3t (1300mm) 3. But total volume of the tank shall be considered when calculating the no. .

Standardisation 2) Min clear height from soffit of water tank to lowest point of main roof 3) Min clearance between tank & tank and tank & wall 4) Min clearance between piping connection & main water tank suporting beam and /or secondary cross beams 5 Range of Storey heights of building 2300mm 2300mm 2300mm 900mm 900mm 900mm Annex 4 100mm 100mm 100mm Annex 4 21-30 22-30 21 Beyond 30 storeys. this tank could be used subject to discussion between ARCH. . SE and ME due to different requirement for fire fighting water.

1 ton 7 ton each .2m3 100 TYPE A Vol for fire fighting = 13.3m3 370 Vol for DU = 14.Standardisation 6.7 ton each 6.3 ton Vol for DU = 15.06m3 1350 850 Vol for fire fighting = 9.2 ton 370 5.2 ton 370 3.7m3 Vol for DU = 22.4m3 100 TYPE C 100 TYPE B 9.

Standardisation .

deep and broad transfer beams shall be designed to carry the water tank loads to the nearest supports. No roof shall be provided over the precast concrete water tanks.Design Guidelines Concrete water tanks shall preferably rest directly on column. where there is a cat-ladder. For case where it is not possible to place the water tanks directly on columns. . whenever possible. A working platform shall be provided at one side of the water tank.

. The sanitary pipe position shall be fixed as shown in the construction manual.Design Guidelines There must be sufficient clearance (>1500mm) for the pipings at the underside of the beam (to highlight to Architect early if there is a need to change the level of the water tank floor).

Section Through Tank .

Typical Water Tank Layout slab slab slab Booster pump room slab slab slab 100mm 100mm 2100mm 900mm 900mm .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Installation of base tank .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Placing of 1T10 around groove .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank 1T10 and waterprooing strip in place .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Vertical T20 bars to provide lateral restraint Installation 2nd ring segment .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Installation of 3rd & 4th ring segments .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Installation of tank cover .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Preparation of non-shrink grout for grouting groove .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Pressure grouting of groove .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank Oozing out of grout indicates complete grouting .

Erection of Precast Ring Tank All grout outlet holes shall be plugged .

Design of Water Tanks .

Design Methods Design Of Water Tanks Ultimate limit state (ULS) – CP65 Serviceability limit state (SLS) – BS8007 .

9)1/2) < 0.2 for load combinations (3) Shear v = V / b*d < vc Wall Tension Ft = kR* γ * h * r As > Ft / 0.Ultimate Limit State Design (CP 65) Partial Safety Factor Bending k = M / fcu*b*d2 Z = d(0. . coefficient for bending moment.87fy*z 1. shear force & tensile force refer to BS 5337.5+(0.4Water Load γf = 1.0DL + 1.2 (DL+Water Load+ WL) γf = 1.87fy Base slab * For design of circular tanks.25 – k/0.95d As = M / 0.4 Water Load 1.4 DL + 1.4 for load combinations (1) & (2) 1.

(2) & (3) Triangular Stress Block Plane sections remain plane after bending Stresses in the steel and concrete are proportional to the strains The concrete is cracked up to the neutral axis.Serviceability Limit State Design (BS 8007) Partial Safety Factor γf = 1.0 for all load combinations (1). and no tensile stress exists in the concrete below it .

2mm Crack width calculation Minimum reinforcement Spacing of reinforcement Check reinforcement provided against BS 8007 .1 mm for critical aesthetic appearance Allowable steel stresses (deformed bars) 100 N/mm2 for design crack width of 0.Serviceability Limit State Design Cracks cannot be avoided in RC structures Limit crack widths 0.2 mm for severe or very severe exposure 0.1mm 130 N/mm2 for design crack width of 0.

E s = f st/ε st ε st = (d-x)ε cc/x Moment of resistance : α e = E s/E c A c = bx + α eA x cc = A sfsst .[(α eA s) 2 + 2bα eA sd] 1/2}/b d-x 0.5bxf cc(d-x/3) = A sf st(d-x/3) α eA s Transformed Section .α eA sx 0.Serviceability Limit State Design b ε cc x h As ε st Section For equilibrium of forces : F cc = 2 st 0.5bxE ε = A α E (d-x)ε /x c cc s s c cc A (x/2) = α e A (d-x) Mc= F ccz = F stzs M = 0.α eA sd = 0 x Strain Stress Ac d Neutral Axis F st f cc F cc 2x/3 z x = {-α eA s +/.5bxf 0.5bx 2 E c = f cc/ε cc .5bx F= α eA sd .

