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Design & Detailing of Water Retaining Structures & Precast Water Tank Floor System

ESE Tay Ah Ching 27 Feb 02

Contents
Introduction Design & Detailing Considerations Types of Water Tanks, Usages & Design Guidelines Erection of Precast Ring Tank Design of Water Tank Ultimate Limit State Design CP 65 Serviceability Limit State Design BS 8007 Precast Water Tank Floor System

Water Retaining Structures

Water Retaining Structures


Swimming pool Basement wall / slab Retaining Walls Water Tanks Wet riser tanks (suction tanks) Roof tanks

Design & Detailing Considerations

Design Considerations
Design for Strength according to CP 65 Special considerations for crack control according to BS8007
Max crack width Max crack spacing Min steel content

Detailing Considerations
Detailing follows usual rules for normal structures. Bars to be continuous, and sudden changes in reinforcement ratios to be avoided. No construction joint below specified highest water level shall be allowed (for water tanks). The entire concrete tank below the water level shall be cast in one operation with partially hanged internal formwork (for water tanks). Water-stop to be used where construction joints are unavoidable. Bars to be continuous across the joints.

Detailing Considerations
The tank roof and the portion above the water level shall be cast in second operation. After passing the water test, the internal surface of the concrete tank shall be coated with approved type of cementitious waterproofing coating before laying of tiles. For the slab of water tank, ratio of length to width 1.5 and the shorter span of the slab shall be 3.6m maximum.

Detailing Considerations
The minimum area for main and distribution steel is 0.35% for walls and slabs for deformed grade 460 reinforcement and 0.64% for plain grade 250 bars. The maximum spacing of bars shall be 300mm or the thickness of the section, whichever is the lesser. Nominal cover of concrete for reinforcement should be not less than 40mm.

Detailing Considerations

Cover to links >40mm

Construction Joint

Waterstop

Types of Water Tanks

Types of Water Tanks


CIS
Rectangular

Precast
Circular Tank Ring Tank

Usage
Roof tanks Wet riser tanks for fire-fighting (>60m above GL, 22 sty & above) Water tanks for domestic supply Suction tanks (reserve tanks to pump water to roof tanks)

Suction Tanks
Reserve tank to pump water to roof tanks Capacity depends on water demand for the block:
< 22 stories > 22 stories no fire-fighting requirement fire-fighting requirement

Precast circular tanks or rectangular in-situ tanks.

Types of Water Tanks


Distribution System
Roof Tanks

Building (Fire-fighting)

Outlets to DUs (Domestic)

Suction tank

Pump

1st storey from pump

CIS Suction Tanks


Detailing

CIS Suction Tanks


Detailing

Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof)

Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof)

Construction of CIS Tanks (Roof)

1 3 months to construct the CIS water tank Need to improve the site productivity Solution To precast the water tank

Roof Water Tanks


Before 1985, roof tanks were made of stainless steel or mild steel RC water tanks were introduced in HDB in 1985 to replace SS & MS water tanks < 20 sty precast circular water tanks > 20 sty in-situ rectangular tanks The precast segmental ring water tanks have replaced the in-situ RC tanks for domestic use since Jul 1999.

Precast Water Tanks

Precast Water Tanks

Precast Ring Water Tanks


There are basically two types of components, the base and the body segments. A few of the body segments will be stacked on top of each other to form the height of the tank required. The maximum height of the tank is 5.13m.

3700 130 1550 3830 1550

600 3520 3640 TYPE A (3 rings)

3700 130 1550

5130

1300

1550

600 3520 3640 TYPE B (4 rings)

3700 130 1300 2530 1100

3520 3640 TYPE C (2 rings)

Standardisation
Items 1) Sizing Total height (including 130mm thick cover) External diameter (including 60mm thick protrusion at the joints) Weight of base (including tiles) Weight of body segments (including tiles) Weight of cover Weight of empty tank Weight of water tank filled with water 3830mm 3640mm 5130mm 3640mm 2530mm 3640mm Annex 1 and 2 Type A (3 Rings) Type B (4 Rings) Type C (2 Rings) Remarks

7t 6.2t 3.7t 23.1t 48t

7t 6.2t (1550mm) 5.3t (1300mm) 3.7t 28.4t 65t

9.1t 5.3t 3.7t 18.1t 33t

Type C is used in buildings with 21 storeys where no fire fighting water is required. Type A can also be used if there is no height constraint. But total volume of the tank shall be considered when calculating the no.of tanks required.

Standardisation
2) Min clear height from soffit of water tank to lowest point of main roof 3) Min clearance between tank & tank and tank & wall 4) Min clearance between piping connection & main water tank suporting beam and /or secondary cross beams 5 Range of Storey heights of building 2300mm 2300mm 2300mm

900mm

900mm

900mm

Annex 4

100mm

100mm

100mm

Annex 4

21-30

22-30

21

Beyond 30 storeys, this tank could be used subject to discussion between ARCH, SE and ME due to different requirement for fire fighting water.

Standardisation
6.2 ton 370

3.7 ton each 6.2 ton

370

5.3 ton Vol for DU = 15.7m3

Vol for DU = 22.3m3

370

Vol for DU = 14.06m3

1350 850 Vol for fire fighting = 9.2m3 100 TYPE A

Vol for fire fighting = 13.4m3

100 TYPE C

100 TYPE B

9.1 ton

7 ton each

Standardisation

Design Guidelines
Concrete water tanks shall preferably rest directly on column, whenever possible. For case where it is not possible to place the water tanks directly on columns, deep and broad transfer beams shall be designed to carry the water tank loads to the nearest supports. No roof shall be provided over the precast concrete water tanks. A working platform shall be provided at one side of the water tank, where there is a cat-ladder.

Design Guidelines
There must be sufficient clearance (>1500mm) for the pipings at the underside of the beam (to highlight to Architect early if there is a need to change the level of the water tank floor). The sanitary pipe position shall be fixed as shown in the construction manual.

Section Through Tank

Typical Water Tank Layout


slab slab slab
Booster pump room

slab

slab

slab

100mm 100mm

2100mm

900mm

900mm

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Installation of base tank

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Placing of 1T10 around groove

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

1T10 and waterprooing strip in place

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Vertical T20 bars to provide lateral restraint

Installation 2nd ring segment

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Installation of 3rd & 4th ring segments

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Installation of tank cover

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Preparation of non-shrink grout for grouting groove

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Pressure grouting of groove

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

Oozing out of grout indicates complete grouting

Erection of Precast Ring Tank

All grout outlet holes shall be plugged

Design of Water Tanks

Design Methods
Design Of Water Tanks Ultimate limit state (ULS) CP65 Serviceability limit state (SLS) BS8007

Ultimate Limit State Design (CP 65)


Partial Safety Factor Bending
k = M / fcu*b*d2 Z = d(0.5+(0.25 k/0.9)1/2) < 0.95d As = M / 0.87fy*z
1.4 DL + 1.4 Water Load 1.0DL + 1.4Water Load

f = 1.4 for load combinations (1) & (2) 1.2 (DL+Water Load+ WL) f = 1.2 for load combinations (3)

Shear
v = V / b*d < vc

Wall

Tension
Ft = kR* * h * r As > Ft / 0.87fy

Base slab

* For design of circular tanks, coefficient for bending moment, shear force & tensile force refer to BS 5337.

Serviceability Limit State Design (BS 8007)


Partial Safety Factor
f = 1.0 for all load combinations (1), (2) & (3)

Triangular Stress Block


Plane sections remain plane after bending Stresses in the steel and concrete are proportional to the strains The concrete is cracked up to the neutral axis, and no tensile stress exists in the concrete below it

Serviceability Limit State Design


Cracks cannot be avoided in RC structures Limit crack widths
0.2 mm for severe or very severe exposure 0.1 mm for critical aesthetic appearance

Allowable steel stresses (deformed bars)


100 N/mm2 for design crack width of 0.1mm 130 N/mm2 for design crack width of 0.2mm

Crack width calculation Minimum reinforcement Spacing of reinforcement Check reinforcement provided against BS 8007