Crack Width Calculation .1 mm.Flexural Maximum surface crack width at any point.c min)/(h-x) a cr = the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain (surface of the nearest longitudinal bar) ε m = the average concrete strain. w max = 3a crε m 1 + 2(a cr .5b t(h-x)(a`-x) ε2= 3E sA s(d-x) b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered Due to stiffening effect of the concrete . b t(h-x)(a`-x) ε2= 3E sA s(d-x) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0. allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone c min = the minimum cover to the tension steel h = the overall depth of the member x = the neutral axis depth εm=ε1-ε2 ε 1 = the apparent strain For a limiting design surface crack width of 0. 1.2 mm.

1 mm.flexural x a` h a cr c min bt εm=ε1-ε2 ε 1 = the apparent strain For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.5b t(h-x)(a`-x) ε2= 3E sA s(d-x) ε2 εm b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered . 1.2 mm.Crack Width Calculation . b t(h-x)(a`-x) ε2= 3E sA s(d-x) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.

h 3E ssA ss(d-x) 3E A (d-x) Minimum crack width occurs immediately below the bar bt ε2 εm x εm=ε1-ε2 bt w max = 3a mε m w min = 3c minε m .flexural Maximum surface crack width at any point.Crack Width Calculation .c min)/(h-x) x a` h a` h a cr ε 1 = the apparent strain ε2 εm c ε m min indicates that the section is uncracked <0 a cr c min am c min For a limiting design surface crack width of 0. w max = 3a crε m 1 + 2(a cr . (h-x)(a`-x) b tb t(h-x) 2 ε ε 2 = Maximum crack width occurs at midway between the bars Constant value 2.2 mm at the soffit.

Crack Width Calculation .Tension Maximum surface crack width.2 mm. ε2= h = the overall depth of the member b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel ε m < 0 indicates that the section is uncracked . w max = 3a crε m a cr = the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain (surface of the nearest longitudinal bar) ε m = the average concrete strain. ε2= 2b th 3E sA s b th E sA s Ft Ft For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm. allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone =ε1-ε2 ε 1 = the apparent strain = F t/(E sA s) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.

Crack Control (Immature conc.) Due to effects of : Drying shrinkage Thermal contraction Minimum reinforcement for crack distribution Critical steel ratio.0035 ρprov >= ρcrit where ρprov = As/Ac . ρcrit = 0.

**Crack Control (Immature conc.)
**

Crack spacing smax = (fct/fb)(φ/2ρprov) fct/fb = 1.6/2.4 = 0.67 fct - the tensile strength of the concrete fb - the average bond strength between concrete and steel φ - the size of the reinforcing bar Spacing of reinforcement Bar spacing not exceed 300mm or thickness of the section, whichever is the lesser For welded fabric reinforcement, bar spacing not exceed 1.5 times the thickness of the section

**Check Reinforcement Provided Bending & Tensile Force (SLS)
**

Allowable steel stresses fy = 100 N/mm2 for 0.1mm crack width fy = 130 N/mm2 for 0.2mm crack width Moment of resistance M = Fstz = Asfst(d-x/3) fst = M/[As(d-x/3)] Tensile force due to hydrostatic loading fst = Ft/As

References

Reinforced Concrete Design W. H. Mosley & J. H. Bungey Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete F. K. Kong & R. H. Evans Reinforced Concrete Design to BS 8110 A. H. Allen Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids R. Cheng Design of Liquid-Retaining Concrete Structures R. D. Anchor

Precast Water Tank Floor System .

Sembawang N5 C4 & C5 Tender date .Precast Water Tank Floor System Precast all elements above the main roof With effect from 15 Apr 1999 Precast components Water tank beam Pilot project .26 Sep 1997 Water tank floor slab 70 mm thk non-prestressed plank Not for booster pump room floor .

3T28 (s) • PCF4 (300x500/600) .4T25 (s) • PCF2 (300x500/600) .Precast Water Tank Floor System Column stump For normal precast water tanks Splice sleeve connection 1500 mm length • PCF1 (300x400) .4T25 (s) • PCF3 (200x600) .3T28 (s) .

Sengkang N3 C13 Design Instruction Sheet : DR/P-SW1/311 100 mm thk wall 150x300 stump at both ends of the wall 2T16 splice sleeves .Precast Water Tank Floor System Screen wall Pilot project .

Precast Water Tank Floor System .

Precast Water Tank Floor .

Precast Water Tank Floor .

Precast Water Tank Floor .