Serviceability Limit State Design


b cc x h As st Section For equilibrium of forces : F cc = 2 st 0.5bx F= eA sd - eA sx 0.5bxf 0.5bx 2 E c = f cc/ cc ; E s = f st/ st st = (d-x) cc/x Moment of resistance : e = E s/E c A c = bx + eA x cc = A sfsst - eA sd = 0 x Strain Stress Ac d Neutral Axis F st f cc F cc 2x/3 z

x = {- eA s +/- [( eA s) 2 + 2b eA sd] 1/2}/b d-x 0.5bxE = A E (d-x) /x


c cc s s c cc

A (x/2) = e A (d-x) Mc= F ccz = F stzs M = 0.5bxf cc(d-x/3) = A sf st(d-x/3)

eA s

Transformed Section

Crack Width Calculation - Flexural


Maximum surface crack width at any point, w max = 3a cr m 1 + 2(a cr - c min)/(h-x) a cr = the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain (surface of the nearest longitudinal bar) m = the average concrete strain, allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone c min = the minimum cover to the tension steel h = the overall depth of the member x = the neutral axis depth m=1-2 1 = the apparent strain For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm, b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm, 1.5b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x) b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered

Due to stiffening effect of the concrete

Crack Width Calculation - flexural


x a` h

a cr c min bt m=1-2 1 = the apparent strain For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm, b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm, 1.5b t(h-x)(a`-x) 2= 3E sA s(d-x)

b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel a` = the distance from the compression face to the point considered

Crack Width Calculation - flexural


Maximum surface crack width at any point, w max = 3a cr m 1 + 2(a cr - c min)/(h-x) x a` h a` h a cr 1 = the apparent strain 2 m c m min indicates that the section is uncracked <0 a cr c min am c min For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm at the soffit, (h-x)(a`-x) b tb t(h-x) 2 2 = Maximum crack width occurs at midway between the bars Constant value 2,h 3E ssA ss(d-x) 3E A (d-x) Minimum crack width occurs immediately below the bar bt 2 m x

m=1-2

bt w max = 3a m m w min = 3c min m

Crack Width Calculation - Tension


Maximum surface crack width, w max = 3a cr m a cr = the distance from the point considered to a point of zero concrete strain (surface of the nearest longitudinal bar) m = the average concrete strain, allowing for the stiffening effect of the concrete in the tension zone =1-2 1 = the apparent strain = F t/(E sA s) For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm, 2= 2b th 3E sA s b th E sA s Ft Ft

For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm, 2=

h = the overall depth of the member b t = the width of the section at the centroid of the tension steel m < 0 indicates that the section is uncracked

Crack Control (Immature conc.)


Due to effects of :
Drying shrinkage Thermal contraction

Minimum reinforcement for crack distribution


Critical steel ratio, crit = 0.0035

prov >= crit where prov = As/Ac

Crack Control (Immature conc.)


Crack spacing smax = (fct/fb)(/2prov) fct/fb = 1.6/2.4 = 0.67 fct - the tensile strength of the concrete fb - the average bond strength between concrete and steel - the size of the reinforcing bar Spacing of reinforcement Bar spacing not exceed 300mm or thickness of the section, whichever is the lesser For welded fabric reinforcement, bar spacing not exceed 1.5 times the thickness of the section

Check Reinforcement Provided Bending & Tensile Force (SLS)


Allowable steel stresses fy = 100 N/mm2 for 0.1mm crack width fy = 130 N/mm2 for 0.2mm crack width Moment of resistance M = Fstz = Asfst(d-x/3) fst = M/[As(d-x/3)] Tensile force due to hydrostatic loading fst = Ft/As

References
Reinforced Concrete Design W. H. Mosley & J. H. Bungey Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete F. K. Kong & R. H. Evans Reinforced Concrete Design to BS 8110 A. H. Allen Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids R. Cheng Design of Liquid-Retaining Concrete Structures R. D. Anchor

Precast Water Tank Floor System

Precast Water Tank Floor System


Precast all elements above the main roof With effect from 15 Apr 1999 Precast components Water tank beam Pilot project - Sembawang N5 C4 & C5 Tender date - 26 Sep 1997 Water tank floor slab 70 mm thk non-prestressed plank Not for booster pump room floor

Precast Water Tank Floor System


Column stump For normal precast water tanks Splice sleeve connection 1500 mm length PCF1 (300x400) - 4T25 (s) PCF2 (300x500/600) - 4T25 (s) PCF3 (200x600) - 3T28 (s) PCF4 (300x500/600) - 3T28 (s)

Precast Water Tank Floor System


Screen wall Pilot project - Sengkang N3 C13 Design Instruction Sheet : DR/P-SW1/311 100 mm thk wall 150x300 stump at both ends of the wall 2T16 splice sleeves

Precast Water Tank Floor System

Precast Water Tank Floor

Precast Water Tank Floor

Precast Water Tank Floor